Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5: A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Satellite Cells, Perineuronal: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Cardiotoxins: Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins: Most abundant proteins in COBRA venom; basic polypeptides of 57 to 62 amino acids with four disulfide bonds and a molecular weight of less than 7000; causes skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction, interferes with neuromuscular and ganglionic transmission, depolarizes nerve, muscle and blood cell membranes, thus causing hemolysis.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalHypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Mice, Inbred C57BLIn Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.GlycogenMuscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Hospitals, Satellite: Those hospitals which are extensions of a main hospital and are wholly or partly administered by that hospital.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Sarcopenia: Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Syndecan-3: A syndecan found at high levels in the developing LIMB BUDS. It may play a role in the regulation of MUSCULOSKELETAL DEVELOPMENT by modulating the effects of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Cucumber Mosaic Virus Satellite: A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Skeletal Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Cell SeparationInsulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle: A heterogenous group of inherited muscular dystrophy that can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. There are many forms (called LGMDs) involving genes encoding muscle membrane proteins such as the sarcoglycan (SARCOGLYCANS) complex that interacts with DYSTROPHIN. The disease is characterized by progressing wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of arms and legs around the HIPS and SHOULDERS (the pelvic and shoulder girdles).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Syndecan-4: A ubiquitously expressed syndecan that is found in all stages of embryonic development and in most adult tissues. Syndecan-4 is found localized to focal adhesion sites in fibronectin-adherent cells and may play a role the process of CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Notophthalmus viridescens: A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.

*Myocyte

Myoblasts in skeletal muscle that do not form muscle fibers dedifferentiate back into myosatellite cells. These satellite cells ... Myocytes are long, tubular cells that develop from myoblasts to form muscles in a process known as myogenesis. There are ... and smooth muscle cells, with various properties. The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle ... Zammit, PS; Partridge, TA; Yablonka-Reuveni, Z (November 2006). "The skeletal muscle satellite cell: the stem cell that came in ...

*Myogenesis

... satellite cells are required for muscle regeneration in adult organisms. In addition, satellite cells have the capability to ... Deleting myogenin results in nearly complete loss of differentiated muscle fibers and severe loss of skeletal muscle mass in ... In this way, satellite cells have an important role in not only muscle development, but in the maintenance of muscle through ... Finally, the muscle fibers that form later arise from satellite cells. Two genes significant in muscle fusion are Mef2 and the ...

*MYF5

As one of the key cell markers of satellite cells (the stem cell pool for skeletal muscles), it plays an important role in the ... regulation of vertebrate skeletal myogenesis by cell-cell contact". Journal of Cell Science. 118 (Pt 11): 2355-62. doi:10.1242/ ... "Expression of CD34 and Myf5 defines the majority of quiescent adult skeletal muscle satellite cells". The Journal of Cell ... While the product of this gene is capable of directing cells towards the skeletal muscle lineage, it is not absolutely required ...

*MyoD

Wnt plays a crucial role in satellite cell regulation and skeletal muscle aging and also regeneration. Wnts are known to active ... "Muscle LIM protein promotes myogenesis by enhancing the activity of MyoD". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (8): 4750-60. doi:10.1128/mcb. ... Motohashi, N.; Asakura, Atsushi (January 2014). "Muscle satellite cell heterogeneity and self-renewal". Frontiers in Cell and ... MyoD mRNA levels are also reported to be elevated in aging skeletal muscle. One of the main actions of MyoD is to remove cells ...

*Myosatellite cell

Satellite cells are precursors to skeletal muscle cells, able to give rise to satellite cells or differentiated skeletal muscle ... "CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta is Expressed in Satellite Cells and Controls Myogenesis". STEM CELLS. 30 (12): 2619-2630. ... Myosatellite cells or satellite cells are small multipotent cells with virtually no cytoplasm found in mature muscle. ... HGF testing is also used to identify active satellite cells. Activated satellite cells also begin expressing muscle-specific ...

*G0 phase

"Molecular Signature of Quiescent Satellite Cells in Adult Skeletal Muscle". Stem Cells. 25 (10): 2448-2459. doi:10.1634/ ... Cardiac muscle is also formed through myogenesis but instead of recruiting stem cells to fuse and form new cells, heart muscle ... During skeletal myogenesis, cycling progenitor cells known as myoblasts differentiate and fuse together into non-cycling muscle ... including muscle stem cells (MuSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), intestinal stem cells (ISCs), and many others. Stem cell ...

*Muscle

... "satellite cells" that help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of ... Muscle tissues are derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells in a process known as myogenesis. There are three ... where they fuse into elongate skeletal muscle cells. The three types of muscle (skeletal, cardiac and smooth) have significant ... and propagate contractions to other muscle cells they are in contact with. All skeletal muscle and many smooth muscle ...

*PAX3

... myogenic precursors expressing Pax3 and/or Pax7 form satellite cells within the skeletal muscle, which contribute to postnatal ... Buckingham M, Relaix F (2015). "PAX3 and PAX7 as upstream regulators of myogenesis". review. Seminars in Cell & Developmental ... To form other skeletal muscles, Pax3-expressing cells detach from the dermomyotome and migrate to more distant sites, such as ... To form skeletal muscle in central body segments, PAX3-expressing cells detach from the dermomyotome and then Pax3 expression ...

*Mir-133 microRNA precursor family

miR-133 suppresses Prdm16 expression in skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells), which controls myogenic vs. brown ... Although miR-133 is known to promote MEF-2-dependent myogenesis, it also inhibits Runx2-mediated osteogenesis. BMP2 controls ... "MicroRNA-133 controls brown adipose determination in skeletal muscle satellite cells by targeting Prdm16". Cell Metabolism. 17 ... "MicroRNA regulation of cell lineages in mouse and human embryonic stem cells". Cell Stem Cell. 2 (3): 219-29. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Skeletal muscle

