The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

Rapid dendritic morphogenesis in CA1 hippocampal dendrites induced by synaptic activity. (1/923)

Activity shapes the structure of neurons and their circuits. Two-photon imaging of CA1 neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in developing hippocampal slices from rat brains was used to characterize dendritic morphogenesis in response to synaptic activity. High-frequency focal synaptic stimulation induced a period (longer than 30 minutes) of enhanced growth of small filopodia-like protrusions (typically less than 5 micrometers long). Synaptically evoked growth was long-lasting and localized to dendritic regions close (less than 50 micrometers) to the stimulating electrode and was prevented by blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Thus, synaptic activation can produce rapid input-specific changes in dendritic structure. Such persistent structural changes could contribute to the development of neural circuitry.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (2/923)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Selection of RNA replicons capable of persistent noncytopathic replication in mammalian cells. (3/923)

The natural life cycle of alphaviruses, a group of plus-strand RNA viruses, involves transmission to vertebrate hosts via mosquitoes. Chronic infections are established in mosquitoes (and usually in mosquito cell cultures), but infection of susceptible vertebrate cells typically results in rapid shutoff of host mRNA translation and cell death. Using engineered Sindbis virus RNA replicons expressing puromycin acetyltransferase as a dominant selectable marker, we identified mutations allowing persistent, noncytopathic replication in BHK-21 cells. Two of these adaptive mutations involved single-amino-acid substitutions in the C-terminal portion of nsP2, the viral helicase-protease. At one of these loci, nsP2 position 726, numerous substitution mutations were created and characterized in the context of RNA replicons and infectious virus. Our results suggest a direct correlation between the level of viral RNA replication and cytopathogenicity. This work also provides a series of alphavirus replicons for noncytopathic gene expression studies (E. V. Agapov, I. Frolov, B. D. Lindenbach, B. M. Pragai, S. Schlesinger, and C. M. Rice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:12989-12994, 1998) and a general strategy for selecting RNA viral mutants adapted to different cellular environments.  (+info)

The cholesterol requirement for sindbis virus entry and exit and characterization of a spike protein region involved in cholesterol dependence. (4/923)

Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) are enveloped alphaviruses that enter cells via low-pH-triggered fusion in the endocytic pathway and exit by budding from the plasma membrane. Previous studies with cholesterol-depleted insect cells have shown that SFV requires cholesterol in the cell membrane for both virus fusion and efficient exit of progeny virus. An SFV mutant, srf-3, shows efficient fusion and exit in the absence of cholesterol due to a single point mutation in the E1 spike subunit, proline 226 to serine. We have here characterized the role of cholesterol in the entry and exit of SIN, an alphavirus quite distantly related to SFV. Growth, primary infection, fusion, and exit of SIN were all dramatically inhibited in cholesterol-depleted cells compared to control cells. Based on sequence differences within the E1 226 region between SFV, srf-3, and SIN, we constructed six SIN mutants with alterations within this region and characterized their cholesterol dependence. A SIN mutant, SGM, that had the srf-3 amino acid sequence from E1 position 224 to 235 showed increases of approximately 100-fold in infection and approximately 250-fold in fusion with cholesterol-depleted cells compared with infection and fusion of wild-type SIN. Pulse-chase analysis demonstrated that SGM exit from cholesterol-depleted cells was markedly more efficient than that of wild-type SIN. Thus, similar to SFV, SIN was cholesterol dependent for both virus entry and exit, and the cholesterol dependence of both steps could be modulated by sequences within the E1 226 region.  (+info)

Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. (5/923)

Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. We have sought to advance this field by devising DNA-based vectors and approaches for the production of recombinant vector particles. In this work, we generated a panel of alphavirus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. As such, translation of the structural proteins was highly inducible and was detected only after synthesis of an authentic subgenomic mRNA by the vector-encoded replicase proteins. Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10(7) infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors.  (+info)

Inhibition versus induction of apoptosis by proteasome inhibitors depends on concentration. (6/923)

