Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Musculoskeletal Development: The morphologic and physiological changes of the MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body, i.e., MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, during the prenatal and postnatal stages of development.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Phycoerythrin: The metal-free red phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of red algae. It functions as a light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Nuclear Matrix: The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Reactive Attachment Disorder: Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-V)Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.UrobilinBacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Corynebacterium diphtheriae: A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Matrix Attachment Regions: Regions of the CHROMATIN or DNA that bind to the NUCLEAR MATRIX. They are found in INTERGENIC DNA, especially flanking the 5' ends of genes or clusters of genes. Many of the regions that have been isolated contain a bipartite sequence motif called the MAR/SAR recognition signature sequence that binds to MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGION BINDING PROTEINS.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Software Validation: The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Periodontal Attachment Loss: Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Pantetheine: An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Syndecans: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.PolysaccharidesRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Glycophorin: The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Fractals: Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to "chaos" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Matrix Attachment Region Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGIONS of DNA.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.SUMO-1 Protein: A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Epithelial Attachment: A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Recombinases: A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Protein PrecursorsTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Arestin, a popular site specific brand of the antibiotic minocycline, is claimed to enable regaining of at least 1 mm of ... Gingival attachment begins to loosen further as the bacterial plaque continues to invade the space created by the swelling it ... Because tooth brush and floss cannot reach the bottom of a gum pocket 4-5 mm deep, bacteria stagnate in these sites and have ... partial-mouth disinfection in the treatment of periodontal infections: short-term clinical and microbiological observations". ...
The bacterial attachment site (attB) has a 96 base pair sequence homologous to the phage attachment site and is located at the ... The bacteriophage T12 integrates into S. pyogenes chromosome by site-specific recombination into the anticodon loop of a gene ... which is a 1.7kb segment of the phage T12 genome flanked by SalI and HindIII sites. The phage integrase gene (int) and the ... Microbiological Research. 156 (1): 35-40. doi:10.1078/0944-5013-00087. PMID 11372651. Atsumi S, Little JW (2006). "Role of the ...
... or specific microbiological profile, can benefit more from this adjunctive therapy." Chemical antimicrobials may be used by the ... pockets are sites where the attachment has been gradually destroyed by collagen-destroying enzymes, known as collagenases) ... Age is related to the incidence of periodontal destruction: "...in a well-maintained population who practises oral home care ... There are two views of the microbiology of periodontitis: the specific plaque hypothesis and the non-specific plaque hypothesis ...
Most are formed from specific regions of membranes. When a vesicle buds off from a membrane it contains specific proteins on ... "Microbiological Reviews. 55 (4): 543-60. PMC 372837. PMID 1779926.. *^ Voelker DR (July 2005). "Bridging gaps in phospholipid ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Levine T, Loewen C (August 2006). "Inter-organelle membrane contact sites: through a glass, darkly". Current Opinion in Cell ...
GAP brings about attachment loss involving more than 30% of sites on teeth;[1] effectively being at least three permanent teeth ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Samaranayake notes the evidence for the specific involvement of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans includes: an increased ... "Use and interpretation of microbiological assays in periodontal diseases". Oral Microbiology and Immunology. 1 (1): 73-81. ...
... pockets are sites where the attachment has been gradually destroyed by collagen-destroying enzymes, known as collagenases) ... This is important because if a pocket is deeper than 3 mm around the tooth, at-home care will not be sufficient to cleanse the ... The correlation of selected microbiological parameters with disease severity in Sri Lankan tea workers". J Clin Periodontol. 22 ... expressing both the extent and severity of periodontal diseases are appended to the terms above to denote the specific ...
Following attachment of the virus to the host's cell wall, capsid-bound glycolytic enzymes break down the cell wall. The viral ... "Home-Emiliania huxleyi". genome.jgi.doe.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-03. Wilson, William H.; Tarran, Glen A.; Schroeder, Declan; Cox ... The PBCV-1 virus is specific to its host and recognition is mediated by the interaction of virus surface proteins with algal ... containing two consensus protein kinase C sites and it has three transmembrane domains. It is unknown whether the EsV-1 protein ...
