A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a protein-disulfide in the presence of glutathione, forming a protein-dithiol. Insulin is one of its substrates. EC
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A family of thioltransferases that contain two active site CYSTEINE residues, which either form a disulfide (oxidized form) or a dithiol (reduced form). They function as an electron carrier in the GLUTHIONE-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASES and may play a role in the deglutathionylation of protein thiols. The oxidized forms of glutaredoxins are directly reduced by the GLUTATHIONE.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A broad category of oxidoreductases that either reduce double bonds or oxidize single bonds between OXYGEN and CARBON in organic compounds.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.
A kingdom of hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in diverse environments.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC was formerly listed as EC and EC
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC and EC
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
"Collapse of the native structure caused by a single amino acid exchange in human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase". FEBS J. 281 ( ... One further single nucleotide polymorphism, found homozygous in 0% to 5% of different ethnic population, is leading to an amino ... One widespread single-nucleotide polymorphism of the NQO1 gene (NQO1*2), found homozygous in 4% to 20% of different populations ... Yang FY, Guan QK, Cui YH, Zhao ZQ, Rao W, Xi Z (Sep 2012). "NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) genetic C609T polymorphism ...
... consists of a single protein with a molecular mass of 74 kDa. Its amino acid sequence is partly (40 ... oxygen oxidoreductase (cyclizing, cannabidiolate-forming). It is an oxidoreductase found in Cannabis sativa that catalyses the ... Biochemical analysis of a novel enzyme that catalyzes the oxidocyclization of cannabigerolic acid to cannabidiolic acid". The ... Cannabidiolic+acid+synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ...
... replaces the amino acid alanine with the amino acid valine at protein position 72 in the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 6 ... This mutation changes a single amino acid in the NADH dehydrogenase 6 protein at position 64, from methionine to valine. The ... The encoded protein is 18 kDa and composed of 172 amino acids. MT-ND6 is one of seven mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of ... It also remains unclear why a single mutation can cause such varied signs and symptoms in different people. MT-ND6 interacts ...
... contains 639 amino acids. It is a single peptide monomer that has three β-structural domains. Domain 1 ( ... Galactose oxidase belongs to the family of oxidoreductases. Copper ion is required as a cofactor for galactose oxidase. A ... The second cleavage removes another sequence of 17 amino acids. The covalent linkage between Tyr272 and Cys228 forms after pro- ... The first cleavage removes a sequence of 24 amino acids by signal peptidase. ...
V. Manifestation of amino acid oxidase activity by L-lysine monooxygenase". J. Biol. Chem. 247 (11): 3439-44. PMID 4624115. ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on single donors with O2 as oxidant and ... oxygen 2-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating). Other names in common use include lysine oxygenase, lysine monooxygenase, and L- ...
CH-CH oxidoreductases) EC 1.4 includes oxidoreductases that act on the CH-NH2 group of donors (Amino acid oxidoreductases, ... Superfamilies of single-pass transmembrane oxidoreductases in Membranome database Media related to Oxidoreductases at Wikimedia ... EC 1.12 includes oxidoreductases that act on hydrogen as donors EC 1.13 includes oxidoreductases that act on single donors with ... EC 1.1 includes oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors (alcohol oxidoreductases) EC 1.2 includes oxidoreductases ...
The NDUFS8 gene produces a 23.7 kDa protein composed of 210 amino acids. The encoded protein, TYKY, contains two 4Fe4S ... Schuler, Franz; Casida, John E. (2001-07-02). "Functional coupling of PSST and ND1 subunits in NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase ... The phenotypic spectrum ranges from isolated diseases affecting single organs to severe multisystem disorders. Common clinical ... NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 8, mitochondrial also known as NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 23 kDa ...
The A domain in the NRPS module is specific for the amino acid glycine (See Figure 2). The cyclizations to form the tetramic ... This was the first time the versatile action of a single P450 enzyme was reported. The authors also evaluated the in vitro ... SCSIO1666 and described the function of one of the encoded proteins as a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase. This enzyme was shown ... The tirandamycins are a small group of natural products that contain a bicyclic ketal system and a tetramic acid moiety, the ...
The amino acid tyrosine contains a single phenolic ring that may be oxidised by the action of PPOs to form o-quinone. Hence, ... Enzyme nomenclature differentiates between monophenol oxidase enzymes (tyrosinases) and o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase ... The brown or black pigments are produced from the reaction of PPO quinone products with amino acid groups in the tuber. In ... doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1984.tb04258.x. Kampatsikas I, Rompel A (October 2020). "Similar but Still Different: Which Amino Acid ...
Renilla luciferase contains 311 amino acids, and is active as a nearly spherical single polypeptide chain monomer of 36 kDa, ... RLuc is an oxidoreductase, specifically acting on single donors with O2 as the oxidant. However, this enzyme appears to be ... which contains a highly-conserved catalytic triad consisting of Aspartic Acid at residue 120, Glutamic Acid at residue 144, and ... Coelenterazine is then oxidized by RLuc into coelenteramide, releasing a single photon of blue light (480 nm) in the process. ...
On the other hand, tyrosine is an ideal proton donor at higher pH because of its pKa value (10.1). The type of amino acid that ... The tertiary structure is a single subunit. The active site of the enzyme is referred to as an (α/β)8 barrel because it ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ ... The primary structure of prostaglandin F synthase consists of 323 amino acid residues. The secondary structure consists of 17 α ...
IDO is a peripheral enzyme, in contrast to tryptophan oxidase, an enzyme of similar amino acid sequence, which is active only ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on single donors with O2 as oxidant and ... including the amino acids tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and many indole-analog plant phytochemicals. ... O2 oxidoreductase, indole-oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase (decyclizing), and IDO (ambiguous). This enzyme participates in tryptophan ...
... is a homooctamer composed of eight identical monomer subunits made up of a single polypeptide chain of 370 amino acids ( ... Marshall, J. H.; May, J. W.; Sloan, J. (1985). "Purification and Properties of Glycerol: NAD+ 2-Oxidoreductase (Glycerol ... This zinc ion forms tetrahedral dipole interactions between the amino acid residues Asp173, His256, and His274 as well as a ... Glycerol dehydrogenase (EC, also known as NAD+-linked glycerol dehydrogenase, glycerol: NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase, GDH, ...
A second electronic effect is the hydrogen bonding of both oxygens to nearby amino acids. These acids are often arginine and ... Nitrite oxidoreductase Ferredoxin-nitrite reductase (NiR) involved in the assimilation of nitrates by plants Atkins P, Overton ... Copper containing enzymes carry out a single electron transfer to produce nitric oxide. There are several types of iron based ... A nearby Aspartic acid residue hydrogen bonds to one of the newly formed oxygen ligands. An incoming electron reduces the Cu ...