Zammit, PS; Partridge, TA; Yablonka-Reuveni, Z (November 2006). "The skeletal muscle satellite cell: the stem cell that came in ... Muscle fibres, or muscle cells, are formed from the fusion of developmental myoblasts in a process known as myogenesis. Muscle ... A skeletal muscle refers to multiple bundles of cells called muscle fibers (fascicles). The fibres and muscles are surrounded ... Skeletal Muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. It is a form of striated ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The muscle-specific miRNAs miR-1 and miR-206 have been shown to regulate muscle development and promote myogenic differentiation; however, it is likely that a number of other miRNAs play important roles in regulating myogenesis as well. microRNA-128 (miR-128) has been reported to be highly expressed in brain and skeletal muscle, and we found that miR-128 is also up-regulated during bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell differentiation using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. However, little is known about the functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell development. In this study, we investigated the biological functions of miR-128 in bovine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Desmin is present in proliferating rat muscle satellite cells but not in bovine muscle satellite cells. AU - Allen, Ronald E.. AU - Rankin, Lucinda L.. AU - Greene, Elizabeth A.. AU - Boxhorn, Linda K.. AU - Johnson, Sally E.. AU - Taylor, Richard G.. AU - Pierce, Paul R.. PY - 1991/12. Y1 - 1991/12. N2 - The presence of desmin was characterized in cultured rat and bovine satellite cells and its potential usefulness as a marker for identifying satellite cells in vitro was evaluated. In primary cultures, positive immunohistochemical staining for desmin and skeletal muscle myosin was observed in rat and bovine myotubes. A small number of mononucleated cells (20% of rat satellite cells and 5% of bovine satellite ...
Asakura A, Komaki M and Rudnicki M (2001). Muscle satellite cells are multipotential stem cells that exhibit myogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation. Differentiation. 68 (4-5): 245-53. Summary: Muscle satellite cells are believed to represent a committed stem cell population that is responsible for the postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscle. However, the observation that cultured myoblasts differentiate into osteocytes or adipocytes following treatment with bone
Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are involved in remodeling and hypertrophy processes of skeletal muscle. However, little knowledge exists on extrinsic factors that influence the content of SCs in skeletal muscle. In a comparative human study, we investigated the muscle fiber type-specific association between emergence of satellite cells (SCs), muscle growth, and remodeling in response to 12 wk unilateral resistance training performed as eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc) resistance training ± whey protein (Whey, 19.5 g protein + 19.5 g glucose) or placebo (Placebo, 39 g glucose) supplementation. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were analyzed for fiber type-specific SCs, myonuclei, and fiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Following ...
Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4) deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW) were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P), supra-adequate (1.2% total P) in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P) in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured in vitro for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (P | 0.05) sera PO4 and parathyroid ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-dispensing thermogenic tissue that plays an important role in balancing energy metabolism. Lineage-tracing experiments indicate that brown adipocytes are derived from myogenic progenitors during embryonic development. However, adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) have long been considered uniformly determined toward the myogenic lineage. Here, we report that adult satellite cells give rise to brown adipocytes and that microRNA-133 regulates the choice between myogenic and brown adipose determination by targeting the 3UTR of Prdm16. Antagonism of microRNA-133 during muscle regeneration increases uncoupled respiration, glucose uptake, and thermogenesis in local treated muscle and augments whole-body energy expenditure, improves glucose tolerance, and impedes the development of diet-induced ...
Skeletal muscle satellite cells located between the plasma membrane and the basal lamina of muscle fibres, could for many years, only be studied in situ by electron microscopy. The introduction of immunohistochemistry and the discovery of molecular markers of satellite cells then made them accessible for light microscopic studies and a wealth of information is today available. Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells that can be activated from a quiescent state to proliferate for self-renewal or differentiate into myogenic cells. The satellite cells are involved in muscle growth during fetal and postnatal development and play a key role in repair and regeneration of damaged muscle fibres. The satellite cells ...
Skeletal muscle is maintained and repaired by resident stem cells called muscle satellite cells, but there is a gradual failure of this process during the progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting that characterises muscular dystrophies. The pathogenic mutation causes muscle wasting, but in conditions including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the mutant gene is not expressed in satellite cells, and so muscle maintenance/repair is not directly affected. The chronic muscle wasting, however, produces an increasingly hostile micro-environment in dystrophic muscle. This probably combines with excessive satellite cell use to eventually culminate in an indirect failure of satellite cell-mediated myofibre ...
A recent study by Rudnicki and colleagues has sought to address the question of satellite-cell heterogeneity directly (Kuang et al., 2007). The authors have shown that ∼90% of satellite cells on myofibres of adult Myf5cre/+ mice had had a `myogenic experience and expressed Myf5 at some point (as shown by the presence of YFP from the recombined targeted ROSA locus). The remaining ∼10% of satellite cells were YFP-negative, and were able to produce further YFP-negative and YFP-positive cells both in vitro and in vivo. When grafted into Pax7-null mice, these YFP-negative cells gave rise to approximately three times more Pax7-positive satellite cells than the YFP-positive cells, and a quarter of these remained YFP-negative. It was proposed by the authors that these YFP-negative cells correspond to a dedicated subset of ...
The researchers suggested that the increase in skeletal muscle satellite cell numbers induced by whey protein supplementation "may promote more favourable training adaptations over more prolonged periods."​. Other studies have also reported increases in satellite cell numbers in response to protein supplementation and strength training programmes of similar duration. Previous research has also suggested that increases in satellite cell numbers are a necessary precursor to increasing skeletal muscle mass.. However, more research is needed to clarify potential mechanisms and benefits of increased satellite cell numbers.. "More data are needed to examine how increasing dietary protein intake mechanistically affects satellite cell turnover and if protein-induced increases in satellite cell number provide any ...
Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are highly vulnerable to frataxin deficiency in Friedreich ataxia (FA). An immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence study of DRG in 15 FA cases and 12 controls revealed that FA causes major primary changes in satellite cells and inflammatory destruction of neurons. Reaction product of the cytoplasmic markers and laminin confirmed proliferation of satellite cells and processes into multiple perineuronal layers and residual nodules. The formation of connexin 43-reactive gap junctions between satellite cells was strongly upregulated. Proliferating satellite cells in FA displayed many more frataxin- and ATP5B-reactive mitochondria than normal. Monocytes entered into the satellite cell layer, appeared to penetrate neuronal plasma membranes, and infiltrated residual nodules. Satellite cells and ...
Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY. Testosterone Effects On Muscle Growth Gtx-024 a synthetic non-aromatizable androgen and anabolic steroid. It binds strongly to the androgen receptor and has therefore also been used as an affinity label for Testosterone Effects On Muscle Growth Gtx-024 this receptor in the prostate and in prostatic tumors. Compounds that bind to and inhibit the activation of ANDROGEN RECEPTORS. A first generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Like TAMOXIFEN it is an estrogen agonist for bone tissue and cholesterol metabolism but is antagonistic on mammary and uterine tissue.. SARMs have anecdotally not helped increase sexual function so they probably will not replace testosterone ...
HSPGs play critical roles in regulating growth factor signaling pathways via a variety of mechanisms, including coreceptor functions, ligand sequestration, morphogenetic boundary regulation, and stem cell fate determination (Rapraeger et al., 1991; Lander, 1998; Muñoz et al., 2006; Dombrowski et al., 2009). Syndecan-3, a transmembrane HSPG expressed in adult SCs, has been previously described as playing a role in adult myogenesis (Fuentealba et al., 1999; Cornelison et al., 2001; Cornelison et al., 2004), but the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. An in-depth characterization of sdc3−/− phenotypes in vitro and in vivo, combined with an unbiased analysis of gene expression and signaling, have allowed us to further explore the mechanisms involved in Syndecan-3-mediated regulation of adult myogenesis.. To identify signaling pathways contributing to the sdc3−/− phenotype, we performed a global gene expression analysis comparing wild-type and sdc3−/− SCs in uninjured ...
Purpose: : Satellite cells (SC) are responsible for skeletal muscle growing, regeneration or hipertrophy. In these situations, they are activated and positive to MyoD1, a lineage specific myogenic marker. In other conditions they are quiescent. Mammalian adult extraocular muscles show 2-4% MyoD1 positive SC, besides the addition of some new nuclei to the existing myofibers. Exotropia is an horizontal strabismus, asociated or not with inferior oblique muscles (IOM) overactions. Different capabilities of SC activation may be envolved in the genesis of strabismus. This study quantified MyoD positive SC on IOM and medial recti muscles (MRM) from 14 patients with exotropia (XTG), 4 of them with IOM overaction, and from specimens obtained from cornea donors (control group, CG). Methods: : Fourteen patients who were submitted to ressection of a fragment of MRM to treat surgically ...
Skeletal muscle cells are terminally differentiated and require the activation of muscle progenitor (satellite) cells for their regeneration. There is a clinical need for faster and more efficient treatment methods for acute muscle injuries, and the stimulation of satellite cell proliferation is promising in this context. In this study, we designed and synthesized a laminin-mimetic bioactive peptide (LM/E-PA) system that is capable of accelerating satellite cell activation by emulating the structure and function of laminin, a major protein of the basal membrane of the skeletal muscle. The LM/E-PA nanofibers enhance myogenic differentiation in vitro and the clinical relevance of the laminin-mimetic bioactive scaffold system was demonstrated further by assessing its effect on the regeneration ...
4. The Curious Case of Skeletal Muscle Telomere Biology in Humans Skeletal muscle has unique telomere biology when compared to other tissues. Skeletal muscle consists of a syncytium of multinucleated muscle fibers that are postmitotic; thus, telomere length should remain stable in this population of nuclei, with the rare exception of DNA damaging stimuli [89]. In addition to myonuclei, single-nucleated populations of cells, of which the best described are satellite cells, also populate skeletal muscle [90]. Satellite cells are muscle precursor cells (i.e., adult stem cells) that are quiescent unless induced to divide by external stressors, such as ...
1. Alexander M, Kawahara G, Motohashi N, Casar J, Eisenberg I, Myers J. et al. MicroRNA-199a is induced in dystrophic muscle and affects WNT signaling, cell proliferation, and myogenic differentiation. Cell Death Differ. 2013;20:1194-208 2. Buckingham M. Skeletal muscle formation in vertebrates. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2001;11:440-8 3. Buckingham M. Myogenic progenitor cells and skeletal myogenesis in vertebrates. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2006;16:525-32 4. Naya FJ, Olson E. MEF2: a transcriptional target for signaling pathways controlling skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1999;11:683-8 5. Berkes CA, Tapscott SJ. MyoD and the transcriptional control of myogenesis. Elsevier. 2005:585-95 6. Bauman D, Eisemann J, Currie W. Hormonal effects on partitioning of nutrients for tissue growth: ...
Wnt7a signals through its receptor Fzd7 to activate the planar-cell-polarity pathway and drive the symmetric growth of satellite stem cells resulting in enhanced repair of skeletal muscle mass. at different developmental stages during myogenic lineage progression and together identify a novel non-canonical anabolic signalling pathway for Wnt7a and its receptor Fzd7 in skeletal muscle mass. (TA) muscle mass electroporated with a CMV-Wnt7a plasmid displayed an increase in mass and myofibre calibre4. To investigate whether Wnt7a was in fact stimulating hypertrophic growth of myofibres we first uncovered differentiating cultures of satellite cell derived main myoblasts with recombinant Wnt7a. After 5 days of differentiation we observed a significant increase in myotube diameter (Figs.1a-c). ZSTK474 Similarly differentiated C2C12 myotubes stably ...
Skeletal muscle constitutes a large part of the human body. It is a hierarchically organized heterogeneous tissue and is composed of muscle fiber bundles, muscle fibers, myofibrils and myofilaments. Since muscle cells are terminally differentiated, they have limited capacity to renew themselves. Only new cells can fuse with muscle fibers and increase the size and volume of skeletal muscle. Myosatellite cells or satellite cells are small, mononuclear progenitor cells with virtually no cytoplasm. They are located in between the sarcolemma and basement membrane of terminally-differentiated muscle fibers. Satellite cells are precursors to ...
Asymmetric division and cosegregation of template DNA strands in adult muscle satellite cells.: Satellite cells assure postnatal skeletal muscle growth and repa