The marburgvirus life cycle begins with virion attachment to specific cell-surface receptors, followed by fusion of the virion ... "Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 5th Edition". Retrieved 2011-10-16. Bausch, D. G.; Feldmann, H ... A maculopapular rash, petechiae, purpura, ecchymoses, and hematomas (especially around needle injection sites) are typical ... A taxonomic home for Marburg and Ebola viruses?". Intervirology. 18 (1-2): 24-32. doi:10.1159/000149300. PMID 7118520. Geisbert ...
"Microbiological Reviews. 56 (1): 152-79. PMC 372859. PMID 1579108.. *^ Zambon MC (November 1999). "Epidemiology and ... The different sites of infection (shown in red) of seasonal H1N1 versus avian H5N1. This influences their lethality and ability ... Katagiri S, Ohizumi A, Homma M (July 1983). "An outbreak of type C influenza in a children's home". The Journal of Infectious ... The specific combination of fever and cough has been found to be the best predictor; diagnostic accuracy increases with a body ...
Specific resistance that has been identified[edit]. At this time,[when?] the most well-documented impact on humans is foodborne ... store animal waste in lagoons on site.[15] Manure is also trucked off site, stored in containers, or held in holding ponds. ... Since most manure holding ponds are on or near the sites of the operations, the insects are not far from livestock populations. ... "Evaluating the Safety of Antimicrobial New Animal Drugs with Regard to Their Microbiological Effects on Bacteria of Human ...
The marburgvirus life cycle begins with virion attachment to specific cell-surface receptors, followed by fusion of the virion ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... "Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 5th Edition". Retrieved 2011-10-16.. ... Symptoms include bloody stools, ecchymoses, blood leakage from venipuncture sites, mucosal & visceral hemorrhaging, and ...
... sites showing attachment loss ,4 mm,sites showing attachment loss between 4-7 mm,sites showing attachment loss ,7 mm. ... Periodontal disease has often been described as site specific. Since the mean scores may not reflect the severity of the ... Microbiological Examination. BANA test is done to assess the microbiological status.. One site with the deepest probing depth ... sites showing ,4 mm of probing depth,sites showing 4-7 mm of probing depth,sites showing ,7 mm of probing depth. ...
10] also found a significant better attachment level on those sites that were treated with laser after two years compared with ... The microbiological analyses lead to conclusions of the(i)overall bacterial load in the periodontal pocket,(ii)the fraction of ... The pretreatment biological smear was taken from the five deepest pockets in the oral cavity but at least one site in each ... All deep sites in patient 9 have been reduced to a depth of four and beneath. Only in patient 5 were there sites that measured ...
The Streptomyces genome contains multiple pseudo-attB sites for the φC31-encoded site-specific recombination system. J. ... Here we demonstrate that φBT1 integrates into a different attachment site than φC31. φBT1 attB lies within SCO4848 encoding a ... Integration Site for Streptomyces Phage φBT1 and Development of Site-Specific Integrating Vectors. Matthew A. Gregory, Rob Till ... Integration Site for Streptomyces Phage φBT1 and Development of Site-Specific Integrating Vectors ...
... were occurring through unconventional site-specific recombination reactions involving only the bottom strand of attC sites. The ... lack of sequence conservation among attC sites led us to hypothesize that sequence-independe … ... Attachment Sites, Microbiological* * Base Sequence * DNA, Bacterial / chemistry* * DNA, Bacterial / genetics * DNA, Single- ... were occurring through unconventional site-specific recombination reactions involving only the bottom strand of attC sites. The ...
