The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Coloration of the skin.
Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.
Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Any inflammation of the skin.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
Skin diseases caused by viruses.
A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.
Biological activities and functions of the SKIN.
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
Dermatologic disorders attendant upon non-dermatologic disease or injury.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.
Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.
A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.
A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.
A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.
Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.
White or pink lesions on the arms, hands, face, or scalp that arise from sun-induced DNA DAMAGE to KERATINOCYTES in exposed areas. They are considered precursor lesions to superficial SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)
A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
The part of the face above the eyes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A benign, non-neoplastic, usually self-limiting epithelial lesion closely resembling squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically. It occurs in solitary, multiple, and eruptive forms. The solitary and multiple forms occur on sunlight exposed areas and are identical histologically; they affect primarily white males. The eruptive form usually involves both sexes and appears as a generalized papular eruption.
Skin diseases affecting or involving the cutaneous blood vessels and generally manifested as inflammation, swelling, erythema, or necrosis in the affected area.
A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A noninvasive technique that enables direct microscopic examination of the surface and architecture of the SKIN.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The widespread involvement of the skin by a scaly, erythematous dermatitis occurring either as a secondary or reactive process to an underlying cutaneous disorder (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, etc.), or as a primary or idiopathic disease. It is often associated with the loss of hair and nails, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and pruritus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
Diseases in which skin eruptions or rashes are a prominent manifestation. Classically, six such diseases were described with similar rashes; they were numbered in the order in which they were reported. Only the fourth (Duke's disease), fifth (ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM), and sixth (EXANTHEMA SUBITUM) numeric designations survive as occasional synonyms in current terminology.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
The oily substance secreted by SEBACEOUS GLANDS. It is composed of KERATIN, fat, and cellular debris.
Substances used to obtain a lighter skin complexion or to treat HYPERPIGMENTATION disorders.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The inspection of one's own body, usually for signs of disease (e.g., BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION, testicular self-examination).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.
Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.
Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.
A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Color of hair or fur.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
A circumscribed stable malformation of the skin and occasionally of the oral mucosa, which is not due to external causes and therefore presumed to be of hereditary origin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A nevus containing melanin. The term is usually restricted to nevocytic nevi (round or oval collections of melanin-containing nevus cells occurring at the dermoepidermal junction of the skin or in the dermis proper) or moles, but may be applied to other pigmented nevi.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
A malignant tumor of the skin appendages, which include the hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and the mammary glands. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae. There are four major forms: acquired, simple, junctional, and dystrophic. Each of the latter three has several varieties.
Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.
A rapid onset form of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA with progressive widespread SKIN thickening over the arms, the legs and the trunk, resulting in stiffness and disability.
Exposing oneself to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS.
A nonimmunologic, chemically induced type of photosensitivity producing a sometimes vesiculating dermatitis. It results in hyperpigmentation and desquamation of the light-exposed areas of the skin.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A mitosporic fungal genus that causes a variety of skin disorders. Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporum orbiculare) causes TINEA VERSICOLOR.
Benign eccrine poromas that present as multiple oval, brown-to-black plaques, located mostly on the chest and back. The age of onset is usually in the fourth or fifth decade.
A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The destruction of germs causing disease.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.
A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.
A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues.
Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.
A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.
The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.

Glycopeptides from the surgace of human neuroblastoma cells. (1/19537)

Glycopeptides suggesting a complex oligosaccharide composition are present on the surface of cells from human neuroblastoma tumors and several cell lines derived from the tumors. The glycopeptides, labeled with radioactive L-fucose, were removed from the cell surface with trypsin, digested with Pronase, and examined by chromatography on Sephadex G-50. Human skin fibroblasts, brain cells, and a fibroblast line derived from neuroblastoma tumor tissue show less complex glycopeptides. Although some differences exist between the cell lines and the primary tumor cells, the similarities between these human tumors and animal tumors examined previously are striking.  (+info)

Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris. (2/19537)

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

Activation of telomerase and its association with G1-phase of the cell cycle during UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse. (3/19537)

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds hexanucleotide repeats TTAGGG to the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase activation is known to play a crucial role in cell-immortalization and carcinogenesis. Telomerase is shown to have a correlation with cell cycle progression, which is controlled by the regulation of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (cdkis). Abnormal expression of these regulatory molecules may cause alterations in cell cycle with uncontrolled cell growth, a universal feature of neoplasia. Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer in humans and the solar UV radiation is its major cause. Here, we investigated modulation in telomerase activity and protein expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules during the development of UVB-induced tumors in SKH-1 hairless mice. The mice were exposed to 180 mjoules/cm2 UVB radiation, thrice weekly for 24 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 4 week intervals and the studies were performed in epidermis. Telomerase activity was barely detectable in the epidermis of non-irradiated mouse. UVB exposure resulted in a progressive increase in telomerase activity starting from the 4th week of exposure. The increased telomerase activity either persisted or further increased with the increased exposure. In papillomas and carcinomas the enzyme activity was comparable and was 45-fold higher than in the epidermis of control mice. Western blot analysis showed an upregulation in the protein expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E and their regulatory subunits cdk4 and cdk2 during the course of UVB exposure and in papillomas and carcinomas. The protein expression of cdk6 and ckis viz. p16/Ink4A, p21/Waf1 and p27/Kip1 did not show any significant change in UVB exposed skin, but significant upregulation was observed both in papillomas and carcinomas. The results suggest that telomerase activation may be involved in UVB-induced tumorigenesis in mouse skin and that increased telomerase activity may be associated with G1 phase of the cell cycle.  (+info)

Metallothionein-null mice absorb less Zn from an egg-white diet, but a similar amount from solutions, although with altered intertissue Zn distribution. (4/19537)

