DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.Apurinic Acid: Hydrolysate of DNA in which purine bases have been removed.Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced): An enzyme which catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of phosphodiester bonds at purinic or apyrimidinic sites (AP-sites) to produce 5'-Phosphooligonucleotide end products. The enzyme prefers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and was formerly classified as EC 3.1.4.30.Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.PolynucleotidesN-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.DNA Glycosylases: A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer): An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.Uracil-DNA Glycosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.DNA-Formamidopyrimidine Glycosylase: A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Deoxyribonucleases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Deoxycytidine Monophosphate: Deoxycytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A deoxycytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety in the 2'-,3'- or 5- positions.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Adenylosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme that, in the course of purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, catalyzes the conversion of 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-5-aminoimidazole to 5'-phosphoribosyl-4-carboxamide-5-aminoimidazole and the conversion of adenylosuccinic acid to AMP. EC 4.3.2.2.Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.Exonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the release of mononucleotides by the hydrolysis of the terminal bond of deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide chains.DeoxyriboseApe Diseases: Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.UracilOxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.DioxolanesDNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).DNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Pyrimidine Dimers: Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.GuanineAldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lucanthone: One of the SCHISTOSOMICIDES, it has been replaced largely by HYCANTHONE and more recently PRAZIQUANTEL. (From Martindale The Extrapharmacopoeia, 30th ed., p46)Osmium Tetroxide: (T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.Glycolates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Phosphorus-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a phosphorus-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.6.Pongo pygmaeus: A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Flap Endonucleases: Endonucleases that remove 5' DNA sequences from a DNA structure called a DNA flap. The DNA flap structure occurs in double-stranded DNA containing a single-stranded break where the 5' portion of the downstream strand is too long and overlaps the 3' end of the upstream strand. Flap endonucleases cleave the downstream strand of the overlap flap structure precisely after the first base-paired nucleotide, creating a ligatable nick.Pan paniscus: The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Hydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.Hylobates: A genus of the family HYLOBATIDAE consisting of six species. The members of this genus inhabit rain forests in southeast Asia. They are arboreal and differ from other anthropoids in the great length of their arms and very slender bodies and limbs. Their major means of locomotion is by swinging from branch to branch by their arms. Hylobates means dweller in the trees. Some authors refer to Symphalangus and Nomascus as Hylobates. The six genera include: H. concolor (crested or black gibbon), H. hoolock (Hoolock gibbon), H. klossii (Kloss's gibbon; dwarf siamang), H. lar (common gibbon), H. pileatus (pileated gibbon), and H. syndactylus (siamang). H. lar is also known as H. agilis (lar gibbon), H. moloch (agile gibbon), and H. muelleri (silvery gibbon).Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Base Pair Mismatch: The presence of an uncomplimentary base in double-stranded DNA caused by spontaneous deamination of cytosine or adenine, mismatching during homologous recombination, or errors in DNA replication. Multiple, sequential base pair mismatches lead to formation of heteroduplex DNA; (NUCLEIC ACID HETERODUPLEXES).Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
APE1 is a gene that codes for DNA AP lyase in humans which binds to AP DNA loops into both the DNA major and minor grooves and ... In enzymology, DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase, also referred to as DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) 5'- ... "Homo sapiens GO:0003906 - DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase activity". HumanCyc. SRI International. Retrieved March 9, ... Several names for DNA AP lyase include: AP lyase; AP endonuclease class I; endodeoxyribonuclease (apurinic or apyrimidinic); ...
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the APEX1 gene. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) ... Tell G, Damante G, Caldwell D, Kelley MR (2005). "The intracellular localization of APE1/Ref-1: more than a passive phenomenon ... Mol CD, Hosfield DJ, Tainer JA (2000). "Abasic site recognition by two apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease families in DNA base ... sites (also called "abasic sites") occur frequently in DNA molecules by spontaneous hydrolysis, by DNA damaging agents or by ...
This extreme kinking forces the baseless portion of DNA into APE1's active site. This active site is bordered by Phe266, Trp280 ... Levin, Joshua D; Demple, Bruce (1990). "Analysis of class II (hydrolytic) and class I (beta-lyase) apurinic/apyrimidinic ... "DNA-bound structures and mutants reveal abasic DNA binding by APE1 DNA repair and coordination". Nature. 403 (6768): 451-456. ... Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease is an enzyme that is involved in the DNA base excision repair pathway (BER). Its main ...
