Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Thoracica: A superorder of marine CRUSTACEA, free swimming in the larval state, but permanently fixed as adults. There are some 800 described species, grouped in several genera, and comprising of two major orders of barnacles: stalked (Pedunculata) and sessile (Sessilia).Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalHindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.NADH Tetrazolium Reductase: Catalyzes the reduction of tetrazolium compounds in the presence of NADH.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Rana esculenta: An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Skeletal Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Purkinje Fibers: Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.GlycogenMuscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Mice, Inbred C57BLElasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Isotonic Contraction: Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Succinate Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Myositis, Inclusion Body: Progressive myopathies characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies on muscle biopsy. Sporadic and hereditary forms have been described. The sporadic form is an acquired, adult-onset inflammatory vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles. Familial forms usually begin in childhood and lack inflammatory changes. Both forms feature intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in muscle tissue. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1409-10)Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Troponin C: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal: Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Arsenazo III: Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Role of skin in locomotion
The arrangement of the connective tissue fibers and muscle fibers create the skeletal support of a soft bodied animal. The ... A hydrostatic skeleton uses hydrostatic pressure generated from muscle contraction against a liquid filled cavity. The liquid ... Typically muscle fibers surround the hydrostatic body. There are two main types of muscle fibers orientations that are ... In the active mechanism, skeletal supports and muscles run through the patagia of lizards. The skeletal supports and muscle ...
Striated muscle tissue
All skeletal muscles are attached to some component of the skeleton, unlike smooth muscle which comprises hollow organs such as ... The fibers of striated muscle have a cylindrical shape with blunt ends, whereas those in smooth muscle can be described as ... embryologically different from skeletal muscle) Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) Skeletal muscle Contractions in striated muscles ... "Muscle Physiology - Introduction to Muscle". muscle.ucsd.edu. Retrieved 2015-11-24. Anatomy portal. ...
... muscle fiber, or muscle cell). It also contains capillaries and nerves. It overlies the muscle fiber's cell membrane: the ... Perimysium Epimysium Connective tissue in skeletal muscle Saladin, K. S. (2012). Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and ... The term cardiac skeleton is sometimes considered synonymous with endomysium in the heart, but cardiac skeleton also refers to ... providing the tissue connection between muscles and bones by indirect attachment. The elastic fiber of collagen is the major ...
Muscle action that moves the axial skeleton work over a joint with an origin and insertion of the muscle on respective side. ... Skeletal muscle is arranged in discrete muscles, an example of which is the biceps brachii. The tough, fibrous epimysium of ... One particularly important aspect of gross anatomy of muscles is pennation or lack thereof. In most muscles, all the fibers are ... but this same orientation allows for more fibers (thus more force) in a muscle of a given size. Pennate muscles are usually ...
Skeletal system of the horse
... the equine equivalent of the interosseous muscle, which contains both tendon fibers and residual muscle fibers. Interosseous ... The axial skeleton contains the skull, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs. The sternum consists of multiple sternebrae, which ... Ligaments and tendons hold the skeletal system together. Ligaments hold bones to bones and tendons hold bones to muscles. ... The skeletal system of the horse has three major functions in the body. It protects vital organs, provides framework, and ...
Human musculoskeletal system
Only skeletal and smooth muscles are part of the musculoskeletal system and only the skeletal muscles can move the body. ... The human skeleton is composed of both fused and individual bones supported by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. It is ... This system describes how bones are connected to other bones and muscle fibers via connective tissue such as tendons and ... Skeletal muscles of the human body Skeletal muscle Muscular system Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed ...
MacIntosh, BR; Gardiner, PF; McComas, AJ (2006). "1. Muscle Architecture and Muscle Fiber Anatomy". Skeletal Muscle: Form and ... The strength of any given muscle, in terms of force exerted on the skeleton, depends upon length, shortening speed, cross ... whereas the skeletal muscles contract upon command. Skeletal muscles in turn can be divided into fast and slow twitch fibers. ... This is because the tension exerted by an individual skeletal muscle fiber does not vary much. Each fiber can exert a force on ...
MacIntosh, BR; Gardiner, PF; McComas, AJ (2006). "1. Muscle Architecture and Muscle Fiber Anatomy". Skeletal Muscle: Form and ... The strength of any given muscle, in terms of force exerted on the skeleton, depends upon length, shortening speed, cross ... The body contains three types of muscle tissue: (a) skeletal muscle, (b) smooth muscle, and (c) cardiac muscle. (Same ... whereas the skeletal muscles contract upon command. Skeletal muscles in turn can be divided into fast and slow twitch fibers ...
Connected by joints, the individual skeletal parts can be moved by the muscles. In most vertebrates, the main skeletal ... Their "skeletons" are made of spicules consisting of fibers of the protein spongin, the mineral silica, or both. Where spicules ... Pliant skeletons are beneficial because only muscle contractions are needed to bend the skeleton; upon muscle relaxation, the ... The male skeleton, for example, is generally larger and heavier than the female skeleton. In the female skeleton, the bones of ...
Anatomical terms of muscle
Skeletal muscle enables movement of the bones of the human skeleton and maintains posture. Smooth muscle tissue is found in ... Muscle fibers can only contract up to 40% of their fully stretched length. Thus the short fibers of pennate muscles are more ... There are three types of muscle tissue in the human body: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Skeletal striated muscle, or " ... This term typically describes the function of skeletal muscles. Antagonist muscles are simply the muscles that produce an ...
The deltoid muscles lie just lateral to the trapezius muscles, originating from several fibers spanning the clavicle and ... They interconnect ribs, and are therefore the primary respiratory skeletal muscles. They are divided into the external and the ... Diagram of the skeleton of a cat. * Cervical or neck bones (7 in number). ... To see this muscle, first remove the extensive aponeurosis situated on the ventral surface of the cat. Its fibers are extremely ...
Bone tissue is innervated by both myelinated (A beta and A delta fiber) and unmyelinated (C fiber) sensory neurons. In ... Skeletal Radiology. 36: 473-475. Mach, D. Rogers, S. Sabino, M. Luger, N. Schwei, M. Pomonis, J. Keyser, C. Clohisy, D. Adams, ... Metastatic cancer cells often establish themselves within the skeleton. When the cancer cells have metastasized, the mechanical ... muscle, and nervous tissue. Acute leukemia. Acute rheumatic fever, a very dangerous disease that can cause permanent cardiac ...
Cardiac muscle (like skeletal muscle) is characterized by striations - the stripes of dark and light bands resulting from the ... The Purkinje fibers have a fast inherent conduction rate, and the electrical impulse reaches all of the ventricular muscle ... Regardless of the pathway, as the impulse reaches the atrioventricular septum, the connective tissue of the cardiac skeleton ... As with skeletal muscles the heart can increase in size and efficiency with exercise. Thus endurance athletes such as marathon ...
Anatomical terms of muscle
... "voluntary muscle", primarily joins to bone with tendons. Skeletal muscle enables movement of the bones of the human skeleton ... Muscle fibers can only contract up to 40% of their fully stretched length. Thus the short fibers of pennate muscles are more ... This term typically describes the function of skeletal muscles. Antagonist muscles are simply the muscles that produce an ... Composite muscle. Composite or hybrid muscles have more than one set of fibers that perform the same function, and are ...
This abnormal posturing is an extrapyramidal effect and is caused by spasm of the axial muscles along the spinal column. It is ... Faux, Cynthia Marshall; Padian, Kevin (2007). "The opisthotonic posture of vertebrate skeletons: Postmortem contraction or ... This pose is also common in complete dinosaur skeletal fossils and it has been suggested that this is due to the animal ... which results in severing all the corticoreticular fibers. Hyperextension occurs due to facilitation of the anterior ...
Such complementary muscle groups are termed antagonist muscles. The muscle fibers in a muscular hydrostat are oriented in three ... It is used to manipulate items (including food) or to move its host about and consists mainly of muscles with no skeletal ... In contrast to a hydrostatic skeleton, where muscle surrounds a fluid-filled cavity, a muscular hydrostat is composed mainly of ... The length of the helical fiber is at a minimum when the fiber angle equals 54°44′ and is at maximum length when the fiber ...
The medius muscle is shaped like a cap. Its anterior fibers act as a medial rotator and flexor; the posterior fibers as a ... SkeletonEdit. See also: Human skeletal changes due to bipedalism. Bones of the leg ... MusclesEdit. HipEdit. Main article: Muscles of the hip. Function of hip muscles. Movement. Muscles. (In order of. ... Muscle inflammation, strain, tenderness, swelling and muscle tear from muscle overuse or incorrect movement are several ...
Bengtson, S. "Mineralized skeletons and early animal evolution". In Briggs, D.E.G. Evolving form and function: fossils and ... organic skin = aragonite fibers = organic flesh Porter (2008) argued that the sclerites of chancelloriids are extremely similar ... Porter, S.M (2008). "Skeletal microstructure indicates Chancelloriids and Halkieriids are closely related". Palaeontology. 51 ( ... muscles and a gut would seem to exclude them from the Eumetazoa; but possibly chancellorids descended from Eumetazoans that ...
Connected by joints, the individual skeletal parts can be moved by the muscles. ... Their "skeletons" are made of spicules consisting of fibers of the protein spongin, the mineral silica, or both. Where spicules ... Pliant skeletons are beneficial because only muscle contractions are needed to bend the skeleton; upon muscle relaxation, the ... Fluid skeletonsEdit. Hydrostatic skeleton (hydroskeleton)Edit. Main article: Hydrostatic skeleton. A hydrostatic skeleton is a ...