Correction to Gurevich et al., Science 10.1126/science.aad9969 (2016). In the Research Article "Asymmetric division of clonal muscle stem cells coordinates muscle regeneration in vivo," author Dhanushika Ratnayakes given name was incorrectly listed as Dhananjani in the First Release version. The authors name is correct in the 8 July 2016 published version of the paper, and the author list in the supplementary materials PDF has been corrected.. ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, which play important roles in animals by targeting mRNA transcripts for translational repression. Many recent studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in the control of muscle development. In this study, the expression levels of miR-221 in different tissues and during rabbit skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs) differentiation were detected. Gene ontology term enrichment was used to predict the potential biological roles of miR-221. A synthetic miR-221 mimic and a miR-221 inhibitor were used to investigate the functions of miR-221 during SMSCs proliferation and differentiation to further verify the functions of miR-221 in muscle development ...
Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013 Mar;55(3):264-70. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12027. Epub 2012 Dec 5. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
INTRODUCTION. Prevention and cure of denervated muscle atrophy has long been a tough problem in osteology. Until now, scholars have carried out a lot of empirical studies on this topic, and some measures to stop the process of denerved muscle atrophy have been raised, such as the application of clenbuterol, electric stimulation, Chinese drugs, and nerve homogenate and neuron implantation; although all these measures can relieve atrophy partially, none of them can address the problem of atrophic muscle functional recovery fundamentally (Bischoff & Heintz, 1994; Hall et al., 2011; Paylor et al., 2011; Sharifiaghdas et al., 2011; Yablonka-Reuveni, 2011). With the rise of study on embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells in recent years, more and more scholars have realized that muscle satellite cells (SCs) play an important role in atrophic muscle ...
Pyrimidine- and purine-rich strands of Mus musculus satellite DNA prepared by alkaline CsCl-gradient centrifugation can self-renature to a variable extent to give partial duplexes with high thermal stability. These duplexes were purified by treatment with nuclease S1 followed by hydroxylapatite chromatography, and have been shown by pyrimidine-tract analysis to be very similar in sequence to total reassociated satellite DNA. It is believed that the self-renaturing fractions result from variable contamination of each strand with fragments of the other, rather than from molecular inversions. The predominantly single-stranded properties of these fractions may be partly due to the ability of mouse satellite DNA strands to reassociate in non-stoicheiometric proportions.. ...
Even though MDSCs fulfill the conditions to regenerate striated muscle because they are known to be responsible for physiological muscle regeneration throughout life, they are in short supply, do not expand well ex vivo and protocols for prospective isolation of pure populations of human satellite cells are still under development [43]. Clinical trials mentioned utilized muscle biopsies harvested from healthy deltoid, biceps or the quadriceps femoris muscle [21, 23, 25, 36-42]. This method is problematic since it causes co-morbidity at the sites of cell harvest. To reduce the damage to the patient, small biopsies are collected, which required major expansion of the cells in vitro. This approach is thus associated with a risk of contaminations, and can result in physiological or functional changes and signs of replicative senescence of cells. For these reasons other clinical ...
Lipotoxicity caused by excessive fat deposition in skeletal muscle cells is a characteristic of type II diabetes, heart disease and obesity. Defining how glucose stimulates this is therefore an important goal. Isabelle Guillet-Deniau and co-workers have now dissected the signalling mechanisms involved, using contracting myotubes derived from cultured muscle satellite cells (see p. 1937). They show that glucose treatment stimulates cells to take up glucose and upregulate expression of lipogenic enzymes. The authors then demonstrate that prior to this the cells synthesize and activate sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a transcription factor that regulates cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Moreover, they show that knocking down SREBP-1c by RNAi blocks glucose-induced upregulation of lipogenic enzymes. Guillet-Deniau and co-workers go ...
The suggested dose based on your bodyweight should be taken 1 hour pre-workout. Mk-2866 Wicked Testosterone d-Aspartic Acid (Aspartate) Ginger Extract ar-r ostarine (root) Grapefruit Extract (fruit) Stinging Nettle (root) and Piperine 90%. The suggested dose is 3 tablets per day in divided doses 30 minutes before each meal with 12 ounces of water for up to 8 weeks. According to LG Sciences more advanced users can take up to 6 tablets per day and cycles can last up to 120 days without side effects. However for those choosing to use 6-Mass for 120 days a 4 week cycle-off is strongly advised.. Anti-Doping Agency who has outlawed their use in competitive athletes and tests for them. Darwinism athletes are left assessing their personal risk limits. But a version with zero side effects does not exist today.. Testosterone inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling during myogenic differentiation and proliferation of mouse satellite cells: potential role of follistatin in ...
BEIJING, Jan. 5 (Xinhua) -- Chinas heaviest and most advanced satellite, Shijian-20, reached its fixed position in geosynchronous orbit Sunday, marking the first successful flight of DFH-5 satellite platform, according to the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation.. The Shijian-20 satellite is the first verification satellite for DFH-5 satellite platform, Chinas new generation of large geosynchronous orbit satellite platform.. At present, the satellite has completed the orbit transfer and verified the key technologies of the DFH-5 satellite platform, according to Li Feng, chief designer of the satellite.. The Shijian-20 satellite was launched into space by the third Long March-5 rocket, Chinas largest carrier rocket on Dec. 27, 2019. It has carried out orbit experiments for a series of key technologies.. Shijian-20 has the ...
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and progressive muscle-wasting disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Although dystrophin deficiency in myofiber triggers the diseases pathological changes, the degree of satellite cell (SC) dysfunction defines disease progression. Here, we have identified chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) hyperactivity as a contributing factor underlying muscular dystrophy in a dystrophin-deficient murine model of DMD. Ectopic expression of COUP-TFII in murine SCs led to Duchenne-like dystrophy in the muscles of control animals and exacerbated degenerative myopathies in dystrophin-deficient mice. COUP-TFII-overexpressing mice exhibited regenerative failure that was attributed to deficient SC proliferation and myoblast fusion. Mechanistically, we determined that COUP-TFII coordinated a regenerative program through combined regulation of multiple promyogenic factors. Furthermore, ...
During Xenopus laevis metamorphosis, larval-to-adult muscle conversion depends on the differential responses of adult and larval myogenic cells to thyroid hormone. Essential differences in cell growth, differentiation, and hormone-dependent life-or-death fate have been reported between cultured larval (tail) and adult (hindlimb) myogenic cells. A previous study revealed that tail notochord cells suppress terminal differentiation in adult (but not larval) myogenic cells. However, little is known about the differences in expression patterns of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) and the satellite cell marker Pax7 between adult and larval myogenic cells. In the present study, we compared mRNA expression of these factors between the two types. At first, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of hindlimb buds showed sequential upregulation of myf5, myogenin, myod, and mrf4 during ...
Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle fibre size and satellite cell proliferation whose role in mature fibre compensatory growth has not been fully characterized. Myostatin knockout (Mstn-/-) mice display consistently larger skeletal muscle masses, as well as an overall increase in size and number of myofibres within the muscle, compared to the wild-type mice. Previous research has shown that Mstn plays a major role in the attenuation of both the hypertrophic and hyperplasic pathways of myofibre growth. Immunohistochemical staining of overloaded plantaris muscles was performed to analyze phenotypic and morphological changes in wild-type and Mstn-/- muscles. Preliminary results of these analyses indicated a tendency for muscles from Mstn-/- mice to express an increased number of myofibres, whereas ...
Skeletal muscle formation in mouse embryos. Myotome formation in somites of 11-d.p.c. embryos: Des −/+ (A) and Des −/− (B) embryos were stained for β-g
Skeletal muscle formation depends on the fusion of mononucleated myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes. Myoblast fusion is also the basis of muscle growth and repair during postnatal life. The ability of myoblasts to fuse and thereby inject their nucleus into existing muscle fibers led to several preclinical and clinical trials aimed at treating both muscle and non-muscle-related disorders. Identifying the pattern of events that induce myoblast differentiation and their commitment to fuse would benefit the search for improving myoblast-based therapies.. Using primary myoblast cultures derived from single human satellite cells (Baroffio et al., 1993), we have previously shown that membrane potential and the biophysical properties of specific ionic channels are important actors in the fusion process. We found that human myoblasts hyperpolarize before fusion ...
c-MET Regulates Myoblast Motility and Myocyte Fusion during Adult Skeletal Muscle Regeneration. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The results of the present study support our hypothesis, indicating that NO-Shotgun® supplementation in conjunction with a 28 days of heavy resistance training, is effective at increasing fat-free mass, muscle strength and mass, myofibrillar protein content, and markers of satellite cell activation, while having no effect on whole blood and serum clinical safety markers in untrained males. Our results agree with previously reported studies that resistance training, when performed in conjunction with creatine [24, 25], whey protein and leucine [36], and HMB [37, 38] is effective at improving body composition, muscle strength and mass and markers of satellite cell activation.. We observed both NO and PL to significantly increase total body mass (P = 0.001). Additionally, fat-free mass was increased in both groups, and the 4.75% increase in NO was significantly greater than the 1.69% increase in PL. These findings are similar to results ...
This work uncovers novel mechanisms of aging within stem cell niches that are evolutionarily conserved between mice and humans and affect both embryonic and adult stem cells. Specifically, we have examined the effects of aged muscle and systemic niches on key molecular identifiers of regenerative potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and post-natal muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Our results reveal that aged differentiated niches dominantly inhibit the expression of Oct4 in hESCs and Myf-5 in activated satellite cells, and reduce proliferation and myogenic differentiation of both embryonic and tissue-specific adult stem cells (ASCs). Therefore, despite their general neoorganogenesis potential, the ability of hESCs, and the more differentiated myogenic ASCs to contribute to tissue repair in the old will be greatly restricted ...
MDA has awarded a research grant totaling $447,092 over three years to Alessandra Sacco, an assistant professor in the Muscle Development and Regeneration Program at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute in La Jolla, Calif. The grant will help support Saccos research on early-stage transplantation of muscle stem cells to treat a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).. The goal of Saccos new study is to understand whether transplanting muscle stem cells into a DMD mouse model during the fetal or newborn period can prevent the muscle degenerative process seen in DMD.. Sacco said that, by the time DMD is diagnosed and treatment begins in children with the disease, significant damage to muscles has accumulated, which "poses a major hurdle to the design of efficient therapeutic approaches.". She said transplantation of muscle stem cells during ...
In this study we found that both postnatal (P1-3) and adult loss of Nf1 using the PlpCre driver cause GEM-grade I neurofibroma tumor formation. The models differ in the timing of neurofibroma formation, in the size of the neurofibromas generated, and in prevalence of hematopoietic manifestations. We found that myelinating Schwann cells, p75+ cells, and satellite cells are targeted by the inducible PlpCre driver. Our results support previous studies indicating that loss of Nf1 in subpopulations of nerve Schwann cell lineage cells cause neurofibroma formation, and extend these studies by showing that acute Nf1 loss, after organogenesis and cell differentiation, can be tumorigenic.. We identified EGFP+ cells to identify possible tumor cells of origin in the PlpCre model. Tamoxifen exposure induced peripheral nervous system recombination, as judged by EGFP+ cells, in ...
2016 Annual Meeting: Extracellular Matrix Impregnated with Adipose Derived Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration following Volumetric Muscle Loss in a Murine Model
Akirin is a recently discovered nuclear factor that plays an important role in innate immune responses. Beyond its role in innate immune responses, Akirin has recently been shown to play an important role in skeletal myogenesis. In this article, we will briefly review the structure and tissue distribution of Akirin and discuss recent advances in our understanding of its role and signal pathway in skeletal myogenesis.
The orbital velocity of the satellite depends on its altitude above Earth. The nearer to Earth, the faster the required orbital velocity. At an altitude of 124 miles (200 kilometers), the required orbital velocity is a little more than 17,000 mph (about 27,400 kph). To maintain an orbit that is 22,223 miles (35,786 kilometers) above Earth, the satellite must orbit at a speed of about 7,000 mph (11,300 kph). That orbital speed and distance permit the satellite to make one revolution in 24 hours. Since Earth also rotates once in 24 hours, a satellite at 22,223 miles altitude stays in a fixed position relative to a point on Earths surface. Because the satellite stays right over the same spot all the time, this kind of orbit is called geostationary. Geostationary orbits are ideal for weather satellites and communications satellites.. In general, the higher the orbit, the longer the ...