Missense mutations (single nucleotide change resulting in a code for a different amino acid) are the most common, accounting ... It requires NADPH as a cofactor for this reduction, and may involve the activity of cytochrome-P450 oxidoreductase. It is also ... The amino acid sequence that encodes DHCR7 is predicted to contain 475 amino acids, as well as several protein motifs. It ... Much depends on the nature of the mutation (i.e. which amino acid is replaced and where). Null mutations are much less common, ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on single donors with O2 as oxidant and ... Koyama H (August 1984). "Oxidation and oxygenation of L-amino acids catalyzed by a L-phenylalanine oxidase (deaminating and ... oxygen 2-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating). Other names in common use include L-phenylalanine oxidase (deaminating and ...
ETQ-QO links the oxidation of fatty acids and some amino acids to oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. Specifically, ... Most affected patients are the result of single point mutations around the FAD ubiquinone interface. Milder forms of the ... Zhang J, Frerman FE, Kim JJ (Oct 2006). "Structure of electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase and electron ... Vianey-Liaud C, Divry P, Gregersen N, Mathieu M (1987). "The inborn errors of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation". Journal of ...
For instance, several non-polar amino acids within a protein can all be replaced with a single non-polar amino acid. One ... A similar protein structure was generated to support a variety of oxidoreductase activities while another formed a structurally ... protein sequence libraries are made by generating proteins where groups of amino acids may be replaced by a single amino acid. ... Certain codons are engineered to code for alternative amino acids including: nonstandard amino acids such as O-methyl tyrosine ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on single donors with O2 as oxidant and ... Richerson RB, Ziegler DM (1987). "Sulfur and Sulfur Amino Acids. Cysteamine dioxygenase". Methods Enzymol. Methods in ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 2-aminoethanethiol:oxygen oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include ... persulfurase, cysteamine oxygenase, and cysteamine:oxygen oxidoreductase. This enzyme participates in taurine and hypotaurine ...
... and the post-translational modification of protein amino acid residues. The major function of eosinophil peroxidase is to ... This oxidoreductase protein is encoded by the gene EPX, expressed within these myeloid cells. EPO shares many similarities with ... The protein contains only a single modular domain. In this respect it is primarily a metabolic enzyme or terminal effector; it ... Ligands are provided by serine and threonine hydroxyl; backbone carbonyl; and carboxylic acid groups, one of which comes from ...
The SDHA gene mutations responsible for Leigh syndrome change single amino acids in the SDHA protein, such as a G555E mutation ... Hirawake H, Wang H, Kuramochi T, Kojima S, Kita K (July 1994). "Human complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase): cDNA ... The SDHA protein encoded by this gene is 664 amino acids long and weighs 72.7 kDA. SDHA protein has four subdomains, including ... and further coordinated by hydrogen bonds with number of other amino acid residues within the FAD-binding domain. FAD which is ...
The human enzyme contains 327 amino acids and exists as a homodimer with two identical subunits of 34.5 kDa The N-terminal ... Identification of a single histidine residue affinity-labeled by both 3-bromoacetoxyestrone and 12 beta-bromoacetoxy-4-estrene- ... "Compartmentalization of type I 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase in the human ovary". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology ... Peltoketo H, Isomaa V, Mäentausta O, Vihko R (Oct 1988). "Complete amino acid sequence of human placental 17 beta- ...
... incarcerata retain more import proteins and more functional amino acid mechanism. In addition, it has an oxidative stress ... A single Golgi dictyosome, with generally 3 to 8 cisternae is located immediately posterior of the basal bodies. The ... ferredoxin oxidoreductase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase, which also exist in other anaerobic excavates of different lineages. This ... The anterior flagellum of S. incarcerata has single root made of two slightly separated microtubules, which originates close to ...
Tryptophan is bound by a number of interactions: other aromatic amino acid residues such as tryptophan, phenylalanine, and ... The FAD binding site also binds a single chloride ion. A chlorinating agent is generated at the FAD-binding site, then ... Tryptophan 7-halogenase (EC, PrnA, RebH) is an enzyme with systematic name L-tryptophan:FADH2 oxidoreductase (7- ... after a comparison in amino acid sequence revealed no similarity with previously known haloperoxidases. In contrast with ...
Note that this initialism uses single letters for each amino acid that are not the same as the standard single-letter codes ... Oxidoreductases 2 - Transferases 3 - Hydrolases 4 - Lyases 5 - Isomerases 6 - Ligases 7 - Translocases LMNOP: Lasix (furosemide ... commonly used in molecular biology to uniquely specify each amino acid; for example, though phenylalanine is represented here ... many of them are acronyms or initialisms which reduce a lengthy set of terms to a single, easy-to-remember word or phrase. ABC ...
Many different single amino acid mutations in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which catalyzes the first step in the ... The top-level classification is: EC 1, Oxidoreductases: catalyze oxidation/reduction reactions EC 2, Transferases: transfer a ... In particular, substrate binding specificity (see above) can easily and quickly change with single amino acid changes in their ... to over 2,500 residues in the animal fatty acid synthase. Only a small portion of their structure (around 2-4 amino acids) is ...
Mutations in the ETFDH can cause glutaric aciduria 2C (GA2C), an autosomal recessively inherited disorder of fatty acid, amino ... The protein is synthesized as a 67-kDa precursor which is targeted to mitochondria and processed in a single step to a 64-kDa ... Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ETFDH ... Suberic acid, an accumulated intermediate metabolite in dehydrogenase deficiency, can significantly impair neurite outgrowth in ...
6-aminopenicillanic acid (APA), L-lysine and other amino acids, citric acid and niacinamide (all more than 10,000 metric tons ... Postponement of a single important shipment can affect a quarterly result. In the small and mid-sized companies the owners ... The main categories are Oxidoreductases, Transferases, Hydrolases, Lipases (subcategory), Lyases, Isomerases and Ligases, ... namely amino acids (=starting materials), protected amino acids, peptide fragments and peptides themselves. Along the way, the ...
... lacks charged and polar amino acids while containing an excess of nonpolar amino acids, particularly phenylalanine (Phe ... The protein contains a C-(X)2-C motif (CLLC), which is mostly present in metal-binding proteins and oxidoreductases. A sorting- ... NSP2: A high-throughput Y2H screening of the SARS-CoV ORFeome and host proteins isolated a single-hit interaction between NSP2 ... SLC46A3 is an integral membrane protein 461 amino acids (aa) of length with a molecular weight (MW) of 51.5 kDa. The basal ...
... amino acid residues responsible for species-based difference of CYP24A1 between humans and rats". Molecular Pharmacology. 70 (1 ... Prosser DE, Kaufmann M, O'Leary B, Byford V, Jones G (July 2007). "Single A326G mutation converts human CYP24A1 from 25-OH-D3- ... Vitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (EC, CYP24A1) is an enzyme with systematic name calcitriol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (24 ...
... section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation ... It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.,p>,a href=/help/np_bind ... Uncharacterized oxidoreductase SACOL2488 (EC:1.-.-.-*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ... sp,Q5HD73,Y2488_STAAC Uncharacterized oxidoreductase SACOL2488 OS=Staphylococcus aureus (strain COL) OX=93062 GN=SACOL2488 PE=3 ...
... section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation ... section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the ... disulfide oxidoreductase activity Source: EcoCyc ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the ... Disulfide-bond oxidoreductase YfcG (EC:1.8.4.-*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ...