The excision of the bases causes the formation of an apurinic/ apyrimidinic (AP site) gap. These gap sites are mutagenic in ... The short patch repair pathway employs POLB (DNA polymerase beta), APE1, XRCC1, PARP1 with the addition of either the LIG1 or ... namely polymerase and dRP lyase. DNA ligase is used to seal the fragments after dRP excision causes the formation of 5'PO4 that ... The enzyme excises adenine bases from the DNA backbone at sites where adenine is inappropriately paired with guanine, cytosine ...
The sperm and egg fuse in the process of fertilization to form a fertilized egg, or zygote.[12] This undergoes a period of divisions to form a ball or sheet of similar cells called a blastula or blastoderm. These cell divisions are usually rapid with no growth so the daughter cells are half the size of the mother cell and the whole embryo stays about the same size. They are called cleavage divisions. Mouse epiblast primordial germ cells (see Figure: "The initial stages of human embryogenesis") undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming.[13] This process involves genome-wide DNA demethylation, chromatin reorganization and epigenetic imprint erasure leading to totipotency.[13] DNA demethylation is carried out by a process that utilizes the DNA base excision repair pathway.[14] Morphogenetic movements convert the cell mass into a three layered structure consisting of multicellular sheets called ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, which are known as germ layers. ...
... (EC 3.1.11.5, Exonuclease V, Escherichia coli exonuclease V, E. coli exonuclease V, gene recBC endoenzyme, RecBC deoxyribonuclease, gene recBC DNase, gene recBCD enzymes) is an enzyme of the E. coli bacterium that initiates recombinational repair from potentially lethal double strand breaks in DNA which may result from ionizing radiation, replication errors, endonucleases, oxidative damage, and a host of other factors. The RecBCD enzyme is both a helicase that unwinds, or separates the strands of DNA, and a nuclease that makes single-stranded nicks in DNA. The enzyme complex is composed of three different subunits called RecB, RecC, and RecD and hence the complex is named RecBCD (Figure 1). Before the discovery of the recD gene, the enzyme was known as "RecBC." Each subunit is encoded by a separate gene: Both the RecD and RecB subunits are helicases, i.e., energy-dependent molecular motors that unwind DNA (or RNA in the ...
டி.என்.ஏ யின் ஆதார இழையில் ஒற்றைச்சக்கரைகளும், பொசுபேற்றுக்களும் ஒன்றுவிட்டு ஒன்றான ஒழுங்கில் அடுக்கப்பட்டிருக்கும்[7]. டி.என்.ஏ யிலுள்ள ஒற்றைச்சக்கரை, ஐந்து கரிம அலகுகளைக் கொண்ட 2-deoxyribose ஆகும் (ஆர்.என்.ஏ யிலுள்ள ஒற்றைச்சக்கரை ribose ஆகும்). அருகருகாக உள்ள இரு ஒற்றைச்சக்கரை வளைய மூலக்கூறுகளில் 3 ஆம், 5 ஆம் இடங்களிலுள்ள கரிமங்களுடன் ஒரு பொசுபேற் மூலக்கூறானது பொசுபேற்-இரு-எசுத்தர் ...
டி.என்.ஏ யின் ஆதார இழையில் ஒற்றைச்சக்கரைகளும், பொசுபேற்றுக்களும் ஒன்றுவிட்டு ஒன்றான ஒழுங்கில் அடுக்கப்பட்டிருக்கும்[7]. டி.என்.ஏ யிலுள்ள ஒற்றைச்சக்கரை, ஐந்து கரிம அலகுகளைக் கொண்ட 2-deoxyribose ஆகும் (ஆர்.என்.ஏ யிலுள்ள ஒற்றைச்சக்கரை ribose ஆகும்). அருகருகாக உள்ள இரு ஒற்றைச்சக்கரை வளைய மூலக்கூறுகளில் 3 ஆம், 5 ஆம் இடங்களிலுள்ள கரிமங்களுடன் ஒரு பொசுபேற் மூலக்கூறானது பொசுபேற்-இரு-எசுத்தர் ...
The sperm and egg fuse in the process of fertilization to form a fertilized egg, or zygote.[12] This undergoes a period of divisions to form a ball or sheet of similar cells called a blastula or blastoderm. These cell divisions are usually rapid with no growth so the daughter cells are half the size of the mother cell and the whole embryo stays about the same size. They are called cleavage divisions. Mouse epiblast primordial germ cells (see Figure: "The initial stages of human embryogenesis") undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming.[13] This process involves genome-wide DNA demethylation, chromatin reorganization and epigenetic imprint erasure leading to totipotency.[13] DNA demethylation is carried out by a process that utilizes the DNA base excision repair pathway.[14] Morphogenetic movements convert the cell mass into a three layered structure consisting of multicellular sheets called ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, which are known as germ layers. ...