The influence of metallothionein (MT) on Zn transfer into non-gut tissues was investigated in MT-null (MT-/-) and normal (MT+/+) mice 4 h after oral gavage of aqueous 65ZnSO4solution at doses of 154, 385, 770 and 1540 nmol Zn per mouse. Zn transfer was not significantly different between MT+/+ and MT-/- mice and was directly proportional to the oral dose (slope = 0.127, r = 0.991; 0. 146, r = 0.994, respectively). Blood 65Zn and plasma Zn concentrations increased progressively in MT-/- mice at doses >154 nmol Zn, reaching levels of 2.4% of oral dose and 60 micromol/L, respectively, at the 1540 nmol Zn dose. The corresponding values for MT+/+ mice were approximately half, 1.0% and 29 micromol/L. Intergenotypic differences were found in tissue distribution of 65Zn within the body; MT-/- mice had higher 65Zn levels in muscle, skin, heart and brain, whereas MT+/+ mice retained progressively more Zn in the liver, in conjunction with a linear increase in hepatic MT up to the highest Zn dose. MT induction in the small intestine reached its maximum at an oral dose of 385 nmol Zn and did not differ at higher doses. Absorption of a 770 nmol 65Zn dose from a solid egg-white diet was only one fourth (MT+/+) and one eighth (MT-/-) of the Zn absorption from the same dose of 65Zn in aqueous solution. MT+/+ mice had greater (P < 0.05) Zn absorption from the egg-white diet than did MT-/- mice, indicating that gut MT confers an absorptive advantage, but only when Zn is incorporated into solid food.  (+info)

Accumulation of astaxanthin all-E, 9Z and 13Z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3' RS optical isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is selective. (5/19537)

Concentrations of all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z- geometrical and (3R,3'R), (3R, 3'S) and (3S,3'S) optical isomers of astaxanthin were determined in rainbow trout liver, gut tissues, kidney, skin and blood plasma to evaluate their body distribution. Two cold-pelleted diets containing predominantly all-E-astaxanthin (36.9 mg/kg astaxanthin, 97% all-E-, 0.4% 9Z-, 1.5% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 1.1% other isomers, respectively) or a mixture of all-E- and Z-astaxanthins (35.4 mg/kg astaxanthin, 64% all-E-, 18.7% 9Z-, 12.3% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 2.0% other isomers, respectively), were fed to duplicate groups of trout for 69 d. Individual E/Z isomers were identified by VIS- and 1H-NMR-spectrometry, and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly higher total carotenoid concentration was observed in plasma of trout fed diets with all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative E/Z-isomer concentrations of plasma, skin and kidney were not significantly different among groups, whereas all-E-astaxanthin was higher in intestinal tissues and 13Z-astaxanthin was lower in liver of trout fed all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative amount of hepatic 13Z-astaxanthin (39-49% of total astaxanthin) was higher than in all other samples (P < 0.05). Synthetic, optically inactive astaxanthin was used in all experiments, and the determined dietary ratio between the 3R,3'R:3R, 3'S (meso):3S,3'S optical isomers was 25.3:49.6:25.1. The distribution of R/S-astaxanthin isomers in feces, blood, liver and fillet was similar to that in the diets. The ratio between (3S,3'S)- and (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin in the skin and posterior kidney was ca. 2:1 and 3:1, respectively, regardless of dietary E/Z-astaxanthin composition. The results show that geometrical and optical isomers of astaxanthin are distributed selectively in different tissues of rainbow trout.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (6/19537)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Hydrophobic interaction of human, mouse, and rabbit interferons with immobilized hydrocarbons. (7/19537)

Interferons of human, mouse, and rabbit origin bind to straight chain hydrocarbons immobilized on agarose. The hydrophobic nature of binding is established by the following observations: (a) a positive correlation between the length of hydrocarbon ligand and the strength of interaction; (b) a stronger interaction with hydrocarbon ligands terminated with apolar rather than polar head groups; (c) a lack of dependence of binding on ionic strength and pH of the solvent; (d) a reversal of binding by ethylene glycol, a hydrophobic solute; (e) an increasing eluting efficacy of tetraalkylammonium ions with the length of their alkyl substituents. The hydrophobic interactions of human interferon underlie the efficiency of two-step chromatographic procedures. For example, human embryo kidney interferon can be purified about 3,600-fold by sequential chromatography on (a) concanavalin A-agarose, (b) octyl-agarose. Another two-step procedure: (a) concanavalin A-agarose, (b) L-tryptophan-agarose, gives about 10,000-fold purification. The overall recovery of interferon in both cases in close to 90%.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis is associated with enhanced endothelial cell survival and induction of Bcl-2 expression. (8/19537)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell mitogen and permeability factor that is potently angiogenic in vivo. We report here studies that suggest that VEGF potentiates angiogenesis in vivo and prolongs the survival of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) in vitro by inducing expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Growth-factor-enriched and serum-deficient cultures of HDMECs grown on collagen type I gels with VEGF exhibited a 4-fold and a 1.6-fold reduction, respectively, in the proportion of apoptotic cells. Enhanced HDMEC survival was associated with a dose-dependent increase in Bcl-2 expression and a decrease in the expression of the processed forms of the cysteine protease caspase-3. Cultures of HDMECs transduced with and overexpressing Bcl-2 and deprived of growth factors showed enhanced protection from apoptosis and exhibited a twofold increase in cell number and a fourfold increase in the number of capillary-like sprouts. HDMECs overexpressing Bcl-2 when incorporated into polylactic acid sponges and implanted into SCID mice exhibited a sustained fivefold increase in the number of microvessels and a fourfold decrease in the number of apoptotic cells when examined 7 and 14 days later. These results suggest that the angiogenic activity attributed to VEGF may be due in part to its ability to enhance endothelial cell survival by inducing expression of Bcl-2.  (+info)

Human skin samples were collected from abdominoplasty surgery and facial lifts, in order to evaluate the lipolytic and anti-aging effects of the apollo device powered by TriPollar RF technology using an ex vivo human skin model. The anti-cellulite effect was evaluated by the dosage of released glycerol and histological analysis of the hypodermis. Skin tightening was evaluated by morphometric analysis of collagen fibers and the dosage of collagen synthesis.. RESULTS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of a partial-thickness human ex vivo skin culture model in cutaneous wound healing study. AU - Xu, Wei. AU - Jong Hong, Seok. AU - Jia, Shengxian. AU - Zhao, Yanan. AU - Galiano, Robert D.. AU - Mustoe, Thomas A.. PY - 2012/4/1. Y1 - 2012/4/1. N2 - A number of in vivo and ex vivo skin models have been applied to human wound healing studies. A reliable skin model, which recapitulates the features of human wound repair, is essential for the clinical and mechanical investigation of human cutaneous wound healing. Full-skin ex vivo culture systems have been used in wound healing studies. However, important structures of the skin, such as the differentiation of keratinocytes and epidermis-dermis junction, are poorly characterized in this model. This study aims to develop an optimized partial-thickness human ex vivo skin culture (HESC) model to maintain human skin characteristics in vitro. During our culture, the basal layer, suprabasal layer, and stratum granulosum layer of ...
The individual, together with its environment, has been reported as the main force driving composition and structure of skin microbiota in healthy dogs. Therefore, one of the major concerns when analyzing canine skin microbiota is the likely influence of the environment. Despite the dense fur covering, certain skin diseases exhibit differential prevalence among skin sites, dog breeds, and individuals. We have characterized the normal variability of dog skin microbiota in a well-controlled cohort of a large number of Golden-Labrador Retriever crossed dogs (N = 35) with similar ages, related genetic background, and a shared environment. We found that the individual drives the skin microbiota composition and structure followed by the skin site. The main bacterial classes inhabiting dog skin in this cohort are Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli. We also detected bacteria associated to the environment on different dog skin sites that could be reflecting the different degrees of exposure of each skin site and
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Background: Chronic pain is a common occurrence for burn patients and has significant impact on quality of life. However, the etiology is not well understood. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the restoration of sensory function and the development of chronic pain after burn is critical to improving long-term outcomes. Objective: To determine whether cutaneous innervation in burn patients with chronic pain is altered when compared to patients without chronic pain. Methods: Twelve patients with unilateral injury and who reported chronic pain were recruited. Each patient underwent sensory function testing and both scar and matched site uninjured skin biopsy. Biopsies were analyzed for total nerve density and nociceptive C-fiber density using immunohistochemistry. Results were compared to a control group of 33 patients with unilateral injury and no reported long-term pain. Results: Sensory function was significantly diminished in scar compared to uninjured tissue in both study groups, but ...