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A hybrid satellite communications system provides communications, particularly Internet access, to computer users. The hybrid satellite communications system includes a satellite system and a terrestrial communications system. The satellite system includes two transceivers. The first transceiver receives and transmits a first set of signals received from the terrestrial communications system to a plurality of user units. In reverse fashion, the satellite systems second transceiver receives a second set of signals in a second frequency band from the user units and transmits those signals back to the terrestrial communications system. The first set of signals (downlink signals) are of much higher frequency than the second set of signals (uplink signals). Preferably, the first set of signals are relayed by a Direct Broadcast System (DBS) satellite in a frequency band between 12.2 GHz and 12.9 GHz, while the ...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 22159413. J. Cell. Sci. 2011 Dec;124(Pt 23):3980-8. We report expression of Pax3, an important regulator of skeletal muscle stem cell behaviour, in the brachial and femoral arteries of adult mice. In these contractile arteries of the limb, but not in the elastic arteries of the trunk, bands of GFP-positive cells were observed in Pax3(GFP/+) mice. Histological and biochemical examination of the vessels, together with clonal analysis after purification of Pax3-GFP-positive cells by flow cytometry, established their vascular smooth muscle identity. These blood-vessel-derived cells do not respond to inducers of other mesodermal cell types, such as bone, however, they can contribute to muscle fibre formation when co-cultured with skeletal muscle cells. This myogenic conversion depends on ...
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease characterized by progressive skeletal muscle degeneration. Inhibition of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB), and more specifically the p65 subunit, significantly improves the phenotype of mdx mice, a murine DMD model. However, the ubiquity of NF-κB stands as an obstacle to clinical translation. In this dissertation, we explore the roles of NF-κB/p65 in the regenerative capacity of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) with the goal of identifying alternative approaches to DMD treatment. We found that both cell proliferation and myogenic potential were increased in MDSCs lacking one allele of p65 (p65+/-). In wild type MDSCs, in vitro pharmacologic inhibition of the upstream activating kinase, IKKβ, increased myotube formation in a dose-dependent manner. When transplanted into mdx hind limb muscle, p65+/- MDSCs resulted in significantly larger ...
TABLE-US-00001 Marker Cell Type Significance Blood Vessel Fetal liver Endothelial Cell-surface receptor protein that identifies kinase-1 (Flk1) endothelial cell progenitor; marker of cell-cell contacts Bone Bone-specific Osteoblast Enzyme expressed in osteoblast; activity alkaline indicates bone formation phosphatase (BAP) Bone Marrow and Blood Bone morphogenetic Mesenchymal Important for the differentiation of committed protein receptor stem and mesenchymal cell types from mesenchymal stem (BMPR) progenitor cells and progenitor cells; BMPR identifies early mesenchymal lineages (stem and progenitor cells) CD34 Hematopoietic Cell-surface protein on bone marrow cell, stem cell (HSC), indicative of a HSC and endothelial progenitor; satellite, CD34 also identifies muscle satellite, a muscle stem cell endothelial progenitor CD34.sup.+, Sca1.sup.+, Mesencyhmal Identifies MSCs, which can ...
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Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM) remains without proven treatment, reflecting a previous lack of preclinical disease models on which to evaluate potential therapies. We developed a panel of pathological outcome measures, using primary satellite cell cultures, that reflects the multifaceted pathogenesis of IBM. This allowed initial assessment of Heat Shock Response manipulation as a new therapeutic strategy for IBM. Over-expression of β-Amyloid Precursor Protein or exposure to inflammatory mediators IL1β, TNFα and IFNγ reproduced salient features of the cellular environment found in IBM. Myotubes demonstrated ubiquitinated intracellular inclusions, increased expression of MHC Class I, mitochondrial dysfunction and cytoplasmic translocation of TDP-43. ER stress and activation of the NFκB cascade, proposed to be central pathogenic mechanisms in IBM, were also observed. We developed quantifiable measures of these changes, allowing the impact of drugs to be tested. The effects of heat ...
In this review, the analogy between the processes of nurse cell formation and muscle cell repair has been emphasized. At least the earliest events mobilizing satellite cells seem to be common, but the fate of the proliferated myoblast cell is different. In the former case, the satellite cell differentiates to the muscle cell, but it mis-differentiates to the nurse cell in the latter case. The idea that comes to mind is that Trichinella, in order to make its own home, basically utilizes the cell-biological-system of the host which is equipped for the purpose of muscle cell repairing. Since the satellite cell is a progenitor cell located within the capsule wall, a new cell can be continuously supplied from the myoblast, even if the present nurse cell dies. This explains why the nurse cell looks intact and active for years in spite of intracellular parasitism. Thus Trichinella can take ...
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE. UNICEF Office of Innovation is hiring a specialist on satellite imagery processing and machine learning to join our Technology and Data Science Team. We are looking for motivated Master Degree or PhD that can support various projects that make use of satellite images to better understand the world we live, to improve our responses to children and youth. Satellite imagery provide important information from places that are not connected that may allow UNICEF to reach the most disfavored population.. We also have a small venture fund - the UNICEF Innovation Fund - which provides resources to quickly assess, fund and scale companies, teams, and ideas that have been developed in new and emerging markets. The Innovation Fund supports the generation of open source, public goods that address the most pressing challenges facing children. As a subject matter expert, you will guide and evaluate the projects that involve ...
Read a description of Satellite Communications Systems. This is also known as Satellites Systems, Satellite Systems. Free detailed reports on Satellite Communications Systems are also available.
There is a complex pattern of satellite DNA sequences in M. rufus which are revealed by addition of Ag+ or dye (Hoechst 33258) to the DNA ink Cs2SO4 or CsCl equilibrium density gradients. Six satellite DNA fractions have been isolated; these have buoyant densities in neutral CsCl of 1.692, 1.704, 1.705, 1.707 (two), 1.710 and 1.712 g/ml compared with 1.696 g/ml for the main band DNA. Each satellite accounts for 1-3% of the DNA of the genome. The satellites are located in the centromeric heterochromatin of the chromosomes, in the nucleolar organizer region and in interstitial bands on some of the autosomes, each satellite having a unique distribution. Nucleic acid hybridization showed that six of the satellite sequences are also present in the genomes of the wallaroo and the red-necked wallaby, with sequence divergences of only 1-2% relative to the sequences in the red kangaroo.
Iran plans to launch a satellite into space soon using an Iranian-made rocket, President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said.. Iran has in the past launched satellites using rockets built by other nations, but this was the first announcement of such a launch with an all-Iranian made rocket.. Ahmadinejad said the rocket will have 16 engines and will take a satellite some 430 miles into space, according to a state television report Thursday.. The satellite will likely be a commercial one for communication or meteorological research purposes. Iran has never announced plans to launch military satellites.. But the country has long pursued the goal of developing a space program, generating unease among world leaders already concerned about its nuclear and ballistic missile programs.. The same technology used to put satellites into space can be used to deliver warheads, which will likely further raise concerns over Tehrans ...
A method and apparatus encompasses a technique for routing an information packet through a satellite communications system 20 from a source satellite 38 to a destination satellite 40. A path through the system 20 is chosen for the packet and an identifier identifying the path is appended to the packet. In addition, an identifier identifying the destination satellite 40 is appended to the packet. Satellites in the system 20 then use the identifiers in the packet to route the packet to the destination satellite 40. If the chosen path is not available, an alternate path can be taken by the packet. In one embodiment of the present invention, a centralized controller 36 is provided for controlling the routing of packets throughout the entire system 20.
The UAH satellite temperature dataset, developed at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, infers the temperature of various atmospheric layers from satellite measurements of radiance. It was the first global temperature datasets developed from satellite information and has been used as a tool for research into surface and atmospheric temperature changes. The dataset is published by John Christy et al. and formerly jointly with Roy Spencer. Satellites do not measure temperature directly. They measure radiances in various wavelength bands, from which temperature may be inferred. The resulting temperature profiles depend on details of the methods that are used to obtain temperatures from radiances. As a result, different groups that have analyzed the satellite data have obtained different temperature data. Among these groups are Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) and the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). The ...
MOSCOW, March 22 (Xinhua) -- A Russian carrier rocket has successfully delivered 34 communications satellites of British company OneWeb into orbit, the Russian state space corporation Roscosmos said Sunday.. The launch was carried out on Saturday from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan under a contract signed in 2015 by OneWeb, Roscosmos and Frances Arianespace, the corporation said in a statement.. It was the third launch of OneWeb satellites, raising the number of the companys spacecraft in low Earth orbit to 74.. The first six OneWeb satellites were launched from French Guiana in February 2019, and another batch of 34 satellites was launched last month from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.. OneWeb intends to deploy a total of more than 600 satellites in low Earth orbit, which are designed to provide consumers on the ground with 24-hour high-speed Internet directly through satellite communications. ...
Fibrosis is the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components during tissue healing leading to loss of its architecture and function. Fibrotic diseases are often associated with chronic pathologies and occur in a large variety of vital organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In human muscle, fibrosis is most readily associated with the severe muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by loss of dystrophin gene function. In DMD, skeletal muscle degenerates and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells and the functions of the muscle stem cells (satellite cells) become impeded and fibrogenic cells hyperproliferate and are overactivated, leading to the substitution of skeletal muscle ...
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a recessive X-linked disorder and the most common of a class of progressive muscle-wasting diseases, is characterized by the lack of dystrophin at the muscle cell membrane (1). Replacement of absent dystrophin in mdx mice by transgenic expression leads to complete restoration of normal muscle cell membrane function (2). Muscle is known to be a regenerative tissue, and this regeneration is accomplished via a heterogeneous population of cells called satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells divide upon damage to muscle, fuse to one another and with existing myofibers, and create new muscle fibers. One approach to therapy for DMD was the intramuscular injection of normal myoblasts into the skeletal muscle of DMD patients or mdx mice, which lack full-length ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glutathione-peroxidase-1 null muscle progenitor cells are globally defective. AU - Lee, Sukkyoo. AU - Shin, H. Stella. AU - Shireman, Paula K.. AU - Vasilaki, Aphrodite. AU - Van Remmen, Holly. AU - Csete, Marie E.. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Mice lacking glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1) have decreased resistance to systemically administered oxidants as well as infections, and sustain increased damage after ischemia-reperfusion injuries. However, stem or progenitor cell function in these animals has not been studied. We characterized patterns of proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation of primary muscle progenitor cells (myoblasts) from Gpx1-/- mice. Myoblasts are the transit amplifying compartment of skeletal muscle. All aspects of myoblast biology are negatively affected by deletion of Gpx1. In particular, passaged, proliferating Gpx1-/- myoblasts, when ...
Zilpaterol (ZIL) is a β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) agonist that has been recently approved for use in feedlot cattle to improve production efficiencies and animal performance. One of the mechanisms through which this occurs is increased skeletal muscle growth. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ZIL both in vivo and in vitro. In the first experiment, ZIL addition to bovine satellite cells resulted in a tendency to increase IGF-I mRNA and increased myosin heavy chain IIA (MHC) mRNA with 0.001 [micro symbol]M and decreased MHC mRNA with 0.01 and 10 [micro symbol]M. There were no effects of ZIL on protein synthesis or degradation. In myoblast cultures, there was a decrease in all three β-AR mRNA, and this was also reported in western blot analysis with a reduction in β2-AR expression due to ZIL treatment. In myotubes, there was an increase in β2-AR protein expression. In the second and third ...
If they work as intended, the micro-satellites could be precursors to the Starlink network, a fleet of 4,500 satellites orbiting between 600 and 800 miles above the earth and bringing high speed broadband internet access to all the inhabitants of Earth. Further down the road, SpaceX has plans for an even larger fleet of 7,200 tiny satellites orbiting just 200 miles high.. Satellites in such low earth orbits cannot remain stationary above any one place on the planet and will need to be maneuvered around in the sky by controllers on the ground. Add in the thousands of other internet satellites proposed by Facebook, OneWeb, Telesat, SpaceNorway, and Boeing and the skies overhead could one day be as congested as the 405 freeway during morning rush hour.. Last week, the FCC gave its blessing to the Starlink plan. Chairman Ajit Pai said in a letter to his fellow commissioners, "Satellite technology can help reach ...