Periodontal disease progression is episodic [1] and site-specific [2].. More than 200 species of microorganisms colonize the ... Microbiological test kits. The microbiological tests have the potential to support the diagnosis of various forms of ... Furthermore, interproximal sites cannot be sampled, due to the risk of saliva contamination, and this is clearly a major ... Periodontitis is a prevalent disease of men characterized by loss of connective tissue attachment and bone around the teeth, in ...
Change in variation of the profile of C. difficile isolated from specific body sites of a patient with microbiology-proven CDAD ... microbiological response for patients infected with ceftazidime-resistant pathogens in microbiological modified intent to treat ... By accessing this website, you are indicating your acknowledgement and acceptance of these Terms of Use. These Terms of Use are ... Mean change in clinical attachment level (CAL); - Mean change in probing pocket depths (PD). ...
Locus-specific PCR coupled with rapid adapter attachment for 16S and CO1 It is often desirable to be able to identify the ... an average of three binding sites are still available. We add reporter oligonucleotides to these available binding sites (Fig. ... On site DNA barcoding by nanopore sequencing Note: the chemistry in this paper has since been superseded. ... we demonstrated metagenomic sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq replicates the findings of current gold standard microbiological ...
Odd skin with specific measures of dose: discrepancies on cheapest sensory oral lactat site and protein head in effect westgate ... This attachments intent-to-treat may have been updated.. Doxycycline is the pricing most little time of nausea and doxycycline ... Doxycycline administered not at acetaminophen sites as facewashthen as 250 therapy had no small heterogeneity on the centre ... She remained only until genital group and with microbiological characteristics as these definitive medicines. ...
The sequence starts with attachment to a specific receptor site on a cell - a process called ADSORPTION. Next, the nucleic acid ... They may be used as receptor sites for bacterial viruses (bacteriophages). MESOSOMES (probably artifacts of staining procedure) ... Scientists were now being asked to consider disease agents in chemical as well as microbiological terms. ... These proteins, called antibodies, are very specific. They attack the invading virus and attach to it. The virus is destroyed ...
Attachment Sites, Microbiological/genetics. *Base Sequence. *Chromosomes/genetics. *DNA Breaks. *DNA, Single-Stranded/genetics ... Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific/metabolism. *Gene Targeting/methods*. *Genetic Engineering/methods* ... Home page banner reprinted from Hearing Research, 341, Monroe, J.D. et al., Hearing sensitivity differs between zebrafish lines ... including the introduction of a custom-designed EcoRV site and a modified loxP (mloxP) sequence into somatic tissue in vivo. We ...
Daily Medications Will Be Delivered To Your Home. It Is Our Pleasure To Offer Free Delivery. ... Immediate website compared with specific cause for the themi of lyme athlete. ... Doxycycline belongs to the propecia canada pharmacy esophagitis of average sites known as uptake usei. ... and attachment and ivermectin rates were recorded. ... I back not have microbiological response people finebut.. ...
Attachment Sites, Microbiological * Bacterial Toxins* * Blood Proteins * Cross Infection / microbiology * DNA, Recombinant ... The entA and sak determinants were closely linked in the phage DNA adjacent to the phage attachment site (attP) in each case ... and phage phi 13 was caused by insertional inactivation of the chromosomally encoded hlb determinant by orientation-specific ... restriction endonuclease site mapping and hybridization analysis, and compared with the mechanism of beta-lysin and ...
Clinical parameters like gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL ... COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF 2% LEMONGRASS GEL VERSUS 1%CHLORHEXIDINE GEL AS A LOCAL DRUG ... better reduce the number of sites harbouring specific subgingival periodontal pathogens in the treatment of chronic. ... LDD limits the drug to its target site. and limits the problems associated with systemic therapy (such as toxicity, interaction ...
Arestin, a popular site specific brand of the antibiotic minocycline, is claimed to enable regaining of at least 1 mm of ... Gingival attachment begins to loosen further as the bacterial plaque continues to invade the space created by the swelling it ... Because tooth brush and floss cannot reach the bottom of a gum pocket 4-5 mm deep, bacteria stagnate in these sites and have ... partial-mouth disinfection in the treatment of periodontal infections: short-term clinical and microbiological observations". ...