A novel in vitro culture system of organotypic human skin explants interfacing with external fixator pins is presented. The system was used to observe changes in skin morphology on the skin at the pin
Synonyms for fish scale disease, fish skin disease in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for fish scale disease, fish skin disease. 35 synonyms for fish: angle, net, cast, trawl, look (for), search, delve, ferret, rummage, fossick, seek, look for, angle for, try to get, hope for, hunt for. What are synonyms for fish scale disease, fish skin disease?
TY - JOUR. T1 - MicroRNA expression analysis of human skin fibroblasts treated with high-fluence light-emitting diode-red light. AU - Mamalis, Andrew. AU - Koo, Eugene. AU - Tepper, Clifford G. AU - Jagdeo, Jared. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Skin fibrosis is a chronic debilitating feature of several skin diseases that lead to characteristic increases in dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition through upregulation in components of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B)/SMAD pathway. In contrast to ultraviolet phototherapy, high-fluence light-emitting diode-generated red light (HF-LED-RL, 633 ± 15 nm) is a safe, economic and non-invasive therapy with in vitro evidence that supports modulation of the key cellular characteristics involved in the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis. Limited data exists pertaining to the effects of HF-LED-RL on human skin fibroblast microRNA (miRNA). Herein, we explored the effects of HF-LED-RL on fibroblast miRNA levels using RNA-seq and miRNA ...
Synonyms for intracutaneous injection at with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
Skin Functions, Structure and Relationship with the Body The main function of the skin, its structure and the relationship between the skin, circulatory and nervous system Draw a label diagram of the skin and describe its structures and key parts (See diagram attached) The skin is the largest organ in the human body. It has three layers; the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layer. The epidermis Google images (2016) The upper or outer layer of the two main layers of cells that make up the skin. The epidermis is mostly made up of flat, scale-like cells called squamous cells. These cells produce melanin, which gives the skin its colour ( 2016). The epidermis is the outmost layer of the skin, the skin we can see. This layer differs in thickness; it is thinner on the eyelids and nipples than it is on the soles of feet and palms of hands. This layer has water resistant properties and protects us from cuts and injuries. The epidermis contains the pigment melanin which gives us our skin ...
I was just diagnosed with this bug on my skin specimen, Toenails fell off and my bumps on legs still present. Nails - Answered by a verified Health Professional
branch and an active vasodilator branch [11]. Nonthermoregulatory reflexes, which include skin blood flow responses to changes in arterial and central venous pressure and exercise stresses, also operate through the two aforementioned branches of the sympathetic nervous system; however, the glabrous/ palmar skin operates only through the vasoconstrictor branch [10,11,41]. In the auto-regulation process, throughout a specific range of arterial blood pressure, steady-state blood flow is maintained at a fairly constant level [44]. Previous reports on cutaneous circulation has shown that, independent of neural control of blood flow, glabrous/palmar skin has the ability to buffer blood pressure oscillations and demonstrates a degree of dynamic auto-regulation. Conversely, nonglabrous or hairy skin has a diminished dynamic auto regulatory capacity [42]. We first tried to relate observations in the present study to some of the physiological findings reported earlier on the cutaneous responses to ...
Skin Section, 40 times full-size | Skin Models | The two halves of this skin relief model show the three layers of hairy and hairless skin in order to make clear the differences of the skin layers. This skin model features detail with hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, receptor, nerves
Enthusiasm for diagnosis and therapy of skin disorders via skin microbiota has arisen from recent evidence that: (i) the dysbiosis of skin microbiota is not just associated with skin inflammations (39) but can be a driving factor (52), (ii) S. aureus colonization precedes the onset of AD in certain children (41, 44), (iii) commensal skin bacteria protect against pathogens (7), and (iv) recovery of skin health should require restoration of the healthy microbiota (15). However, these studies are mostly performed in a single localized and relatively homogenous cohort. However, in addition to body region and host individuality (53), the main factors affecting the skin microbiota include geographical location (54, 55). The lack of understanding of variation between healthy and diseased skin microbiota scales at different spatial dimensions, i.e., among geographically separated populations, has hindered critical assessment and exploitation of the potential of the skin microbiota as a quantitative, ...
ABSTRACT: Cleanser technology has come a long way from merely cleansing to providing mildness and moisturizing benefits as well. It is known that harsh surfactants in cleansers can cause damage to skin proteins and lipids, leading to after-wash tightness, dryness, barrier damage, irritation, and even itch. In order for cleansers to provide skin-care benefits, they first must minimize surfactant damage to skin proteins and lipids. Secondly, they must deposit and deliver beneficial agents such as occlusives, skin lipids, and humectants under wash conditions to improve skin hydration, as well as mechanical and visual properties. While all surfactants tend to interact to some degree with lipids, their interaction with proteins can vary significantly, depending upon the nature of their functional head group. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies have shown that surfactants that cause significant skin irritation interact strongly with skin proteins. Based on this understanding, several surfactants ...
Progress in tissue engineering has led to the development of technologies allowing the reconstruction of autologous tissues from the patients own cells. Thus, tissue-engineered epithelial substitutes produced from cultured skin epithelial cells undergo long-term regeneration after grafting, indicating that functional stem cells were preserved during culture and following grafting. However, these cultured epithelial sheets reconstruct only the upper layer of the skin and lack the mechanical properties associated to the connective tissue of the dermis. We have designed a reconstructed skin entirely made from human cutaneous cells comprising both the dermis and the epidermis, as well as a well-organized basement membrane by a method named the self-assembly approach. In this chapter, protocols to generate reconstructed skin and corneal epithelium suitable for grafting are described in details. The methods include extraction and culture of human skin keratinocytes, human skin fibroblasts as well as ...
Skin biopsy is one of the most important diagnostic tests for skin disorders. Punch biopsy is considered the primary technique for obtaining diagnostic full-thickness skin specimens. It requires basic general surgical and suture-tying skills and is easy to learn. The technique involves the use of a circular blade that is rotated down through the epidermis and dermis, and into the subcutaneous fat, yielding a 3- to 4-mm cylindrical core of tissue sample. Stretching the skin perpendicular to the lines of least skin tension before incision results in an elliptical-shaped wound, allowing for easier closure by a single suture. Once the specimen is obtained, caution must be used in handling it to avoid crush artifact. Punch biopsies are useful in the work-up of cutaneous neoplasms, pigmented lesions, inflammatory lesions and chronic skin disorders. Properly administered local anesthesia usually makes this a painless procedure.
The four pillars of Skin Delivery are a result of continuous conversation with the marketplace and our customers: Dermal drug delivery, Mildness, Sensory and Formulation Design. Learn more on why each pillar is crucial and plays an important role for Skin Delivery. ...
Skin tags are harmless growths on the skin that can vary in number. They are usually the same color as your skin or slightly darker. These tiny pieces of tissue are composed of blood vessels and a type of protein fiber called collagen. They project from the surrounding skin on a thin or thick stalk. While most skin tags are small, pinhead-sized bumps, they may become as large as a grape Skin tags can develop on any part of the body, but they most commonly grow on areas of high friction or areas that are commonly rubbed, such as, neck, breasts, groin, stomach, eyelids, underarms. Males and females are equally prone to getting skin tags. However, people may be more likely to develop skin tags if they are obese, are pregnant, or have diabetes Causes--Researchers dont know exactly what causes skin tags to grow. It is believed that friction may lead to the development of skin tags. The growths commonly occur in areas where skin constantly rubs against clothing or other skin, such as near yo ...