Index of anatomy articles
... human body human skeleton humerus humours hunchback hyaline cartilage hymen hyoglossus muscle hyoid bone hypaxial muscles ... intrafusal muscle fibers intralaminar thalamic nuclei intramedullary intrathalamic adhesion intravenous intrinsic muscles of ... shoulder blade shin sight sigmoid colon sigmoid sinus Simian crease simian shelf sinoatrial node sinus skeletal system skeleton ... motor unit mouth mucoperiosteum mucosa mucous membranes multifidus muscle muscle fascicle muscle spindle muscle tissue muscles ...
The trabecular dentine contains patches of fibers suggesting attachments to the epaxial musculature. The way these muscles ... Since complete skeletons were extremely rare, Stethacanthus classification was vague and based on few characteristics. It was ... Meanwhile the first associated skeletal remains found in the Mississippian of Montana and the Devonian and Mississippian of ... It is also possible that the fin spine could be a unique distribution of dermal skeleton and thus derived from neural crest. ...
Electrical conduction system of the heart
Cardiac muscle has some similarities to neurons and skeletal muscle, as well as important unique properties. Like a neuron, a ... "Cardiac Muscle Fibers". ZY 560 Mammalian Physiology. Auburn University. Archived from the original on June 1, 2005. Retrieved ... The conduction system consists of specialised heart muscle cells, and is situated within the myocardium. There is a skeleton of ... Like skeletal muscle, depolarization causes the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels and release of Ca2+ from the t- ...
Once innervated, the protein filaments within each skeletal muscle fiber slide past each other to produce a contraction, which ... ISBN 0-415-36953-3. Biewener, Andrew A. (2003). "Muscles and skeletons: The building blocks of animal movement". Animal ... The termination of muscle contraction is followed by muscle relaxation, which is a return of the muscle fibers to their low ... In skeletal muscles, muscle tension is at its greatest when the muscle is stretched to an intermediate length as described by ...
... suggesting muscle fibers originate in the mandible. These muscle fibers would insert into the coronoid process at an angle of ... Without appendicular skeleton or fragments there cannot be evidence-based description of more morphology aside from the skull. ... A skeletal reconstruction of the Early Permian captorhinid reptile Eocaptorhinus laticeps (Williston). Journal of Paleontology ... of the only well supported species type Labidosaurikos meachami as there are no collections of the appendicular skeleton. ...
These elements serve as attachment sites for epaxial muscles. The muscles contract and pull against the basals of the ... The skeletal elements of the pterygiophore includes basals and radials. The basals are located at the base of the dorsal fin, ... Differences of dorsal fins of orcas between male and female The dorsal fin of a white shark contains dermal fibers that work " ... The larval development and formation of the skeleton that support the median fins in adults result in pterygiophores. ...
Actin, alpha 1
Such conditions result in fusion of committed cells (satellite cells) into myotubes, to form muscle fibers. Skeletal actin ... Shen BW, Josephs R, Steck TL (1986). "Ultrastructure of the intact skeleton of the human erythrocyte membrane". J. Cell Biol. ... "Entrez Gene: ACTA1 actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle". Bandman, E (1992). "Contractile protein isoforms in muscle development". ... alpha skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACTA1 gene. Actin alpha 1 which is expressed in skeletal ...
Hydrostatic skeletons can be controlled by several different muscle types. Length can be adjusted by longitudinal muscle fibers ... As a skeletal structure, it possesses the ability to affect shape and movement, and involves two mechanical units: the muscle ... core of muscle fibers surrounded by bundles of longitudinal muscles and alternating parallel sheets of transverse muscle fibers ... When one muscle contracts and decreases in area, other muscles within the structure must expand in response. Helical muscles ...
Minerals are required for maintenance and function of the skeleton, nerves, and muscles. These include calcium, phosphorus, ... A number of skeletal problems may occur in young animals with an unbalanced diet. Hard work increases the need for minerals; ... It is sometimes used as a filler; it can slow down horses who eat their grain too fast, or it can provide additional fiber when ... Oats have a lower digestible energy value and higher fiber content than most other grains. They form a loose mass in the ...
How muscles act on the wrist is complex to describe. The five muscles acting on the wrist directly - flexor carpi radialis, ... Human skeletal changes due to bipedalism "Upper Extremity". MeSH. Retrieved June 2011. Check date values in: ,access-date= ( ... In contrast to the skeleton of human limbs, the proximal bones of ungulates are short and the distal bones long to provide ... In the posterior triangle of the neck these rami form three trunks from which fibers enter the axilla region (armpit) to ...
The muscles of the hip are divided into a dorsal and a ventral group. The dorsal hip muscles are either inserted into the ... Their anterior fibers are medial rotators and flexors while the posterior fibers are lateral rotators and extensors. The ... The bony pelvis (pelvic skeleton) is the part of the skeleton embedded in the pelvic region of the trunk. It is subdivided into ... William Edgar Caldwell and Howard Carmen Moloy studied collections of skeletal pelves and thousands of stereoscopic radiograms ...
Physiological scaling in muscles affects the number of muscle fibers and their intrinsic speed to determine the maximum power ... A classic example discussed by Galileo in his Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences is the skeleton of mammals. The skeletal ... The muscle characteristics of animals are similar in a wide range of animal sizes, though muscle sizes and shapes can and often ... Skeleton of a tiger quoll (Dasyurus maculatus).. The proportionately thicker bones in the elephant are an example of allometric ...
Skeleton. In zoology a skeleton is any fairly rigid structure of an animal, irrespective of whether it has joints and ... Spongin fibers. Massive exoskeleton. Body form. Calcarea. Single nucleus, single external membrane. Calcite. May be ... Porter, S. M (2008). "Skeletal microstructure indicates Chancelloriids and Halkieriids are closely related". Palaeontology. 51 ... Myocytes ("muscle cells") conduct signals and cause parts of the animal to contract. ...
They provide a frame to keep the body supported, and an attachment point for skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints, ... See also: Skeleton, Human skeleton, and List of bones of the human skeleton ... First, the osteoblast puts up collagen fibers. These collagen fibers are used as a framework for the osteoblasts' work. The ... Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease caused by an excessive accumulation of fluoride in the bones. In advanced cases, skeletal ...
It is found in tendons, skin, artery walls, cornea, the endomysium surrounding muscle fibers, fibrocartilage, and the organic ... elastically and uniquely bound to cardiac muscle. The cardiac skeleton also includes the separating septa of the heart chambers ... Chondrodysplasias - Skeletal disorder believed to be caused by a mutation in type 2 collagen, further research is being ... Collagen constitutes one to two percent of muscle tissue and accounts for 6% of the weight of strong, tendinous muscles. The ...
It starts spinning, taking the rueca (where the fiber was set to be spun). Fibers that are laid down in the zone are quickly ... After years of excavation, they identified more than 140 human (and more than 200 llama) skeletons from children between the ... In 1997, members of an archaeological team discovered approximately 200 skeletal remains on the beach at Punta Lobos, Peru. ... human consumption of this toxic flesh may result in muscle weakness, mind-altering states, and euphoria, but in more ...
These elements serve as attachment sites for epaxial muscles. The muscles contract and pull against the basals of the ... The skeletal elements of the pterygiophore includes basals and radials. The basals are located at the base of the dorsal fin, ... The dorsal fin of a white shark contains dermal fibers that work "like riggings that stabilize a ship's mast", and stiffen ... The larval development and formation of the skeleton that support the median fins in adults result in pterygiophores. ...
The anterior thigh muscles form the quadriceps which is inserted on the patella with a common tendon. Three of the four muscles ... The skeleton of the human pelvis: 2-4. Hip bone (os coxae) 1. Sacrum (os sacrum), 2. Ilium (os ilium), 3. Ischium (os ischii) 4 ... Their anterior fibers are medial rotators and flexors while the posterior fibers are lateral rotators and extensors. The ... William Edgar Caldwell and Howard Carmen Moloy studied collections of skeletal pelves and thousands of stereoscopic radiograms ...
Origin of birds
Thermogenic muscle hypothesisEdit. A 2011 publication suggested that selection for the expansion of skeletal muscle, rather ... SkeletonEdit. Because feathers are often associated with birds, feathered dinosaurs are often touted as the missing link ... structures are simply the result of the decomposition of collagen fiber under the dinosaurs' skin or in fins along their backs ... In modern birds, skeletal muscle serves a similar function and is presumed to have done so in their ancestors. In this view, ...
A muscle is made up of several muscle bundles, which in turn are made up of muscle fibers. Muscle fibers have myofibrils, which ... Main article: Skeletal system of the horse. The skeleton of the horse has three major functions in the body. It protects vital ... extensor muscle). Therefore, one muscle of the pair must be relaxed in order for the other muscle in the pair to contract and ... When a muscle contracts, it pulls a tendon, which acts on the horse's bones to move them. Muscles are commonly arranged in ...
... build and muscling (meat goats and pet goats) and fiber production and the fiber itself (fiber goats). People who show their ... with a greater skeletal size, reach mature weight at a later age (36 to 42 months) than small-framed goats (18 to 24 months) if ... A goat is useful to humans when it is living and when it is dead, first as a renewable provider of milk, manure, and fiber, and ... Angora and other fiber breeds are also kept on pasture or range. Range-kept and pastured goats may be supplemented with hay or ...
... differ in that the latter has muscle fibers embedded in the skin. The resting position of the Pacific hagfish also tends to be ... Part I. The Anatomy of the Skeleton.", Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 41 (3). ... Horizontal section of hagfish midline trunk: The notochord is the only skeletal element and the musculature lacks a horizontal ... The hagfish skeleton comprises the skull, the notochord, and the caudal fin rays. The first diagram of the hagfish endoskeleton ...
List of bones of the human skeleton. *List of skeletal muscles of the human body ... It consists of circularly arranged elastic fiber, connective tissue, polysaccharide substances, the second and third layer are ... The tunica media may (especially in arteries) be rich in vascular smooth muscle, which controls the caliber of the vessel. ... Leg veins have valves which prevent backflow of the blood being pumped against gravity by the surrounding muscles. ...