A single nucleotide change resulting in substitution of Asp for Gly-310 of cytochrome P450(14DM) was found to have occurred in ... A single amino acid substitution converts cytochrome P450(14DM) to an inactive form, cytochrome P450SG1: complete primary ... A single nucleotide change resulting in substitution of Asp for Gly-310 of cytochrome P450(14DM) was found to have occurred in ... Oxidoreductases / genetics * Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics * Sterol 14-Demethylase Substances * CYP51A1 protein, human ...
ALTERATION OF PYRIDINE NUCLEOTIDE BINDING BY A SINGLE AMINO ACID SUBSTITUTION ... ALTERATION OF PYRIDINE NUCLEOTIDE BINDING BY A SINGLE AMINO ACID SUBSTITUTION. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1F5V/pdb ... Classification: OXIDOREDUCTASE. *Organism(s): Escherichia coli (strain K12). *Expression System: Escherichia coli ... alteration of pyridine nucleotide binding by a single amino acid substitution.. Kobori, T., Sasaki, H., Lee, W.C., Zenno, S., ...
The single open reading frame of 2034 nucleotides spanning these cDNAs codes for a 678 amino acid polypeptide with a molecular ... The deduced amino acid composition is in excellent agreement with that determined by direct amino acid analysis of purified rat ... and the amino-terminal region (residues 1-80) largely coincides with the amino-terminal sequence of the oxidoreductase isolated ... Comparison of the amino acid sequence to those of other flavoproteins revealed two separate domains that are likely to be ...
Amino acid metabolism. 00270 Cysteine and methionine metabolism. LL3_01464 (mtnD). Enzymes [BR:bql01000]. 1. Oxidoreductases. ... 1.13 Acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen (oxygenases). 1.13.11 With incorporation of two atoms of ...
Substitution of a single amino acid in the rat sequence (Tyr-104 to Gln) makes the mutated rat enzyme behave like the human and ... NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase type 1;. rQR1,. rat QR1;. hQR1,. human QR1;. mQR1,. mouse QR1;. CB,. Cibacron Blue;. ... NAD(P)H:Quinone acceptor oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1, NQO1; EC is a flavoenzyme (homodimer of 273 residues, one FAD ... features that can be correlated with the structural differences that result from replacement of a small number of amino acids. ...
Single amino acid residue changes in subsite âˆ1 of levansucrase from Zymomonas mobilis 10232 strongly influence the enzyme ... The bacterium Zymomonas mobilis is able to produce sorbitol and gluconic acid from fructose and glucose, respectively. This is ... Cell growth, ethanol production, and the formation of glucoseâ€"fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) and glucono-δ-lactonase (GL), ... Home » Production of glucose-fructose oxidoreductase and ethanol by Zymomonas mobilis ATCC 29191 in medium containing corn ...
GO:0000098 [sulfur amino acid catabolic process]. GO:0005739 [mitochondrion]. GO:0005829 [cytosol]. GO:0016491 [oxidoreductase ... GO:0016702 [oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen, incorporation of two atoms ... The length of the protein (amino acid residues according to Ensembl), molecular mass (kDalton), predicted signal peptide ( ... Oxidoreductases. Predicted intracellular proteins. Protein evidence (Kim et al 2014). Protein evidence (Ezkurdia et al 2014). ...
xanthine oxidoreductase. AOX1. aldehyde oxidase 1. FAD. flavin adenine dinucleotide. MoCo. molybdenum cofactor. RS-8359. 4-(4- ... amino acid 1081 of rabbit AOX1 corresponding to amino acid 1085 of monkey AOX1. Thus, cinchonidine oxidation activity was ... A Single Amino Acid Substitution Confers High Cinchonidine Oxidation Activity Comparable with That of Rabbit to Monkey Aldehyde ... A Single Amino Acid Substitution Confers High Cinchonidine Oxidation Activity Comparable with That of Rabbit to Monkey Aldehyde ...
Class II and III ER oxidoreductases have an a-b-b′-a′ domain structure. Class II ER oxidoreductases have an acidic amino acid- ... Yeast and flies have a single copy of the ERO1 gene, which is essential for survival (Frand and Kaiser, 1998; Pollard et al., ... GmERO1a and GmERO1b encoded proteins composed of 465 amino acids containing 19 Cys residues (Fig. 1A and Supplemental Fig. S1 ... ER oxidoreductase. GmPDIS. recombinant soybean class IV ER oxidoreductase. GSH. glutathione. GST. glutathione-s-transferase. IP ...
Thus a genomics approach, applied to a single Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii cell was employed to explore the genetic ... Thus a genomics approach, applied to a single Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii cell was employed to explore the genetic ... Supplementary Material 3. Amino acid alignment of arsenite oxidoreductase subunit A.. Supplementary Material 4. Spreadsheet of ... A total of 46 tRNA genes are present and cover the 20 standard amino acids, except as in BOGUAY, tRNA-Arg-TCT and tRNA-Leu-TAA ...
"Collapse of the native structure caused by a single amino acid exchange in human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase". FEBS J. 281 ( ... One further single nucleotide polymorphism, found homozygous in 0% to 5% of different ethnic population, is leading to an amino ... One widespread single-nucleotide polymorphism of the NQO1 gene (NQO1*2), found homozygous in 4% to 20% of different populations ... Yang FY, Guan QK, Cui YH, Zhao ZQ, Rao W, Xi Z (Sep 2012). "NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) genetic C609T polymorphism ...
Most notably, the single-amino-acid substitutions that map to the surfaces of the model segregate onto two opposite faces. Four ... In each case, the MODWEB server selected glucose-fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR), which is identical to Gal80, as the single ... Gal80 single-amino-acid substitution variants selected as impaired in interaction with Gal4AD (those in Figure 2) are full ... Gal80 single-amino-acid substitution variants selected as impaired for interaction with Gal3 (those in Figure 4) are full ...
Collapse of the native structure caused by a single amino acid exchange in human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase(1.). ... Structural and kinetic studies on RosA, the enzyme catalysing the methylation of 8-demethyl-8-amino-d-riboflavin to the ... The single berberine bridge enzyme homolog of Physcomitrella patens is a cellobiose oxidase. ...
The subsequent amino acid analysis revealed that all isoenzymes were different except PXP 3 and PXP 4 (TableIV). The amino acid ... Previous studies of peroxidases in planta have been limited to the study of isoenzyme groups or single isolated isoenzymes. It ... Classical secretory plant peroxidases (class III; EC; donor, hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase) are heme-containing ... Amino Acid Analysis. Amino acid analysis was performed essentially as described byBarkholt and Jensen (1989). Protein samples ( ...
William Duax (USA) spoke on "The genes, amino acid sequences and crystal structures of short chain oxidoreductase enzymes". ... single crystal and small angle scattering techniques. Each of the speakers managed to illustrate interesting new chemical, ... In a new study of cholic acid host/guest complexes Goron Stefanic (Zagreb) drew attention to a consistent pattern of P, ... and illustrated how one can determine the structure of numerous temperature dependant phases of a compound in a single ...
