Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Seychelles: A group of Indian Ocean Islands, east of Tanzania. Their capital is Victoria. They were first claimed by the French in 1744 but taken by the English in 1794 and made a dependency of MAURITIUS in 1810. They became a crown colony in 1903 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1976. They were named for the French finance minister, Jean Moreau de Sechelles, but respelled by the English in 1794. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p496)Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Paternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the father.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System: Neurologic disorders associated with exposure to inorganic and organic forms of MERCURY. Acute intoxication may be associated with gastrointestinal disturbances, mental status changes, and PARAPARESIS. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury usually occurs in industrial workers, and manifests as mental confusion, prominent behavioral changes (including psychosis), DYSKINESIAS, and NEURITIS. Alkyl mercury poisoning may occur through ingestion of contaminated seafood or grain, and its characteristic features include POLYNEUROPATHY; ATAXIA; vision loss; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; and DEAFNESS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch20, pp10-15)Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Community Health Nursing: General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.United StatesCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.BangladeshCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Schools: Educational institutions.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)IndiaPregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Great BritainStress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.ReadingAnxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Generalization (Psychology): The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.Aptitude: The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Child, Abandoned: A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.ManikinsGrowth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.General Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Inservice Training: On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.Foster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).BrazilLanguage Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
  • More than 200 teachers, community-based early childhood educators, and others who serve young children in the metro area will participate in the second institute of the Superintendents' Early Childhood Plan "Professional Development for All" 2016-2017 series January 19 and 21 in Omaha. (unomaha.edu)
  • The next 2016-2017 "Professional Development for All" institute will be March 2 and 4. (unomaha.edu)
  • The University of Prince Edward Island is seeking a Youth Worker for its 2017 Summer Explore program. (upei.ca)
  • The research 7,8 shows that gaps in the development of preschoolers may compromise school performance and opportunities in the future. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. (springer.com)
  • It is important that parents continue to nurture and develop these skills, so that children are ready for pencil and paper activities when they are preschoolers. (bumblebeeot.com)
  • NEW DELHI: Vedanta, India's leading diversified natural resources company is aligned with the UN's International Youth Day 2016 Theme: The Road to 2030: Eradicating Poverty and Achieving Sustainable Consumption and Production. (indiacsr.in)
  • Child labour in China ," MERIT Working Papers 2016-036, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT). (repec.org)
  • Launched at the World Humanitarian Summit, held May 23 to May 24, 2016 in Istanbul, Turkey, the Connecting Business Initiative is a multi-stakeholder initiative led by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (ericsson.com)
  • As such, intervention programs are crucial in promoting motor skill development of children with motor delays. (ed.gov)
  • Although there were opportunities for vigorous play within the EP intervention, the children did not show improvements in motor performance or VR. (ed.gov)
  • NCPC, through the Youth Gang Prevention Fund (YGPF), contributed $1,004,309 in funding to the Youth Education and Intervention Unit of the Calgary Police Service (CPS) Community and Youth Services Section (CYSS) to implement YARD. (gc.ca)
  • YARD is a city-wide program that focuses primarily on prevention and intervention, by aiming to address the roots of gang involvement at the individual level through an emphasis on social development and rehabilitation. (gc.ca)
  • Fine motor skills will assist in their ability to be part of everyday activities in the home, at play, at early intervention , kinder and their readiness for primary school. (thinkorganisedo.com.au)
  • It is possible that those are the factors that can have the biggest impact when incorporated into prevention and intervention approaches for children in high-risk environments. (nih.gov)
  • Besides having implications for educational intervention, the study may address the question of why individual children from one family can score differently on intelligence tests, despite sharing genes, socioeconomic status, and the educational level and personality of parents with their siblings. (eurekalert.org)