A similar artificial muscle is the air muscle, also known as the Braided Pneumatic Actuator, a lightweight and very flexible ... Skeleton. Initial exoskeleton experiments are commonly done using inexpensive and easy to mold materials, such as steel ... These electrically contractive fibers are intended to increase the strength-to-weight ratio of movement systems in military ... The present-day active exoskeletons are developed as the systems for enhancing capabilities of the natural human skeletal ...
... and receives muscle fibers on its inner surface, particularly from the soleus muscle, almost to its lower end. Gradually ... The Science of the Skeleton and Muscles By Louise Spilsbury، Richard Spilsbury, page 32. ... "Magnetic resonance imaging findings of injuries to the calf muscle complex". Skeletal Radiol. 36 (10): 921-7. doi:10.1007/ ... This is because vibrations stimulate muscle spindles in the calf muscles. The muscle spindles alert the brain that the body is ...
লঘুমস্তিষ্ক - উইকিপিডিয়া
পেশী (Muscle) *হৃৎপেশী (Cardiac muscle). *অনৈচ্ছিক পেশী (Involuntary muscle). *ঐচ্ছিক পেশী (অস্থিপেশী) (Voluntary/Skeletal ... excitatory; (-): inhibitory; MF: Mossy fiber; DCN: Deep cerebellar nuclei; IO: Inferior olive; CF: Climbing fiber; GC: Granule ... কঙ্কালতন্ত্র (Skeletal system). *মানব কঙ্কাল (Human skeleton). *অস্থি (Bone). *তরুণাস্থি (Cartilege). *অস্থিসন্ধি (Joint) * ... cell; PF: Parallel fiber; PC: Purkinje cell; GgC: Golgi cell; SC: Stellate cell; BC: Basket cell ...
In muscles, they cause a hypertrophy of striated muscles with a reduction in the fat cells in skeletal muscles, and a reduction ... Fibronectin also acts as a skeleton for the elastic tissue formation. Reticular and collagenous fibers were seen to run ... The ILP is mostly composed of elastic fibers, while the DLP has fewer elastic fibers, and more collagenous fibers. In those ... They are constructed from epithelium, but they have a few muscle fibres in them, namely the vocalis muscle which tightens the ...
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton. The vertebral column is the defining ... This then splits to give the myotomes which will form the muscles and dermatomes which will form the skin of the back. ... The nucleus pulposus and the fibers of the anulus fibrosus make up the intervertebral disc. ... The vertebral processes can either give the structure rigidity, help them articulate with ribs, or serve as muscle attachment ...
Libralces gallicus came from the warm savannahs of Pliocene Europe, with the best preserved skeletons being found in southern ... Moose are not grazing animals but browsers (concentrate selectors). Like giraffes, moose carefully select foods with less fiber ... However, the rest of its skull structure, skeletal structure and teeth bore strong resemblance to those features that are ... the nose is equipped with fatty pads and muscles that close the nostrils when exposed to water pressure, preventing water from ...
Gilmore, C.W. (1919). "A mounted skeleton of Dimetrodon gigas in the United States National Museum, with notes on the skeletal ... indicating where it was embedded in the muscles of the back and where it was exposed as part of a sail. The lower or proximal ... and also has a network of connective tissues called Sharpey's fibers that indicate it was embedded within the body. Higher up ... It was named on the basis of a single skeleton belonging to a relatively small individual. The small size of D. occidentalis is ...
মানব পরিপাকতন্ত্র - উইকিপিডিয়া
পেশী (Muscle) *হৃৎপেশী (Cardiac muscle). *অনৈচ্ছিক পেশী (Involuntary muscle). *ঐচ্ছিক পেশী (অস্থিপেশী) (Voluntary/Skeletal ... Interdental papilla · Gingival sulcus · Gingival margin · Free gingival margin · Gingival fibers · Junctional epithelium · ... কঙ্কালতন্ত্র (Skeletal system). *মানব কঙ্কাল (Human skeleton). *অস্থি (Bone). *তরুণাস্থি (Cartilege). *অস্থিসন্ধি (Joint) * ...
The facial skeleton is formed by the bones supporting the face. Bones. Except for the mandible, all of the bones of the ... Male mandibles typically have squarer chins and thicker, rougher muscle attachments than female mandibles. ... Chondrocranium, a primitive cartilagionous skeletal structure. *Endocranium. *Epicranium. *Pericranium, a membrane that lines ... The facial skeleton is one seventh of the size of the calvaria. (In the adult it is half the size). The base of the skull is ...
This states that the force of contraction is directly proportional to the initial length of muscle fiber, meaning a ventricle ... Other proteins expressed are MYH7 and LDB3 that are also expressed in skeletal muscle. ... The cardiac skeleton is made of dense connective tissue and this gives structure to the heart. It forms the atrioventricular ... The cardiac muscle pattern is elegant and complex, as the muscle cells swirl and spiral around the chambers of the heart, with ...
A muscle is made up of several muscle bundles, which in turn are made up of muscle fibers. Muscle fibers have myofibrils, which ... Horses have 205 bones, which are divided into the appendicular skeleton (the legs) and the axial skeleton (the skull, vertebral ... though it is not the same skeletal structure as an ankle in humans; known to anatomists as the metacarpophalangeal (front) or ... extensor muscle). Therefore, one muscle of the pair must be relaxed in order for the other muscle in the pair to contract and ...
Types of muscle tissue: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image
... and skeletal. Cardiac muscle cells are located in the walls of the heart, appear striated, and are under involuntary control. ... The 3 types of muscle tissue are cardiac, smooth, ... fibers occur in muscles which are attached to the skeleton. ... The 3 types of muscle tissue are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscle cells are located in the walls of the heart, ... Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart, appear spindle-shaped, and are also ...
Free Anatomy Flashcards about NAU A&P, 5
Associated with skeleton. Voluntary muscle control. Striated muscle fibers of actin and myotin. Skeletal Tissue. ... Covers, separates and protects skeletal muscle. Deep Fascia. Insulates the body and protects the skin, located beneath the skin ... Heart muscle tissue. Is striated and has intercolated disks to reinforce the muscle tissue. Involuntary control.. Cardiac ... Fibers in many directions. Allows flexibility or movement. Provides framework in ears and parts of the larynx.. Elastic ...
PPT - MUSCULAR SYSTEM PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6e41bd-ZmE0O
Naming Skeletal Muscles. Muscles are named based on 7 criteria *Direction of muscle fibers. ... attach bones to muscle Muscular System a. types of muscle Skeletal voluntary muscles that move the skeleton. , PowerPoint PPT ... Micromovement of a Skeletal Muscle. ACTIN. MYOSIN. 9. Micromovement of a Skeletal Muscle. 10. Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle ... Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle. Flash Muscle Structure and Function. Demo Muscle model. 7. Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle. ACTIN. ...
Sarcolemmal organization in skeletal muscle lacking desmin: evidence for cytokeratins associated with the membrane skeleton at...
In control mouse muscle, desmin is enriched at the sarcolemmal domains that lie over nearby Z lines and that also contain beta- ... In tibialis anterior muscle from mice lacking desmin due to homologous recombination, most costameres are lost. In myofibers ... Here we examine the role of desmin, the major intermediate filament protein of muscle in organizing costameres. ... muscle and redistribute with beta-spectrin at the sarcolemma when costameres are lost. Our results suggest that desmin ...
Chapter 3 Tissues PP bolded words Flashcards by Krista Kowiak | Brainscape
Function: voluntary control of skeleton, controls opening into digestive system, heat generation Location: skeletal muscles ( ... both have the same striation however muscle tissue is long strings of fibers and cardiac is webs with branches ... What is something similar between the cardiac muscle tissue and the skeletal muscle tissue? difference? ... location: digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract; BVs, nerves, joints, around and between skeletal and smooth muscle, ...
The muscular system | Smore Newsletters
Skeletal muscle fibers occur in muscles which are attached to the skeleton. They are striated in appearance and are under ... It causes the muscle to lack of the protein called dystrophin that holds the skeletal muscle cells together and the muscle ... The 3 types of muscle tissue The 3 types of muscle tissue are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac cells are located in the ... Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart, appear spindle-shaped, and are also ...
Human Physiology - Muscle
Skeletal muscle is the muscle attached to the skeleton. Hundreds or thousands of muscle fibers (cells) bundle together to make ... Skeletal muscles have an abundant supply of blood vessels and nerves. Before a skeletal muscle fiber can contract, it has to ... And, obviously, the muscle fibers (and entire muscle) get shorter. Skeletal muscle relaxes when the nervous impulse stops. No ... Skeletal muscles may be made up of hundreds, or even thousands, of muscle fibers bundled together and wrapped in a connective ...
Flashcard Study System for the Nsca-Cpt Exam: Nsca-Cpt Test Practice Questions & Review for the National Strength and...
What is Skeletal Muscle Tissue? (with pictures)
Its made up of two types of muscle fibers: type... ... Skeletal muscle tissue is one of three types of muscle tissue ... Skeletal muscles are generally to be found attached to the skeleton, usually by tendons. Skeletal muscles typically function in ... Skeletal muscles are made up of skeletal muscle fibers, or cells. There are typically two types of skeletal muscle fibers found ... Type IIb muscle fibers are believed to fatigue more quickly than type I muscle fibers. This type of skeletal muscle fiber is ...
Muscle - New World Encyclopedia
This is because the tension exerted by an individual skeletal muscle fiber does not vary much. Each fiber can exert a force on ... It is connected by tendons to processes of the skeleton. In contrast, smooth muscle occurs at various scales in almost every ... Classes of muscles. There are three types of muscle:. *Skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle, also known as "striated muscle" or " ... Muscle is mainly composed of muscle cells. A muscle fiber, also technically known as a myocyte, is a single cell of a muscle. ...