S6A). The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in anaerobes is usually incomplete and provides precursors for amino acid synthesis. ... Some genes encoding TCA-cycle enzymes were found in a single operon; however, the enzyme for a key step, citrate synthetase, ... D. ethenogenes requires acetate as a carbon source (2). Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase ... Observations of enhanced growth in mixed culture (stimulated by amino acids and cell extracts), as opposed to poor growth of ...
Cannabidiolic acid synthase consists of a single protein with a molecular mass of 74 kDa. Its amino acid sequence is partly (40 ... oxygen oxidoreductase (cyclizing, cannabidiolate-forming). It is an oxidoreductase found in Cannabis sativa that catalyses the ... Biochemical analysis of a novel enzyme that catalyzes the oxidocyclization of cannabigerolic acid to cannabidiolic acid". The ... Cannabidiolic+acid+synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ...
N-alkylated amino acids have desired functions such as higher proteolytic stability, enhanced membrane-permeability and longer ... N-alkylated amino acids have desired functions such as higher proteolytic stability, enhanced membrane-permeability and longer ... Chemical synthesis of N-methylated amino acids often is limited by incomplete stereoselectivity, over-alkylation or the use of ... Chemical synthesis of N-methylated amino acids often is limited by incomplete stereoselectivity, over-alkylation or the use of ...
The POR gene provides instructions for making the enzyme cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. Learn about this gene and related ... Most of the mutations that cause cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency change single protein building blocks (amino acids) ... The breakdown of retinoic acid requires cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase; if a shortage of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase ... Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. More than 50 mutations in the POR gene have been found to cause cytochrome P450 ...
Single-nucleotide changes leading to critical amino acid substitutions in a target protein often are sufficient to cause ... is a luminal amebicide that is non-enzamatically reduced by reacting with reduced ferredoxin generated by pyruvate oxido- ... A single dose of tinidazole probably is superior to metronidazole for the treatment of giardiasis due to single dose efficacy ... Cleavage of sialic acid residues via neuraminidase is essential for release of virus from infected cells. ...
A polypeptide is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino ... ferredoxin oxido-reductase, hydrogenase, acetate:succinate CoA... ... butyric acid. Butyric acid. Butyric acid , also known under the ... s such as butyric acid. Butyric acid. Butyric acid , also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, is a carboxylic acid ... a carboxylic acid group and a side-chain that varies between different amino acids. The key elements of an amino acid are ...
... ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) was completely cloned and sequenced. The so-called NDUFV3 gene contains three exons, ... Amino Acid Sequence * Animals * Base Sequence * Cattle * Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 / genetics ... The NDUFV3 gene was assigned by FISH to a single location on chromosome 21q22.3 and might contribute to the Down syndrome ... Molecular cloning and characterization of the human mitochondrial NADH:oxidoreductase 10-kDa gene (NDUFV3) Genomics. 1997 Oct ...
It uses vitamin K as a cofactor to add carboxyl groups to the side chains of the amino acid glutamate within certain vitamin K- ... Single lines represent single bonds between carbon atoms; double lines represent double bonds between carbon atoms. Hydrogen ... A different enzyme, vitamin K oxidoreductase, recycles the vitamin; this enzyme is the target of the anticoagulant drug ... The side chains of the amino acid glutamate normally carry one carboxyl group; the vitamin K-dependent addition of a second ...
In addition to TetX2 T280A , a family of variants of TetX2 with single amino acid changes in TetX2 sequence that conferred ... Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron TetX2 was previously identified as a novel oxidoreductase with broad activity against ... Changes in fitness of E. coli carrying a single chromosomal copy of either wild-type or one of the mutant alleles were assessed ...
The POR sequence in 842 normal individuals revealed many polymorphisms; amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of ... P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency: A Disorder of Steroidogenesis with Multiple Clinical Manifestations Message Subject. (Your Name ... P450 oxidoreductase (POR). Although knockout of the POR gene causes embryonic lethality in mice, we discovered human POR ...
379 amino acids) and having approx 80% homology with both maize enzymes. This open reading frame is interrupted by six introns ... We have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of a single-copy gene from A. thaliana likely to be the gene encoding ... alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC The gene was isolated from a random recombinant library ...
Inhibitor binding constants for five mutant cytochrome bc1 enzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae having single amino acid ... cytochrome c oxidoreductase (cytochrome bc1) and they bind in the Q0 site of the enzyme near the low potential heme of ... 10) Direct Catalytic Asymmetric Amination of Aldehydes: Synthesis of Evans, Oxazolidinones and α-Amino Acids [11] (Figure 11). ... 13) A Convenient Diastereoselective Synthesis Of Oxazolidinone: Approach to Unusual Amino Acid Statine [13] (Figures 14 and 15 ...
... a truncated ORF encoding the C-terminal two-thirds of an oxidoreductase, and a gene showing 77% identity at the amino acid ... Sequence from a single Group I mutant, WS-4, revealed an open reading frame (ORF; the entire 1002-nucleotide ORF was sequenced ... The predicted product of the wssJ gene is a protein of 324 amino acids. It is similar to WssA at the amino acid level (51% ... WssF is predicted to encode a protein of 221 amino acids. The amino acid sequence is similar to that encoded by a small ORF ( ...