Before the treatment the area of the treatment is specially prepared by the doctor, and after the treatment it is protected by dressing. The period of recovery is 6 days - during this time a patient should abandon their daily routine and take a leave. During this period the epidermis will exfoliate and the skin will regenerate.. During the treatment the skin layers are destroyed to their reticular region. During the Easy Phen treatment the following skin layers are damaged: epidermis, stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale and papillary dermis - it should be mentioned that at the dermatologic centre Fabskin the treatment is carried out by a medical specialist, which guarantees that the treatment is safe. These damages are controlled and help get rid of wrinkles, scars, skin discolorations and sun damages of the skin. Phenol used for the treatment allows penetration inside the skin, at the same time there is no necessity to use anesthesia. Phenol is an active ...
An automatic apparatus for testing cutaneous responses of a patient is disclosed. The embodiments of the invention variously include components for: applying a nonambient temperature to the patients skin to test the patients response to thermal stimuli; pricking the patients skin to test the patients response to pain; indenting the patients skin to test the patients response to touch; vibrating the patients skin to test the patients response to vibration; and for making two spaced apart contacts with the patients skin to test the patients two point discrimination response. A general purpose computer and dedicated control circuits function to control the operation of the system and record the responses of the patient. The embodiments of the present invention are able to repeatedly reproduce each test so that the tests carried out are reproducible and accomplished in a minimum of time.
View Notes - Chapter 19 from BIO 119 at Moraine Valley Community College. Chapter 19 Microbial Diseases of the Skin and Wounds Structure of the Skin Functions of the skin Prevents excessive water
With her always-glowing skin and radiant smile, its hard to believe that actress Jennifer Aniston turned 50 earlier this year. So how does the actress keep her skin in tip-top condition while balancing a hectic schedule? Recently in an interview with the Los Angeles Times, the actress revealed that her healthy skin and radiant glow is a combination of various things including her lifestyle, skincare and good genes. I inherited good skin from my dad, the actress admitted. Aniston also offered the following tips for keeping skin youthful and healthy.. Balance Your Biome The importance of the skins microbiome has been in the spotlight in recent months and it appears that Aniston is a proponent of caring for the microbiome. The whole thing is fascinating to me, said Aniston. The actress likes to try and use products that contain probiotics which can help keep the skins microbiome in balance, and in turn, promote healthy and resilient skin. Find out why the skins microbiome is so important ...
Purpose: To investigate the effect of the tissue origin of stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells on reconstructed corneas in vitro. Methods: Four types of constructs were produced by the self-assembly approach using the following combinations of human cells: corneal fibroblasts/corneal epithelial cells, corneal fibroblasts/skin epithelial cells, skin fibroblasts/corneal epithelial cells, skin fibroblasts/skin epithelial cells. Fibroblasts were cultured with ascorbic acid to produce stromal sheets on which epithelial cells were cultured. After 2 weeks at the air-liquid interface, the reconstructed tissues were photographed, absorption spectra were measured, and tissues were fixed for histologic analysis. Cytokine expression in corneal- or skin-fibroblast-conditioned media was determined with the use of protein array membranes. The effect of culturing reconstructed tissues with conditioned media, or media supplemented with a cytokine secreted mainly by corneal fibroblasts, was determined. ...
40 Minutes Potato Facial That Can Change Your Whole Skin This is a 100% natural facial that will give you an instant glow and will remove ...
For as much time that people put into making their skin look good, the act of promoting skin health is completely overlooked. The skin is an essential organ to the body, and luckily the skin is naturally able to build new cells and repair itself. The introduction of chemicals to the skin can speed up the rate at which cells die, and this can weaken the skin. The skin is an important factor to the immune system, because it helps to keep harmful pathogens from entering the body. Weakened skin can allow pathogens into the body where they may cause internal damage. The skin also protects the body from the suns rays, and it helps to promote a healthy body temperature. Skin is also important to how the body interacts with its environment, and it helps to trigger reactions to pain and pressure changes.. The skin carries out important jobs, but many people actively damage their skin on a daily basis. Many of the cosmetic and beauty products that are used to make the skin look good or youthful actually ...
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Viruses, bacteria and fungi are some of the infectious agents that can cause a skin infection. Sometimes the skin rash is a result of a systemic infection, as may be seen with chickenpox and measles. At other times the rash may be localized to the skin as is more common with bacteria and fungi.. Bacterial infections often tend to be the more serious as it can spread and lead to even life-threatening conditions. These bacterial infections may affect only the superficial layers (impetigo) or extend to underlying tissue (cellulitis). Most of the time there is a break in the skin that allows the bacteria to infect the area.. Fungi tend to cause superficial skin infections and are usually do not progress to any serious complications. These infections are often referred to a ringworm because the specific fungi that are responsible tend to cause a ring-like rash. Sometimes yeasts may also be responsible for abdominal skin infections.. ...
In fact, used regularly, It assists to regenerate the skins younger looking properties. Applying aloevera is useful through winter and summertime. In winter, It assists to help remedy dryness and conserve the soft texture in the skin. In summer, it soothes your skin layer, especially after sun-exposure. It also moisturises your skin layer, without making your skin layer oily. aloevera can also be combined with face masks. Take one tablespoon besan, one teaspoon every one of orange peel powdered ingredients and curd the other table spoon aloevera gel. Blend together and apply for the skin, washing it off after a half-hour. Its an effective moisturiser and for that reason helps in dry out skin problems. It assists to moisturise your skin layer and seal off the losing of moisture. It softens your skin layer and helps to take out dead skin cellular material. It also soothes your skin layer in cases involving sun damage or sun burn. If used often, It assists for you to preserve the skins younger ...
Murads Acne Control Skin Perfecting Lotion helps blemish-prone skin stay clear, smooth and healthy by providing oil-free hydration.
In the last few decades, autoimmune diseases have become a major clinical burden. The reasons for this are manifold, including (i) increasing incidence; (ii) the lack of therapies that target the underlying cause of the specific disease in question and (iii) the high rate of adverse events due to prolonged, unspecific immunosuppression. The skin is one of the largest organs of the human body and several autoimmune diseases manifest at the skin. These include skin-specific autoimmune diseases and cutaneous manifestations of systemic autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, with the recent success of immune checkpoint therapy in cancer, immune-mediated adverse effects on the skin following immune checkpoint inhibitor blockade treatment are becoming an additional challenge. Diseases that have been clearly defined as autoimmune diseases of the skin include vitiligo, scleroderma, pemphigus and pemphigoid diseases. Interestingly, recent evidence also indicates that other chronic inflammatory skin diseases and
When you workout, you increase your bodys ability to deliver more nutrients to your cells, whichfeeds the skins fibroblast cells that create skin tightening collagen.. So, while youre sculpting a stronger core, you can also be tightening the skin on your stomach. Its a win-win!. Do you need surgery?. Almost never. You almost neverneedsurgery to remove loose skin, unless it is causing major health issues, like making it difficult for you to move, or causing constant chafing thats resulting in infections. However, you may want surgery to remove loose skin that just isnt bouncing back as much as youd like. It happens.. Your skin is like a rubber band: you can only stretch it so much and so far before it becomes permanently warped. While a womans skin will stretch considerably during a full-term pregnancy, her skin will almost always retreat to taut form after a year, max. However, if a woman has multiple pregnancies close together, especially later in her life, the skin on her stomach may ...