A polynucleotide molecule is a biopolymer composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are examples of polynucleotides with distinct biological function. The prefix poly comes from the ancient Greek πολυς (polys, many). DNA consists of two chains of polynucleotides, with each chain in the form of a helical spiral. Although DNA and RNA do not generally occur in the same polynucleotide, the four species of nucleotides may occur in any order in the chain. The sequence of DNA or RNA species for a given polynucleotide is the main factor determining its function in a living organism or a scientific experiment. Polynucleotides occur naturally in all living organisms. The genome of an organism consists of complementary pairs of enormously long polynucleotides wound around each other in the form of a double helix. Polynucleotides have a variety of other roles in ...
... (PNPase) is a bifunctional enzyme with a phosphorolytic 3' to 5' exoribonuclease activity and a 3'-terminal oligonucleotide polymerase activity.[2] That is, it dismantles the RNA chain starting at the 3' end and working toward the 5' end.[1] It also synthesizes long, highly heteropolymeric tails in vivo. It accounts for all of the observed residual polyadenylation in strains of Escherichia coli missing the normal polyadenylation enzyme.[1] Discovered by Marianne Grunberg-Manago working in Severo Ochoa's lab in 1955, the RNA-polymerization activity of PNPase was initially believed to be responsible for DNA-dependent synthesis of messenger RNA, a notion that got disproved by the late 1950s.[3][4] It is involved in mRNA processing and degradation in bacteria, plants,[5] and in humans.[6] In humans, the enzyme is encoded by the PNPT1 gene. In its active form, the protein forms a ring structure consisting of three PNPase molecules. Each PNPase molecule consists of two ...
Ochoa, S. and Mii, S. (1961). "Enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. IV. Purification and properties of polynucleotide phosphorylase from Azotobacter vinelandii". J. Biol. Chem. 236: 3303-3311. PMID 14481058. ...
甲硫核苷酶為一種酵素,可以催化5'-methylthioadenosine 和S-adenosylhomocysteine的水解脫腺苷酸化的反應。甲硫核苷酶也被視為抗細菌藥物發現的目標,因為甲硫核苷酶對於細菌代謝系統是非常重要的,且也只有細菌會產生。[7]視腺嘌呤的氮和核醣的碳距離不同,過渡態的結構可藉由早期或晚期的解離程度決定。根據找到不同的過渡態結構,Schramm和他的同事設計了兩個過渡態類似物,模仿早期即晚期的解離過渡態。早期即晚期的解離過渡態展現了個別的解離常數,約在360~140pM。[8]. ...
8-Oxoguanine glycosylase also known as OGG1 is a DNA glycosylase enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the OGG1 gene. It is involved in base excision repair. It is found in bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic species. OGG1 is the primary enzyme responsible for the excision of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a mutagenic base byproduct that occurs as a result of exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). OGG1 is a bifunctional glycosylase, as it is able to both cleave the glycosidic bond of the mutagenic lesion and cause a strand break in the DNA backbone. Alternative splicing of the C-terminal region of this gene classifies splice variants into two major groups, type 1 and type 2, depending on the last exon of the sequence. Type 1 alternative splice variants end with exon 7 and type 2 end with exon 8. One set of spliced forms are designated 1a, 1b, 2a to 2e. All variants have the N-terminal region in common. Many alternative splice variants for this gene have been described, but the ...
Class I proteins form a protonated Schiff base intermediate linking a highly conserved active site lysine with the DHAP carbonyl carbon. Additionally, tyrosine residues are crucial to this mechanism in acting as stabilizing hydrogen acceptors. Class II proteins use a different mechanism which polarizes the carbonyl group with a divalent cation like Zn2+. The Escherichia coli galactitol operon protein, gatY, and N-acetyl galactosamine operon protein, agaY, which are tagatose-bisphosphate aldolase, are homologs of class II fructose-bisphosphate aldolase. Two histidine residues in the first half of the sequence of these homologs have been shown to be involved in binding zinc.[1] The protein subunits of both classes each have an α/β domain folded into a TIM barrel containing the active site. Several subunits are assembled into the complete protein. The two classes share little sequence identity. With few exceptions only class I proteins have ...
... je jedna od četiri nukleobaza RNK, koja zamenjuje timin koji se nalazi u DNK. Kao i timin, uracil može da formira bazni par sa adeninom pomoću dve vodonične veze, ali mu nedostaje metil grupa koja postoji u timinu. Uracil će, za razliku od timina, lakše da se degeneriše u citozin. Uracil se vrlo retko može naći u DNK. ...
... (EC 3.1.22.1, DNase II, pancreatic DNase II, deoxyribonucleate 3'-nucleotidohydrolase, pancreatic DNase II, acid deoxyribonuclease, acid DNase) hydrolyzes deoxyribonucleotide linkages in native and denatured DNA, yielding products with 3'-phosphates. As the name implies, it is more effective at acid pH.. There are several known DNases II, including:. ...
DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase Medicine & Life Sciences * Exonucleases Medicine & Life Sciences ... Human DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) plays a key role in the DNA base excision repair process. In this study, we ... N2 - Human DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) plays a key role in the DNA base excision repair process. In this ... AB - Human DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) plays a key role in the DNA base excision repair process. In this ...
APE1 is a gene that codes for DNA AP lyase in humans which binds to AP DNA loops into both the DNA major and minor grooves and ... In enzymology, DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase, also referred to as DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) 5- ... "Homo sapiens GO:0003906 - DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase activity". HumanCyc. SRI International. Retrieved March 9, ... Several names for DNA AP lyase include: AP lyase; AP endonuclease class I; endodeoxyribonuclease (apurinic or apyrimidinic); ...
HUMAN APE1 C65A AP-ENDONUCLEASE PRODUCT COMPLEX. Molecular Description:. DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase/DNA Complex ... Functions of the major abasic endonuclease (APE1) in cell viability and genotoxin resistance. Mutagenesis, , pp. - , 2019. ...
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase/DNA Complex. Structural Keywords:. B DOUBLE HELIX ... HUMAN APE1 SUBSTRATE COMPLEX WITH AN A/C MISMATCH ADJACENT THE THF ... Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 processing of AP sites with 5 mismatches. Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol, 74, pp. ...
Home > Protein > APE1 human. mouse. rat. New Protein Search:. DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase ...
... apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase (APE-1) antibody , P27695 , APEX nuclease (APEN), Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (AP ... endonuclease 1), (APE-1), REF-1, Redox factor-1, APEX1, APE, APE1, APEX, APX, HAP1, REF1 ... DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase (APE-1) antibody. APEX nuclease (APEN). Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (AP ... Functions as a apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endodeoxyribonuclease in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions ...
... site using APE1. Another way would be to use glycosylases hydrolyze the AP site with its AP lyase activity. With the discovery ... mechanism is to remove the modified base by DNA glycosylases and then cleave the DNA at the newly formed apurinic/apyrimidinic ... DNA binding sites between mammalian and phage enzymes are different. While phage PNK DNA binding cleft forms a narrow channel ... By using a short patch pathway that involves DNA polymerase β and DNA ligase III or a long patch pathway that uses DNA ...
... abasic or apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase activity. The AP lyase reaction is catalysed by imine formation with an active site ... apyrimidinic/apurinic or abasic; Ape1, apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1; BER, base excision repair; BNPS-skatole, 3-bromo-3 ... A covalent protein-DNA 5′-product adduct is generated following AP lyase activity of human ALKBH1 (AlkB homologue 1). Tina A. ... A covalent protein-DNA 5′-product adduct is generated following AP lyase activity of human ALKBH1 (AlkB homologue 1) ...
Other than apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyases, human cells contain two known AP endonucleases, APE1 and APE2, that cleave the ... The canonical and by far the most efficient activity of APE1 is the cleavage of AP sites in duplex DNA. APE1 also removes 3′- ... Ku binds to DNA ends and recruits DNA-PKcs, the XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex, and XLF. Synapsis of two DSB ends triggers DNA- ... Ku also has a potent lyase activity that serves to cleave abasic sites near DNA ends [18]. This lyase activity also removes ...
Rabbit polyclonal APE1 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Human. Cited in 7 publication(s). ... DNA (apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase antibody. *DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase, mitochondrial antibody ... Functions as a apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endodeoxyribonuclease in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions ... Does also incise at AP sites in the DNA strand of DNA/RNA hybrids, single-stranded DNA regions of R-loop structures, and single ...
Two Divalent Metal Ions in the Active Site of a New Crystal Form of Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease, Ape1: ... DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE A, B 318 Homo sapiens EC#: 3.1 IUBMB 4.2.99.18 IUBMB Gene Name(s): APEX1 Gene View ... A second divalent metal ion in the active site of a new crystal form of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, Ape1, and its ... Our website will not work properly. Please update to a newer version or download a new web browser, such as Chrome or Firefox. ...
APEX1/DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase/Redox factor-1/REF-1/APEX nuclease/APEN/Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/AP ... endonuclease 1/APE-1/APE1/APEX/APX/HAP1/REF1/APE/Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease/multifunctional DNA repair enzyme ... Beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 2/Beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 2/beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2/beta-site ... NFKB1/NF-kB1/DNA-binding factor KBF1/EBP-1/NF-kappa-B/NFKB-p105/Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit/Nuclear factor of kappa ...