  • Professor James Law of Newcastle University is leading a European research network to look at how intervention can improve children's oral language skills. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Many different academic and professional groups support these children, but they have never been brought together before to focus on intervention. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Fifteen children who completed the RO1 ICAN intervention (NCT01018407) at the Kennedy Krieger site and follow-up testing but continue to have minimal functional spoken language will be participants in this study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If eligible, you will be randomly assigned- as if by flipping a coin- to one of three baseline durations, during which your child will engage in daily interactions with their interventionist to determine if skills targeted by this intervention are improving naturally as your child matures, without active treatment from the study's interventionist. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mobilisation for Magic Bus Youth Skilling programme is carried out across low income communities where the Adolescent programme is also in operation. (magicbus.org)
  • Initiated with the IL&FS skills school programme it offers courses such as Domestic BPO and Electrician, and was initiated in September 2014. (indiacsr.in)
  • This programme is ideal if you have some experience of community and youth work. (gold.ac.uk)
  • The Western Cape Department of Agriculture offers youth mentorship and job creation by providing mentoring and valuable work experience and exposure for unemployed matriculants, undergraduates and graduates through an Internship Programme. (shbbh.cn)
  • The Western Cape Department of Agriculture is committed to skills development by providing opportunities for unemployed matriculants, undergraduates and graduates through an Internship Programme. (shbbh.cn)
  • CDBB develops scientific initiatives and supports research and research training relevant to the psychological, neurobiological, language, behavioral, and educational development and health of children. (nih.gov)
  • On Wednesday, November 27th, 2019, Poise Nigeria played host to His Excellency, the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Mark Rutte , in an open event held to acknowledge and appreciate the government of the Netherlands for its unwavering support in advancing the cause of youth employability, entrepreneurship, and skills development through OXFAM and Poise Nigeria . (bellanaija.com)
  • The objective of the YPK is to ensure 100% employability to the rural youth through skill enhancement. (indiacsr.in)
  • I am gratified that all the businesses at Vedanta support the youth in our operational areas in terms of building vocational skills, which provides employment and entrepreneurship opportunities, and enables progress of the communities," says Mr. Anil Agarwal, Chairman, Vedanta. (indiacsr.in)
  • While the Government has launched innovative outreach schemes like the National Skill Development Mission and National Policy for Skill Development & Entrepreneurship, Vedanta facilitates programmes with an aim for the future generation to find employment in skilled sectors. (indiacsr.in)
  • Earlier this month, the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) launched the Youth and Women Entrepreneurship Promotion (YoWEP) project in Addis Ababa. (un.org)
  • The computer literate graduate youngsters are encouraged to join the Rural BPO training centre at YPK with placement opportunity after six months of training. (indiacsr.in)
  • Cairn India's Cairn Enterprise Centre (CEC), a vocational training center in Barmer, was established in the year 2007 and since its inception, a total of about 12,000 students have been trained in various vocational and enterprise development skills. (indiacsr.in)
  • Visit our sister site ColoringBookFun.com where we have more than 10,000 coloring pages for kids and adults! (childfun.com)
  • Before a youth attempts suicide, most will reach out to a friend, but they'll rarely let adults in on their deadly secret. (scoutingmagazine.org)
  • By observing adults' functional use of literacy, children also learn the different purposes of different literacy activities such as writing a grocery list versus writing a letter. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At two, children learn they are a separate person from the adults that care for them. (lovetoknow.com)
  • This can be frustrating but remember children are still learning and they can be more easily distracted than adults. (lovetoknow.com)
  • FirstSchool is based at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. (unomaha.edu)
  • The study answers two central research questions: Which soft skills do youth think are most important for education and employment? (edc.org)
  • We publish over 1,500 new titles per year by leading researchers each year, and have a network of expert authors, editors and advisors spanning the global academic community in pursuit of advanced research developments. (novapublishers.com)
  • Research designs: One hundred and thirty-eight children from 27 urban public schools were referred to the present study. (ed.gov)
  • A research by Kid Sense highlights that all six pre-literacy skills mentioned above are vital if a child is to improve in learning. (freepdmaterial.com)
  • Find an endangered species and request that your child do background research on this animal. (pearsoned.com)
  • The study was funded by the UK Medical Research Council, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the European Research Council. (eurekalert.org)
  • We begin by outlining some of the methodological issues that surround research on literacy development in Down syndrome before surveying what is known about literacy and literacy-related skills. (down-syndrome.org)
  • Choosing what to match groups on is driven by the particular research questions being asked and this issue is pertinent to the study of reading given that it is a componential skill. (down-syndrome.org)