Role of skin in locomotion - Wikipedia
The arrangement of the connective tissue fibers and muscle fibers create the skeletal support of a soft bodied animal. The ... A hydrostatic skeleton uses hydrostatic pressure generated from muscle contraction against a liquid filled cavity. The liquid ... Typically muscle fibers surround the hydrostatic body. There are two main types of muscle fibers orientations that are ... In the active mechanism, skeletal supports and muscles run through the patagia of lizards. The skeletal supports and muscle ...
Neuromuscular control of wingbeat kinematics in Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) | Journal of Experimental Biology
... by high contractile frequencies also appear to influence muscle fiber types and gross anatomy of the skeleton and muscles ( ... 1994). Myosin isoforms in mammalian skeletal muscle. J. Appl. Physiol. 77, 493-501. ... Fiber recruitment in muscles with heterogeneous fibers can result in qualitative changes in the muscle performance achieved. ... fiber recruitment in the hummingbird muscles involves a quantitative increase in the number of physiologically similar fibers ...
Biology, Animal Structure and Function, The Musculoskeletal System, Muscle Contraction and Locomotion | OER Commons
Section 2: Skeletal Muscle Fiber Structure Each skeletal muscle fiber is a skeletal muscle cell. These cells are incredibly ... The body contains three types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. Skeleton muscle tissue is ... skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle (Figure).. The body contains three types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle, ... Like skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle is striated, but unlike skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle cannot be consciously controlled ...
Bones, Muscles, and Joints (for Parents) - KidsHealth
... muscles, and joints, we couldnt stand, walk, run, or even sit. The musculoskeletal system supports our bodies, protects our ... Skeletal muscles are called striated (STRY-ay-ted) because they are made up of fibers that have horizontal stripes when viewed ... These muscles help hold the skeleton together, give the body shape, and help it with everyday movements (known as voluntary ... chambers are composed almost entirely of muscle fibers. Cardiac muscle is also an involuntary type of muscle. Its rhythmic, ...
Structural Muscle Groups · PetMassage™ Training and Research Institute
Cardiac muscle= Cardiac muscle fibers are found in the heart and are involuntary muscles. Cardiac muscle is unique in that it ... Skeletal muscle= These muscles are called striated muscles and are voluntary muscles. They predominately attach to portions of ... the skeleton. They are involved with such things as walking, eating, tail wagging and eye movement. ... the muscle fiber changes chemical energy into mechanical energy, and the result is muscle contraction.The muscles are located ...
ST fibers are able to work longer than FT fibers. When it comes to stimulating muscle fibers, ST fibers are stimulated by ... The tendon / tenon is a significant part of the muscle, connects it to the skeleton and transfers its work to the skeleton. The ... The subject of the science of muscles (myology) is the last group of muscles that cause skeletal movements or determine the ... which consists of striated muscle fibers, independent of conscious nerve stimuli - muscles made of striated muscle fibers, ...
Human Physiology/The Muscular System - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
The skeletal muscle fiber is excited by large myelinated nerve fibers which attach to the neuromuscular junction. There is one ... It is connected by tendons to processes of the skeleton. In contrast, smooth muscle occurs at various scales in almost every ... Cardiac muscle is found only within the heart.. *Skeletal muscle or "voluntary muscle" is anchored by tendons to the bone and ... Cellular Action of Skeletal Muscles. During cellular respiration the mitochondria, within skeletal muscle cells, convert ...
skeletal muscle, or voluntary muscle, is found in the musculo*skeletal system *skeletal muscles are made up of muscle fibers * ... the flexor muscle causes the joint to bend when it contracts The Skeleton. *the horses body has approximately 205 bones *the ... Muscles. *the three types of muscle are smooth, skeletal, and cardiac *cardiac muscle is found in the heart; smooth muscle, or ... muscle fibers are surrounded by thin membrane sheaths called the sarcolemma *muscles pull, they do not push *all muscles work ...
Free Anatomy Flashcards about Defintions
Muscle Fibers. Cell composed of my fibers that contract when stimulated. Skeletal muscle. connected to the skeleton to form ... each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue shealth called Epimysium. ... muscle that acts of a stabilizer. four major functional characteristics. contractility, excitability, elasticity, extensibility ... strength training in which joint angle and muscle length do not change ...
What Is the Structure of Skeletal Muscles? (with pictures)
The structure of skeletal muscles consists of two overlapping proteins that give it a striped appearance. Each muscle has long ... which are also called muscle fibers, also make up the structure of skeletal muscles. Each skeletal muscle cell contains several ... Skeletal muscles are the most abundant muscle type, as they cover and provide movement to the entire skeleton of the human body ... The structure of skeletal muscles is slightly different from the other two main types of muscles, cardiac and smooth muscles. ...
Skeletal muscle - Biology-Online Dictionary
... fast-twitch muscles and slow-twitch muscles. Fast-twitch muscles are skeletal muscle fibers having high myofibrillar ATPase ... noun, plural: skeletal muscles A voluntary, striated (vertebrate) muscle that is associated with the skeleton, and thus move ... There are three major types of muscles and these are the skeletal muscles, the smooth muscles, and the cardiac muscles. The ... The skeletal muscle is made up of bundles of muscle fibers. Each of these fibers contains a bundle of smaller myofibrils. Each ...
Constitutional Short Stature - Trip Database
The diagnosis is usually made clinically and by demonstration of ragged red fibers on skeletal muscle biopsy. Any progression ... a primary sclerodegenerative disease of the conducting system with no involvement of the myocardium or fibrous skeleton of the ... Skeletal Dysplasia (Overview) . Previous Next: Prognosis The prognosis in skeletal dysplasias is variable. Some of these ... Skeletal Dysplasia (Diagnosis) . Previous Next: Prognosis The prognosis in skeletal dysplasias is variable. Some of these ...
Muscle - wikidoc
skeletal muscle/general. epimysium, fascicle, perimysium, endomysium, muscle fiber (intrafusal, extrafusal), myofibril ... It is connected by tendons to processes of the skeleton. In contrast, smooth muscle occurs at various scales in almost every ... Skeletal muscle is muscle attached to skeletal tissue, distinct from heart or smooth muscle. It is arranged in discrete muscles ... and unlike skeletal muscle, smooth muscle is not under conscious control.. *Cardiac muscle is also an "involuntary muscle" but ...
Muscle - wikidoc
This is because the tension exerted by an individual skeletal muscle fiber does not vary much. Each fiber can exert a force on ... It is connected by tendons to processes of the skeleton. In contrast, smooth muscle occurs at various scales in almost every ... Skeletal muscle is muscle attached to skeletal tissue, distinct from heart or smooth muscle. It is arranged in discrete muscles ... and unlike skeletal muscle, smooth muscle is not under conscious control.. *Cardiac muscle is also an "involuntary muscle" but ...
... is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. Skeletal muscles are used to create movement, ... Characteristics of muscle types. Fiber Type Type I fibers Type II a fibers Type II x fibers Type II b fibers ... Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. Skeletal muscles are used to create movement, ... Muscular tissue • Muscle contraction • Muscles of the human body. Types of muscles. Cardiac muscle • Skeletal muscle • Smooth ...
Muscle fibers in these layers are classified as obliquely striated fibers (Jamieson, 1981). Because there are no hard skeletal ... This design, referred to as a hydrostatic skeleton, is typical of many burrowing invertebrates which lack appendages. ... When muscle fibers contract in the outer, circular muscle layer, segments constrict in diameter and lengthen. When fibers ... In addition to the circular and longitudinal muscle layers, there are a few other accessory muscles in the body, including ...
Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Specialized Microscopy Techniques - Polarized Light Microscopy Gallery - Human Muscle
Muscles are tissues composed of bundles of fibers of varying sizes that can shorten, thicken, or lengthen depending on their ... Sometimes alternatively known as skeletal muscle, this tissue type is usually attached to the body s skeleton via fibrous ... Human Muscle. Muscles are tissues composed of bundles of fibers of varying sizes that can shorten, thicken, or lengthen ... The changes undergone by muscle fibers results in motion, which may be voluntary or involuntary based upon the muscle type. ...
BioScience Dictionary :: Skeletal muscle
1. Skeletal muscle. Muscle that is generally attached to the skeleton and causes body parts to move; consists of muscle fibers ... Voluntary muscle cells that have a striated appearance. These muscles control skeletal movements and are normally under ... Found Skeletal muscle 1 time.. Displaying results 1 to 10.. ...
002329 - FVB.129S2-Plau|tm1Mlg|/J
muscle phenotype. *impaired skeletal muscle regeneration*at 5 days after injury, skeletal muscles from mutant mice appear ... ancrod-treated mutants exhibit improved muscle regeneration, with centrally located nuclei inside the regenerated fibers ... skeleton phenotype. *decreased susceptibility to induced arthritis*in a model of collagen-induced arthritis, homozygotes ... in response to skeletal muscle degeneration, homozygotes display a 50% reduction in macrophage recruitment at the injury site ...
Is There a Difference Between Female and Male Muscles? | Livestrong.com
... muscle mass and proportion have a greater effect on strength and performance than gender. ... While there are some male and female muscle differences in terms of composition, ... More commonly known as slow-twitch muscle fibers, as per the American Council on Exercise, type I fibers are aerobic muscles ... It identified more than 3,000 genes expressed differently in male and female skeletal muscles, those movement-propelling ...
