Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Maxillary Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Sphenoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the SPHENOID SINUS. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is uncommon. It usually occurs in conjunction with other paranasal sinusitis.Ethmoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the ETHMOID SINUS. It may present itself as an acute (infectious) or chronic (allergic) condition.Frontal Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the FRONTAL SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE or HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Maxillary Sinus: The air space located in the body of the MAXILLARY BONE near each cheek. Each maxillary sinus communicates with the middle passage (meatus) of the NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Paranasal Sinus Diseases: Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.Ethmoid Sinus: The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.Orbital Diseases: Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Transillumination: Passage of light through body tissues or cavities for examination of internal structures.Bacteria, AerobicEndoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Cellulitis: An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.MycosesTomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed: X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Nose Diseases: Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Otitis: Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.Frontal Sinus: One of the paired, but seldom symmetrical, air spaces located between the inner and outer compact layers of the FRONTAL BONE in the forehead.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Turbinates: The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Exophthalmos: Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.Mucocele: A retention cyst of the salivary gland, lacrimal sac, paranasal sinuses, appendix, or gallbladder. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mucormycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sphenoid Sinus: One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Ciliary Motility Disorders: Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.Oroantral Fistula: A fistula between the maxillary sinus and the oral cavity.Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CAVERNOUS SINUS of the brain. Infections of the paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, and THROMBOPHILIA are associated conditions. Clinical manifestations include dysfunction of cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI, marked periorbital swelling, chemosis, fever, and visual loss. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p711)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Laryngitis: Inflammation of the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA, including the VOCAL CORDS. Laryngitis is characterized by irritation, edema, and reduced pliability of the mucosa leading to VOICE DISORDERS such as APHONIA and HOARSENESS.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Porphyromonas: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.Ethmoid Bone: A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Schizophyllum: A genus of fleshy shelf basidiomycetous fungi, family Schizophyllaceae, order POLYPORALES, growing on woody substrata. It is pathogenic in humans.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Epidural Abscess: Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)Trichosporonosis: Fungal infections caused by TRICHOSPORON that may become systemic especially in an IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST. Clinical manifestations range from superficial cutaneous infections to systemic lesions in multiple organs.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Empyema, Subdural: An intracranial or rarely intraspinal suppurative process invading the space between the inner surface of the DURA MATER and the outer surface of the ARACHNOID.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the PALATINE TONSILS but the ADENOIDS (pharyngeal tonsils) and lingual tonsils may also be involved. Tonsillitis usually is caused by bacterial infection. Tonsillitis may be acute, chronic, or recurrent.Bacteria, AnaerobicRhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Kartagener Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Cyclacillin: A cyclohexylamido analog of PENICILLANIC ACID.Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis: Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.

Comparative in vitro activities of amoxicillin-clavulanate against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from antral puncture specimens from patients with sinusitis. (1/679)

By an agar dilution method, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of antral sinus puncture isolates were studied. Pneumococci were generally susceptible to amoxicillin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin, but 17% of pneumococcal isolates were resistant to cefuroxime. Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin. beta-Lactamase production occurred in 69% of Prevotella species. One-third of Peptostreptococcus magnus isolates were resistant to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Cefuroxime had limited activity against Prevotella species and P. magnus. Levofloxacin was active against most isolates except peptostreptococci. Amoxicillin-clavulanate was active against all isolates, with the MIC at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited being < or = 1 microgram/ml.  (+info)

Nasal nitric oxide concentration in paranasal sinus inflammatory diseases. (2/679)