Scavenger Receptor B1 (SR-B1), also known as HDL receptor, is involved in cellular cholesterol uptake. Stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin, is composed of more than 25% cholesterol. Several reports support the view that alteration of SC lipid composition may be the cause of impaired barrier function which gives rise to several skin diseases. For this reason the regulation of the genes involved in cholesterol uptake is of extreme significance for skin health. Being the first shield against external insults, the skin is exposed to several noxious substances and among these is cigarette smoke (CS), which has been recently associated with various skin pathologies. In this study we first have shown the presence of SR-B1 in murine and human skin tissue and then by using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, RT-PCR, and confocal microscopy we have demonstrated the translocation and the subsequent lost of SR-B1 in human keratinocytes (cell culture model) after CS exposure is driven by ...
Shingles symptoms are seen when the virus named varicella- zoster reinvades or gets reactivated in the body of a person. It is the same virus that causes the disease of chickenpox. The symptoms of this disease vary in each person.. Let us have a look at some common and early shingles symptoms. Early symptoms of shingles. • Upset abdomen. • Fevers and chills. • Swelling of the lymph nodes. • Feeling of sickness. • Swelling of the tender lymph nodes. • Severe headaches. • Sensations of burning on the skin. • Excessive itchiness. • Pain in the affected skin areas. • Sensitivity of the skin towards light. Moving away from shingles, we take a look at the various types of skin cancer that can invade the human body. Skin cancers are extensively diverse. The type of skin cancer that affects a person depends on the type of skin cells of that person, from which the cancer arises. Each skin cancer appears distinctly on the superficial skin lining of the bearer.. Some of the types of ...
In human skin tissue model studies at PNNL, researchers showed that ionizing radiation such as that from a CT scan is sufficient to alter genes in two cell layers.
As our age goes up, the nature of our skin decays and it will wind up dull and dry. Your skins common hyaluronic corrosive, a normally hydrating substance that keeps skin delicate and smooth, lessens and collagen and different strands that reason versatility will crumble. Therefore, your skin winds up dry, harsh, dull and less flexible. Gradually almost negligible differences and wrinkles show up all over. Medicines with botox skin promoters lift skins hydration and improve the surface, versatility, laxity of your skin.. These skin sponsors contain hyaluronic corrosive that can give your skin a characteristic brilliance by improving skins hydration framework. They will make your skin brilliant, smooth and delicate. Likewise, these skin sponsors contain nutrients, minerals, and enemies of oxidants. They will feed your skin and make it sound. So your skin will turn out to be increasingly versatile and firmer. These supporters can likewise treat skin inflammation scarring.. How does Skin ...
A wonderful skin treatment, it gives you all those benefits and a lot more. It is equally effective on your hair and even your nails. Consider using argan oil for skin care if you have wrinkles, scars and other skin problems that you want to be taken care of. Results of this great oil can be so overwhelming even if you use just a few drops of it everyday.If your blessed with the perfect look then consider yourself very lucky. Many of us have to work at it more than others. Fortunately, there are many very inexpensive ingredients that will help everyone look good and have beautiful skin. If were going to use natural ingredients for our skin care regimen, then we should be totally aware of our skin type and thus not end up using the wrong natural skin care products. Here are some great tips for various skin types as well as recipes for face masks.Skin care tips for normal skin.If you happen to be one of the lucky ones who have normal skin then count your blessings. This group hardly has any skin ...
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A healthy diet is essential to the health of your body, but its also essential to the health of your skin. A variety of nutrients, including protein, antioxidants, vitamins and collagen can help improve the way your skin looks. Healthy skin is easily recognizable because its usually glowing. Here are some nutrients to consume for healthy, glowing skin.. Nutrition for Skin Health. Eat Protein. A diet low in protein, over the course of many months, can cause a loss in skin tone. Your skin may start to sag and wrinkle beyond what would be reasonable for chronological age. Proteins are essential for tissue repair and the construction of new tissue. Cells need protein to maintain their life, so the body uses protein to replace worn-out or dead skin cells. Including proteins in your diet from sources like chicken, meat, fish, soy or tofu will help you solve that concern. Meal replacement protein shakes are also great options for protein consumption.. Importance of Antioxidants and Vitamins While ...
The results of this study suggest that IL-10 promotes the development of a Th2 response to antigen and is essential for skin infiltration with eosinophils in a mouse model of allergic dermatitis.. IL-10 can be expressed by both keratinocytes and cells of hemopoietic origin that are present in the skin, including DCs, macrophages, mast cells, and lymphocytes (2, 37). Our investigation was prompted by the observation that IL-10 mRNA is rapidly expressed in mouse skin following mechanical injury by tape stripping (Figure 1). This result is consistent with previous findings in human skin subjected to tape stripping (29). Dermal infiltration with eosinophils is an important feature of AD and a hallmark of allergic skin inflammation induced by EC sensitization with OVA (30). Skin from IL-10-/- mice failed to exhibit eosinophil infiltration following EC sensitization with OVA (Figure 2a). This is not due to poor survival of eosinophils, since there was virtually no detectable staining for the ...
T-2 toxin induced skin inflammation and cutaneous injury in mice. - Mona Agrawal, Preeti Yadav, Vinay Lomash, A S B Bhaskar, P V Lakshmana Rao
MDM-2 is one of the target genes of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Its best characterized function is found in the inhibition of p53s ability to modulate transcription. Deregulated expression of MDM-2 could thus at least partially substitute for p53 mutation in the process of tumorigenesis. We show here that MDM-2 is highly expressed in biopsies of normal human skin or in vitro reconstituted human skin. The protein is detected in the nucleus of keratinocytes throughout the different layers of the epidermis and in reconstituted skin as early as the two to three cell layer stage. The 90 kiloDalton (kD) protein is one of the major forms detected in Western blot experiments. MDM-2 is detected in skin reconstituted from keratinocytes in which p53 is inactivated by mutation or degradation by E6 protein, providing evidence that MDM-2 expression in the skin can occur in the absence of wild type p53. Moreover, we found no correlation between the p53 status and MDM-2 expression levels in a series of ...
AppliedStemCell eCommerce Platform Human Skin Cells (Dermal Fibroblasts) cDNA (DT1) [ASD-9041] - Catalog Number ASD-9041 Quantity 20 reactions Product Information Description Applied StemCells cDNA is synthesized from a highly pure and intact total
Skins surface is covered by a protective acid mantle which gives it a mildly acidic pH. This pH plays an important role in skin condition and is key to skins protective barrier. It neutralizes alkaline-based aggressors (such as harsh surfactants), supports the essential process of shedding dead skin cells (known as desquamation) and creates the optimal environment in which skins natural flora can thrive. When skins pH alters its barrier function is compromised. Water loss increases and skin dries out making it more susceptible to external irritants and sensitivity. The Eucerin pH Balance System contains pH5 Citrate Buffer to restore and support skins optimal pH. This helps to strengthen skins barrier function, protect its natural defences and make skin less sensitive.. ...