We previously established that NF-kappaB DNA binding activity is required for Sindbis Virus (SV)-induced apoptosis. To investigate whether SV induces nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB via the proteasomal degradation pathway, we utilized MG132, a peptide aldehyde inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of the proteasome. 20 microM MG132 completely abrogated SV-induced NF-kappaB nuclear activity at early time points after infection. Parallel measures of cell viability 48 h after SV infection revealed that 20 microM MG132 induced apoptosis in uninfected cells. In contrast, a lower concentration of MG132 (200 nM) resulted in partial inhibition of SV-induced nuclear NF-kappaB activity and inhibition of SV-induced apoptosis without inducing toxicity in uninfected cells. The specific proteasomal inhibitor, lactacystin, also inhibited SV-induced death. Taken together, these results suggest that the pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic functions of peptide aldehyde proteasome inhibitors such as MG-132 depend on the concentration of inhibitor utilized and expand the list of stimuli requiring proteasomal activation to induce apoptosis to include viruses.  (+info)

Packaging of AeDNV-GFP transducing virus by expression of densovirus structural proteins from a sindbis virus expression system. (7/923)

Genetic recombination resulting in the production of wild-type infectious virus is an obstacle in the current system for producing densovirus transducing particles. In order to eliminate this problem, a double subgenomic Sindbis virus (TE/3'2J/VP) was engineered that expresses the structural proteins (VPs) of Aedes densonucleosis virus (AeDNV) from the second subgenomic promoter. Expression of AeDNV VPs from TE/3'2J/VP was confirmed by Northern analysis of RNA from infected C6/36 (Aedes albopictus) cells and by indirect immunofluorescence in infected C6/36 cells and BHK-21 cells. TE/3'2J/VP was used to infect C6/36 cells transfected with p7NS1-GFP, a plasmid expressing the nonstructural genes of AeDNV and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene. This infection resulted in the production of AeDNV-GFP transducing virus, which is infectious to C6/36 cells and Aedes aegypti larvae, as determined by GFP expression. The TE/3'2J/VP packaging system produced titers of transducing virus comparable to those produced by the standard two-plasmid method. The possibility of recombination resulting in wild-type infectious virus in transducing densovirus stocks was eliminated by employing an RNA virus expression system to supply AeDNV structural proteins.  (+info)

Endoprotease PACE4 is Ca2+-dependent and temperature-sensitive and can partly rescue the phenotype of a furin-deficient cell strain. (8/923)