In normal upper airways, nitric oxide is generated by the paranasal sinus epithelium and then diffuses into the nasal cavities. This study examined whether or not nasal NO concentration is affected by paranasal sinus inflammatory diseases. The influence of obstruction (nasal polyposis) and/or inflammation (allergy or chronic sinusitis) of the paranasal sinuses on nasal NO concentration was evaluated in nasal allergic (n=7 patients) or nonallergic (n=20) polyposis, nonallergic chronic sinusitis (n=10) and Kartagener's syndrome (n=6) and compared with control subjects (n=42). A score of alteration of the paranasal sinus (number of altered and occluded sinuses) was determined by a computed tomography scan. The nasal NO concentration in nasal nonallergic polyposis (150+/-20 parts per billion (ppb)) was significantly decreased compared with both controls (223+/-6 ppb, p=0.01) and polyposis with allergy (272+/-28 ppb, p<0.0001). In each group, the nasal NO concentration was inversely correlated with the extent of tomodensitometric alteration of the paranasal sinuses. In Kartagener's syndrome, the nasal NO concentration (14+/-2 ppb) was drastically decreased compared with all other groups, despite the presence of open paranasal sinuses. Thus, the nasal NO concentration in patients with nasal polyposis appeared to be dependent on both the allergic status and the degree of obstruction of the paranasal sinuses.  (+info)

IL-12 receptor beta2 and CD30 expression in paranasal sinus mucosa of patients with chronic sinusitis. (3/679)

The aetiology of chronic sinusitis is still poorly understood. The expression of T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) cell markers, interleukin (IL)-12 receptor beta2 subunit (IL-12Rbeta2) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and CD30, respectively, were investigated in the paranasal sinus mucosa of patients with chronic sinusitis in an attempt to elucidate the involvement of Th1 and Th2 cells in this disease. Anterior ethmoidal mucosae were surgically obtained from two groups of patients with chronic sinusitis: those who had allergic rhinitis (allergic group, n=11) and those without allergy (nonallergic group, n=11). IL-12Rbeta2 mRNA was quantified by means of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and CD30-positive cells were examined immunohistochemically. Both IL-12Rbeta2 mRNA and CD30 were expressed in the sinus mucosa of the allergic and nonallergic groups. The proportion of mononuclear cells which were CD30-positive in the sinus mucosa was significantly greater in the allergic than in the nonallergic group. The expression levels of IL-12Rbeta2 mRNA were virtually equivalent in both groups. These results suggest a T-helper 2-dominated mucosal reaction in the allergic compared to the nonallergic group, and indicate T-helper 1 activity in the sinus mucosa of both groups. The ubiquity of T-helper 1 cells suggests that they play a role in maintaining local mucosal defences against foreign antigens, which continually enter the upper respiratory tract.  (+info)

A possible mechanism of primary ciliary dyskinesia: a case of a segmental defect in ciliary microtubules. (4/679)

We report here a 13-year-old woman with cough, sputum and fever. The patient had both chronic sinusitis and bronchitis. Chest X-ray and computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed mucous bronchial filling and bronchiectasia in bronchi of bilateral lower lobes, right middle lobe and left upper lobe. Aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with 99mTechnetium demonstrated delays of the discharged tracer. On the basis of these findings, primary ciliary dyskinesia was suggested. This was confirmed by the findings from nasal biopsy with transmission electron microscopy where all of the microtubules were segmentally defected near the basal body in the cilia. On the basis of these findings, we diagnosed the patient with primary ciliary dyskinesia which may be due, at least in part, to segmental defect of ciliary microtubules.  (+info)

A locus for primary ciliary dyskinesia maps to chromosome 19q. (5/679)

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is an autosomal recessive condition characterised by chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and subfertility. Situs inversus occurs in 50% of cases (Kartagener syndrome). It has an estimated incidence of 1 in 20 000 live births. The clinical phenotype is caused by defective ciliary function associated with a range of ultrastructural abnormalities including absent dynein arms, absent radial spokes, and disturbed ciliary orientation. The molecular genetic basis is unknown. A genome scan was performed in five Arabic families. Using GENEHUNTER, a maximal multipoint lod score (HLOD) of 4.4 was obtained on chromosome 19q13.3-qter at alpha (proportion of linked families) = 0.7. A 15 cM critical region is defined by recombinations at D19S572 and D19S218. These data provide significant evidence for a PCD locus on chromosome 19q and confirm locus heterogeneity.  (+info)