MuscularCylindricalMyofibrilsContractionsConsistsActin and myosinMYOSINContractileMotor neuronAxial skeletonMovementsEpimysiumStructure of Skeletal MuscleSpindle-shapedMicroscopeNucleiFibrousMyofibrilBundlesMyoglobinMusculoskeletal SystemAppendicular skeletonSarcolemmaElasticSarcomereCollagenMade up of skeletal muscleSlow twitchAutonomicOccursOxidativeType of skeletal muscleNervesVoluntary muscleTwitchEndomysiumBodyInvoluntary controlSmooth muscleTensionAntagonisticCardiac and skeletalContractStrength of skeletalFilamentsBundle of muscle fibersWeakness of the skeletal
- Absence of Dystrophin Disrupts Skeletal Muscle Signaling: Roles of Ca2+, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Nitric Oxide in the Development of Muscular Dystrophy. (semanticscholar.org)
- A specialized version of the hydrostatic skeleton is a called a muscular hydrostat, which consists of a tightly packed array of three-dimensional muscle fibers surrounding a hydrostatic body. (wikipedia.org)
- The muscular system of the vertebrates is comprised of various muscles. (biology-online.org)
- After receiving the impulse, calcium ions are freed from neural stores, which in turn causes two components of muscular fibers, actin and myosin, to approach each other. (hammernutrition.com)
- You may not think of it as a muscular body part, but your face has plenty of muscles. (rchsd.org)
- The strength of voluntary muscles can be improved by regular exercises and improving muscular endurance. (differencebetween.com)
- What is integumentary and muscular skeletal system? (bsaconcordia.com)
- The skeletal system and the muscular system work together as the framework for the body as well as providing the pieces that allow for movement. (bsaconcordia.com)
- This system (often treated as two separate systems, the muscular, and skeletal) plays an important homeostatic role: allowing the animal to move to more favorable external conditions. (bsaconcordia.com)
- The muscular system can be broken down into three types of muscles: skeletal, smooth and cardiac, according to the NIH. (bsaconcordia.com)
- The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. (bsaconcordia.com)
- Nevertheless, skeletal muscle DNA accretion generally parallels myofiber hypertrophy and muscular animals have greater muscle DNA than less muscular animals. (barnardhealth.us)
- Skeletal muscles contract when you receive signals from motor neurons, which release from the muscular retina, which in turn tells your muscles to contract. (back-muscles.com)
- Skeletal muscles make up the muscular system ( Figure 6.1 ). (lrn.org)
- If we can combine more of these muscles into a single device, we should be able to reproduce the complex muscular interplay that allow hands, arms, and other parts of the body to function. (eurasiareview.com)
- This fact-filled series is guaranteed to give an in-depth look at the muscular system, skeletal system, circulatory system, reproductive system, central nervous system, and the supporting organs. (figur8.net)
- Currently, the in vitro manipulation and culture of these cells is still in its infancy, yet muscle stem cells may be the most promising route toward the therapy of muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophies. (frontiersin.org)
- It is often overlooked that muscular dystrophies affect head and body skeletal muscle differently. (frontiersin.org)
- However, in a number of diseases including muscular dystrophies, cancer and HIV/Aids, the ability of muscle stem cells to repair muscle is compromised. (frontiersin.org)
- Therefore, it is often overlooked that muscular dystrophies differentially target muscle groups in the head and in the trunk (reviewed in Emery, 2002 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Home Essays Muscular System: Muscle. (studymode.com)
- Muscle cells are long, cylindrical structures that are bound by a plasma membrane (the sarcolemma) and an overlying basal lamina and when grouped into bundles (fascicles) they make up muscle. (eku.edu)
- Within each muscle fiber are myofibrils -long cylindrical structures that lie parallel to the muscle fiber. (oercommons.org)
- Elongated cylindrical cells, which are also called muscle fibers, also make up the structure of skeletal muscles. (wisegeek.com)
- Muscle cells (also called fibers) have an elongated, cylindrical shape, and are multinucleated (in vertebrates and flies). (bionity.com)
- The fibers of striated muscle have a cylindrical shape with blunt ends, whereas those in smooth muscle can be described as being spindle-like with tapered ends. (wikipedia.org)
- Voluntary muscles are the muscles that can be controlled consciously, and are made up of cylindrical fibres. (differencebetween.com)
- There are three types of muscles: skeletal, cardiac, cylindrical. (delightfulart.org)
- The multinucleate cylindrical skeletal muscle fibers are packed with unique organelles called myofibrils ( Figure 6.4 ). (lrn.org)
- The muscle fibers are prolonged cylindrical and have fairly a couple of nuclei. (difference.wiki)
- Each of the muscles fiber consists of a number of cylindrical cell and nucleus. (infocuriosity.com)
- The sarcolemma of fast-twitch muscle is organized into 'costameres,' structures that are oriented transversely, over the Z and M lines of nearby myofibrils, and longitudinally, to form a rectilinear lattice. (semanticscholar.org)
- A vinculin-containing cortical lattice in skeletal muscle: transverse lattice elements ('costameres') mark sites of attachment between myofibrils and sarcolemma. (semanticscholar.org)
- Muscle cells, ensheathed by endomysium, consist of many fibrils (or myofibrils), and these myofibrils are made up of long protein molecules called myofilaments. (eku.edu)
- Muscle fibers contain many myofibrils, the contractile units of muscles. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- A skeletal muscle may contain hundreds to several thousands of myofibrils. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Myofibrils run the entire length of the muscle fiber, and because they are only approximately 1.2 µm in diameter, hundreds to thousands can be found inside one muscle fiber. (oercommons.org)
- They attach to the sarcolemma at their ends, so that as myofibrils shorten, the entire muscle cell contracts ( Figure ). (oercommons.org)
- Muscle fibers have membranes as well as filaments called myofibrils , structures that are particularly important for their contractile function. (wisegeek.com)
- Muscle fibers contract rapidly due to the presence of myofibrils, or tiny filaments that contain two overlapping proteins called actin and myosin . (wisegeek.com)
- Each of these fibers contains a bundle of smaller myofibrils . (biology-online.org)
- The nuclei of these muscles are located in the peripheral aspect of the cell, just under the plasma membrane , which vacates the central part of the muscle fiber for myofibrils . (bionity.com)
- Sarcomeres are chained into linear myofibrils spanning the entire muscle fiber. (biologists.org)
- In mammalian body muscles, myofibrils are aligned laterally, resulting in their typical cross-striated morphology. (biologists.org)
- Despite this detailed textbook knowledge about the adult muscle structure, it is still unclear how cross-striated myofibrils are built in vivo . (biologists.org)
- By performing live imaging, we find that long immature myofibrils lacking a periodic actomyosin pattern are built simultaneously in the entire muscle fiber and then align laterally to give mature cross-striated myofibrils. (biologists.org)
- Taken together, these results suggest a myofibrillogenesis model in which mechanical tension and spontaneous muscle twitching synchronize the simultaneous self-organization of different sarcomeric protein complexes to build highly regular cross-striated myofibrils spanning the length of large muscle fibers. (biologists.org)
- The muscle fiber consists of a number of myofibrils, which contain the contractile proteins. (kypho.com)
- Muscle fibers contain thousands of protein filaments called myofibrils. (twigcarolina.com)
- The myofibrils slide against one another when the muscle contracts, causing movement. (twigcarolina.com)
- A myofibril is composed of many sarcomeres running along its length, and as the sarcomeres individually contract, the myofibrils and muscle cells shorten (Figure 3). (lumenlearning.com)
- Each muscle fiber is consists of contractile unit known as myofibrils. (difference.wiki)
- 4. muscle cross-section showing myofibrils. (gatech.edu)
- Each muscle fiber contains several hundred to several thousand tightly packed strands called myofibrils that consist of alternating filaments of the protein substances actin actin, a protein abundantly present in many cells, especially muscle cells, that significantly contributes to the cell's structure and motility. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Isotonic Contractions myofilaments slide, muscle shortens, movement occurs. (powershow.com)
- Contractions myofilaments try to slide but cant, muscle stays longer, no movement occurs. (powershow.com)
- All skeletal muscle and many smooth muscle contractions are stimulated by the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (wikibooks.org)
- Striated muscle is often used in short, intense bursts, whereas smooth muscle sustains longer or even near-permanent contractions. (wikibooks.org)
- These muscles are under the control of the somatic nervous system , the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with voluntary muscle contractions. (biology-online.org)
- There are 3 types of specific striated muscles, these being: Pharyngeal muscle (embryologically different from skeletal muscle) Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) Skeletal muscle Contractions in striated muscles are voluntary, except for the heart muscle, in which contractions are regulated involuntarily by the sinoatrial node. (wikipedia.org)
- During voluntary contractions, a striated muscle is extended by the action of an antagonistic muscle. (wikipedia.org)
- Contractions of voluntary muscles may be rapid and forceful, whereas that of involuntary muscles are rhythmic and slow. (differencebetween.com)
- When we exert ourselves more than normal, the extra muscle contractions lead to a rise in body temperature and eventually to sweating. (bsaconcordia.com)
- Most skeletal muscle contractions are tetanic (smooth and sustained) because rapid nerve impulses are reaching the muscle, and the muscle cannot relax completely between contractions. (lrn.org)
- Muscle contractions are isotonic (the muscle shortens and movement occurs) ( Figure 6.8 ) or isometric (the muscle does not shorten, but its tension increases) ( Figure 6.9 ). (lrn.org)
- Muscle contractions use energy, and whenever energy is used in the body, some of it is converted to heat. (cram.com)
- Fast oxidative (FO) fibers have fast contractions and primarily use aerobic respiration, but because they may switch to anaerobic respiration (glycolysis), can fatigue more quickly than SO fibers. (opentextbc.ca)
- Lastly, fast glycolytic (FG) fibers have fast contractions and primarily use anaerobic glycolysis. (opentextbc.ca)
- In other words, muscles contractions are graded ( unlike the action potentials which regulate them , which are all-or-nothing events). (gatech.edu)
- The grading of muscle contractions enables the same muscles to move very light objects and very heavy objects. (gatech.edu)