Class 2 integrons are associated with the Tn7 transposon, whose transposition activity is directed at specific attachment sites ... Integrons achieve this by site-specific recombination. The different combinations of gene cassettes can contribute to the ... Sampling and microbiological methods. For VAP, a deep tracheal aspirate from the endotracheal tube was obtained, and for CAUTI ... By using this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy. Manage the cookies we use ...
Data from four sites of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study were used in the discovery phase ( ... Specific unpublished dose-response model coefficients were proposed to determine the infection probabilities for Echo-11 and ... We demonstrated that floods can induce severe microbiological contamination of drinking water from wells and suggest strategies ... from the runoff injection site (sinkhole). Subsequently, the health impact of viruses in drinking water supplied from ...
Primary lymphoid - site of immune cell production Secondary lymphoid - site of immune cell function ... Microbiological epithelial barriersa Commensal bacteria compete for nutrients and attachment and can produce antibacterial ... Happens to B and T cells after exposure to an antigen...those that are specific to a given type proliferate ... Brainscape is a web and mobile study platform that helps you learn things faster. Our mission is to create a smarter world by ...
Several universities and trade associations also provide what documentation is available on their Web sites. When no previous ... There are specific details that we will have to work out as things move forward.172 And if Hahn is fortunate, he wont have the ... "Microbiological Results of Raw Ground Beef Products Analyzed for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Summarized by Calendar Year." http ... Attachment 5. October 12, 2007. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/ Ecoli_Raw_Beef_Processing_Checklist.pdf Page 2. U.S. Department ...
Despite having specific growth requirements, Prevotella is found in diverse areas of the human body. These regions range from ... Journal of Microbiological Methods, 115(C): 22-26. 10. Takahashi, N., and Yamada, T. (2000). Glucose metabolism by Prevotella ... Chandki, R., Banthia, P., and Bathia, R. (2011). Biofilms: A microbial home. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, 15(2 ... tissue attachment loss, and probing depth beyond standard ranges (12). One of the main reasons why P. intermedia has such a ...
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / ... MIC • The zone sites are looked up on a standardized chart to give a result of • Sensitive • Intermediate • Resistant The ... Viruses - cannot multiply on their own, need living cells to live and grow • Multiplication occurs in 5 steps • Attachment • ... EIA (Enzyme immunoassay) This procedure uses known specific antibodies which are reacted with a patient specimen. If the ...
expected by site-specific susceptibility, purely. VZV Varicella-zoster( power 0, is 0), professor, workshop. Most Ca download ... C3, 4, 5 sites the download francis ysidro edgeworth a portrait with family and then. created with remarkable download francis ... 5 download attachment product, conducted with qualitative diverging formation cord) and been their side to that of accelerator ... provide microbiological item. In later terms, maths of controls and graphics included 30 change cells of approach. ...
... prior to attachment of the template to a solid support, or by sub-cloning of the target into a vector at a cloning site that is ... Locus specific amplification using array probes US20080194414A1 (en) 2008-08-14. Enrichment and sequence analysis of genomic ... Library construction using y-adapters and vanishing restriction sites Also Published As. Publication number. Publication date. ... CONDITION-RESPONSIVE CONTROL IN MICROBIOLOGICAL OR ENZYMOLOGICAL PROCESSES ...
... with specific emphasis on the role of rhizosphere bacteria in this intriguing microbiological phenomenon. ... with specific emphasis on the role of rhizosphere bacteria in this intriguing microbiological phenomenon. ... The specific disease suppression that operates in these soils is, in most cases, microbial in origin. Therefore, suppressive ... The specific disease suppression that operates in these soils is, in most cases, microbial in origin. Therefore, suppressive ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... Attachment Sites, Microbiological*. *Cloning, Molecular/methods. *DNA Transposable Elements*. *Genetic Vectors*. *Pseudomonas ... co-transfer of the recombinant mini-Tn7 vector and a helper plasmid encoding the Tn7 site-specific transposition pathway into P ... naturally evolved site. Here we present a protocol for employing the mini-Tn7 system in bacteria with single attTn7 sites, ...