Future studies with larger-sized samples, as well as detecting the association of DNA repair genes with other confounding ... APE1 Asp148Glu and hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphisms might be associated with increasing risk of CRC in a Turkish population. ... factors will help elucidate the exact roles of DNA repai … ... DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase Actions. * Search in ... Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes OGG1, APE1, XRCC1, and XPD and the risk of age-related cataract. Zhang Y, Zhang L, ...
... side of the intact apurinic/apyrimidinic site, this will be incised by apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1/APEX1). Finally ... Cloning and characterization of mammalian 8-hydroxyguanine-specific DNA glycosylase/apurinic, apyrimidinic lyase, a functional ... APE1: Apurinic endonuclease I (APE1) is the key enzyme responsible for the removal of the apurinic/apyrmidinic sites created at ... sites [23] which are cytotoxic and mutagenic [24-26] and further processed by DNA glycosylase with AP-lyase activity or by APE- ...
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the APEX1 gene. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) ... Tell G, Damante G, Caldwell D, Kelley MR (2005). "The intracellular localization of APE1/Ref-1: more than a passive phenomenon ... Mol CD, Hosfield DJ, Tainer JA (2000). "Abasic site recognition by two apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease families in DNA base ... sites (also called "abasic sites") occur frequently in DNA molecules by spontaneous hydrolysis, by DNA damaging agents or by ...
Other Gene names: APE, APE1, APEX, APX, REF1 This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q969L5 - Homo sapiens 0 * P23196 ... The C-O-P bond 3 to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken by a beta-elimination reaction, leaving a 3-terminal ... Functions as a apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endodeoxyribonuclease in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions ... Does also incise at AP sites in the DNA strand of DNA/RNA hybrids, single-stranded DNA regions of R-loop structures, and single ...
... apurinic or apyrimidinic); DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase; DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase, mitochondrial ... Gene Aliases: APE; APE1; APEN; APEX; APEX1; APX; HAP1; REF1 UniProt ID: (Human) P27695 ... multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1; Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1; apurinic/a; Apurinic/apy; apurinic/apyrimidinic ( ... DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase activity endonuclease activity endodeoxyribonuclease activity RNA-DNA hybrid ...
DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase Serum Amyloid A Protein Sulfotransferases Single-Stranded DNA Breaks ... APE1/Ref-1, the predominant apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease and essential in eukaryotic cells, plays a central role in ... APE1/Ref-1, the predominant apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease and essential in eukaryotic cells, plays a central role in ... APE1/Ref-1, the predominant apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease and essential in eukaryotic cells, plays a central role in ...
APE1/Ref1). Together they form a unique fingerprint. * DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase Medicine & Life Sciences ... Analysis of nuclear transport signals in the human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1/Ref1). In: Nucleic acids research. ... Analysis of nuclear transport signals in the human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1/Ref1). / Jackson, Elias B.; Theriot ... title = "Analysis of nuclear transport signals in the human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1/Ref1)", ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase/chemistry*. *DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase/genetics ... Non-coding apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA form spontaneously and as DNA base excision repair intermediates are the ... Structural superimposition of APE1-product DNA (PDB entry 4IEM) and Nfo-product DNA (PDB entry 1QUM) based on the ...
Human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1) is an essential DNA repair enzyme which uses a single active site to ... Experimental Technique/Method:X-RAY DIFFRACTION Resolution:2.6 Classification:HYDROLASE, LYASE/DNA Release Date:2018-02-28 ... Here, we report multiple high-resolution APE1-DNA structural snapshots revealing how APE1 removes 3 mismatches and DNA damage ... and bending of the DNA. These results illustrate how APE1 cleanses DNA dirty-ends to generate suitable substrates for ...
MeSH-minor] DNA Repair. DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase. Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced). Drug Resistance, ... Robertson KA, Bullock HA, Xu Y, Tritt R, Zimmerman E, Ulbright TM, Foster RS, Einhorn LH, Kelley MR: Altered expression of Ape1 ... Carbon-Oxygen Lyases; EC 4.2.99.18 / APEX1 protein, human; EC 4.2.99.18 / DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase ... DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Seminoma / ...
Multifunctional DNA Repair Enzyme) 1 Antikörper für Western Blotting (WB) vergleichen & kaufen. ... APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1 L homeolog * DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase ... Alias Symbols: APE, APE1, APEN, APEX, APX, HAP1, REF-1, REF1. Protein Interaction Partner: GADD45A, UBC, RPA3, RPA2, RPA1, rev ... Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites occur frequently in DNA molecules by spontaneous hydrolysis, by DNA damaging agents or by DNA ...
"Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (APE1) Is Acetylated at DNA Damage Sites in Chromatin, and Acetylation Modulates Its ... APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1 L homeolog * DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase ... Akhter, Takeda, Nara, Araki, Ishii, Asao, Asao: "Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1/Redox Factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) Modulates ... Sengupta, Mantha, Song, Roychoudhury, Nath, Ray, Bhakat: "Elevated level of acetylation of APE1 in tumor cells modulates DNA ...
DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase,... ... Inhibition of APE1/Ref-1 redox activity with APX3330 blocks ...
  • APE1 showed a similar K m value for matched, 3′ mispaired, or nucleoside analog β-L-dioxolane-cytidine terminated nicked DNA as well as for DNA containing a tetrahydrofuran, an abasic site analog. (elsevier.com)
  • Given the relative concentrations of Gp 4 G, 3′ mispaired, and abasic DNA, Gp 4 G may play an important role in regulating APE1 activity in cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Surprisingly, ALKBH1 also forms a stable protein-DNA adduct in the absence of a reducing agent. (biochemj.org)
  • Experiments with different substrates demonstrated that the protein covalently binds to the 5′ DNA product, i.e. the fragment containing an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde. (biochemj.org)
  • These findings confirm the classification of ALKBH1 as an AP lyase, identify the primary and a secondary lysine residues involved in the lyase reaction, and demonstrate that the protein forms a covalent adduct with the 5′ DNA product. (biochemj.org)
  • Ku, a core DSB joining protein, can cleave abasic sites near DNA ends. (hindawi.com)
  • Recombinant fragment corresponding to a region within amino acids 1-318 of Human APE1 protein (P27695). (abcam.com)
  • This protein has diverse subcellular localization patterns which support the possibility of its interaction with numerous, other cellular proteins in addition to DNA repair within the nucleus. (thermofisher.com)
  • The mammalian abasic-endonuclease1/redox-factor1 (APE1/Ref1) is an essential protein whose subcellular distribution depends on the cellular physiological status. (utmb.edu)
  • We examined nuclear translocation of APE1, by monitoring enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused to APE1. (utmb.edu)
  • We observe a magnesium-water cluster in the APE1 active site, with only Glu-96 forming the direct protein coordination to the Mg(2+). (nih.gov)
  • Experimental Technique/Method:X-RAY DIFFRACTION Resolution:2.5 Classification:TRANSCRIPTION Release Date:2018-02-28 Deposition Date:2018-02-05 Revision Date: Molecular Weight:55137.11 Macromolecule Type:Protein Residue Count:474 Atom Site Count:3899 DOI:10.2210/pdb6cc0/pdb Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that uses the process of quorum sensing (QS) to coordinate the expression of many virulence genes. (mendeley.com)
  • In addition to its function in base excision repair, APE1 also regulates transcription factors such as p53, activator protein 1, Myb, and NF-κB, although the mechanism is not yet clear ( 16 - 19 ). (rupress.org)
  • However, the yeast Apn1 protein, which lacks the ability to stimulate transcription factors, is able to restore viability of human cell lines in which APE1 expression was downmodulated using small interfering RNA ( 12 ). (rupress.org)
  • Effect of multifunctional protein YB-1 on the AP Site cleavage by the activities of AP E1 and Tdp1 was studied. (idexlab.com)
  • It has been previously shown that the multifunctional oncoprotein Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) interacts with APE1 and inhibits APE1-catalyzed hydrolysis of AP sites in single-stranded DNAs. (nsu.ru)
  • We here report a human protein, PALF (PNK and APTX-like FHA protein), with an FHA (forkhead-associated) domain and novel zinc-finger-like CYR (cysteine-tyrosine-arginine) motifs that are involved in responses to DNA damage. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein. (asm.org)
  • DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase, Apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, APEX nuclease, Protein REF-1. (genesilico.pl)
  • Cleaving the oxidative repair protein Ape1 enhances cell death mediated by granzyme A. (genesilico.pl)
  • Drouin EE, Schrader CE, Stavnezer J, Hansen U. The ubiquitously expressed DNA-binding protein late SV40 factor binds Ig switch regions and represses class switching to IgA. (umassmed.edu)
  • Microbial dysbiosis promotes the release of bacterial genotoxins, metabolites, and causes chronic inflammation, which promote oxidative DNA damage. (jcancer.org)
  • Within human cells, MYH and SIRT6 are efficiently recruited to confined oxidative DNA damage sites within transcriptionally active chromatin, but not within repressive chromatin. (telomerescience.com)
  • Because of the proximity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation chain, mtDNA is potentially exposed to oxidative DNA damage ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • An AP site in DNA appears when the glycosylic bond that connects the purine or pyrimidine base to the deoxyribose sugar is cleaved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initiates repair of AP sites in DNA by catalyzing hydrolytic incision of the phosphodiester backbone immediately adjacent to the damage, generating a single-strand break with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl ends. (abcam.com)