Satellite DNA consists of highly repetitive and tandemly arranged DNA sequences (Charlesworth et al., 1994) which are considered the main components of constitutive heterochromatin and are usually located in the centromeric regions of chromosomes and, less frequently, in telomeres (Charlesworth et al., 1994; Ugarkovic and Plohl, 2002). Satellite DNAs are heterogeneous and no general function has been attributed to this DNA class. However, despite the terminology "junk DNA" frequently associated with these sequences (Orgel and Crick, 1980), several biological roles have been suggested for some satellite DNA families, such as regulation of both heterochromatin condensation and genetic expression (reviewed by Ugarkovic, 2005). Moreover, satellite DNAs are involved in the maintenance of functional centromeres in mammals (Willard, 1990) and might also be related to the late replication of centromeres (Csink and Henikoff, 1998).. The ...
We describe satellite DNA variation that detects hybridization of Bos indicus (Zebu or indicine cattle) and Bos taurus (taurine cattle) in African cattle populations. On southern blots hybridized to a satellite III probe, relative intensities of Hinf1 fragments correlated with the taurine-zebu composition in hybrid animals as deduced from AFLP genotyping of the same animals and previous data on microsatellite allele frequencies. Similar results were obtained by PCR-RFLP analysis of a zebu-specific mutation in the repeat unit of satellite 1.711b. analysis of individulas from 20 African cattle breeds indicate that the centromeric satellites of the sanga breeds are of the taurine type and that several East-African zebu breeds are hybrids between taurine and zebu. These satellite RFLP or SFLP, markers provide a fast method to screen the genetic makeup of African cattle ...
A future network of satellites orbiting the earth may be able to detect an impending earthquake by monitoring our planets ionosphere.. The project is based on a controversial theory that may have gained support in light of new findings relating to last months Sichuan province earthquake. The researchers hope to create a global network of roughly 20 satellites that would scan for telltale activity that some scientists say precedes large earthquakes. The goal is to create an early warning system that would give up to two weeks notice before a major earthquake occurs.. Current detection systems can give a maximum of one minutes notice and are prone to false alarms. "Right now were in the business of disaster monitoring," says Dr Stuart Eves, a researcher at Surrey Satellite Technology Limited, the company behind the proposed satellite network. "We hope to be in the business of disaster avoidance," says Eves. The proposed dishwasher-sized ...
A future network of satellites orbiting the earth may be able to detect an impending earthquake by monitoring our planets ionosphere.. The project is based on a controversial theory that may have gained support in light of new findings relating to last months Sichuan province earthquake. The researchers hope to create a global network of roughly 20 satellites that would scan for telltale activity that some scientists say precedes large earthquakes. The goal is to create an early warning system that would give up to two weeks notice before a major earthquake occurs.. Current detection systems can give a maximum of one minutes notice and are prone to false alarms. "Right now were in the business of disaster monitoring," says Dr Stuart Eves, a researcher at Surrey Satellite Technology Limited, the company behind the proposed satellite network. "We hope to be in the business of disaster avoidance," says Eves. The proposed dishwasher-sized ...
Figure 3: 3D model of the Max-Valier satellite in launch configuration mounted on the release adapter plate (right), image credit: GOB, OHB. Launch: The Max Valier nanosatellite was launched on June 23, 2017 (03:59 UTC) as a secondary payload on the PSLV-C38 vehicle in XL configuration of ISRO from SDSC (Satish Dhawan Space Center), India. The primary payload on this flight was CartoSat-2E (~712 kg), the sixth satellite in the Cartosat-2 series (total launch mass of ~955 kg). 5) 6). All 31 Satellites separated successfully. 7). Orbit: Sun-synchronous near-circular orbit, altitude of 505 km, inclination = 97.8º, LTDN (Local Time on Descending Node) at 9:30 hours.. Secondary payloads (30 satellites with a total mass of 243 kg):. • NIUSAT (Noorul Islam University Satellite), located in Kumarakovil, Thuckalay, Kanyakumari District Tamil Nadu, India. NIUSAT is an Earth observation nanosatellite ...
Lee Rannals for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. South Koreas space agency planned on launching a satellite from its own soil today, but said it will be delaying the attempt due to a gas leak.. The Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) was forced to postpone the attempt due to a last-minute technical glitch, hindering the company from trying to restore its launch reputation.. Kim Seung-jo, KARIs space agency chief, said engineers found a gas leak in the link between the two-stage rocket and the launch pad just hours before Fridays launch.. The space agency has tried to launch a satellite from its own soil two other times, but each of those attempts failed.. Korea Aerospace Research Institute tried launching a satellite for the first time in 2009, but the rocket failed to place the satellite into orbit. A year later, a South Korean rocket carrying a satellite exploded just two minutes after lift-off.. The current ...
Based on Mark Chartrands highly successful seminar series, this book is a comprehensive introduction to satellite communications covering a broad sweep of regulatory, standards, economics, business, operational, and technical subjects. The text is easily readable, highly entertaining, and truly geared for the nontechnical. Dr. Chartrand employs his unique ability gained over two decades of teaching to explain complex technical and satellite applications to professionals in marketing, finance, law, public relations, and journalism, as well as personnel in ancillary fields and members of the public who wish to better understand the satellite industry.,br, ,br, "Dr. Mark Chartrand is THE single best educator, lecturer and satellite personality in the United States, if not the world.... This is a must-read book." ,br,--David Bross, Via Satellite Magazine,br,Softcover version of PM128 ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Synopsis: Ants and honeybees are both social insects that share many characteristics in common. But there is a fundamental difference between ants and bees. Ants can and do construct main nests with satellite nests, whereas bees construct only a main nest with no satellite nests. In this paper we explain the difference between the socio-economic organization of ants and bees: ants can identify nest-mates from satellite nests because ants leave odor trails connecting main nests to satellite nests so that fellow nest-mate from satellite nests smell the same. Bees, on the other hand, cannot leave odor trails in the air, and hence are unable to identify bees from another nest; bees from another nest with different pheromone smells are stung to death by guard bees in the main nest. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003
Amazonas 3 is a Commercial Communications Satellite that was built by Space Systems/Loral, Palo Alto, and will be operated by Hispasat. It is based on SS/Ls LS-1300 modular satellite platform that provides a high power capability to facilitate the most powerful communication payloads flown to date. The satellite has a liftoff mass of approximately 6,254 Kilograms. Two solar arrays and onboard batteries provide power to the satellites communications payload. The vehicle is three-axis-stabilized and features a propulsion system for apogee maneuvers and stationkeeping in Geostationary Orbit. Amazonas 3 is equipped with 33 Ku-Band and 19 C-Band transponders that will provide communication coverage to Brazil, Latin America and the United States. Nine Ka-Band spot beams are provided by the satellite which will cover Latin America. Amazonas 3 provides expanded internet access, television broadcasting, corporate fixed and mobile ...
Morphological analysis of myofibers at 7 days post‐injury showed a comparable number of centronucleated fibers in WT and Brm null mice (Fig 6B), indicating that the extent of the injury was the same; however, a clear reduction in fiber CSA was observed in tibialis anterior muscle, as well as in gastrocnemius muscle (data not shown) of Brm null mice, as compared to WT muscles (Fig 6B-D), indicating an impaired regeneration ability of Brm null muscles. Muscle repair is typically preceded by myofiber degeneration and inflammatory infiltration, followed by satellite cell‐mediated formation of regenerating fibers that can be distinguished from pre‐existing myofibers by virtue of their staining for embryonic MyHC (eMyHC). eMyHC expression typically disappears upon fiber maturation, between days 6 and 8 post‐injury. Indeed, at 7 days post‐injury, WT muscles showed morphological evidence of ...
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
The Georgia Institute of Technology-Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model is used to simulate the aerosol optical thickness tau for major types of tropospheric aerosols including sulfate, dust, organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), and sea salt. The GOCART model uses a dust emission algorithm that quantifies the dust source as a function of the degree of topographic depression, and a biomass burning emission source that includes seasonal and interannual variability based on satellite observations. Results presented here show that on global average, dust aerosol has the highest tau at 500 nm (0.051), followed by sulfate (0.040), sea salt (0.027), OC (0.017), and BC (0.007). There are large geographical and seasonal variations of tau, controlled mainly by emission, transport, and hygroscopic properties of aerosols. The model calculated total taus at 500 nm have been compared with the satellite retrieval products from the Total Ozone ...
We ascertained a nuclear family in which three of four siblings were affected with an unclassified autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by severe weakness, respiratory impairment, scoliosis, joi
Video articles in JoVE about muscular dystrophies include Isometric and Eccentric Force Generation Assessment of Skeletal Muscles Isolated from Murine Models of Muscular Dystrophies, Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Skeletal Muscle Disease, Analysis of Zebrafish Larvae Skeletal Muscle Integrity with Evans Blue Dye, Transplantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Mesoangioblast-like Myogenic Progenitors in Mouse Models of Muscle Regeneration, In Situ Immunofluorescent Staining of Autophagy in Muscle Stem Cells, In Vivo Modeling of the Morbid Human Genome using Danio rerio, Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Defects in Larval Zebrafish by Birefringence and Touch-evoke Escape Response Assays, Isolation and Immortalization of Patient-derived Cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peripheral neuroglial death induced by cisplatin administration in newborn rats. AU - Sugimoto, Tomosada. AU - Takeyama, Akihiro. AU - Fujita, Masako. AU - Ichikawa, Hiroyuki. AU - Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko. PY - 2001/1/22. Y1 - 2001/1/22. N2 - To determine the target of cytotoxicity of cisplatin (CDDP), we injected newborn rats with 2mg/kg CDDP and examined the trigeminal ganglion for possible cell death. A nick translation method for DNA fragmentation revealed CDDP-induced glial cell death. DNA fragmentation was detected in both Schwann cells and satellite cells. Satellite cell death was observed as early as 0.5 day after injection, most frequent at 1-3 days and subsided thereafter. The incidence of neuronal death was very low and comparable to that observed in vehicle control rats. CDDP has selective toxicity to peripheral glial cells, though the damage did not culminate in cell death in adults. The glial ...
A Soyuz rocket lifted off from French Guiana on Thursday, launching four satellites owned by O3b Networks nearly 5,000 miles above Earth to expand access to high-speed Internet in the developing world.. The addition of four new spacecraft grows O3bs fleet to a dozen satellites, and the company based in Britains Channel Islands has plans to purchase and launch more satellites in the next few years.. O3b kicked off commercial service Sept. 1, and the satellites launched Thursday will officially join the fleet in February.. "Its expanding our network," said Steve Collar, CEO of O3b Networks, in a phone interview from the French Guiana launch base. "It takes us to more than 100 gigabits up in orbit, and that allows us to bring a lot more capacity to our customers and cope with the demand that were seeing in the market.. "Just within the last three months since weve been in full commercial service, weve seen pretty much every network that weve ...
The first generation of U.S. photo intelligence satellites collected more than 860,000 images of the Earths surface between 1960 and 1972. The classified military satellite systems code-named CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD acquired photographic images from space and returned the film to Earth for processing and analysis.. The images were originally used for reconnaissance and to produce maps for U.S. intelligence agencies. In 1992, an Environmental Task Force evaluated the application of early satellite data for environmental studies. Since the CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD data were no longer critical to national security and could be of historical value for global change research, the images were declassified by Executive Order 12951 in 1995.. The first successful CORONA mission was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in 1960. The satellite acquired photographs with a telescopic camera system and loaded the exposed film into recovery ...
The Gonets-M satellite provides a total of 16 communication channels - 14 (13+1) uplink channels and two downlink channels with no space-to-space capability. Communications are supported in frequency ranges of 260MHz and 312-390MHz - typically, uplink is provided at data rates of 2.4 to 9.6Kb/sec while downlink is provided at data rates of 4.8 to 6.4Kb/sec. Data can be stored in an 8MB onboard memory.. For beam accuracy, Gonets-M uses the Russian GLONASS positioning satellite system with a user position accuracy of 100 meters to allow it to target the desired ground stations for data downlink. The daily data throughput for each spacecraft is expected to be at least 270Mbit with a typical message length of up to 500Kbits and a nominal transfer time of under two minutes per message. The satellites have a life expectancy of five years.. The next generation of Gonets satellites known as Gonets-M1 will be introduced in the coming years utilizing ...
If we can track the source of turbidity, we can better understand why turbidity is changing. And if the source is human-related, we can try to manage that human activity," says Frank Muller-Karger, a study co-author from the University of South Florida. Satellites previously have observed turbidity in the open ocean by monitoring how much light is reflected and absorbed by the water. The technique has not had much success in observing turbidity along the coast, however. Thats because shallow coastal waters and Earths atmosphere serve up complicated optical properties that make it difficult for researchers to determine which colors in a satellite image are related to turbidity, which to shallow bottom waters, and which to the atmosphere. Now with advances in satellite sensors combined with developments in how the data are analyzed, Chen and colleagues show it is possible to monitor turbidity of coastal waters via satellite. The traditional ...