  • Furthermore, a vector, pSET152 containing the φC31 attP-int locus, introduced by conjugation from Escherichia coli can integrate into secondary or pseudo- attB sites in both S. coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that φBT1 does indeed integrate into a different attB site in S. coelicolor , and we have constructed novel integrating vectors derived from the φBT1 attP-int locus. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, no significant similarity could be detected between the φC31 attP site and any φBT1 sequence. (asm.org)
  • The entA and sak determinants were closely linked in the phage DNA adjacent to the phage attachment site (attP) in each case and furthermore, the sak determinant of phage phi 13 was also located near its attP. (nih.gov)
  • Hybridization analysis using a cloned beta-lysin determinant (hlb) and cloned attP-containing DNA fragments as probes demonstrated that beta-lysin conversion mediated by the triple-converting phages and phage phi 13 was caused by insertional inactivation of the chromosomally encoded hlb determinant by orientation-specific integration of phage DNA following lysogenization. (nih.gov)
  • The phage attachment site attP, the bacterial attachment site attB, and the two phage/chromosome junctions attL and attR were identified and found to contain a 40 bp common core sequence. (nih.gov)
  • Specific suppressiveness is due to the concerted activities of specific groups of microorganisms that interfere with some stage of the life cycle of the soil-borne pathogen. (frontiersin.org)
  • Microorganisms are used in large scale manufacturing of vaccines against diseases like influenza flu, polio, BCG etc. with the evolution of sophisticated technology, identification of specific antigens is being done easily which further helps in development of vaccines with the help of microorganisms. (euroscicon.com)
  • Gingival attachment begins to loosen further as the bacterial plaque continues to invade the space created by the swelling it causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to existing chromosome integration systems, which are mostly based on species-specific phage or more-or-less randomly integrating transposons, the mini-Tn7 system is characterized by its ready adaptability to various bacterial hosts, its site specificity and its efficiency. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we explore the role of the respiratory and GI microbial communities in chronic airway inflammatory disease development with a specific focus on fungal microbiome interactions with the airway immune system and fungal-bacterial interactions that likely contribute to inflammatory disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because tooth brush and floss cannot reach the bottom of a gum pocket 4-5 mm deep, bacteria stagnate in these sites and have the opportunity to proliferate into periodontal disease-causing colonies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we review the results of recent 'omics'-based studies on the microbial basis of disease suppressive soils, with specific emphasis on the role of rhizosphere bacteria in this intriguing microbiological phenomenon. (frontiersin.org)
  • mini-Tn7 insertion in bacteria with single attTn7 sites: example Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (nih.gov)
  • Here we present a protocol for employing the mini-Tn7 system in bacteria with single attTn7 sites, using the example Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (nih.gov)
  • The respiratory tract is a complex system that is inhabited by niche-specific communities of microbes including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unfortunately, these bacteria can reach the bloodstream (bacteremia) and end up in many different body sites, causing infections ( wound infections, abscesses, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, pneumonia ) that may cause severe harm or even be fatal. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • MRSA describes a specific type of bacteria that are resistant to certain antibiotics. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Periimplant sites are colonized by the same bacteria that cause periodontal diseases, namely: A.actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis, T.forsythensis, P.intermedia. (edu.ua)
  • The structural data obtained from a synaptic complex of the Vibrio cholerae integrase with the bottom strand of an attC site has shown the importance of extra helical bases (EHB) inside the stem-loop structure formed from the bottom strand. (nih.gov)
  • Upon introduction into target cells expressing the cognate integrase, site-specific integration occurs via the endogenous attachment site. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Here, we systematically determined the contribution of three structural elements common to all known single-stranded attC site recombination substrates (the EHBs, the unpaired central spacer (UCS), and the variable terminal structure (VTS)) to strand choice and recombination. (nih.gov)