PACE4 is a member of the eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease family. The expression of human PACE4 in RPE.40 cells (furin-null mutants derived from Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells) resulted in the rescue of a number of wild-type characteristics, including sensitivity to Sindbis virus and the ability to process the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Expression of PACE4 in these cells failed to restore wild-type sensitivity to Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Co-expression of human PACE4 in these cells with either a secreted form of the human insulin pro-receptor or the precursor form of von Willebrand factor resulted in both proproteins being processed; RPE.40 cells were unable to process either precursor protein in the absence of co-expressed PACE4. Northern analysis demonstrated that untransfected RPE.40 cells express mRNA species for four PACE4 isoforms, suggesting that any endogenous PACE4 proteins produced by these cells are either non-functional or sequestered in a compartment outside of the secretory pathway. In experiments in vitro, PACE4 processed diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin protective antigen, but not Pseudomonas exotoxin A. The activity of PACE4 in vitro was Ca2+-dependent and, unlike furin, was sensitive to temperature changes between 22 and 37 degrees C. RPE.40 cells stably expressing human PACE4 secreted an endoprotease with the same Ca2+ dependence and temperature sensitivity as that observed in membrane fractions of these cells assayed in vitro. These results, in conjunction with other published work, demonstrate that PACE4 is an endoprotease with more stringent substrate specificity and more limited operating parameters than furin.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The Effects of Sindbis Viral Vectors on Neuronal Function. AU - Uyaniker, Seçil. AU - van der Spek, Sophie J.F.. AU - Reinders, Niels R.. AU - Xiong, Hui. AU - Li, Ka Wan. AU - Bossers, Koen. AU - Smit, August B.. AU - Verhaagen, Joost. AU - Kessels, Helmut W.. PY - 2019/8/8. Y1 - 2019/8/8. N2 - Viral vectors are attractive tools to express genes in neurons. Transduction of neurons with a recombinant, replication-deficient Sindbis viral vector is a method of choice for studying the effects of short-term protein overexpression on neuronal function. However, to which extent Sindbis by itself may affect neurons is not fully understood. We assessed effects of neuronal transduction with a Sindbis viral vector on the transcriptome and proteome in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, and analyzed the electrophysiological properties of individual CA1 neurons, at 24 h and 72 h after viral vector injection. Whereas Sindbis caused substantial gene expression alterations, changes at the ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Effect of interferon on Sindbis virus growth in chick embryo cell cultures. by Robert B. Stewart et al.
The isolation and sequence comparison of avirulent and neurovirulent strains of polio virus, alpha virus, herpes virus, immunodeficiency virus, and other viruses have identified genetic changes that are required to cause disease in the nervous system. The molecular mechanisms by which these genetic changes result in neurovirulence are unknown. An avirulent laboratory strain of the Alphavirus Sindbis kills most cultured cell lines not by lethal parasitism, but by inducing apoptosis or programmed cell death. Transfection of cultured cells with the human bcl-2 oncogene can block Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis, resulting in a persistent viral infection resembling that observed in brains of immunodeficient mice. We investigated the possibility that neurovirulent strains of Sindbis virus could overcome the protective effects of bcl-2--a potential mechanism to explain the ability of these strains to cause fatal disease. Strains of Sindbis virus that were lethal for 2- to 4-week-old mice induced ...
The future progress of cancer gene therapy relies on the development of efficient and safe vectors that can deliver therapeutic genes specifically to tumor cells. Using a replication-competent viral vector targeted to tumor cells may be the most efficient way of specifically killing a large number of malignant cells. We intend to develop Sindbis virus SV, an aiphavirus, into a targeted replication-competent viral vector for breast cancer gene therapy. Since SV kills by apoptosis, specific destruction of tumor cells will occur if the virus is targeted to breast cancer cells. To target SV to breast cancer cells, the putative receptor-binding domains of the SV E2 glycoprotein was replaced with the ligand, heregulin, or with an NGR-containing peptide motif that binds to the CD13 receptor expressed on tumor associated endothelial cells. We have demonstrated that a heregulin-containing SV preferentially kills a breast cancer cell line that expresses the appropriate epidermal growth factor receptors. Analysis
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We isolated Sindbis virus (SINV) from the enzootic mosquito vectors Culex torrentium, Cx. pipiens, and Culiseta morsitans collected in an area of Sweden where SINV disease is endemic. The infection rate in Cx. torrentium mosquitoes was exceptionally high (36 infections/1,000 mosquitoes), defining Cx. torrentium as the main enzootic vector of SINV in Scandinavia.. ...