  • Substitution of a single amino acid in the rat sequence (Tyr-104 to Gln) makes the mutated rat enzyme behave like the human and mouse wild-type enzymes ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Cell growth, ethanol production, and the formation of glucoseâ€"fructose oxidoreductase (GFOR) and glucono-δ-lactonase (GL), the enzymes responsible for the bio-production of gluconic acid and sorbitol, were examined. (ebscohost.com)
  • donor, hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase) are heme-containing enzymes of approximately 300 amino acids. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Because cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase helps regulate the activity of these enzymes, researchers suspect that normal variations in the POR gene may influence a person's response to particular drugs (drug metabolism). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Type II enzymes, including both drug-metabolizing and some steroidogenic enzymes, require electron donation from a two-flavin protein, P450 oxidoreductase (POR). (sciencemag.org)
  • The DNA sequence contains an open reading frame capable of encoding a polypeptide the same length as maize ADH1 and ADH2 (379 amino acids) and having approx 80% homology with both maize enzymes. (caltech.edu)
  • Although the purified enzymes were unable to reduce NAD(P), electrons from both pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate could reduce NADP in cell extracts, consistent with a role for these oxidoreductases in the provision of NADPH as a respiratory electron donor. (asm.org)
  • The bacterium possesses enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff and pentose-phosphate pathways ( 5 , 29 , 30 ), but although it is capable of glucose metabolism, respiratory activity is greater with some organic acids, such as pyruvate ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • The group of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) flavoprotein oxidoreductases was first outlined by Cavener [ 1 ] and encompasses a wide variety of enzymes from prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. (mdpi.com)
  • Nitroreductases are flavin-associated oxidoreductase enzymes that reduce nitro substituents on aromatic rings. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Peroxidases (POD: H 2 O 2 -Oxydoreductase E.C. are oxidoreductase enzymes, which catalyze the reactive oxygen species generated during metabolism, and are converted into harmless molecules [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Membrane enzymes may have many activities, such as oxidoreductase, transferase or hydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single berberine bridge enzyme homolog of Physcomitrella patens is a cellobiose oxidase. (nih.gov)
  • The POR gene provides instructions for making the enzyme cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cannabidiolic acid synthase (EC, CBDA synthase) is an enzyme with systematic name cannabigerolate:oxygen oxidoreductase (cyclizing, cannabidiolate-forming). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its amino acid sequence is partly (40-50%) homologous to several other oxidoreductases, such as berberine bridge enzyme in Eschscholzia californica and Nectarin V in Nicotiana langsdorffii X N. sanderae. (wikipedia.org)
  • A scheme for the detoxification of superoxide in Pyrococcus furiosus has been previously proposed in which superoxide reductase (SOR) reduces (rather than dismutates) superoxide to hydrogen peroxide by using electrons from reduced rubredoxin (Rd). Rd is reduced with electrons from NAD(P)H by the enzyme NAD(P)H:rubredoxin oxidoreductase (NROR). (asm.org)
  • This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF. (plantcell.org)
  • Succinate:quinone oxidoreductase, or succinate dehydrogenase (complex II), is an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which oxidizes succinate and reduces quinones, without proton translocation. (asm.org)
  • oxygen oxidoreductase, an aa 3 -type enzyme (complex IV), receives these electrons and transfers them to oxygen. (asm.org)
  • Some L2HGDH gene mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase enzyme, which likely impairs its function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETF dehydrogenase or electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, EC is an enzyme that transfers electrons from electron-transferring flavoprotein in the mitochondrial matrix, to the ubiquinone pool in the inner mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the enzyme is also involved on many other metabolic pathways such as glyoxylate bypass, amino acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and oxidation/reduction balance [1] . (proteopedia.org)
  • In many eubacteria, the oxidation of sulfide involves the enzyme sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR). (medicinelakex1.com)
  • Notwithstanding poor resolution in deep SQR phylogeny and lack of a specifically a-protebacterialbranch for the eukaryotic enzyme on the basis of current lineage sampling, a single eubacterial origin of eukaryotic SQRand the evident need of ancient eukaryotes to deal with sulfide, a process today germane to mitochondrial quinonereduction, are compatible with the view that eukaryotic SQR was an acquisition from the mitochondrial endosymbiont. (medicinelakex1.com)
  • For the NIH-funded positions below, experience in either single-molecule biophysics, structural biology (especially cryo-EM microscopy), enzyme kinetics (stopped flow fluorescence), molecular biology and/or biochemistry of protein-nucleic acid interactions will be required. (antonylab.org)
  • We aim to decipher how DPOR (dark operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase), a key enzyme in the dark-driven chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes multi-electron substrate reduction reactions. (antonylab.org)
  • Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase ( fumarate ) ( EC , dihydroorotate oxidase, pyr4 (gene) ) is an enzyme with systematic name (S)-dihydroorotate:fumarate oxidoreductase . (wikivisually.com)
  • On the other hand, the decrease in the rate constant for hydride transfer noted with the single mutants relative to the wild-type enzyme is reversed for the double mutant, so that ΔΔG ‡ is ca. 2 kcal mol −1 more favorable. (umn.edu)
  • Although acidic d -amino acids found in animals primarily originate from foodstuffs and/or bacteria, the d -aspartate-synthesizing enzyme aspartate racemase is identified in various animals. (springer.com)
  • Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an enzyme co-factor in eukaryotes that also plays a critical role in protecting photosynthetic eukaryotes against damaging reactive oxygen species derived from the chloroplast. (elifesciences.org)
  • Comparison of the amino acid sequence to those of other flavoproteins revealed two separate domains that are likely to be involved in flavin binding: a long segment (residues 77-228) homologous with Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin, an FMN-containing protein, and a shorter segment (residues 452-477) homologous with the FAD-binding segment of fumarate reductase from Escherichia coli. (pnas.org)
  • Oxidative folding is catalyzed by protein disulfide isomerase ( PDI ) and PDI -related ER protein thiol disulfide oxidoreductases (ER oxidoreductases). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Most of the mutations that cause cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cannabidiolic acid synthase consists of a single protein with a molecular mass of 74 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tryptophan (Trp), an essential amino acid, constitutes a central component in human and animal protein synthesis, and it serves as the sole source of substrates that facilitate the generation of a range of crucial molecules. (hindawi.com)
  • rNROR is a 39.9-kDa protein whose sequence contains both flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)- and NAD(P)H-binding motifs, and it shares significant similarity with known and putative Rd-dependent oxidoreductases from several anaerobic bacteria, both mesophilic and hyperthermophilic. (asm.org)
  • Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of ∼37 kD. (plantcell.org)
  • Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria × ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). (plantcell.org)
  • The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. (plantcell.org)
  • Mutations causing single amino acid exchanges can dramatically affect protein stability and function, leading to disease. (springer.com)
  • We will review the function of these proteins and their dysfunction in cancer and then describe in some detail the effects of the most relevant cancer-associated single amino exchanges using a translational perspective, from the viewpoints of molecular genetics and pathology, protein biochemistry and biophysics, structural, and cell biology. (springer.com)
  • Anwar A, Dehn D, Siegel D, Kepa JK, Tang LJ, Pietenpol JA, Ross D (2003) Interaction of human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) with the tumor suppressor protein p53 in cells and cell-free systems. (springer.com)
  • Quinone Oxidoreductase (CRYZL1) is a protein that has sequence similarity to zeta crystalline. (prospecbio.com)
  • Each protein was identified on the basis of 3-4 peptides (the amino-acid sequences) that increases reliability of result. (earth-chronicles.com)