  • Conjugation was used to deliver the attC sites in single-stranded form. (nih.gov)
  • With this updated TALEN system, we successfully used single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides to precisely modify sequences at predefined locations in the zebrafish genome through homology-directed repair, including the introduction of a custom-designed EcoRV site and a modified loxP ( mloxP ) sequence into somatic tissue in vivo . (zfin.org)
  • Due to very high rates of nonhomologous recombination, functional genomic analysis of Toxoplasma gondii has been previously limited by the absence of efficient methods for targeting gene deletions and gene replacements to specific genetic loci. (jove.com)
  • The reported reductions in antibiotic synthesis could be caused by insertional mutagenesis into SCO3798 or by integration into one of the pseudo- attB sites or some other factor. (asm.org)
  • Mobilizable donor vectors containing attB sites flanking a stuffer red fluorescent protein ( rfp) gene and an antibiotic resistance gene have also been constructed. (jove.com)
  • The rfp gene 6 may be replaced with a desired construct using Sph I and Pst I. Alternatively a synthetic construct flanked by attB sites may be sub-cloned into a mobilizable vector such as pK19mob 7 . (jove.com)
  • Using the GoldyTALEN modified scaffold and zebrafish delivery system, we show that this enhanced TALEN toolkit has a high efficiency in inducing locus-specific DNA breaks in somatic and germline tissues. (zfin.org)
  • The specialty includes maintenance of the health, function, and esthetics of all supporting structures and tissues (gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolar bone, and sites for tooth replacements). (aapd.org)
  • An auto-injector apparatus and associated methods utilizing specific dimensions and parameters of use for the auto-injector are provided for achieving increased effectiveness of the auto-injector device in delivering medicament into the patient's body, and in dispersion of the medicament from the initial injection site into the surrounding bodily tissues. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • To further determine whether mucosal inflammation functions as a site for induction of RA-AAB and precedes RA, longitudinal studies are necessary in which RA-AAB of specifically the IgA isotype should be assessed in inflamed mucosal tissues and/or in their inflammatory exudates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Southern blots of DNA from an S. coelicolor J1929 φBT1 lysogen (strain J1929 contains Δ pglY conferring sensitivity to φC31 and φBT1 [ 3 ]) probed with DNA encoding the φC31 attB site indicated that φC31 attB was intact, suggesting that φBT1 was integrated elsewhere in the genome (data not shown). (asm.org)
  • All of them employ special plasmid vectors harboring the corresponding recombinase recognition sequence ( att or attachment site), where foreign DNA can be cloned. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The characteristics of general and specific suppressiveness have remarkable similarities with the innate and adaptive immune responses in animals ( Raaijmakers and Mazzola, 2016 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite their wide use and clear advantages, it has been reported that integration of these vectors into the φC31 attB site can cause detrimental effects on antibiotic production in some strains ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Helps guide antibiotic usage, very specific to the facility. (slideserve.com)
  • Schrijft doctor rosacea back oil loss, zag lichtflitsen, purchase products disease mijn handen en polsen en had cookie apotheek treatment maagpijn skin de medicijnen ondanks de flora antibiotic structure die ik erbij in nam. (karwood.pl)
  • Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. (scribd.com)
  • These results suggest that cold plasma, especially gas plasma, could be utilized to effectively decontaminate solutions such as wastewater (32), but also that certain cold plasmas could be more suited for the inactivation of specific microbes in solution/water. (technologynetworks.com)
  • neutral details, work paper, and 5-aminosalicylic Pyrophosphate on gram were relied to achieve gene divide in four groups of a site review lactose government. (playscape-recordings.com)
  • Between the lacZ promoter and the GFP gene we inserted an IntA attachment site, which does not affect transcription from the lac promoter. (beds.ac.uk)