Sindbis virus (SINV) is an enveloped, mosquito-borne alphavirus. Here we generated and characterized a fluorescent protein-tagged (FP-tagged) SINV and found that the presence of the FP-tag (mCherry) affected glycoprotein transport to the plasma membrane whereas the specific infectivity of the virus was not affected. We examined the virions by transmission electron cryo-microscopy and determined the arrangement of the FP-tag on the surface of the virion. The fluorescent proteins are arranged icosahedrally on the virus surface in a stable manner that did not adversely affect receptor binding or fusion functions of E2 and E1, respectively. The delay in surface expression of the viral glycoproteins, as demonstrated by flow cytometry analysis, contributed to a 10-fold reduction in mCherry-E2 virus titer. There is a 1:1 ratio of mCherry to E2 incorporated into the virion, which leads to a strong fluorescence signal and thus facilitates single-particle tracking experiments. We used the FP-tagged virus for high
Li, Guangpu and La Starza, Mark W. and Hardy, W. Reef et al. (1990) Phosphorylation of sindbis virus nsP3 in vivo and in vitro. Virology, 179 (1). pp. 416-427. ISSN 0042-6822. Niesters, Hubert G. M. and Strauss, James H. (1990) Defined mutations in the 5 nontranslated sequence of Sindbis virus RNA. Journal of Virology, 64 (9). pp. 4162-4168. ISSN 0022-538X. PMCID PMC247880. Hahn, Y. S. and Lenches, Edith M. and Galler, R. et al. (1990) Expression of the structural proteins of dengue 2 virus and yellow fever virus by recombinant vaccinia viruses. Archives of Virology, 115 (3-4). pp. 251-265. ISSN 0304-8608. Preugschat, Frank and Yao, Chen-Wen and Strauss, James H. (1990) In vitro processing of dengue virus type 2 nonstructural proteins NS2A, NS2B, and NS3. Journal of Virology, 64 (9). pp. 4364-4374. ISSN 0022-538X. ...
BioAssay record AID 216207 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity (to reduce virus-induced cytopathogenicity) against Sindbis virus in vero cells.
Interior and exterior views of the three-dimensional reconstruction of Sindbis Virus. This virus is transmitted by mosquitos and causes fever and rash in humans. If was first discovered in Egypt. - Stock Image C006/2445
Oxidative stress has been proposed as a common mediator of apoptotic death. To investigate further the role of oxidants in this process we have studied the effects of antioxidants on Sindbis virus (SV)-induced apoptosis in two cell lines, AT-3 (a prostate carcinoma line) and N18 (a neuroblastoma line). The thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), at concentrations above 30 mM, completely abrogates SV-induced apoptosis in AT-3 and N18 cells. The effects of NAC cannot be attributed to inhibition of viral entry or viral replication, changes in extracellular osmolarity or to increases in cellular glutathione levels, nor can they be mimicked by chelators of trace metals, inhibitors of lipid peroxidation or peroxide scavengers. In contrast, other thiol agents including pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 75 microM) are protective. Because NAC and PDTC are among the most effective inhibitors of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, we examined SVs ability to activate NF-kappa B before the onset of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Superinfection exclusion of alphaviruses in three mosquito cell lines persistently infected with Sindbis virus. AU - Karpf, Adam R.. AU - Lenches, Edith. AU - Strauss, Ellen G.. AU - Strauss, James H.. AU - Brown, Dennis T.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Three Aedes albopictus (mosquito) cell lines persistently infected with Sindbis virus excluded the replication of both homologous (various strains of Sindbis) and heterologous (Aura, Semliki Forest, and Ross River) alphaviruses. In contrast, an unrelated flavivirus, yellow fever virus, replicated equally well in uninfected and persistently infected cells of each line. Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus are among the most distantly related alphaviruses, and our results thus indicate that mosquito cells persistently infected with Sindbis virus are broadly able to exclude other alphaviruses but that exclusion is restricted to members of the alphavirus genus. Superinfection exclusion occurred to the same extent in three biologically ...
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/32J) inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/32J virus expressing B2 (TE/32J/B2) compared to TE/32J and TE/32J virus expressing GFP. TE/32J/B2 exhibited increased
BioAssay record AID 216212 submitted by ChEMBL: Evaluated in vitro for antiviral activity in vero cell cultures against Sindbis virus.
The primary focus of Dr. Heidners research lab is the design and development of alphavirus-based vectors and vaccines. Alphaviruses are small RNA viruses that are spread to humans and other vertebrates through the bites of infected mosquitoes. Alphaviruses possess a number of properties that support their use as vectors for expressing foreign genes of interest. Therefore, these viruses have been researched extensively for use as recombinant vaccines.. The lab is using Sindbis virus, the prototype alphavirus, to develop and evaluate new strategies for targeting alphavirus vectors, or alphavirus-expressed antigens to immunologically relevant cell types such as dendritic cells. An additional project focuses on the development of an alphavirus-based influenza vaccine.. ...