  • The predicted 355 amino acid human protein is 80% identical to the 42-kDa bovine homolog. (nature.com)
  • Monitoring Luciferase expression allows us to identify the sites of infection within the intact FRT, while fluorescent protein mCherry allows us to visualize the single infected cells. (bioinbrief.com)
  • The media reporter particle genome will not really communicate any virus-like aminoacids and instead encodes enhanced firefly luciferase [16] and mCherry fluorescent protein [15] from a single transcript. (bioinbrief.com)
  • SNP is a variation in a single base pair in a DNA sequence that may lead to the variation in the amino acid of the protein. (proteopedia.org)
  • DHRSX (dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member on chromosome X) is a 330 amino acid protein belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family. (bioon.com.cn)
  • Parameters assessed were ulcer index, total acidity, acid volume, total protein and pH, non protein sulfhydryls and gastric wall mucus. (bvsalud.org)
  • a single transmembrane α-helix ( bitopic membrane protein ) 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyl is inserted in response to a UAG codon in several methanogenic archaea, but the specific mechanism of insertion of this amino acid into protein is not yet known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The coding nucleotide sequence of the mRNA for NADPH-cytochrome P-450 oxidoreductase (NADPH:ferricytochrome oxidoreductase, EC from rat liver was determined from two overlapping cDNA clones, pOR-7 and pOR-8, which together contain 2401 nucleotides complementary to rat liver oxidoreductase mRNA. (pnas.org)
  • The deduced amino acid composition is in excellent agreement with that determined by direct amino acid analysis of purified rat liver P-450 oxidoreductase, and the amino-terminal region (residues 1-80) largely coincides with the amino-terminal sequence of the oxidoreductase isolated from rabbit liver. (pnas.org)
  • Genetics of P450 oxidoreductase: sequence variation in 842 individuals of four ethnicities and activities of 15 missense mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition to TetX2 T280A , a family of variants of TetX2 with single amino acid changes in TetX2 sequence that conferred equal or higher resistance towards MCN was identified by error-prone mutagenesis. (rice.edu)
  • amino acid sequence variant A503V is encoded by ~28% of human alleles. (sciencemag.org)
  • The deduced por gene products showed significant sequence similarity to archaeal four-subunit 2-oxoacid:acceptor oxidoreductases. (asm.org)
  • Although the sequence similarities of this family are not high and its members catalyze diverse reactions, this family of flavoenzymes contains a conserved ADP-binding motif (an approximately 30 amino acid region) in its N -terminus and the signature 1 and 2 consensus sequences [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence was determined and the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (202 aa) showed close similarity to manganese-containing SOD's from other organisms. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • b ) Amino acid sequence of selected regions from Gsu0514 containing mutations. (nih.gov)
  • The adapted strain with all of the replicate strains mutation represented in a single sequence is on top, followed by G. sulfurreducens wild-type sequence, and then aligned sequences from additional Geobacter species as well as Escherichia coli to show amino acid conservation across species for the mutated regions. (nih.gov)
  • More than 50 mutations in the POR gene have been found to cause cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reduced activity of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase can also disrupt the production of cholesterol, which likely impairs normal bone formation in severe cases of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • if a shortage of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase prevents retinoic acid from being broken down, the resulting excess of that molecule can stimulate the abnormal growth and fusion of bones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CYPs associate with cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) and cytochrome b5 for catalysis of a substrate. (proteopedia.org)
  • One widespread single-nucleotide polymorphism of the NQO1 gene (NQO1*2), found homozygous in 4% to 20% of different populations, has found to be connected with different forms of cancer and a lowered efficiency of some chemotherapeutics like mitomycin C. This single nucleotide polymorphism leads to a proline serine exchange on position 187. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human gene for the 10-kDa flavoprotein subunit of the mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I) was completely cloned and sequenced. (nih.gov)
  • The NDUFV3 gene was assigned by FISH to a single location on chromosome 21q22.3 and might contribute to the Down syndrome phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • Genome sequencing revealed that all five strains had non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the same gene, GSU0514, a putative transcriptional regulator. (nih.gov)
  • Besides, 29 more gene products (hydromanholes, oxidoreductases, calcium - the connecting proteins and protective molecules) and two proteins characteristic of golden staphylococcus were revealed. (earth-chronicles.com)
  • To find the genetic cause of the complex I deficiency, we screened the mitochondrial DNA and the nuclear-encoded subunits of complex I. We identified compound-heterozygous mutations in the NDUFA10 gene, encoding an accessory subunit of complex I. The first mutation disrupted the start codon and the second mutation resulted in an amino acid substitution. (nature.com)
  • We have increased ethylene production twofold by RBS screening and further investigated improving ethylene production from a single gene copy of efe , using multiple tandem promoters and by putting our best construct on an RSF1010-based broad-host-self-replicating plasmid, which has a higher copy number than the genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show how genetic innovations have shaped cytoskeletal structures in Rhizaria, and how single cell transcriptomics can be applied for resolving deep phylogenies and studying gene evolution in uncultured protist species. (uio.no)
  • Santer, René 2018-05-28 00:00:00 The human WWOX (WW domain-containing oxidoreductase) gene, originally known as a tumor suppressor gene, has been shown to be important for brain function and development. (deepdyve.com)
  • Vitamin K hydroquinone serves as a cofactor for vitamin K γ‐carboxylase that catalyzes γ‐carboxylation of specific glutamic acid residues in Gla‐factors/proteins (Gla domain) leading to their activation and participation in blood clotting and bone metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trp precedes and indicates the synthesis of proteins, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), nicotinic acid, and serotonin (namely, the neurotransmitter) [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Computer-assisted analyses of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that 77 of the ORFs exhibited homologies to known virus genes, 23 of which matched functional iridovirus proteins. (asm.org)
  • Recently, chimeras of RLuc have been developed and demonstrated to be the brightest luminescent proteins to date, and have proved effective in both noninvasive single-cell and whole body imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the biosynthetic reactions of carotenoids involve diiron proteins (common in fatty acid desaturases) and cytochrome p450 (common in sterol biosyntheis). (bris.ac.uk)
  • Ubiquinone binding is achieved through a deep hydrophobic binding pocket which is a different mode than other UQ-binding proteins such as succinate-Q oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method utilizes single round replication defective vector that expresses dual reporter proteins, Luciferase and mCherry. (bioinbrief.com)
  • The second set of mutant proteins includes two double mutants (L28A-F31A and I50A-L54G) in which the selected amino acids are separated by three to four intervening amino acids and a quadruple mutant (L28A- F31A-I50A-L54G) in which the two sets L28A-F31A and I50A-L54G are spatially distinct. (umn.edu)
  • Ca . Nitrotoga fabula" possesses a new type of periplasmic nitrite oxidoreductase belonging to a lineage of mostly uncharacterized proteins. (asm.org)
  • Transmembrane helices from these proteins have significantly different amino acid distributions to transmembrane helices from polytopic proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integral and peripheral proteins may be post-translationally modified, with added fatty acid , diacylglycerol [13] or prenyl chains, or GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol), which may be anchored in the lipid bilayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selenocysteine (Sec) is a rare amino acid which occurs in proteins in major domains of life. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human body is made up of chemical compounds such as water, amino acids (proteins), fatty acids (lipids), nucleic acids (DNA/RNA), and carbohydrates (e.g. sugars and fiber). (consumersresearchcncl.org)