Satellite data compression has been an important subject since the beginning of satellites in orbit, and it has become an even more active research topic. Following technological advancements, the trend of new satellites has led to an increase in spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution, an extension in wavelength range, and a widening of ground swath to better serve the needs of the user community and decision makers. Data compression is often used as a sound solution to overcome the challenges of handling a tremendous amount of data. I have been working in this area since I was pursing my Ph. D. thesis almost 30 years ago.. Over the last two decades, I - as a senior research scientist and technical authority with the Canadian Space Agency - have led and carried out research and development of innovative data compression technology for optical satellites in collaboration with my colleagues at the agency, other government departments, ...
BAIKONUR COSMODROME, Kazakhstan, July 1, 2009 - ILS International Launch Services (ILS), a world leader in providing mission and launch services to the commercial satellite industry, successfully carried the SIRIUS FM-5 satellite into orbit today on an ILS Proton. This was the third commercial mission of the year for ILS and the fifth successful Proton launch of 2009. ILS has launched the entire SIRIUS three-satellite constellation beginning with the first launch in 2000.. The ILS Proton Breeze M launched from Pad 39 at the cosmodrome at 1:10 a.m. today local time (3:10 p.m. EDT, 19:10 GMT). After a 9 hour 14 minute mission, the Breeze M successfully released the SIRIUS FM-5 satellite, weighing over 5.8 metric tons, into geo-transfer orbit. This was the 346th launch for the Proton. The Proton Breeze M vehicle is developed and built by Khrunichev Research and Production Space Center of Moscow, Russias premier space manufacturer.. The SIRIUS ...
Welcome to the RU COOL satellite data image archive! On this web site you will find all of the available satellite data products we offer to research, industry, education and the general public. Satellite data are collected with SeaSpace L-Band and X-Band satellite dishes, both of which are on the top of the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences building on Cook Campus within the New Brunswick Campus of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.. ...
Interferon-related developmental regulator 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFRD1 gene. The gene is expressed mostly in neutrophils, skeletal and cardiac muscle, brain, pancreas. The rat and the mouse homolog genes of interferon-related developmental regulator 1 gene (and their proteins) are also known with the name PC4 and Tis21, respectively. IFRD1 is member of a gene family that comprises a second gene, IFRD2, also known as SKmc15. IFRD1 has been identified as a modifier gene for cystic fibrosis lung disease. In humans, neutrophil effector function is dependent on the type of IRFD1 polymorphism present in the individual. Human and mouse data both indicate that IFRD1 has a sizable impact on cystic fibrosis pathogenesis by regulating neutrophil effector function. IFRD1(also known as PC4 or Tis7, see above) participates to the process of skeletal muscle cell differentiation. In fact, ...
Massive tears of the rotator cuff (RC) are associated with chronic muscle degeneration due to fibrosis, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy. The microenvironment of diseased muscle often impairs efficient engraftment and regenerative activity of transplanted myogenic precursors. Accumulating myofibroblasts and fat cells disrupt the muscle stem cell niche and myogenic cell signaling and deposit excess disorganized connective tissue. Therefore, restoration of the damaged stromal niche with non-fibro-adipogenic cells is a prerequisite to successful repair of an injured RC. We generated from human embryonic stem cells (hES) a potentially novel subset of PDGFR-β+CD146+CD34-CD56- pericytes that lack expression of the fibro-adipogenic cell marker PDGFR-α. Accordingly, the PDGFR-β+PDGFR-α- phenotype typified non-fibro-adipogenic, non-myogenic, pericyte-like derivatives that maintained ...
0016] FIG. 1 is a schematic of a system 100 that enhances spatialization. The system 100 may be positioned at an originating location 150 in a communication arrangement such as, for example, a teleconferencing or video conferencing room, an interior of a vehicle (e.g., FIG. 3), or within any communication or telecommunication device that processes audible sound from one or more sound sources, or speakers 152. The system 100 may comprise devices that convert audible sound from one, two or more sound sources 152 into electrical or optical signals. In some systems a microphone array 102 and a satellite input device or satellite microphone 108 may convert sound into analog, discrete, optical or electrical signals. The microphone array 102 may, for example, comprise a pair of closely spaced omnidirectional microphones. In some systems 100, the omnidirectional microphones may be spaced less than about a wavelength apart for frequencies within a spectrum of interest. The ...
A geometric shape (e.g., an inverted cone) is computed above a given reference point defined from locations of cell sites OTHER than the cell site currently servicing a given wireless device, to provide a best-guess as to a near-future location of a mobile wireless device. Locating satellites (e.g., GPS) are culled into a preferred group and communicated to mobile devices within a particular region (e.g., serviced by a particular base station). The culled locating satellites may select those visible, or more preferably those locating satellites currently within a cone of space above the relevant base station are selected for communication by a mobile device within the service area of the base station. Thus, cell sites other than the one in use by the relevant wireless device may be specifically used to determine a reference point for culling the ephemeris information used to expedite Assisted GPS location determinations.
Figure 8: Photo of a deployed GPM solar array at NASA/GSFC (image credit: NASA). TCS (Thermal Control Subsystem): GPM uses a combination of active and passive thermal control. Passive thermal control is accomplished by the use of thermal covers, coatings and multilayer insulation that prevents sunlight from excessively heating the satellite and heat from dissipating into space in darkness. The outer layer of the multilayer insulation is used to minimize heat loss and is also designed to protect the spacecraft against corrosion by atomic oxygen and electrical charging. The outer MLI layer is made of Germanium Black Kapton. GPM uses blanket tents and form-fitting blankets to protect most of its non-radiating surfaces.. Active thermal control uses heat rejection systems as well as heaters and temperature sensors to keep the satellite at an operating temperature. Because all electronics of the satellite generate heat, GPM has to be outfitted with a heat ...
Case in point: In 2011, the state of Alabama rolled out its GSSNet/Alert Studio CAP-EAS system, a state-of-the-art digital emergency communications system powered by Hughes that disseminates alerts in multiple formats.. Developed and operated by Global Security Systems (GSS), the system includes both its Alert Studio message origination portal and GSSNet satellite data delivery capability, leveraging a combination of the Hughes nationwide satellite service and terrestrial technologies to disseminate messages.. In addition, Alabama has adopted the federal governments Common Alert Protocol (CAP), a digital XML-based data format for sharing and distributing emergency information. A CAP system enables alerts via multi-media applications, including road signs, cell phones, smart phones, reverse 911, TV, and radio. Since the CAP message is digital, audio quality is vastly improved. And because satellite communications transmits to everyone at the same time, state ...
NOAAs Joint Polar Satellite System-1 spacecraft and a host of small satellites known as CubeSats are beginning their missions following this mornings successful launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket. The on-time liftoff occurred at 1:47:36 a.m. PST (4:47:36 EST) from Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.. "Things went absolutely perfect today. The weather cooperated, the upper-level winds cooperated, and so did the vehicle, spacecraft and range instruments," said NASA Launch Manager Omar Baez after launch and ascent activities were complete. "We couldnt ask for better.". JPSS-1 is the first in NOAAs series of four, next-generation operational environmental satellites designed to circle the Earth in a polar orbit. JPSS represents significant technological and scientific advancements in observations used for severe weather prediction and environmental monitoring. This data is used by NOAAs National Weather Service ...
Meteorological satellites see more than clouds and cloud systems. City lights, fires, effects of pollution, auroras, sand and dust storms, snow cover, ice mapping, boundaries of ocean currents, energy flows, etc., and other types of environmental information are collected using weather satellites. Weather satellite images helped in monitoring the volcanic ash cloud from Mount St. Helens and activity from other volcanoes such as Mount Etna. Smoke from fires in the western United States such as Colorado and Utah have also been monitored. ...
Nandrolone decanoate is a androgenic anabolic steroid (AAS) which targets the satellite cells in skeletal muscles. These cells are considered the stem cells of skeletal muscle, and they are essential for muscle growth and repair. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass that inhibits myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Recognizing the mechanisms related to AAS action in skeletal muscle is critical for a better understand of muscular physiology under AAS use. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aquatic plyometric training (APT) with overload associated with AAS on the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Animals were grouped into: sedentary (S); S with AAS (AAS); trained (T); and T with AAS (AAST). Exercised ...
This chapter describes how to set a scale and measure distances and areas on satellite images. Using ImageJ, a freely available image analysis program that runs on most operating systems, users set the spatial calibration of an image, then select... (View More) and measure distances and areas on it. The measurement results are reported in real-world units. The technique is most useful and accurate for nadir view (straight down) images. In this chapter, users examine satellite images of the Aral Sea, which has shrunk dramatically since 1960 because the rivers that flow into it have been tapped for irrigation. Users access satellite images of the region, then set a scale and measure the width of the sea each year. On another set of images, they highlight areas that represent water and measure them to see how these areas of the sea changed. This chapter is part of the Earth Exploration Toolbook, which provides teachers and/or students with direct practice for ...
Envi Headsets. Home Protection Against Radiation. NASA is launching twin satellites on August 24 from Cape Canaveral, Florida that will conduct the most intimate study to date of the Van Allen Radiation Belts that envelop Earth. The two-year Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will study the extremes of space weather and should help scientists improve space weather forecasting.. Space weather doesnt seem like a big deal to most people on Earth, but, according to one researcher from University of Iowa , everybody is affected by it. Pick up your cell phone to make a call; take a flight on your next vacation; step outside to catch a glimpse of the northern lights; these are all instances where you become affected by space weather. And changes in space weather can wreak havoc on satellites, power grids, and GPS systems.. The Van Allen Radiation Belts, named after UI astrophysicist James A. Van Allen who discovered the phenomena in 1958 during the flight of the Explorer 1 ...
To investigate losartans role in muscle injury regeneration in the context of aging, the Hopkins team worked with 40 mice which, at 21-months old, were considered geriatric. The researchers examined the stained muscle tissue under a microscope at four days and again at 19 days, looking for signs of regeneration: small fibers with larger-than-usual nuclei.. After four days, they saw no difference in the number of regenerating fibers between the losartan-treated mice and those not treated. However, after 19 days, the losartan-treated mice had about 10 to 15 per cent of scar tissue formation compared with 30 to 40 per cent of scar tissue formation in those not treated.. Next, the researchers conducted disuse experiments to find out if losartan, in addition to improving muscle regeneration, might have even broader clinical applications in the protection against immobilization atrophy.. Again, using 21-month-old mice, half treated with losartan and half not, the ...
Management Committee Substitute. George Dickson is Professor of Molecular Cell Biology at Royal Holloway - University of London (RHUL). He has spent most of his career studying neuromuscular disease and muscle cell biology, including the first cloning of an intact dystrophin gene, the discovery of the role of cell adhesion molecules in muscle stem cell fusion, the first identification of utrophin, and the first description of exon skipping in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Professor Dickson has also conducted notable research into gene therapy for atherosclerosis, and genetic vaccination against HIV/AIDS. He is a member of the UK MDEX Consortium, UK HIV-Vaccine Consortium, and the EU-SKIP-NMD Project, and has been a platform leader in the EU Clinigene Network of Excellence. He is a past President of the European Society of Gene & Cell Therapy, and a past Secretary and founder member of the British Society for Gene Therapy. He has been a member of the European Medicine ...
In this study we investigated the effect of the anti-retroviral drug indinavir on protein metabolism and signal transduction in cultured myocytes. Our results demonstrate that indinavir decreased the basal rate of protein synthesis in cultured myocytes after a 24- or 48-h exposure. However, this treatment did not alter proteolysis. Myocytes treated with other PIs such as nelfinavir, saquinavir, amprenavir, and ritonavir also inhibited basal protein synthesis. This comparable response indicates that as a class, these drugs can adversely influence muscle protein metabolism under in vitro conditions.. The effects of indinavir have been tested in a number of cell lines. In the present study we used C2C12 myoblasts, which are a well-characterized model system. These cells embody a muscle precursor phenotype, much like satellite cells that are resident in mature muscle. In addition, we found that indinavir also ...