- Contrariwise, smooth muscle, which consists of spindle-shaped fibers arranged in sheets along the walls of most hollow organs, and cardiac muscle, which is striated and found only in the heart, are controlled involuntarily by the autonomic nervous system. (fsu.edu)
- consists of muscle fibers . (bioscience.ws)
- In all animals, the motor unit of skeletal muscle consists of the motor neuron, the neuromuscular junction, and muscle fibers. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Treatment consists of resection of the fibrous musculotendinous portion of the muscle, including tenotomy of the tendon of insertion. (merckvetmanual.com)
- In the human body, a motor unit consists of a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates. (reference.com)
- Human skeletal muscle consists of hundreds or even thousands of muscle fibers, nerve fibers, and blood vessels and accounts for approximately 40% of body mass . (strongerbyscience.com)
- It makes up the majority of the muscle in your body and consists of both dark and light fibers. (brlsports.com)
- Their skeletal system consists of of cartilage which provides the framework for the body. (joanofart.net)
Actin and myosin2
- Ca flows in to the muscle cell, makes actin and myosin to bind up. (smore.com)
- In striated muscle, such as skeletal and cardiac muscle , the actin and myosin filaments each have a specific and constant length on the order of a few micrometers, far less than the length of the elongated muscle cell (a few millimeters in the case of human skeletal muscle cells). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- As seen under a microscope, dark bands formed by myosin overlap light bands formed by actin, resulting in the striped appearance of the structure of skeletal muscles. (wisegeek.com)
- One method uses the type of protein contained in myosin (one of the important proteins that is responsible for the ability of muscle to contract). (bionity.com)
- In muscle cells myosin is arranged in long filaments called thick filaments that lie parallel to the microfilaments of actin. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. (wikidoc.org)
- Contractile fibers or the structures these fibers form. (beltina.org)
- The smallest contractile unit of a muscle fiber is the sarcomere, which is composed of proteins that pull against each other, pulling the ends of the sarcomere closer together . (strongerbyscience.com)
- How much force a muscle can produce depends on two things: the contractile proteins themselves, and the connective tissues in the muscle and tendon that add force via elastic properties. (strongerbyscience.com)
- When our diet contains too few proteins or calories, the contractile proteins in skeletal muscles are broken down, and their amino acids released into the circulation. (cram.com)
- Adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) accompany contractile muscle fibers and efficiently repair muscle after injury (reviewed in Relaix and Zammit, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Compare and contrast the conductive versus the conductive versus the contractile cardiac muscle fibers. (writework.com)
- Muscle is made from contractile tissues that perform numerous voluntary and involuntary functions. (infocuriosity.com)
- In biological term, muscles can be described as contractile tissues that bring different movement in the body. (infocuriosity.com)
- There are four categories of movements of a hydrostatic skeleton : elongation, shortening, bending and torsion. (wikipedia.org)
- The amplitude of movements are based upon the antagonistic muscles forces and the amount of leverage the antagonistic muscle provides for movement. (wikipedia.org)
- These muscles help hold the skeleton together, give the body shape, and help it with everyday movements (known as voluntary muscles because you can control them). (kidshealth.org)
- These muscles control skeletal movements and are normally under conscious control. (bioscience.ws)
- In particular, the skeletal muscles enable precise body movements of invertebrates and vertebrates. (biologists.org)
- For these accurate movements, each muscle must be properly connected to the skeleton. (biologists.org)
- the skeleton enables us to do voluntary movements. (kypho.com)
- Skeletal muscles also produce more subtle movements that result in various facial expressions, eye movements, and respiration. (bsaconcordia.com)
- The muscles are very important because they control body movements, they pump blood to various parts of the body, they help in lifting heavy equipment among other roles of the body muscles. (joomla.com)
- Heavy lifting is used when doing the Bar Brothers workout program which is great for muscle improvement Muscles are made of an elastic material that relaxes and contracts to bring movements. (joomla.com)
- There are also skeletal muscles that do not pull against the skeleton for movements. (edu.vn)
- Type I fibers, however, contract and split ATP more slowly than type IIA fibers and have lower amounts of creatine phosphate, a molecule needed for quick, explosive movements. (beccaswanson.com)
- Muscles also give facial expression, respiration, and also eye movements. (infocuriosity.com)
- Portions of the epimysium project inward to divide the muscle into compartments. (eku.edu)
- Generally, an artery and at least one vein accompany each nerve that penetrates the epimysium of a skeletal muscle. (eku.edu)
- The bundles are then grouped together to form muscle, which is enclosed in a sheath of epimysium. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- That is, epimysium wraps the whole muscle. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- These bundles are then grouped together to form muscle, and is lined by epimysium. (wikibooks.org)
- at each end of the muscle, the collagen fibers of the epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium come together to form a bundle known as s tendon. (cram.com)
Structure of Skeletal Muscle2
- Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart, appear spindle-shaped, and are also under involuntary control. (medlineplus.gov)
- Smooth muscle cells are uninucleate, spindle-shaped, and arranged in opposing layers in the walls of hollow organs. (lrn.org)
- Smooth muscles are composed of elongated, spindle-shaped, nucleated cells arranged parallel to one another and to the long axis of the muscle, and these cells are often grouped into bundles of varying size. (tripod.com)
- Smooth muscle fibers are spindle-shaped, not striated, and generally are arranged in dense sheets. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Skeletal muscle is also called striated because the fibers appear striped under a microscope , with alternating light and dark bands. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Skeletal muscles are called striated (STRY-ay-ted) because they are made up of fibers that have horizontal stripes when viewed under a microscope. (kidshealth.org)
- The Ward's Muscle types models represent small sections of muscle fiber that are designed based on structure viewed from microscope slides. (sargentwelch.com)
- The term "smooth muscle" is often used to describe visceral muscle because it has a very smooth, uniform appearance when viewed under a microscope. (innerbody.com)
- Skeletal muscle moreover known as striated muscle resulting from it striate look under the microscope. (difference.wiki)
- It is called striated because it appears striped, in alternating bands of light and dark, when viewed under a microscope, and animals have conscious control over most of their striate muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Examined under a powerful microscope, fibers of cellulose are seen to have a meshed or criss-cross pattern that looks as if it were woven much as cloth. (encyclopedia.com)
- If looking through a microscope, the skeletal muscles show the cross striations form which makes it easier to differentiate. (infocuriosity.com)
- Skeletal muscle also has multiple nuclei present in a single cell. (oercommons.org)
- Skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated with the nuclei peripherally located. (wikibooks.org)
- Each skeletal muscle cell contains several hundred nuclei, as opposed to the single nucleus found in the cells of other muscle types. (wisegeek.com)
- A second slide shows skeleton muscle with the fibers teased apart and stained to show striations and the nuclei that make this type of muscle so distinct. (sargentwelch.com)
- The syncytial character of cardiac muscle persists in the adult and the nuclei remain central in position. (edu.au)
- The muscle fiber is a multinucleated cell and the nuclei are found beneath the sarcolemma. (kypho.com)
- Muscle fiber (myofiber) number is established prenatally, but nuclei within the sarcolemma do not synthesize DNA. (barnardhealth.us)
- Cardiac muscle has one or two nuclei whereas skeletal muscle teams have numerous nuclei. (difference.wiki)
- Despite detailed textbook knowledge about mature sarcomere and myofibril architecture, our understanding of myofibril and sarcomere formation during muscle development is still limited. (biologists.org)
- Many sarcomeres are present in a myofibril, resulting in the striation pattern characteristic of skeletal muscle. (lumenlearning.com)
- Skeletal muscles consist of numerous subunits or bundles called fasicles (or fascicles). (eku.edu)
- Muscle cells are bound together by perimysium into bundles called fascicles. (wikibooks.org)
- The skeletal muscle is made up of bundles of muscle fibers . (biology-online.org)
- While skeletal muscles are arranged in regular, parallel bundles, cardiac muscle connects at branching, irregular angles (called intercalated discs). (wikidoc.org)
- In large animals, it is often hundreds of fibers that are packed into muscle fiber bundles that run parallel to the long axis of the muscle. (biologists.org)
- Cardiac muscle cells are striated, branching cells that fit closely together and are arranged in spiral bundles in the heart. (lrn.org)
- The muscle fiber bundles are themselves bundled up and are part of larger collection of similar bundles which make up a particular muscle. (karelsavry.us)
- This type of muscle is composed of numerous cylindrically shaped bundles of cells, each enclosed in a sheath called the sarcolemma. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Myotomes, groups of muscle bundles are unique to lampreys. (joanofart.net)
- Large amounts of myoglobin , the protein that carries oxygen to cells, are usually found in type I muscle fibers. (wisegeek.com)
- ST-type fibers are red, they are distinguished by a denser network of capillaries surrounding them, a greater number of mitochondria and a higher content of myoglobin, triglycerides and also oxygen-based energy transformation enzymes. (weight-loss-labs.com)
- There are two types: (1) fast-fatigable fibers -- also called white fibers (with low myoglobin content, a small mitochondrial content, and fatigue rapidly due to their limited glycogen content and low capacity for oxidative metabolism ) and (2) fast fatigue-resistant fibers -- also called red fibres (with large mitochondrial content and high myoglobin content relevant to their resistance to fatigue). (biology-online.org)
- Type IIb, which is anaerobic, glycolytic , "white" muscle that is even less dense in mitochondria and myoglobin. (wikidoc.org)
- Due to the injury to the muscle, the cells begin to leak a protein (myoglobin) into the bloodstream that is often highly toxic to kidney cells. (rosenfeldinjurylawyers.com)
- Type 1 fibers, also called slow-twitch or red fibers (red because they have a high myoglobin content), have a slow and steady response. (beltina.org)