  • The cellular consequences of DNA oxidation by RONs can lead to a number of different types of damage such as generation of 7, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-Oxod-G), thymine glycol (Tg), abasic sites (AP), and oxidized deoxyribose sugars which lead to single and double strand DNA breaks (SSBs and DSBs) [ 8 ], crosslinking of DNA, and mutation [ 9 - 13 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Acts as a loading factor for POLB onto non-incised AP sites in DNA and stimulates the 5'-terminal deoxyribose 5'-phosphate (dRp) excision activity of POLB . (rcsb.org)
  • AP endonuclease (APE1) then hydrolyzes the phosphodiester backbone, generating a single-stranded DNA break (SSB) with 3′OH and 5′deoxyribose-5-phosphate (5′dRP) termini. (prolekare.cz)
  • We investigated the association between two base excision repair (BER) genes (APE1 exon 5, OGG1 exon 7) and two nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes (XPC PAT, XPC exon 15) with risk of prostate cancer (PCa). (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report the study of molecular dynamics of human OGG1 bound to the oxoG:A-containing DNA and OGG1 mutants bound to the AP:C-containing DNA. (bvsalud.org)
  • We conclude that the enzymatic activity of OGG1 is determined majorly by the population density of the catalytically competent conformations of the active site residues Lys249 and Asp268. (bvsalud.org)
  • [email protected] Key Words damage recognition, excision repair, PIKK family, Rad17-RFC/9-11 complex, signal transduction f Abstract DNA damage is a relatively common event in the life of a cell and may lead to mutation, cancer, and cellular or organismic death. (studylibtr.com)
  • Abstract In eukaryotes the stability of genome is provided by functioning of DNA repair systems. (idexlab.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the APE1 Asp148Glu, hOGG1 Ser326Cys, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, XPD Lys751Gln, XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms and CRC risk in Turkish population. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate six of these genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, XPG, APE1, hOGG1) each of which has a separate role in these repair mechanisms. (cdc.gov)
  • In the light of these findings, we investigated whether DNA repair gene polymorphisms (XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met XPD Lys751Gln, XPG Asp1104His, APE1 Asp148Glu, and HOGG1 Ser326Cys) account for an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). (nih.gov)
  • We, for the first time, demonstrated the positive association of APE1, XRCC1, and XRCC3 DNA repair gene variants with PD risk. (nih.gov)
  • In our study, the frequencies of Glu/Glu genotype in APE1, Gln+ genotype of XRCC1, and Thr+ genotype of XRCC3 are higher in patients than in controls (p=0.028, p=0.002 and p=0.046, respectively). (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, our findings have suggested that APE1, XRCC1, and XRCC3 genetic variants may be a risk factor by increasing oxidative stress that might cause the loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantiata nigra and locus caeruleus, leading to abnormal signal transmittion, and ultimately, the development of PD. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, BER is completed upon ligation of the nick by DNA Ligase I or the Xrcc1/Ligase IIIα complex ( Figure 1A ). (prolekare.cz)
  • Preventing oxidation of cellular XRCC1 affects PARP-mediated DNA damage responses. (neb.com)
  • We determined the specificity of this small molecular weight inhibitor for Pol-β by using in vitro activities of APE1, Fen1, DNA ligase I, and Pol-β-directed single-nucleotide and long-patch BER. (aacrjournals.org)
  • DNA repair mechanisms include direct repair, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, double-strand break repair, and cross-link repair. (studylibtr.com)
  • Carcinogenic molecules from cigarettes are known to cause DNA damage to bladder epithelial cells, but such damage can be corrected by some DNA repair mechanisms such as base and nucleotide excision repair, double-strand repair and mismatch repair. (cdc.gov)
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of APE1 associated with risk and prognosis of vitiligo in a Han Chinese population. (nih.gov)
  • Ku is a 5′-dRP/AP lyase that excises nucleotide damage near broken ends," Nature , vol. 464, no. 7292, pp. 1214-1217, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • APE1 Asp148Glu and hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphisms might be associated with increasing risk of CRC in a Turkish population. (cdc.gov)
  • If an Invitrogen™ antibody doesn't perform as described on our website or datasheet,we'll replace the product at no cost to you, or provide you with a credit for a future purchase. (thermofisher.com)