Several different but interdependent factors seem to predispose patients to AD. First, in contrast to healthy skin, the barrier function of AD patients skin is impaired (15). A number of genetic risk factors have been identified that directly affect barrier integrity, like loss-of-function mutations in the protein filaggrin, which is important for the development of the stratum corneum, or mutations that affect skin immune responses (39, 40). Mice with a filaggrin loss-of-function mutation develop AD-like skin inflammation, underscoring the importance of this protein (41). Second, dysbiosis of the skin microbiota with decreased colonization of beneficial commensals (42, 43) and an increased presence of the potentially pathogenic commensal Staphylococcus aureus is a common phenomenon in both patients with AD and murine models of disease (44-46). The exact cause and timing of when particular predisposing factors come into play are not completely understood. While overgrowth of S. aureus sometimes ...
As with all our body organs, skin ages as programmed by genes. This is called internal aging. Dry skin, age spots, white hair, hair loss, thin nails and other skin changes come purely due to age. Skin also ages by external factors. Sun is the main external factor that ages the skin. The sun rays consist of many light spectrums. Ultra violet rays damage the skin most. Both UVA and UVB are responsible for skin damage. Aging due to sun is called photo aging.. Sun-Sun breaks down the collagen and elastin in the skin. The skin loses its elasticity and firmness and develops premature wrinkles. Photo aging depends on the skin color and the amount of sun exposure over the years. Dark colored individuals show less sun damage while fair skinned people show more sun damage for the same exposure. With rising age, the total sun exposure increases and its gives rise to not only age spots, but also more serious problems such as actinic keratoses and skin cancers. The only way to prevent sun damage is ...
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It is well known that lipids (fatty substances) can have a positive effect on skin. A new project at the FRAME laboratory will enable close investigation of how lipids are absorbed to create those effects. The project will involve building three-dimensional models from keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes and immune cells. They will be isolated directly from ethically obtained skin samples, donated to Nottinghams City Hospital biobank by patients undergoing mastectomies.. Results from animal-based models are questionable because mouse skin differs from human skin in significant ways, both in structure and function. Once the new model is complete it will be possible to compare results from the new structures with those obtained using the actual skin samples from which they were derived, in order to demonstrate their accuracy.. ...
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"Skin". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010. "Skip". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 13 July 2010. " ... " (="stick of wood", or in this sense "snowshoe") skill skil (="distinction") skin skinn (="animal hide") skip skopa (="to skip ...
Skin packs. Several types of shrink tunnels are available. The heat source can be based on heating element (electrical ...
McGinn, Daniel (November 1, 2005). "Skin City". Wired. Devon (May 13, 2003). "Exclusive Interview: Devon". Rock Confidential ( ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Woodhead, Cameron (21 March 2010). "Wrong Skin". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved ... She was asked to audition for the Aboriginal-produced play Wrong Skin, and was successful, performing on the tour while ...
One report says, "Common symptoms among enslaved populations included: blindness; abdominal swelling; bowed legs; skin lesions ...
The design result, called the LZR Racer, reduced skin friction drag 24% more than the previous Speedo swimsuit. In March 2008, ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Roberts, Jacob (2017). "Winning Skin". Distillations. 2 (4): 8-15. Retrieved 22 March ...
This presents as acanthosis nigricans, a thickening and darkening of areas of the skin such as the armpits, necks, hands, and ... "Diabetes & Skin Conditions". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2019-08-30. "Cirrhosis - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved ... Other skin conditions include diabetic dermopathy, digital sclerosis, eruptive xanthomatosis, and others. Hepatic ... Skin conditions. Insulin insensitivity in the case of type II diabetes can cause prolonged increases in blood insulin. Insulin ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kavitha, S. S. (22 August 2013). "Skin deep". Retrieved 21 December 2019 - via www. ...
Roberts, Jacob (2017). "Winning Skin". Distillations. 2 (4): 8-15. Retrieved March 22, 2018. "Coach threatens to pull Phelps". ...
... they penetrate skin easily, and they cross the placenta into fetuses. For example, 2-butoxyethanol is a human health hazard ... skin rash; sore or blisters lasting at least three days; severe headaches or migranes; nausea; excessive fatigue or tiredness; ... Exposure occurs through skin contact, inhalation of contaminated air or soil/sand, and ingestion of contaminated water or food ... skin irritation from rashes to burns, eye irritation, potential respiratory toxins or irritants; and kidney toxins. At the ...
"Skin Food Aqua Grape home page" (in Korean). Skin Food. Archived from the original on 2017-07-19. Retrieved July 19, 2017.CS1 ... Skin Food. She launched a full-scale modeling activity, starting with a CF of the new product called Aqua Grape Bounce Bubble ... Serum for Skin Food 2017 S/S which was released on April 10, 2017. She was also featured in main page of the product. "JYP to ...
Also in DaeRyung Scecho Tower is the headquarters of South Korean skincare and cosmetics manufacturer Skin Food. The infamous ...
SKIN is a complex and thoroughly-conceived conceptual project in which Hatry plays on the fact that skin is the medium through ... The art which SKIN documents is of a very diverse character, including sculptural objects, some of a realistic nature, some ... "Video of Skin Room performance". Cosmoto website. "Heide Hatry. Heads and Tales". Distributor's website, D.A.P. Charta Art ... The seven female artists all working with skin as a medium are in fact seven facets of Hatry herself. In the book, she ...
"Skin deep". The Age (7 January 2005). McLaughlin, Patricia. "Body piercing vestige of ancient identity crisis". Pittsburgh Post ...
Paul, Sam (November 2012). "The Ink Scene". Skin & Ink. p. 10. Retrieved March 16, 2021. Paul, Sam (April 2013). "The Ink Scene ... ". Skin & Ink. p. 11. Retrieved March 16, 2021. Sullivan, Vince (March 7, 2012). "Aldan native Shane O'Neill named first-ever ...
It is known by anatomists as thick skin, volar skin or hairless skin. It has raised ridges, a thicker and more complex ... The skin of the hands and fingers and the feet and toes is known by forensic scientists as friction ridge skin. ... "Friction Skin". Ridges and Furrows. Hicklin, R. Austin (2009). "Anatomy of Friction Ridge Skin". Encyclopedia of Biometrics. ... Page 8-9. ISBN 1-4160-3185-5. malvi (4 March 2011). "The Ageing Skin - Part 1 - Structure of Skin and Introduction - Articles ...
... is the Greek word for a fox skin. The Greek god Dionysus was associated with the bassaris, and his followers (the ... Skinning Dixon-Kennedy, Mike (1998). Encyclopedia of Greco-Roman Mythology. ABC-CLIO. p. 64. ISBN 9781576070949. Retrieved 29 ...
In the case of damaged skin, it is removed, and new skin is grafted in its place. Skin grafting can reduce the course of ... There are two types of skin grafts: Split-thickness skin grafts [epidermis + part of the dermis] Full-thickness skin grafts [ ... Large amount of skin loss due to infections Burns Skin cancer surgery Hematoma development when the graft is placed over an ... Specific types include: Skin grafting is often used to treat skin loss due to a wound, burn, infection, or surgery. ...