- Type 2 fibers, also called fast-twitch or white fibers (white because they contain very little myoglobin), have a rapid response. (beltina.org)
- However, cardiac muscles are highly specialized because they are highly resistant to fatigue due to high number of myoglobin, mitochondrion and have a good blood supply. (joomla.com)
- Muscle fibers also differ in color based on the amount of myoglobin - a substance that stores oxygen until it is needed by the cell - they contain. (beccaswanson.com)
- Type I and type IIA fibers contain high amounts of myoglobin and are capillary-rich, making them red in color. (beccaswanson.com)
- Type II B fibers are considered "white" muscle fibers due to their low content of myoglobin and fewer capillaries. (beccaswanson.com)
- The SO fibers also possess myoglobin, an O 2 -carrying molecule similar to O 2 -carrying hemoglobin in the red blood cells. (opentextbc.ca)
- The myoglobin stores some of the needed O 2 within the fibers themselves (and gives SO fibers their red color). (opentextbc.ca)
- Since oxidative phosphorylation occurs in mitochondria and requires oxygen, oxidative muscles tend to have high concentrations of mitochondria and appear to be deep red due to high concentrations of myoglobin , which delivers oxygen to the mitochondria from the bloodstream. (gatech.edu)
- Since glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm, glycolytic muscles tend to have low densities of mitochondria and appear white due to the comparatively lower concentration of myoglobin in these types of muscles. (gatech.edu)
- The cell membrane of a muscle cell is called the sarcolemma, and this membrane, like that of neurons, maintains a membrane potential. (eku.edu)
- The sarcolemma is the cell membrane enclosing each muscle fiber (muscle cell). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The plasma membrane of a skeletal muscle fiber is called the sarcolemma . (oercommons.org)
- A skeletal muscle cell is surrounded by a plasma membrane called the sarcolemma with a cytoplasm called the sarcoplasm. (oercommons.org)
- Each muscle fiber can be called as a muscle cell and the membrane lining it is called sarcolemma. (kypho.com)
- The cell membrane of muscle fiber is known as sarcolemma, and the cytoplasm is called sarcoplasm. (differencebetween.com)
- Connected to the sarcolemma are transverse tubules T-tubules that help carry these electrochemical signals into the middle of the muscle fiber. (bsaconcordia.com)
- When the neuron releases a neurotransmitter (acetylcholine), the permeability of the sarcolemma changes, allowing sodium ions to enter the muscle cell. (lrn.org)
- However, it is unclear how such a ruler defines the characteristic sarcomere length of the different muscle types ( Gokhin and Fowler, 2013 ). (biologists.org)
- The ruler hypothesis also does not seem to be applicable to insect muscle, as individual insect titin homologs are too short to span across half a sarcomere. (biologists.org)
- Sarcomere is the structural and unctional unit of the muscle, which extends between two adjacent Z lines. (kypho.com)
Made up of skeletal muscle1
- There are two broad types of voluntary muscle fibers, slow twitch and fast twitch. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Slow twitch fibers contract for long periods of time but with little force, while fast twitch fibers contract quickly and powerfully but fatigue very rapidly. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The skeletal muscle fibers can be classified according to their twitch capabilities, i.e. fast-twitch muscles and slow-twitch muscles. (biology-online.org)
- Here is an article that explains a lot about slow twitch and fast twitch muscles and what they are used for. (beccaswanson.com)
- fast-twitch muscles provide short bursts of power while slow-twitch fibers endure longer use without fatigue. (beccaswanson.com)
- Slow-twitch fibers, or type I fibers, contract as the name suggests - slowly. (beccaswanson.com)
- Slow-twitch fibers are found in muscles used often, like those in the neck. (beccaswanson.com)
- Sprinters and power lifters, for instance, need higher amounts of fast - white or red - fibers, while a marathon runner benefits most from large amounts of slow-twitch fibers. (beccaswanson.com)
- The means by which all types of muscles contract is thought to be generally the same, although muscles are classified as phasic, or fast twitch, and tonic, or slow twitch, to differentiate between the various lengths of time a muscle may require to move in response to stimulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- They are involuntary muscles and are under the control of the autonomic nervous system. (petmassage.com)
- The gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, and blood vessels contain smooth (nonstriated) muscle, which is under involuntary control of the autonomic nervous system. (beltina.org)
- The heart contains a specialized form of muscle called myocardial, also under control of the autonomic nervous system. (beltina.org)
- Voluntary muscles are associated with nerves under voluntary control, whereas involuntary muscles are associated with nerves of autonomic nervous system which is under involuntary control. (differencebetween.com)
- Smooth muscles also known as the involuntary muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. (joomla.com)
- The autonomic nerves provide these muscles so that they are not voluntary. (infocuriosity.com)
- and, if the threshold potential is reached, an action potential occurs, an impulse travels along the muscle cell membrane, and the muscle contracts. (eku.edu)
- In contrast, smooth muscle occurs at various scales in almost every organ, from the skin (in which it controls erection of body hair) to the blood vessels and digestive tract (in which it controls the caliber of a lumen and peristalsis, respectively). (wikibooks.org)
- Skeletal muscles occurs in pairs that are antagonistic. (mrgscience.com)
- This interaction occurs at the neuromuscular junction, a synapse where the neuron's axons end (terminate) and the muscle fiber begins. (beltina.org)
- If muscle activity is strenuous and prolonged, muscle fatigue occurs due to an accumulation of lactic acid in the muscle and a decrease in its energy (ATP) supply. (lrn.org)
- The oxidative fibers contain many more mitochondria than the glycolytic fibers, because aerobic metabolism, which uses oxygen (O 2 ) in the metabolic pathway, occurs in the mitochondria. (opentextbc.ca)
- Slow oxidative (SO) fibers contract relatively slowly and use aerobic respiration (oxygen and glucose) to produce ATP. (opentextbc.ca)
- The primary metabolic pathway used by a muscle fiber determines whether the fiber is classified as oxidative or glycolytic. (opentextbc.ca)
- If a fiber primarily produces ATP through aerobic pathways it is oxidative. (opentextbc.ca)
- Oxidative muscle fibers rely on oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. (gatech.edu)
- It generally takes a very long time to run out of ATP in oxidative muscles. (gatech.edu)
- His research program, which is funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, is dedicated to the understanding of the regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function in muscle and understanding how defects in the function of SR proteins that occur with oxidative stress contribute to fatigue, weakness, and disease. (fishpond.com.au)
Type of skeletal muscle2
- Skeletal muscles have an abundant supply of blood vessels and nerves. (eku.edu)
- They take direct instruction from the specific nerves that innervate each muscle. (mrgscience.com)
- Cardiac muscle teams are involuntary as they're innervated by somatic nervous system whereas skeletal muscle teams are voluntary as they're innervated by motor nerves. (difference.wiki)
- These muscles work involuntarily control because it is provided by cerebrospinal or somatic nerves. (infocuriosity.com)
- Because it can be controlled by thought, skeletal muscle is also called voluntary muscle. (oercommons.org)
- All striated voluntary muscle is derived from the mesoderm - either from portion of the mesodermal segments (muscles of the trunk, and, possibly, limbs), or from the mesenchyme (muscles of the head). (edu.au)
- Fast-twitch muscles are skeletal muscle fibers having high myofibrillar ATPase activity, high glycolytic enzyme activities, and an intermediate glycogen content which produce a fast twitch. (biology-online.org)
- Fast twitch fibers are sub-divided into type IIA and type IIB fibers, both of which split ATP quickly. (beccaswanson.com)
- A single action potential results in a single muscle "twitch. (gatech.edu)
- Motor neurons reach from the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the muscles throughout the body. (smore.com)
- The different muscle groups of the body usually consist of different concentrations of each type of muscle fiber , depending on the functions of each individual muscle group. (wisegeek.com)
- That's because these are the most used skeletal muscles in the body. (wisegeek.com)
- The arrangement of the fibers around a hydrostatic body limits the range of movement of the hydrostatic body (the "body" of a soft bodied animal) and defines the way the hydrostatic body moves. (wikipedia.org)
- Typically muscle fibers surround the hydrostatic body. (wikipedia.org)
- Circular muscles decrease the diameter of a hydrostatic body, resulting in an increase in the length of the body, whereas longitudinal muscles shortens the length of a hydrostatic body, resulting in an increase in the diameter of the body. (wikipedia.org)
- For the torsion motion, muscles are arranged in helical layers around a hydrostatic body. (wikipedia.org)
- Even when we sit perfectly still, muscles throughout the body are constantly moving. (kidshealth.org)
- The primary function of muscles is to bring about movement to all or part of the dog's body. (petmassage.com)
- There are approximately 640 skeletal muscles in the human body (see list of muscles of the human body). (wikibooks.org)
- There are three basic types of muscles in the body (smooth, cardiac, and skeletal). (wikibooks.org)
- Skeletal muscles are the most abundant muscle type, as they cover and provide movement to the entire skeleton of the human body. (wisegeek.com)
- The freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus is not widely known to biologists but may be used to vividly illustrate a wide variety of biological phenomena such as: patterned regeneration of lost body parts, blood vessel pulsations, swimming reflex, peristaltic crawling behavior, giant nerve fiber action potentials, and sublethal sensitivity to pharmacological agents or environmental toxicants. (iastate.edu)
- There are more than 600 muscles in the human body, which collectively comprise about 40 percent of one s bodyweight. (fsu.edu)
- To get some of the concrete, physiological differences in male muscle vs. female muscle out of the way right off the bat: According to Fair Play for Women , a woman's body is typically about 30 to 35 percent muscle by weight, while a man's body is about 40 to 50 percent muscle by weight. (livestrong.com)
- Together, the muscle stack and the surrounding fascia serve as the wiring system for your body, carrying the voltage from the muscle battery inside, out, through the fascia and to the appropriate organ. (mercola.com)
- There are approximately 200 different muscles on each side of the body (for a total of 400). (hammernutrition.com)