  • Immunocytochemistry: APE1 Antibody (13B8E5C2) [ABIN- Immunocytochemical detection of APE-ref-1 in breast cancer cell line MDS231 using ABIN151042. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Simple Western: APE Antibody (13B8E5C2) [ABIN- Simple Western lane view shows a specific band for APE1 in 0.1 mg/ml of HeLa lysate. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: APE Antibody (13B8E5C2) [ABIN- APE1 antibody was tested in human breast cancer xenograft using DAB with hematoxylin counterstain. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Antibody class switch recombination (CSR) occurs by an intrachromosomal deletion requiring generation of double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in switch-region DNA. (rupress.org)
  • 40 41 42 42 42 42 44 44 44 46 46 47 47 48 51 56 58 59 59 62 68 70 75 77 77 INTRODUCTION The primary structure of DNA is constantly subjected to alteration by cellular metabolites and exogenous DNA-damaging agents. (studylibtr.com)
  • These results show that the transcription regulatory function of APE1 is not essential for cellular viability. (rupress.org)
  • In many cases, an elevated DNA repair capacity in tumor cells leads to drug resistance and severely limits the efficacy of DNA-alkylating drugs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • All cells, from simple prokaryotes to humans, have evolved systems to identify and repair such sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is emerging evidence for APE1/Ref-1's role in neuronal cells vulnerable in AD and other neurodegenerative disorders, as reflected in its nuclear accumulation in AD brains. (utmb.edu)
  • The effect of NSC-666715 on the cytotoxicity of the DNA-alkylating drug temozolomide (TMZ) to colon cancer cells was determined by in vitro clonogenic and in vivo xenograft assays. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to these, a less explored but critical area of cancer chemotherapy is blocking the ability of cancer cells to recognize and repair the damaged DNA, which primarily results from the use of chemotherapeutic drugs, including DNA-alkylating drugs ( 5 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vector-based Ape1 small interfering RNA enhances the sensitivity of human osteosarcoma cells to endostatin in vivo. (uni-muenster.de)
  • Results suggest a role for NEIL1 (show NEIL1 ELISA Kits ) and 2 as backup deoxyribo-5'-phosphate lyases in mammalian cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Generation of excess DSBs after in vitro incubation of DNA from irradiated cells at different temperatures. (bioz.com)
  • A ) Generation of excess DSBs after incubation at different temperatures and for different periods of time of DNA prepared by LTL from non-irradiated cells. (bioz.com)
  • Despite differences in structure and metal requirements of APE1 and Nfo, comparison of their active site structures surprisingly reveals strong geometric conservation of the catalytic reaction, with APE1 catalytic side chains positioned analogously to Nfo metal positions, suggesting surprising functional equivalence between Nfo metal ions and APE1 residues. (nih.gov)
  • The sugar at the AP site is a highly unstable cyclic carboxonium ion that undergoes rapid hydrolysis to yield a diastereomeric mixture of 2-deoxy-α-D-ribose and 2-deoxy-β-D-ribose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) formed in a natural environment have chemical modifications at or near the ends that preclude direct religation and require removal or other processing so that rejoining can proceed. (hindawi.com)
  • Free radical-mediated DSBs typically bear unligatable 3′-phosphate or 3′-phosphoglycolate termini and often have oxidized bases and/or abasic sites near the break. (hindawi.com)
  • However, it is not known how abasic sites are converted into single-stranded breaks and, subsequently, DSBs. (rupress.org)
  • Till the present time, there are a few reports in the literature concerning enzymatic mechanisms involved in DNA repair in trypanosomatids and, most of them if not all, when dealing with Leishmania species are focused on the Old World ones (Passos-Silva et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • DNA strand breaks are often caused by internal and external factors. (wikibooks.org)
  • These areas contain two or more damaged bases or strand breaks in close quarters and singly damaged sites. (wikibooks.org)
  • Does also incise at AP sites in the DNA strand of DNA/RNA hybrids, single-stranded DNA regions of R-loop structures, and single-stranded RNA molecules. (abcam.com)
  • SIRT6 is involved in DNA double-strand break repair and has been implicated in BER. (telomerescience.com)
  • Removes the blocking groups from the 3'-termini of the DNA strand breaks generated by ionizing radiations and bleomycin. (genesilico.pl)
  • However, mismatch repair ( 16 ) and DNA double-strand break (DSB) end joining ( 17 - 19 ) activities have been reported in mitochondria. (pnas.org)
  • Ataxia telangiectasia mutated activation by transcription- and topoisomerase I-induced DNA double-strand breaks," EMBO Reports , vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 887-893, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • P. L. Olive, "The role of DNA single- and double-strand breaks in cell killing by ionizing radiation," Radiation Research , vol. 150, supplement 5, pp. (hindawi.com)