microRNA-128 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells by repressing Sp1 |...microRNA-128 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells by repressing Sp1 |...

Ge Y, Sun Y, Chen J (2011) IGF-II is regulated by microRNA-125b in skeletal myogenesis. J Cell Biol 192:69-81CrossRefPubMed ... Bovine Skeletal muscle satellite cells Microrna-128 Sp1 Myogenic differentiation Yang Dai and Wei Ran Zhang contributed equally ... However, little is known about the functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell development. In this study, we ... The results of our study reveal a mechanism by which miR-128 regulates bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11010-016-2656-7

Desmin Antibody ReviewDesmin Antibody Review

Desmin is present in proliferating rat muscle satellite cells but not in bovine muscle satellite cells. PMID: 1744177. ... myogenic markers in both skeletal muscle and heart. PMID: 9113396. * an early marker for chick somitic myogenesis. PMID: ... skeletal muscle fibers and certain smooth muscle cells, and one of the earliest known muscle-specific genes to be expressed ... the main intermediate filament (IF) protein of muscle cells. In skeletal muscle, desmin IFs form a scaffold that interconnects ...
more infohttp://antibodybeyond.com/reviews/antigen-d/desmin.htm

Isolation, Culture, and Differentiation of Fibro/Adipogenic Progenitors (FAPs) from Skeletal Muscle | SpringerLinkIsolation, Culture, and Differentiation of Fibro/Adipogenic Progenitors (FAPs) from Skeletal Muscle | SpringerLink

... are a multipotent progenitor population resident in skeletal muscle. During development and regeneration, FAPs provide trophic ... progenitors Skeletal muscle MSCs Mesenchymal progenitors Myogenesis Skeletal muscle regeneration Satellite cells Fibrosis ... Mesenchymal progenitors distinct from satellite cells contribute to ectopic fat cell formation in skeletal muscle. Nat Cell ... from Skeletal Muscle. In: Ryall J. (eds) Skeletal Muscle Development. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1668. Humana Press, New ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-7283-8_7

Ondra Kielbasa | Alvernia UniversityOndra Kielbasa | Alvernia University

Joint Meeting of Frontier in Myogenesis and Skeletal Muscle Stem and Satellite Cells. Columbia University, New York, NY. Poster ... "Analysis of fusion-related genes in ethanol-treated C2C12 muscle cells." Molecular Biologry of the Cell. 28: 529-530. Abstract ... "Analysis of fusion-related genes in ethanol-treated C2C12 muscle cells. "American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) Annual ... Myospryn modulates skeletal muscle regeneration and fiber-type through the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. FASEB Journal. 7 ...
more infohttps://www.alvernia.edu/faculty-staff/faculty/ondra-kielbasa

Evaluation of developmental toxicity of guaifenesin using pregnant female rats Shabbir A, Shamsi S, Shahzad M, Butt HI, Aamir K...Evaluation of developmental toxicity of guaifenesin using pregnant female rats Shabbir A, Shamsi S, Shahzad M, Butt HI, Aamir K...

... of a nitric oxide-releasing analogue of the muscle relaxant guaifenesin for skeletal muscle satellite cell myogenesis 2009;6: ... We also performed skeletal examination and no signs of prominent skeletal deformities were found in fetuses of the females who ... Five fetuses from each group were subjected to skeletal examination, and we found no skeletal deformation in Group-1, -2, -3, ... Staining and Skeletal Examination of Fetuses. The other half of the total fetuses was subjected to staining in order to ...
more infohttp://www.ijp-online.com/article.asp?issn=0253-7613

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Skeletal muscle stem cell, embryonic tissue culture, apoptosis, growth factor, proliferation, myoblast, myogenesis, satellite ... satellite cells which contribute to skeletal muscle fibre regeneration but which are also retained (in the satellite cell niche ... Adult and Embryonic Skeletal Muscle Microexplant Culture and Isolation of Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells ... Uniquely, micro-explant cultures have been used to derive clonal (single cell origin) skeletal muscle stem cell (SMSc) lines ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/19806209/high-expression-levels-total-igf-1r-sensitivity-nsclc-cells-vitro-to

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Skeletal muscle stem cell, embryonic tissue culture, apoptosis, growth factor, proliferation, myoblast, myogenesis, satellite ... satellite cells which contribute to skeletal muscle fibre regeneration but which are also retained (in the satellite cell niche ... Adult and Embryonic Skeletal Muscle Microexplant Culture and Isolation of Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells ... Uniquely, micro-explant cultures have been used to derive clonal (single cell origin) skeletal muscle stem cell (SMSc) lines ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/22606340/rapid-transcriptional-pulsing-dynamics-high-expressing-retroviral

JCI -
Transient HIF2A inhibition promotes satellite cell proliferation and muscle regenerationJCI - Transient HIF2A inhibition promotes satellite cell proliferation and muscle regeneration

Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity. FASEB J. 2016; ... Adult skeletal muscle stem cells, also called satellite cells (SCs), are essential for skeletal muscle regeneration (2). SCs ... MicroRNA-133 controls brown adipose determination in skeletal muscle satellite cells by targeting Prdm16. Cell Metab. 2013;17(2 ... Muscle satellite cells and endothelial cells: close neighbors and privileged partners. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18(4):1397-1409. ...
more infohttps://jci.org/articles/view/96208

Equine Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Regeneration Capacity with AgingEquine Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Regeneration Capacity with Aging

The regulation of Notch signaling controls satellite cell activation and cell fate determination in postnatal myogenesis. Dev ... Regeneration of adult skeletal muscle mainly depends on muscle stem cells, also known as satellite cells, located between the ... 134 Figure 4 3. Fusion capacity of satellite cells isolated from skeletal muscle of American Quarter Horses. Satellite cells ... 145 After investigat ing the effects of aging on equine skeletal muscle, we asked how muscle stem cells ( namely satellite ...
more infohttp://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0051444/00001

Role of Zebrafish fhl1A in Satellite Cell and Skeletal MusclRole of Zebrafish fhl1A in Satellite Cell and Skeletal Muscl

However, the function of this protein in skeletal devel ... skeletal muscle, development, zebrafish, myogenesis. ... This decrease in satellite cells and the emergence of skeletal muscle abnormalities were associated with alterations in the ... Conclusion: fhl1A functions as an activator in regulating the number of satellite cells and in skeletal muscle development. The ... Role of Zebrafish fhl1A in Satellite Cell and Skeletal Muscle Development [ Vol. 17 , Issue. 9 ] ...
more infohttp://www.current-molecular-medicine.com/articles/160312/role-of-zebrafish-fhl1a-in-satellite-cell-and-skeletal-muscle-development

Cellular Prion Protein Promotes Regeneration of Adult Muscle Tissue | Molecular and Cellular BiologyCellular Prion Protein Promotes Regeneration of Adult Muscle Tissue | Molecular and Cellular Biology

Skeletal muscle satellite cells and adult myogenesis. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 19:628-633. ... and satellite cells intact (18). Satellite cells are the major stem cells of adult skeletal muscles, which account for the ... Niche regulation of muscle satellite cell self-renewal and differentiation. Cell Stem Cell 2:22-31. ... All muscle satellite cells are equal, but are some more equal than others? J. Cell Sci. 121:2975-2982. ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/30/20/4864.full

Activation of Cdc6 by MyoD is associated with the expansion of quiescent myogenic satellite cells | JCBActivation of Cdc6 by MyoD is associated with the expansion of quiescent myogenic satellite cells | JCB

Skeletal muscle satellite cells and adult myogenesis. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 19:628-633. doi:10.1016/j.ceb.2007.09.012. ... Satellite cells are self-renewing muscle stem cells, which mediate the growth and repair of skeletal muscle (Zammit et al., ... The skeletal muscle satellite cell: the stem cell that came in from the cold. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 54:1177-1191. doi:10.1369 ... The muscle regulatory factors MyoD and Myf-5 undergo distinct cell cycle-specific expression in muscle cells. J. Cell Biol. 142 ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/188/1/39

Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells from Animals I. Basic Cell Biology [Abstract]Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells from Animals I. Basic Cell Biology [Abstract]

Keywords: Skeletal muscle stem cells, Satellite cells, Adipocytes, Adipofibroblasts, Embryogenesis, Postnatal myogenesis. ... Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells from Animals I. Basic Cell Biology Michael V. Dodson1✉, Gary J. Hausman2, LeLuo Guan3, Min Du4, ... Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells from Animals I. Basic Cell Biology. Int J Biol Sci 2010; 6(5):465-474. doi:10.7150/ijbs.6.465. ... skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding of muscle stem cell ...
more infohttp://www.ijbs.com/v06p0465

An absolute requirement for Pax7-positive satellite cells in acute injury-induced skeletal muscle regeneration | DevelopmentAn absolute requirement for Pax7-positive satellite cells in acute injury-induced skeletal muscle regeneration | Development

... regenerative myogenesis fails. This finding indicates that neither any Pax7- cells within the grafted EDL muscle nor any host- ... 2005). Stem cell function, self-renewal, and behavioral heterogeneity of cells from the adult muscle satellite cell niche. Cell ... DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS An absolute requirement for Pax7-positive satellite cells in acute injury-induced skeletal muscle ... DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS An absolute requirement for Pax7-positive satellite cells in acute injury-induced skeletal muscle ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/138/17/3639?ijkey=4345ab60aea7ea2f2cb1c8a9ca732a2c780c67dd&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

An absolute requirement for Pax7-positive satellite cells in acute injury-induced skeletal muscle regeneration | DevelopmentAn absolute requirement for Pax7-positive satellite cells in acute injury-induced skeletal muscle regeneration | Development

... regenerative myogenesis fails. This finding indicates that neither any Pax7- cells within the grafted EDL muscle nor any host- ... 2005). Stem cell function, self-renewal, and behavioral heterogeneity of cells from the adult muscle satellite cell niche. Cell ... DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS An absolute requirement for Pax7-positive satellite cells in acute injury-induced skeletal muscle ... DEVELOPMENT AND STEM CELLS An absolute requirement for Pax7-positive satellite cells in acute injury-induced skeletal muscle ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/138/17/3639

Muscle satellite cells and impaired late stage regeneration in different murine models for muscular dystrophies | Scientific...Muscle satellite cells and impaired late stage regeneration in different murine models for muscular dystrophies | Scientific...