  • The groundbreaking research adds to a growing body of literature highlighting the effects of chronic neglect on child development, an understudied research area despite neglect being the most common form of maltreatment in the U.S. and among the most costly segments of child welfare systems. (buffalo.edu)
  • As part of the research, Save the Children commissioned Professor Law and statistician Tom King, of Newcastle University, to carry out analysis of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study of 18,000 children born in 2000 and assessed at regular intervals. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Other toddler development milestones may include sitting down from a standing position, squatting, and pushing or pulling toys around the house. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Toddler development at this stage includes some control of potty functions, but they may not be ready psychologically for potting training yet. (everydayhealth.com)
  • For both measures of health events, the analysis suggests that the onset of a parental health event has, on average, small negative effects on the level of children's noncognitive skills. (repec.org)
  • However, small average effects mask heterogeneous effects across: the sex of the parent, sex of the child, and the type of health condition. (repec.org)
  • Specifically, parental health events are estimated to significantly impair noncognitive skill development when a father is afflicted with a health event, affect sons more negatively than daughters, and are worse for certain-vascular or cancerous-conditions. (repec.org)
  • Further exploration suggests that effects of parental health events on skill investments are driven by the hypothesized mechanism, changes in skill investments. (repec.org)
  • Parental Health Events and Children's Skill Development ," UNCG Economics Working Papers 10-11, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics. (repec.org)
  • Does Enhancement of Academic Skills in Childhood Also Enhance Adult Health Status? (unc.edu)
  • Recent advice published by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health avoided making specific recommendations on screen time limits, citing a lack of evidence. (www.nhs.uk)
  • At the end of the examination of the child, the guidelines remind the health provider to look for any "other problems" not specifically listed in the chart and to manage these problems according to the pre-service training they have received. (who.int)
  • The results further indicate that mother's education leads to an increase in family resources for children and an improvement in maternal mental health and parenting, which we interpret as potential mechanisms behind our findings. (repec.org)
  • Professor Jeffrey Sachs, Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, says: "ICT and broadband are being deployed with strong social purpose to deliver improvements in health, education, payments, business development and agricultural production - and even peace-building in South Sudan and beyond. (ericsson.com)
  • Again, the WHO played a leading role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mental, intellectual, emotional and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique contributions to literacy skills (i.e., word reading, pseudoword reading, and spelling), letter-name knowledge played a more important role than phonological awareness in literacy acquisition in Korean. (springer.com)
  • Letter-name knowledge explained appreciably greater amount of variance and had larger effect sizes in literacy skills. (springer.com)
  • This development is also related to metacognitive abilities which emerge during this time. (ed.gov)
  • The development of these abilities depends on processes involving complex nerve pathways, which can be affected by environmental, social and pathological factors leading to a functional hearing disorder in which the child detects sounds normally but has difficulties interpreting them. (bvsalud.org)
  • Just as youth seek to build the competencies they need to be successful in adolescence and adulthood, the professionals working with these youth must build the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to assist them in this endeavor. (ncwd-youth.info)
  • A new study of identical twins has found that early reading skill might positively affect later intellectual abilities. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although some sensitivity emerges by 2 years, the effects of context on these skills and their relation to other developing metacognitive capacities have not been examined. (ed.gov)
  • It pops up on your timeline, with a picture of your child a couple of years previously and you melt, yelling, "I can't believe how much he/she's grown! (tums2totsonline.co.za)
  • The study included 1,187 children aged between 3-20 years who had no brain disorders or issues that would affect their brain development. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers followed over 2,000 children in Canada from birth up to the age of 5, with screen time assessments performed from age 2 years onwards. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The generic guidelines are meant to target the leading causes of mortality and (severe) morbidity in children below five years of age, who are a particularly vulnerable age group. (who.int)
  • The demand for those with people-oriented skills is expected to increase in the coming years. (mtsu.edu)
  • New verbal skills allow your little one to point to an object and say a word - and, in turn, you respond. (kidshealth.org)
  • For the children , the neuropsychomotor test, Denver II, and the evaluation of sound localization and temporal ordination of three verbal and non-verbal sounds were applied. (bvsalud.org)