  • The NADH:quinone oxidoreductase, also called rotenone-sensitive NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) (NDH-1), is the largest complex of the respiratory chain and is responsible for the transfer of electrons from NADH to quinones, coupled with proton or sodium translocation across the membrane. (asm.org)
  • lldD is an oxidoreductase which catalyses the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concurrent interconversion of NADH and NAD+. (prospecbio.com)
  • NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (E.C. (nature.com)
  • Anwar A, Siegel D, Kepa JK, Ross D (2002) Interaction of the molecular chaperone Hsp70 with human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1. (springer.com)
  • Collapse of the native structure caused by a single amino acid exchange in human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase(1. (pianolarge.ml)
  • In In eubacteria, sulfide oxidation is commonly catalyzed mitochondria of marine invertebrates from such environ- by the flavoprotein, sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) ments, electrons from sulfide can be transferred to (also called sulfide quinone reductase). (medicinelakex1.com)
  • However, the amino acid sequences of OorA and -B were more closely related to that of the two-subunit POR of the aerobic halophile Halobacterium halobium . (asm.org)
  • 1987, "Arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid sequences and fibrinogen binding to platelets", Blood 70:110-115. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • [7] Furthermore, Site-directed mutagenesis on some amino acid sequences proceeded to see whether the turnover rate of interaction between CYP and CPR could change. (proteopedia.org)
  • Those amino acid sequences could have the likelihood of binding site of CPR for CYP. (proteopedia.org)
  • The amino acid sequences including Lys 94, Lys 99, Lys 105, Lys 440, Lys 453, Arg 455, Lys 463, Arg clusters Arg 135-Arg 136-Arg 137 are significant residues for ionic bond for CYP-CPR interaction. (proteopedia.org)
  • Conversion of NfsB, a minor Escherichia coli nitroreductase, to a flavin reductase similar in biochemical properties to FRase I, the major flavin reductase in Vibrio fischeri, by a single amino acid substitution. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The function of the hydrophobic residues Leu28, Phe31, Ile50, and Leu54 at the folate binding site in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate:NADP + oxidoreductase, EC has been studied by a combination of site-specific mutagenesis and reaction kinetics. (umn.edu)
  • It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding. (uniprot.org)
  • In RLuc, the loop containing residues 153 - 163 is structurally flexible, facilitating greater diffusion of solvents into the active site, which contains a highly-conserved catalytic triad consisting of Aspartic Acid at residue 120, Glutamic Acid at residue 144, and Histidine at residue 285. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. The method of claim 2 , wherein the protease generates a glycated peptide from about 2 to about 30 amino acid residues. (google.com.au)
  • A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell , cell clusters, or no cell at all. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • The matrix is also known to house tRNA and ribosomes , which further solidifies the theory that the mitochondria entered the ancestral eukaryotic cell as single celled organism. (wikibooks.org)
  • While it seems quite simple when we put it this way, the body is actually a very complex organism and every single part of the body is just as complex and intriguing. (consumerhealthdigest.com)
  • A putative amino acid transporter determines sensitivity to the two-peptide bacteriocin plantaricin JK. (uio.no)
  • A single nucleotide change resulting in substitution of Asp for Gly-310 of cytochrome P450(14DM) was found to have occurred in cytochrome P450SG1. (nih.gov)
  • Laboratory evolution of Geobacter sulfurreducens for enhanced growth on lactate via a single-base-pair substitution in a transcriptional regulator. (nih.gov)
  • It is mainly formed in the respiratory chain (diagram 2) , in enzymatic processes catalyzed by oxidoreductases (xanthine, aldehyde, dihydroorotate, and diamine reductases, NADPH oxidoreductase, i.e. (biomol.pl)
  • Specifically, it integrates distributed information from the literature to provide a complete and detailed view for metabolic processes such as acetyl-CoA synthesis, pyruvate synthesis, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, reductive tricarboxylic acid (RTCA) cycle, non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (NOPPP), nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and nucleotide biosynthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • And DEGs enriched in KEGG pathways of plant hormone signal transduction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were significantly expressed. (beds.ac.uk)
  • It is the end product of fatty acid β-oxidation, a precursor for energy generation, but at the same time, a substrate for fatty acid, isoprenoid, and amino acid biosynthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • P450 oxidoreductase: genetic polymorphisms and implications for drug metabolism and toxicity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 3 Although these fatty acids exert some effects on calcium metabolism, 4 neither the distribution of these unsaturated fatty acids in foods nor their chemical behavior corresponds to that of Activator X. Cod liver oil is much richer than butter in essential fatty acids including EPA, and the oils of plant seeds are even richer in these fats, but Price found little, if any, Activator X in these foods. (westonaprice.org)
  • Trp hydroxylase facilitates the biotransformation of approximately 5% Trp via metabolism to 5-hydroxy Trp, and this generates serotonin by decarboxylase (an amino acid). (hindawi.com)
  • Many metabolic changes take place throughout strawberry fruit growth and ripening, such as the degradation of chlorophyll, the accumulation of anthocyanin, softening, the metabolism of organic acid and sugars, and the production of flavor compounds. (plantcell.org)
  • Widely expressed, DHRSX is an oxidoreductase that contains a coenzyme binding site and a substrate binding site, indicating a possible role in cellular metabolism. (bioon.com.cn)
  • To our knowledge, our patients are the first individuals presenting the more severe end of the phenotypic spectrum of WWOX deficiency, although they were only affected by a single missense variant of WWOX. (deepdyve.com)
  • These advantages are also present in naturally occurring alkylated amino acids and peptides such as the medically relevant compounds destruxin B or cyclosporine A. Cyclosporine A is one of the most important and medically relevant examples of an N -methylated peptide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Five types of terminal oxygen reductases are known in prokaryotes: three types of heme-copper reductases ( 64 ), the cytochrome bd (quinol:oxygen oxidoreductase) ( 13 ), and the so-called alternative oxidase (quinol:oxygen oxidoreductase), which harbors a di-iron center ( 78 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the biggest was low viability of synthetic yeast strains due to rapid accumulation of artemisinic acid and poor pairing of cytochrome P450 and their reductases, which resulted in formation of reactive oxygen species. (uni-lj.si)
  • Recently, it was shown that in contrast to the usual pyruvate dehydrogenase complex employed by aerobes, the main route for pyruvate assimilation in H. pylori is via a pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (POR) (EC ) ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • AS08 and EO chain octylphenol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida share common molecular characteristics with polyethylene glycol (PEG) dehydrogenases (PEG-DH) and comprise a PEG-DH subgroup in the family of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases that includes glucose/alcohol oxidase and glucose/choline dehydrogenase. (mdpi.com)
  • Whole exome sequencing revealed homozygosity for a novel missense variant affecting the evolutionary conserved amino acid Gln230 in the catalytic short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) domain of WWOX in both girls. (deepdyve.com)
  • A genome-wide search yielded multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q24.1 region associated with glaucoma. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, we propose that the relay of an oxidizing equivalent from one ER oxidoreductase to another may play an essential role in cooperative oxidative folding by multiple ER oxidoreductases in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Cannabidiolic acid synthase catalyses the production of cannabidiolate predominantly from cannabigerolate by stereospecific oxidative cyclization of the geranyl group of cannabigerolic acid according to the following chemical reaction: cannabigerolate + O2 → cannabidiolate + H2O2 Cannabinerolate can also be used as a substrate, but with lower efficiency (KM=0.137 mM) than cannabigerolate (KM=0.206 mM). (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2-oxoglutarate:acceptor oxidoreductase (OOR) activity (EC ) has also been detected in H. pylori ( 19 , 20 ), catalyzing the analogous, reversible oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to form succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA), a major intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. (asm.org)