- by: Nitya Chivukula and Roop Panesar Body Systems Skeletal System Reproductive System Urinary System Lymphatic System What is it? (prezi.com)
- Did you know you have more than 600 muscles in your body? (rchsd.org)
- Your brain and body tell these muscles what to do without you even thinking about it. (rchsd.org)
- But smooth muscles are at work all over your body. (rchsd.org)
- The thick muscles of the heart contract to pump blood out and then relax to let blood back in after it has circulated through the body. (rchsd.org)
- Found only in the heart , cardiac muscle is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. (innerbody.com)
- These mice develop a floppy gait leading to hindlimb paralysis, inability of the hindpaws to grip, visibly wasted hindquarter muscles, and the clenching of the hindlimbs to the body when suspended by the tail by 6 or 7 weeks of age. (jax.org)
- Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle move to facilitate body functions like heartbeats and digestion. (mrgscience.com)
- Want to learn more about the muscles in the human body? (mrgscience.com)
- 11.2 U 3 Movement of the body requires muscles to work in antagonistic pairs. (mrgscience.com)
- Muscles move the body, some under voluntary control and others reflexively. (beltina.org)
- The main responsibilities of muscles are body movement, maintaining the body posture and shape, and maintaining body temperature. (differencebetween.com)
- In human, muscles comprise nearly half of the whole body weight. (differencebetween.com)
- Involuntary muscles help to move certain body parts like limbs, head, eyelids, etc in organisms. (differencebetween.com)
- These muscles help to maintain the blood circulation throughout the body by maintaining heart beat. (differencebetween.com)
- Voluntary muscles contribute a high percentage of the total body weight, while involuntary muscles contribute the rest. (differencebetween.com)
- Skeletal muscles are the engines that provide the human body with the power needed to move. (strongerbyscience.com)
- Heat production, to maintain body temperature, is an important by-product of muscle metabolism. (bsaconcordia.com)
- There are more than 600 muscles in the human body. (twigcarolina.com)
- The Human body has over six hundred muscles. (joomla.com)
- Dermatomyositis- this is another disorder of the involuntary muscle manifested by skin rash, progressive weakness of the body. (joomla.com)
- The spines are attached to the muscles in the body wall, and since the sea urchin is shaped as a ball, it can move around in any direction. (weebly.com)
- Definitely, every man on this earth gets interested when it comes to body building and Amplify Muscles . (back-muscles.com)
- Your body needs some rest to build new muscles . (back-muscles.com)
- Amplify Muscles and building body needs persistence, patience and courage. (back-muscles.com)
- Skeletal muscle forms the muscle's attached to the skeleton, which move the limbs and other body parts. (lrn.org)
- There are three different types of muscle: skeletal, cardiac and smooth - all of equal importance with their own jobs and locations in the body. (brlsports.com)
- It pumps blood throughout the body and to the other muscles when they are working overtime. (brlsports.com)
- The heat released by working muscles keeps body temperature in the range needed for normal functioning. (cram.com)
- They incorporated these muscles into a biohybrid robot as antagonistic pairs mimicking those in the body to achieve remarkable robot movement and continued muscle function for over a week. (eurasiareview.com)
- For the living muscle part of the robot, rather than extract and use a muscle that had fully formed in the body, the team built one from scratch. (eurasiareview.com)
- Once we had built the muscles, we successfully used them as antagonistic pairs in the robot, with one contracting and the other expanding, just like in the body," study corresponding author Shoji Takeuchi said. (eurasiareview.com)
- Both white and red muscle fibers are needed by your body. (beccaswanson.com)
- Overall, skeletal muscle function and repair is much the same in all areas of the body. (frontiersin.org)
- Frog- Some major muscles in frogs include: the pectoralis, which flexes the arms of the frog toward the body, the rectus abdominis, which flexes the trunk, triceps femoris, each flexing the thigh and extend the shank (part of leg in between the knee and ankle). (joanofart.net)
- On both sides of the abdomen, the external oblique flexes the body wall and the pectoralis major and minor are located in the chest area which allow the arm to be drawn forward (when the rat is walking/ running).Bird- The largest muscles of a bird are their breast (pectoralis) muscles which control the wings. (joanofart.net)
- This muscle as well as the pectoralis make up around 35% of the bird's body weight. (joanofart.net)
- How Many Muscles are There in the Human Body? (infocuriosity.com)
- Yes, the muscles formed our body shape, support the body movement, give strength to the body, circulate the blood, and much more. (infocuriosity.com)
- Different types of muscles in the body serve as a powerhouse as it supplies power or energy to the body. (infocuriosity.com)
- Basically, there are three types of muscle in the body which have different functions. (infocuriosity.com)
- This muscle can be found in large number throughout the body and it is attached to the skeleton. (infocuriosity.com)
- Skeletal muscles can be found in the body wall, limbs, and also bronchial muscles. (infocuriosity.com)
- Since muscles have high responsible for movement, muscles should present in the body for a large number. (infocuriosity.com)
- Muscle System Human Biology The human body is covered by muscles , made up of more than 650 of them. (studymode.com)
- In vertebrates , muscle is classified as skeletal (or striated), cardiac, or smooth muscle. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Unlike skeletal muscle, smooth muscle is not under conscious control. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Smooth muscle has no striations, is not under voluntary control, has only one nucleus per cell, is tapered at both ends, and is called involuntary muscle. (oercommons.org)
- Smooth muscle is also found in the walls of blood vessels, where it squeezes the stream of blood flowing through the vessels to help maintain blood pressure. (kidshealth.org)
- smooth muscle has neither. (wikibooks.org)
- Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle are not voluntarily controlled. (hammernutrition.com)
- smooth muscle, cardiac (say: KAR-dee-ak) muscle, and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. (rchsd.org)
- Just like smooth muscle, cardiac muscle works all by itself with no help from you. (rchsd.org)
- Stages in the histogenesis of smooth muscle (adapted from (McGill). (edu.au)
- Smooth muscle control is involuntary ( Figure 6.2 ). (lrn.org)
- Smooth muscle is that major muscle type. (brlsports.com)
- where else is smooth muscle? (cram.com)
- Cardiac muscle is striated like skeletal muscle but, like smooth muscle, is controlled involuntarily. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Striated muscle is usually considered phasic, while cardiac and smooth muscle are thought to be tonic. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These make the smooth muscle are less dependent on nervous control. (infocuriosity.com)
- The SO fibers possess a large number of mitochondria and are capable of contracting for longer periods because of the large amount of ATP they can produce, but they have a relatively small diameter and do not produce a large amount of tension. (opentextbc.ca)
- They produce ATP relatively quickly, more quickly than SO fibers, and thus can produce relatively high amounts of tension. (opentextbc.ca)
- The pull exerted by a muscle is called tension , and the amount of force created by this tension can vary. (gatech.edu)
- With frequent enough action potentials, the muscle will reach the maximum tension possible for that muscle, called tetanus . (gatech.edu)
- Amount of muscle tension is determined by frequency of action potentials. (gatech.edu)
- To action potentials in quick succession results in summation of twitches, where the muscle does not relax but engages in a second round of twitching before, which doubles muscle tension. (gatech.edu)
- Continuous action potentials will result in tetanus, or maximal muscle tension. (gatech.edu)
- Define antagonistic pairs in relation to muscle movement. (mrgscience.com)
- State an example of an antagonistic pair of muscles. (mrgscience.com)
- However, to flex the knee joint, an opposite or antagonistic set of muscles called the hamstrings is activated. (edu.vn)
- Our findings show that, using this antagonistic arrangement of muscles, these robots can mimic the actions of a human finger," lead author Yuya Morimoto said. (eurasiareview.com)
Cardiac and skeletal3
- Cardiac and skeletal muscle are similar in that both appear to be "striated" in that they contain sarcomeres. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- This smooth appearance starkly contrasts with the banded appearance of cardiac and skeletal muscles. (innerbody.com)
- Cardiac and skeletal muscle teams are two foremost kinds. (difference.wiki)
- Before a skeletal muscle fiber can contract, it has to receive an impulse from a neuron. (eku.edu)
- Type I muscle fibers generally contract slowly. (wisegeek.com)
- Type IIb muscle fibers typically contract quickly. (wisegeek.com)
- Voluntary muscles can contract and pull, but they cannot push, so they must work in pairs that flex and extend. (petmassage.com)
- Their partners, the extensor muscles, in turn contract to bring the limb back down. (petmassage.com)
- Also called striated muscle, the skeletal muscle has a striped appearance because of two overlapping proteins that allow the muscle to contract rapidly. (wisegeek.com)
- Muscles are normally arranged in opposition so that as one group of muscles contract, another group 'relaxes' (in fact simply stretched) or lengthens. (bionity.com)
- Muscles contract in the following way: when a person decides to make a movement, there is a change of the electric potential in the motor center of the brain and an electric impulse is transmitted to the muscle that has to move. (hammernutrition.com)
- This allows you to contract your facial muscles just a tiny bit and make dozens of different kinds of faces. (rchsd.org)
- The skeleton provides resistance and leverage for the muscles as they contract and relax. (beltina.org)
- Skeletal muscles differ depending on the fiber and thus contract at a different speed. (joomla.com)
- The insertions and origins of facial muscles are in the skin, so that certain individual muscles contract to form a smile or frown, form sounds or words, and raise the eyebrows. (edu.vn)
- Type II B fibers do, however, split ATP quickly and contract rapidly. (beccaswanson.com)
- Two criteria to consider when classifying the types of muscle fibers are how fast some fibers contract relative to others, and how fibers produce ATP. (opentextbc.ca)
- muscle twitches "sum": if there is a long pause between action potentials, the muscle can fully relax, but if action potentials are rapid enough, the muscle does not have the time to relax and will continue to contract to a greater and greater degree with each new action potential. (gatech.edu)
- In addition, these muscles can contract rhythmically and automatically and spontaneously most of the time. (infocuriosity.com)