"Skin Games". The New York Times. " Indian Killer". Archived from the original on 2010-11-15. ...
... dermoscopy and skin cancer detection, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, biological therapy in skin diseases, connective tissue ... mainly concerning autoimmune skin diseases, biological therapies, videodermoscopy, trichoscopy, epidemiology of skin diseases ... mainly concerning autoimmune skin diseases, biological therapies, videodermoscopy, trichoscopy, epidemiology of skin diseases ... Skin Pharmacol. 1991, 4, 150-153. Rudnicka L, Majewski S, Blaszczyk M, Skiendzielewska A, Makiela B, Skopinska M, Jablonska S.: ...
Original Skin (DS Aector McAvoy 2): David Mark: Books. ASIN 0857389750. "Quercus , Original Skin". ... Follow-up Original Skin was released in April 2013. It continues the story of DS Aector McAvoy, a Scottish policeman based in ... Dark Winter (Aector McAvoy, #1, 2012) Original Skin (Aector McAvoy, #2, 2013) Sorrow Bound (Aector McAvoy, #3, 2014) Taking ...
"Skin Nourishment". 9 June 2020. Retrieved 2020-06-09. "Jack Wolfskin Acquired by Blackstone Group". Outdoor Business Update. ... Precor USA Salomon Group Sports Tracker Suunto Wilson Sporting Goods Haglöfs Black Diamond Equipment Sierra Bullets Pieps Skin ...
Rodan has co-authored books with Fields: M.D. Rodan, Katie; M.D. Fields, Kathy (2009). Write Your Skin a Prescription for ... M.D. Rodan, Katie; M.D. Fields, Kathy (2006). The Doctors' Secrets to a Lifetime of Clear Skin. Guthy Renker. ISBN 0615335241. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "How to deal with hormonal effects on your skin". ABC 7 News. June 28, 2010. Retrieved ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Kramer, Cheryl (May 1, 2002). "Get gorgeous skin for summer; yes, you can get sun- ...
... skin smooth. In the subsequent stages the general appearance remains the same, except that the spines are long and taper to a ... the dark spots being apparently beneath the skin ; the rest of the body dark brown, with here and there a tinge of dull ...
Skin interview". Mr. Skin. SK Europe BV. "Bibliography". Johnny Ryan's Angry Youth Comix. Archived from the original on 2008-05 ...
Skin Flick; Outlaw; Hilda's Yard; On A First Name Basis; Old Love; Mending Fences, Here on the Flight Path, The Foursome and ...
... as your skin becomes a thin casing for disappearing bones, like a skin of a drum wearing thin… I dream… that you might be ... In his review of the book in Sensitive Skin, Valery Oisteanu wrote: "The free-wheeling Dalachinsky jumps easily from free verse ... Sensitive Skin. "Cosmic Diaspora (Jake Marmer, John Schott, Joshua Horowitz) and Steve Dalachinsky". San Francisco State ...
Roberts, Jacob (2017). "Winning Skin". Distillations. 2 (4): 8-15. Retrieved 22 March 2018. "Swimming's fabric unravels with ...
"Movie Review - Metal Skin". 1 January 1994. Retrieved 1 August 2011. Young and Restless, The Sunday Age, Peter ... "Metal Skin". Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018. " ... Australian Film Institute Awards Nomination for Best Actor in a Lead Role for Metal Skin (1995) Australian Film Critics Circle ... Psycho Joe opposite Ben Mendelsohn in Metal Skin (1994), Geoffrey Wright's examination of suburban hopelessness and revhead ...
"Thin Skin". Thin Skin. Retrieved November 3, 2020. Kondabolu, Hari (December 13, 2010). "December Shows in the Pacific ... Thin Skin was released, a film based on Oluo's off-Broadway play "Now, I'm Fine" and his This American Life episode "The ...
The skin is one of the largest organs of the human body and several autoimmune diseases manifest at the skin. These include ... Furthermore, with the recent success of immune checkpoint therapy in cancer, immune-mediated adverse effects on the skin ... Diseases that have been clearly defined as autoimmune diseases of the skin include vitiligo, scleroderma, pemphigus and ... In addition, many systemic autoimmune diseases present with skin manifestations, such as all forms of lupus, systemic ...
Stretching the skin perpendicular to the lines of least skin tension before incision results in an elliptical-shaped wound, ... Punch biopsies are useful in the work-up of cutaneous neoplasms, pigmented lesions, inflammatory lesions and chronic skin ... Punch biopsy is considered the primary technique for obtaining diagnostic full-thickness skin specimens. It requires basic ... Skin biopsy is one of the most important diagnostic tests for skin disorders. ...
Do you have normal skin, dry skin, dehydrated skin, oily skin, mature skin, or sensitive skin? . Dry or Very Dry Skin. P [...] ... Know Your Skin cases. First of all its crucial to know you re skin type so that you can choose skin care products to become ... blue skin and the culprits behind the litle most skin types, and bad skin accustomed to using inappropriate pro [...] ... Five Sensitive Skin Care Trick. A lot of people claim that they have sensitive skin when they break out after using a sealed ...