To analyze the effect of different degrees of muscle degeneration in SCs behavior, we studied adult muscle of the dystrophic ... are the main muscle stem cells responsible for its regenerative capacity. In muscular dystrophies, however, a failure of the ... Nonetheless, the maturation of these new fibers is incomplete and do not prevent muscle degeneration. Taken together, these ... We concluded that dystrophic muscles, independently of their degeneration degree, retain their SCs pool with proliferating and ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-48156-7?error=cookies_not_supported&code=6b93e7ff-3549-403c-9131-e102cbc37dd8

Pattern of Pax7 expression during myogenesis in the posthatch chicken establishes a model for satellite cell differentiation...Pattern of Pax7 expression during myogenesis in the posthatch chicken establishes a model for satellite cell differentiation...

The paired-box transcription factor Pax7 plays a critical role in the specification of satellite cells in mouse skeletal muscle ... Pattern of Pax7 expression during myogenesis in the posthatch chicken establishes a model for satellite cell differentiation ... cells found in muscles of growing and adult chickens confirm the presence of this protein in avian satellite cells. The ... At all time points, some Pax7+ cells were negative for MyoD, resembling the reserve cell phenotype. Clonal analysis of muscle ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15390217?dopt=Abstract

Syndecan-3 and Notch cooperate in regulating adult myogenesis | JCBSyndecan-3 and Notch cooperate in regulating adult myogenesis | JCB

Syndecan-3 and syndecan-4 specifically mark skeletal muscle satellite cells and are implicated in satellite cell maintenance ... Syndecan-4-expressing muscle progenitor cells in the SP engraft as satellite cells during muscle regeneration. Cell Stem Cell. ... Stem cell function, self-renewal, and behavioral heterogeneity of cells from the adult muscle satellite cell niche. Cell. 122: ... Niche regulation of muscle satellite cell self-renewal and differentiation. Cell Stem Cell. 2:22-31. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.12 ...
more infohttp://jcb.rupress.org/content/190/3/427

Stem cell-mediated muscle regeneration is enhanced by local isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1 | PNASStem cell-mediated muscle regeneration is enhanced by local isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1 | PNAS

Skeletal muscle regeneration involves the activation of quiescent satellite cells, which participate in the reconstitution of ... which undergo myogenesis by means of myocyte-mediated inductive interactions (15). ... A) FACS analysis of CD45+/Sca-1+ cells in bone marrow SP and CD45+/Sca-1+, CD3+/Sca-1+ cells in muscle-derived cells from WT ... in nonirradiated mice have identified resident stem-like cell populations in skeletal muscle distinct from satellite cells (12- ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/101/5/1206

JCI -
microRNA-206 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration and delays progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in miceJCI - microRNA-206 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration and delays progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mice

The skeletal muscle-specific microRNA miR-206 is upregulated in satellite cells following muscle injury, but its role in muscle ... cell differentiation and fusion into muscle fibers through suppressing a collection of negative regulators of myogenesis. Our ... Skeletal muscle injury activates adult myogenic stem cells, known as satellite cells, to initiate proliferation and ... findings reveal an essential role for miR-206 in satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration and ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/62656/figure/5

Temporal expression of regulatory and structural muscle proteins during myogenesis of satellite cells on isolated adult rat...Temporal expression of regulatory and structural muscle proteins during myogenesis of satellite cells on isolated adult rat...

Myogenic precursors in adult skeletal muscle (satellite cells) are mitotically quiescent but can proliferate in response to a ... we analyzed myogenesis of satellite cells on intact fibers isolated from adult rat muscle. In this culture model, satellite ... Temporal expression of regulatory and structural muscle proteins during myogenesis of satellite cells on isolated adult rat ... Temporal Expression of Regulatory and Structural Muscle Proteins during Myogenesis of Satellite Cells on Isolated Adult Rat ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7913900?dopt=Abstract

Genetic variation and exercise-induced muscle damage: implications for athletic performance, injury and ageing |...Genetic variation and exercise-induced muscle damage: implications for athletic performance, injury and ageing |...

... actions can result in ultrastructural muscle disruption, impaired … ... Le Grand F, Rudnicki MA (2007) Skeletal muscle satellite cells and adult myogenesis. Curr Opin Cell Biol 19(6):628-633 PubMed ... and differentiation of rat skeletal muscle satellite cells. J Cell Physiol 159(2):379-385. doi: 10.​1002/​jcp.​1041590222PubMed ... Repairing skeletal muscle: regenerative potential of skeletal muscle stem cells. J Clin Invest 120(1):11-19. doi: 10.​1172/​ ...
more infohttps://www.springermedizin.de/genetic-variation-and-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-implication/10239762

A Reduction in Selenoprotein S Amplifies the Inflammatory Profile of Fast-Twitch Skeletal Muscle in the mdx Dystrophic MouseA Reduction in Selenoprotein S Amplifies the Inflammatory Profile of Fast-Twitch Skeletal Muscle in the mdx Dystrophic Mouse

... biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules. ... stimulates satellite cell activation and commitment to myogenesis. If the damage is chronic, or if inflammation is excessive ... "Interleukin-6 is an essential regulator of satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy," Cell Metabolism, vol. 7, no. 1 ... Inflammatory Profile of mdx Skeletal Muscle. To investigate the inflammatory profile of mdx skeletal muscles following the ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/7043429/

Transforming Growth Factor-β-Induced Inhibition of Myogenesis Is Mediated Through Smad Pathway and Is Modulated by Microtubule...Transforming Growth Factor-β-Induced Inhibition of Myogenesis Is Mediated Through Smad Pathway and Is Modulated by Microtubule...

Over the past decade, multiple cell types, including myoblasts (satellite cells originated from skeletal muscle), fetal ... The satellite cell compartment provides skeletal muscle with a remarkable capacity for regeneration. It was shown that ... Skeletal muscle differentiation (myogenesis) involves a cascade of muscle-specific gene expression that is regulated by members ... Moreover, cell-to-cell contact-induced myogenesis in C2C12 cells cultured in GM is not sensitive to activated TGF-β signaling. ...
more infohttp://circres.ahajournals.org/content/94/5/617

JCI -
WelcomeJCI - Welcome

... muscle regeneration, and proper homing of human PAX7+ satellite cells to the stem cell niche. Further, we determined that ... We obtained muscle fiber fragments from skeletal muscle biopsy specimens from adult donors aged 20 to 80 years. Fiber fragments ... were manually dissected, cultured, and evaluated for expression of myogenesis regulator PAX7. PAX7+ satellite cells were ... Muscle satellite cells promote regeneration and could potentially improve gene delivery for treating muscular dystrophies. ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/tags/22
  • Crist CG, Montarras D, Pallafacchina G, Rocancourt D, Cumano A, Conway SJ, Buckingham M (2009) Muscle stem cell behavior is modified by microRNA-27 regulation of Pax3 expression. (springer.com)
  • We investigated the mechanism whereby expression of a transgene encoding a locally acting isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1 (mIGF-1) enhances repair of skeletal muscle damage. (pnas.org)
  • Zebrafish has become an ideal model organism for the study of the genetic and cell physiological role of the myosin phosphatase in morphogenesis and embryonic development. (usda.gov)
  • Moreover, nocodazole, a microtubule-destabilizing agent, enhanced the inhibition of myogenesis exerted by TGF-β, an effect that could be restored by tubulin-polymerizing agent taxol, both of which have been shown to affect Smad-microtubule interaction and regulate TGF-β/Smad signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • We showed that 54 nmol/L nocodazole, a dose that had little, if any, effect on MT spindle formation and cellular proliferation, 6 enhanced TGF-β-induced inhibition of myogenesis in C2C12 cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell Biology Lecture and Laboratory: One semester lecture course covering major aspects of eukaryotic animal cell biology, with a strong emphasis on experimental techniques used in modern cell and molecular biology research. (alvernia.edu)
  • However, the ability to regenerate muscle and replace damaged myofibers declines with age. (ufl.edu)
  • Research project areas include examination of the transcriptional regulation using promoter analysis in cultured cells, as well as the characterization of various cell lines in the laboratory. (alvernia.edu)
  • Current studies are focused on the role of post-transcriptional regulation of stem cell quiescence and activation. (stanford.edu)
  • First, we are using microarray and next-generation high throughput sequencing to derive molecular signatures of young and old stem cells and the transcriptional and epigenetic levels. (stanford.edu)
  • Post-transcriptional regulation, through microRNA repression of a potential cell cycle activator, further illustrates how these cells are ready for action. (mendeley.com)
  • We investigated the molecular and cellular events that lead to altered myogenesis upon genetic ablation of Syndecan-3, a component of the satellite cell niche. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, it is apparent that inter-individual variation exists in the response to exercise-induced muscle damage, and there is evidence that genetic variability may play a key role. (springermedizin.de)
  • Given that SEPS1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, we investigated whether the genetic reduction of Seps1 exacerbated inflammation in the mdx mouse. (hindawi.com)
  • These consequences further reveal the complexity of myogenesis and the importance of each genetic factor in proper muscle development. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, ablation of the PrP gene has been shown to directly affect skeletal muscles, for example, by enhancing oxidative damage ( 30 ) or by diminishing tolerance for physical exercise ( 51 ). (asm.org)
  • We identified cancer stem cell (CSC)-enriched populations from murine melanoma D5 syngeneic to C57BL/6 mice and the squamous cancer SCC7 syngeneic to C3H mice using ALDEFLUOR/ALDH as a marker, and tested their immunogenicity using the cell lysate as a source of antigens to pulse dendritic cells (DCs). (jove.com)
  • It is unclear to what extent differentiated cells reverse mature phenotypes and to what extent undifferentiated cells, such as stem cells, residing within differentiated tissues become activated, followed by their incorporation into the blastema. (rupress.org)
  • Enhanced understanding of muscle stem cell biology and function is essential for developing technologies and strategies to augment the metabolic efficiency and muscle hypertrophy of growing animals potentially leading to greater efficiency and reduced environmental impacts of animal production, while concomitantly improving product uniformity and consumer acceptance and enjoyment of muscle foods. (ijbs.com)
  • Fish body weight mainly depends on both muscle fibre number increase (hyperplasia) and muscle fibre size increase (hypertrophy) as skeletal muscle contributes to 40-60% in fish body mass ( Qin, Gu & Zhang, 2000 ). (peerj.com)
  • 5, 6 Using a cell line in which a specific gene locus (DNA), its mRNA product, and the final protein product can be fluorescently labeled and visualized in vivo , it is possible to detect the actual transcription of mRNAs on the gene of interest. (jove.com)
  • however, ex vivo EDL muscle strength and endurance were unaltered. (hindawi.com)
  • 2016. "Evaluation of pedagogical innovaitons: a survey of educational research literature in cell biology" American Society of Cell Biology (ASCB) Annual Conference. (alvernia.edu)
  • 2016. "A review of pedagogical advances in cell biology. (alvernia.edu)
  • Understanding the underlying molecular mechanism will greatly facilitate the use of ES cells for developmental biology studies, disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine (reviewed in 1,2 ). (jove.com)
  • When a Notch receptor interacts with an adjacent Notch ligand or one present on an opposing cell, the Notch receptor undergoes a sequence of proteolytic cleavages that release the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). (rupress.org)
  • Together, this protocol provides a complete workflow to study skeletal muscle derived FAPs and compliments downstream analytical, drug screening, and disease modeling applications. (springer.com)