  • insertion of the donor vector into the landing pad sector via IntA-mediated attA X attA recombination thereby interrupted the expression of the green fluorescent protein, generating site-specific cointegrants. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Eternity for over-the-counter alcohol resides with the levitra online from canada description prone on the ciprofloxacin of his or her secondary ouncegarnier, salmonella, and date of the interesting attachment. (sunsetcomputers.com.au)
  • In read Serenidade 1959 to improve the value of the discrete pools been in the aspects, findings felt shared, one in the many technology alongside an 3-lactamase behaviour and the keen on the Diastolic end embolus along a riverbank, growing application study and specific pipelines minds. (lawhouse.us)
  • The specific disease suppression that operates in these soils is, in most cases, microbial in origin. (frontiersin.org)
  • In virtually every body habitat studied to date, niche-specific microbial communities have been identified, including the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts ( Human Microbiome Project Consortium, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • That is, the innate immune response in animals gives a primary and non-specific defensive response similar to what occurs in general suppressiveness of soils. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Little Sugar Creek Mitigation Site is located in Mecklenburg County. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Standardised pin site protocols which encompass an understanding of external fixator biomechanics and meticulous surgical technique during pin and wire insertion, postoperative pin site care and pin removal could limit the incidence of major infections and treatment failures. (springer.com)
  • to facilitate insertion of foreign DNA, this vector also contains a multicloning site. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The microbiological tests have the potential to support the diagnosis of various forms of periodontal disease, to serve as indicators of disease initiation and progression and to determine which periodontal sites are at higher risk for active destruction. (dentalnews.com)
  • The microbiological examination tests were minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and zone of inhibition test for the saliva isolates of S. mutans, L. fermentum, and L. casei while zone of inhibition test only for their reference strains. (bvsalud.org)
  • The genomic organization and structure of phi O1205 resemble those of several temperate lactococcal phages that display a life-cycle-specific organization, where ORFs believed to be involved in the lysogenic life-cycle are clustered and arranged in an orientation opposite to the ORFs supposedly involved in the lytic life-cycle. (nih.gov)
  • The molecular mechanism of triple conversion mediated by three of these phages was determined by molecular cloning, restriction endonuclease site mapping and hybridization analysis, and compared with the mechanism of beta-lysin and staphylokinase conversion mediated by the serotype F, double-converting phase phi 13. (nih.gov)
  • To test this further and to identify the φBT1 attB site, we performed vectorette PCR (Sigma-Genosys) extending outwards from the φBT1 DNA into the host DNA in an S. coelicolor φBT1 lysogen. (asm.org)
  • The basal state of these receptors is studied using HER2- or HER3-specific Affibodies, and likewise, the active state is probed using the natural HER3 ligand, Neuregulin-beta1 (NRGβ1). (bio-protocol.org)
  • The investigation examined soil features to determine any correlation between the past and current conditions on the site. (ncdcr.gov)
  • We found that the structure of the central spacer is essential to achieve high level recombination of the bottom strand, suggesting a dual role for this structure in active site exclusion and for hindering the reverse reaction after the first strand exchange. (nih.gov)
  • This proposal was made as a way of explaining how the various lipid membranes are assembled in the cell, with these membranes being assembled through lipid flow from the sites of lipid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately judgments regarding the appropriateness of any specific procedure must be made by the practitioner in light of all the circumstances presented by the individual patient. (aapd.org)
  • Typically, these arrays may be described as "many molecule" arrays, as distinct regions are formed on the solid support comprising a high density of one specific type of polynucleotide. (google.com)
  • Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website. (mdpi.com)
  • The scope of the revisions will depend on the specific animal model-related research needs of investigators associated with the Center and will range from request for specialized equipment to support for alteration and renovation (A&R) projects. (nih.gov)