Invasive aspergillosis in a patient with MELAS syndrome. (6/679)

Invasive infection with the opportunistic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus predominantly affects people with impaired cell mediated immunity. The case of a 31 year old woman with no identified cause for immunosuppression who presented with severe refractory aspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses is reported. She subsequently developed clinical and molecular evidence of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like events (MELAS) syndrome. It is proposed that MELAS syndrome may represent an unusual risk factor for the development of invasive aspergillosis and mechanisms are supported by which mitochondrial dysfunction may predispose to this.  (+info)

The role of cytokines in rhinosinusitis. (7/679)

Since the last decade, new insights into inflammatory processes have become possible by investigating the pattern of cytokines in acute and chronic sinus diseases. This review aims to update and discuss the findings of in vitro and in vivo studies concerning the role of cytokines in sinusitis and nasal polyposis. The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 and the neutrophil-chemoattractant interleukin-8 may play a major role in acute sinusitis, as shown in viral and allergic rhinitis. In chronic sinusitis interleukin-3 dominates the cytokine profiles, giving support to a variety of inflammatory cells. Interleukin-5 is a key protein in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. Activation and survival of eosinophils in nasal polyps are thought to be regulated by interleukin-5. Further investigation of cytokine expression patterns in inflammatory sinus diseases will lead to a better understanding of their pathogenesis and to a development of new therapeutic modality.  (+info)

Report of successful prolonged antifungal therapy for refractory allergic fungal sinusitis. (8/679)

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is an increasingly recognized cause of refractory chronic sinusitis in the young immunocompetent host, analogous to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a related process in the lower respiratory tract. Most patients experience remittent disease despite corticosteroid therapy and aggressive sinus surgery. Because controlled trials have shown adjunctive antifungal therapy to be of benefit in treating ABPA, long-term oral itraconazole was used in a young man with remittent AFS, which was able to break the cycle of relapsing disease.  (+info)

  • Recent research on sinusitis seems to signify that the condition is often linked to those who suffer from asthma as well as a host of other secondary conditions, likely due to the inflammation of the nose which occurs, and as part of a series of conditions which affect the airway. (naturalremedies.org)
  • Intersect ENT, Inc., an innovator in treatment solutions for ear, nose and throat clinicians and their patients, today reported findings from a prospective U.S. multi-center pilot study to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of the company's newest steroid delivery implant for patients suffering from the debilitating symptoms of chronic sinusitis. (mdtmag.com)
  • Balloon Sinuplasty, is very effective in treating those with chronic sinusitis symptoms including Nasal congestion or blockage , difficulty breathing through the nose, pain in the nasal area and nasal drainage down the back of the throat. (entpembrokepines.com)
  • While nasal steroids, nasal saline sprays, decongestants, and pain relievers can be used either at home or work, some sinusitis remedies should be relegated to home use only as they can be rather messy. (dietoflife.com)
  • In some cases, it will be necessary to be seen by a physician to relieve sinusitis symptoms, especially if they were brought on by a medical condition, such as a deviated septum , for example. (dietoflife.com)
  • The results from the pilot study are highly promising, demonstrating feasibility of this novel in-office solution for patients suffering from chronic sinusitis," said Francois Lavigne, MD, FRCSC, adjunct professor of the University of Montreal and director of Institut ORL in Montréal, Quebec, Canada. (mdtmag.com)
  • The results of the pilot study confirm the potential of our office-based product, which is designed to be a less-invasive, more cost-effective treatment alternative for chronic sinusitis patients facing another surgery," said Lisa Earnhardt, the company's president and CEO. (mdtmag.com)
  • Those with a deviated septum and weakened immune system are at a heightened risk of not only sinusitis, but of infections developing as a result due to the inability of the body to fight or manage the symptoms efficiently. (naturalremedies.org)