  • ETQ-QO links the oxidation of fatty acids and some amino acids to oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single open reading frame of 2034 nucleotides spanning these cDNAs codes for a 678 amino acid polypeptide with a molecular weight of 76,962. (pnas.org)
  • lldD E.Coli Recombinant produced in E.coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 420 amino acids (1-396) and having a molecular mass of 45.3kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • Renilla luciferase contains 311 amino acids, and is active as a nearly spherical single polypeptide chain monomer of 36 kDa, which have a tendency for self-association, forming inactive dimers and trimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, cinchonidine oxidation activity was drastically changed by mutation of a single residue in AOX1. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Introducing the single-base-pair mutation from one of the five strains into the wild-type strain conferred rapid growth on lactate. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that a single-base-pair mutation in a transcriptional regulator can have a significant impact on the capacity for substrate utilization and suggest that adaptive evolution should be considered as a potential response of microorganisms to environmental change(s) imposed during bioremediation. (nih.gov)
  • It produces by-products such as ethanol, acetate, n-butanol, n-butyrate and hydrogen from amino acid catabolism. (cyberleninka.org)
  • A wide range of experimental tools are deployed including, cryo-EM, single-molecule microscopy, rapid kinetics, fluorescence using non-canonical amino acids, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange. (antonylab.org)
  • Mutant P450 oxidoreductase causes disordered steroidogenesis with and without Antley-Bixler syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1.8 A crystal structure of the major NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductase of a bioluminescent bacterium, Vibrio fischeri: overall structure, cofactor and substrate-analog binding, and comparison with related flavoproteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Substrate recognition and binding takes place at the C-terminal end of the ellipsoid (α/β) 8 -barrel body through interaction with amino acids within the three highly variable loops pro-2 10 11 truding out of the barrel structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The tricarboxylic acid cycle takes place inside the matrix, the metabolic equivalent of the prokaryotic cytoplasm. (wikibooks.org)
  • phaseolicola PK2 (the Kudzu strain), which catalyzes the conversion of the ubiquitous tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate into ethylene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The single-base-pair mutations discovered in the five lactate-adapted replicates after 23 transfers in lactate media. (nih.gov)
  • Most affected patients are the result of single point mutations around the FAD ubiquinone interface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical synthesis of N -methylated amino acids often is limited by incomplete stereoselectivity, over-alkylation or the use of hazardous chemicals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Eicosanoids synthesis - A2 phospholipase releases arachidonic acid from phospholipoids, which is transformed into prostaglandins, leukotriens, tromboxanes, and prostacyclins by cyclo- and lipoxygenases. (biomol.pl)
  • iii) reacting said polyalkylene oxide containing said terminal carboxylic acid with a biologically active nucleophile under conditions sufficient to form a biologically active conjugate whereby said polyalkylene oxide is linked to said biologically active nucleophile by an ester linkage. (google.com)
  • It is an oxidoreductase found in Cannabis sativa that catalyses the formation of cannabidiolate, a carboxylated precursor of cannabidiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, a genomics approach, applied to a single Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii cell was employed to explore the genetic potential of one of these enigmatic giant bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • For some amino acids the genetic code of the mitochondria differ slightly from that of the nucleus (and the rest of the cell). (wikibooks.org)
  • Single cell transcriptomics, mega-phylogeny and the genetic basis of morphological innovations in Rhizaria. (uio.no)
  • To explore the genetic mechanism of morphological evolution of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton we provide the first single cell transcriptomes from uncultured, free-living unicellular eukaryotes: the polycystine radiolarian Lithomelissa setosa (Nassellaria) and Sticholonche zanclea (Taxopodida). (uio.no)
  • Type II NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductases (NDH-2) catalyze the two-electron transfer from NAD(P)H to quinones, without any energy-transducing site. (asm.org)
  • 177:3953-3959, 1995) have indicated that the major routes for the generation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and succinyl-CoA are via pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (POR) and 2-oxoglutarate:acceptor oxidoreductase (OOR), respectively. (asm.org)
  • Here we show that eukaryotic SQR genescharacterized to date can be traced to a single acquisition from a eubacterial donor in the common ancestor of animalsand fungi. (medicinelakex1.com)
  • In eukaryotic organisms, acidic d -amino acids are primarily degraded by the flavoenzyme d -aspartate oxidase (DDO). (springer.com)
  • DDO is found in multiple eukaryotic organisms and may play important roles in acidic d -amino acid utilization, elimination, and intracellular level regulation. (springer.com)
  • N -methylated amino acids are present in diverse biological molecules in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. (frontiersin.org)
  • These are spherical grampolozhitelny (have a single-layer cellular membrane) bacteria which are pathogenic for the person. (earth-chronicles.com)
  • Recently, substantial levels of acidic d -amino acids, such as d -aspartate and d -glutamate, have been identified in many organisms, from bacteria to mammals, suggesting that acidic d -amino acids have multiple physiological significances. (springer.com)
  • Cava F, Lam H, de Pedro MA, Waldor MK (2011) Emerging knowledge of regulatory roles of d -amino acids in bacteria. (springer.com)
  • 2 In 1980, Dr. Jeffrey Bland suggested more specifically that it was the elongated omega-3 essential fatty acid called EPA. (westonaprice.org)
  • N -alkylated amino acids have desired functions such as higher proteolytic stability, enhanced membrane permeability and longer peptide half-lives, which are important for the peptide-based drugs, the so-called peptidomimetics. (frontiersin.org)
  • N -alkylated amino acids are used in the design of peptide-based drugs named peptidomimetics in order to enhance their half-lives and stability against proteolysis or their membrane permeability. (frontiersin.org)
  • The matrix is the site of the citric acid cycle, whereby the electron transport chain is used to setup a proton gradient between the inner and outer membrane of the mitochondria, known as the inter membrane space. (wikibooks.org)
  • The spectrum of AKR substrates is wide and comprises aldehydes, ketones, monosaccharides, ketosteroids, ketoprostaglandins, bile acid precursors, chemical carcinogens and their metabolites -- for example, aflatoxin dialdehydes, nicotine-derived 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and trans -dihydrodiols of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of these 2-oxoacid:acceptor oxidoreductases in H. pylori is of importance for several reasons. (asm.org)
  • Genome-scale modeling and simulations have been guided for metabolic engineering of Clostridium species for the production of organic solvents and organic acids. (cyberleninka.org)
  • In 2013 Paddon and coworkers publish an article where a significantly improved, re-engineered yeast strain that is able to produce much more artemisinic acid is described. (uni-lj.si)
  • In this study, we expressed recombinant soybean Ero 1 ( GmERO1 a) and found that GmERO1 a oxidized multiple soybean ER oxidoreductases, in contrast to mammalian Ero 1s having a high specificity for PDI. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The methods utilizes one or two different types of oxidizing agents which selectively oxidize low-molecular weight reducing substances and high-molecular weight (mainly hemoglobin) reducing substances in blood samples, coupled with enzymatic reactions catalyzed by proteases, fructosyl amino acid oxidase, and peroxidase. (google.com.au)
  • Inversely, the reciprocal rabbit A1081V mutant lost the activity entirely: amino acid 1081 of rabbit AOX1 corresponding to amino acid 1085 of monkey AOX1. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Changes in fitness of E. coli carrying a single chromosomal copy of either wild-type or one of the mutant alleles were assessed by growth rate assays over a range of minocycline concentrations. (rice.edu)
  • The first set, in which the side chains of the targeted amino acids are spatially well separated (∼8 Å), includes two single mutants (L28Y and L54F) and a double mutant (L28Y-L54F). (umn.edu)