  • The epidermis is the outer skin layer, and the dermis is beneath it. (
  • The first thing to know about the body's largest organ is that the skin is composed of two specific layers: the epidermis and the dermis. (
  • While UV rays cannot reach below the skin, a recent discovery of a new type of fat depot within the deep dermis can be reached by UV light via the upper dermis and chemicals released by cells in the epidermis. (
  • Used as an anti-age active ingredient Glycine Soja Germ Extract stimulates the production of Hyaluronic Acid by skin fibroblasts, thus targeting facial wrinkles. (
  • As a result skin ages prematurely and becomes more prone to lines and wrinkles. (
  • Punch biopsies are useful in the work-up of cutaneous neoplasms, pigmented lesions, inflammatory lesions and chronic skin disorders. (
  • By stimulating skin's own water system, Gluco-Glycerol helps to moisture skin and improve its barrier function. (
  • It is also rich in antioxidant Vitamins A and E, which can protect skin against free radicals, and assist in skin's natural process of regeneration. (
  • Specially designed Glide Polymers have been created to allow a fluid movement along the skin's surface to enable a close, yet precise, shave with less skin irritation and to prevent micro-cuts. (
  • This pH plays an important role in skin condition and is key to skin's protective barrier. (
  • It neutralizes alkaline-based aggressors (such as harsh surfactants), supports the essential process of shedding dead skin cells (known as desquamation) and creates the optimal environment in which skin's natural flora can thrive. (
  • The skin is one of the largest organs of the human body and several autoimmune diseases manifest at the skin. (
  • These include skin-specific autoimmune diseases and cutaneous manifestations of systemic autoimmune diseases. (
  • Diseases that have been clearly defined as autoimmune diseases of the skin include vitiligo, scleroderma, pemphigus and pemphigoid diseases. (
  • Interestingly, recent evidence also indicates that other chronic inflammatory skin diseases and autoinflammatory syndromes, such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, lichen planus and localized scleroderma, are also (at least partially) caused by underlying autoimmunity. (
  • In addition, many systemic autoimmune diseases present with skin manifestations, such as all forms of lupus, systemic scleroderma and vasculitis. (
  • While in these disorders the underlying pathological mechanisms involved are directly linked with the skin, other autoimmune diseases, e.g. thyroiditis, cause skin symptoms indirectly: i.e. via the effects of hormones on the skin. (
  • Within this Research Topic, we aim to foster insights into skin autoimmune diseases and to provoke further basic and translational research in this area to ultimately improve the so far unsatisfactory treatment options for patients suffering from autoimmune skin diseases. (
  • 4. Autoimmune aspects of chronic skin inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and lichen planus. (
  • 8. Other autoimmune diseases with skin manifestations. (
  • Without correct nutritional care, several signs of aging may seem onto the skin prematurely, increasing its risk not merely for simple spots and blemishes but in addition diseases like eczema and skin cancer. (
  • Despite the dense fur covering, certain skin diseases exhibit differential prevalence among skin sites, dog breeds, and individuals. (
  • However, some skin diseases show a preference for certain skin sites and for specific breeds [ 4 ]. (
  • Routine biopsy of skin rashes is not recommended because the commonly reported nonspecific pathology result rarely alters clinical management. (
  • Differentiating cells are no longer active but provide important structural proteins, and in their terminal differentiated state, they form the skin barrier. (
  • A breakdown of the skin barrier function can lead to fluid loss and invasion of pathogenic germs. (
  • They intend to investigate if radiation-induced alterations in proliferation affect the differentiation process and lead to skin barrier damage. (
  • The exposure scenario in this study (10 cGy) mimics the dose limit for a full body spiral CT and the skin dose in radiotherapy procedures. (
  • We also detected bacteria associated to the environment on different dog skin sites that could be reflecting the different degrees of exposure of each skin site and each dog. (
  • Among factors such as smoking, UV exposure and the natural breakdown of proteins, the skin will begin to lose it's natural elasticity over time. (
  • In skin, tiny silver molecules known as ions effectively target bacteria cells and stop them from multiplying to prevent irritation. (
  • To keep healthy skin, you should target getting sufficient numbers of these skin vitamins whether in the food which you eat, or from vitamin supplements. (
  • The individual, together with its environment, has been reported as the main force driving composition and structure of skin microbiota in healthy dogs. (
  • Host-specific variables, such as temporality or sex, were also shaping skin microbiota of healthy dogs, even in an environmental homogenous cohort. (
  • Following those first human studies describing skin microbiota, research then targeted key variables to ascertain if they drove skin microbiota structure and composition in the healthy individual. (
  • Biotin (also known as Vitamin B7) is a water-soluble vitamin that strengthens skin, nails and hair. (
  • Skin biopsy is one of the most important diagnostic tests for skin disorders. (
  • Punch biopsy is considered the primary technique for obtaining diagnostic full-thickness skin specimens. (
  • Skin biopsy is the most important diagnostic test for skin disorders. (
  • In selected patients, a properly performed skin biopsy almost always yields useful diagnostic information. (
  • Some authors believe that most errors in dermatologic diagnosis occur because of failure to perform a prompt skin biopsy. (
  • Punch biopsy is considered the primary technique to obtain diagnostic, full-thickness skin specimens. (
  • Because linear closure is performed on the circular-shaped defect, stretching the skin before performing the punch biopsy allows the relaxed skin defect to appear more elliptical and makes it easier to close. (
  • A) Just before performing the biopsy, the lines of least skin tension are determined. (
  • When applied regularly, it has been proven to considerably improve symptoms of skin irritation such as dryness, roughness, scaling and redness. (
  • Therefore, one of the major concerns when analyzing canine skin microbiota is the likely influence of the environment. (
  • We have characterized the normal variability of dog skin microbiota in a well-controlled cohort of a large number of Golden-Labrador Retriever crossed dogs ( N = 35) with similar ages, related genetic background, and a shared environment. (
  • We found that the individual drives the skin microbiota composition and structure followed by the skin site. (
  • Skin is a complex ecosystem inhabited by a high diversity of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the microbiota. (
  • In humans, skin microbiota differs among skin sites and among individuals [ 12 ]. (
  • And while it is still unknown how these two layers interact over time or why exactly the skin is unable to "bounce back" from certain damages, scientists have several theories as to why the skin faces irreparable damage with age. (
  • In studies on a human skin tissue model, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory used a systems biology approach to show that an ionizing radiation dose mimicking that received during a CT scan is sufficient to alter genes in two cell layers. (
  • These results were found to be in good agreement with human in vivo data, which suggests that the 3D human skin tissue model, though greatly simplified, provides a faithful representation of intact tissue. (
  • The scientists performed a microarray study on a 3D reconstituted human skin tissue model. (
  • 2012. ' Cell Type-Dependent Gene Transcription Profile in a Three-Dimensional Human Skin Tissue Model Exposed to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation: Implications for Medical Exposures . (
  • Standford's School of Medicine brings us an update in the latest achievements towards in-vitro neuron generation via re differentiation of specialized cells (skin cells in this case. (
  • This important progress follows on last year's success in inducing this change with mice skin cells. (
  • The importance of this line of research lies in that the process does not need to first de-differentiate the skin cells into a kind of stem cells known as induced pluripotent stem cells. (
  • So can they turn skin cells into any kind of cells, or only nerve cells? (
  • Vitamins B1 and B2 as an example are essential for wind turbine from the skin, helping cells to develop properly. (
  • Vitamin B5 on the other hand, fights stress among skin cells and helps with the breakdown oil from the skin, thus lowering the occurrence of acne. (
  • It supports the whole growth and development of red blood cells in the body such as skin. (
  • Since skin cells as a rule have short life spans, they're highly influenced by folate to be able to reproduce. (
  • Other vitamins and mineral crucial to add mass to skin cells include iron, copper, and vit c. (
  • Used by blue-green algae to ensure their survival for 3.5 billion years, Gluco-Glycerol has been proven to stimulate the creation of Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in human skin cells, thus increasing the number of aquaporins. (
  • In skin it works to re-energise cells, "recharging" their regenerative potential to make them stronger and function more efficiently. (
  • These two important vitamins conserve the skin retain moisture, keeping it hydrated and preventing early telltale signs of aging. (
  • Niacinamide in particular, which is also called niacin, aids in the blood circulation, apart from increasing moisture in the skin. (
  • The more AQP3's there are, the better the distribution of moisture within the deeper layers of skin. (
  • Furthermore, with the recent success of immune checkpoint therapy in cancer, immune-mediated adverse effects on the skin following immune checkpoint inhibitor blockade treatment are becoming an additional challenge. (
  • A deficiency of a vitamin can result to dry, sensitive skin, vulnerable to skin sagging and wrinkling. (
  • As well as its naturally effective anti-bacterial action, silver is a highly skin-compatible active ingredient that's widely tolerable, even on very sensitive skin. (
  • Learn about the different types of skin irritations and how to address the symptoms wherever they may appear. (
  • Among the organs of the body, skin is a that needs sufficient level of minerals and vitamins to be able to function properly. (
  • This skin model is a great tool for demonstrating the anatomy of the human skin. (