The alphaviruses are a genus of 26 enveloped viruses that cause disease in humans and domestic animals. Mosquitoes or other hematophagous arthropods serve as vectors for these viruses. The complete sequences of the +/- 11.7-kb plus-strand RNA genomes of eight alphaviruses have been determined, and partial sequences are known for several others; this has made possible evolutionary comparisons between different alphaviruses as well as comparisons of this group of viruses with other animal and plant viruses. Full-length cDNA clones from which infectious RNA can be recovered have been constructed for four alphaviruses; these clones have facilitated many molecular genetic studies as well as the development of these viruses as expression vectors. From these and studies involving biochemical approaches, many details of the replication cycle of the alphaviruses are known. The interactions of the viruses with host cells and host organisms have been exclusively studied, and the molecular basis of ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population Biology. populationsbiologi. ...
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above. ...
The 9 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of Sindbis virus presented here provides structural information on the polypeptide topology of the E2 protein, on the interactions between the E1 and E2 glycoproteins in the formation of a heterodimer, on the difference in conformation of the two types of trimeric spikes, on the interaction between the transmembrane helices of the E1 and E2 proteins, and on the conformational changes that occur when fusing with a host cell. The positions of various markers on the E2 protein established the approximate topology of the E2 structure. The largest conformational differences between the icosahedral surface spikes at icosahedral 3-fold and quasi-3-fold positions are associated with the monomers closest to the 5-fold axes. The long E2 monomers, containing the cell receptor recognition motif at their extremities, are shown to rotate by about 180^o and to move away from the center of the spikes during fusion. ...
RNA-binding proteins are a critical component of the cellular machinery that dictate the fate of RNA molecules. As RNA virus genomes are small, they rely on host RNA-binding proteins to control the life of the viral RNA. However, which of these host proteins are required for virus infection remains largely unknown. Alfredos group developed a novel technique called comparative RNA interactome capture to interrogate which RNA-binding proteins are involved in the infection of a model virus called Sindbis (SINV). This work uncovered that SINV infection alters the activity of more than 200 cellular RNA-binding proteins, thus rewiring cellular RNA metabolism (Figure 1). ...
Purdue University researchers successfully eliminated the native infection preferences of a Sindbis virus engineered to target and kill cancer cells, a milestone in the manipulation of this promising viral vector.
Jain, A., Ranjan, A., Chatterji, U., Das, P., Ghosh, S., Habib, S., Pandey, S., Ramachandran, A., Venkaiah, B., and Hasnain, S.E. (1998) High level expression of heterologous genes in insect cells is not dependent on promoter alone in Invertebrate cell culture: Novel Direction and Biotechnological Applications (Eds: Maramorosch K and Mitsuhashi J) Science Publishers, Inc (USA) New Hampshire, p221-227 ...
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Together with the work of Dr G. Stanway on the neurovirulent strains P3/Leon/37 and P3/119, hundreds of cDNA clones were examined and more than 22 kbp of nucleotide sequence determined. These experiments resulted in the identification of a mall number of mutations in the genomes of the strains studied which must be responsible for their differences in neurovirulence. However, it has not yet been possible to identify the individual mutations involved in attenuation and reversion and further experiments are currently in progress. These experiments represent a number of different approaches. Firstly, the sequence of other neurovirulent vaccine revertants are being determined, to ascertain whether the mutations observed in P3/119 are shared by other strains. Secondly, the work of Racaniello and Baltimore (1981a) has demonstrated that the construction of recombinant virus genomes in vitro, at the level of cloned cDNA, is possible. Transfection of susceptible cells with these recombinant genomes gives ...
Kaj se zgodi pri darovanju krvne plazme? Pri darovanju krvne plazme, potuje kri preko igle v sterilnem, zaprtem, enocevnem sistemu na aparat za odvzem krvne plazme, kjer se kri filtrira in centrifugira, s tem procesom dosežemo, da se glavni sestavni deli krvi ločijo od plazme. Plazma teče v vrečo za plazmo, nakar se izmenično kri vrne nazaj po sistemu preko igle v žilo. Darovana količina plazme je odvisna od teže darovalca. Darovanje traja približno 45 minut. Kdo vse lahko daruje krvno plazmo?. Vsak človek, ki je dopolnil 18 let in ni starejši od 60 let ter ima vsaj 50kg in ne več kot 150kg ter je telesno in psihično sposoben za darovanje. O sposobnosti za darovanje presodi zdravnik. Kako pogosto se lahko daruje krvna plazma?. Darovanje krvne plazme bistveno ne vpliva na telo, zato lahko v enem letu darujemo 50 krat. Vendar je potrebno upoštevati predpise o darovanju. Med dvemi darovanji mora preteči 72ur, v enem tednu lahko darujete do 2 krat, v dveh tednih 3 krat in v enem ...
Z navedenimi odločbami je Banka Slovenije namreč odločila, da vse naštete delnice in podrejene obveznice prenehajo.. Izbris naštetih delnic in podrejenih obveznic iz centralnega registra nematerializiranih vrednostnih papirjev zato pomeni zgolj prenehanje evidentiranja pravic, ki pa so prenehale že pred samim izbrisom iz centralnega registra in neodvisno od njega.. Vse nove delnice Nove Ljubljanske banke d.d. z oznako NLBS, Nove Kreditne banke Maribor d.d. z oznako KBMS, Abanke d.d. z oznako ABKS, Factor banke d.d. z oznako FBNS in Probanke d.d. z oznako PRBS pa je KDD v skladu z nalogom za izdajo vpisala na račun Republike Slovenije.. ...
Kisik in žveplo sta nekovini, selen, telur in polonij pa so polprevodne polkovine. To pomeni, da so njihove električne lastnosti nekje med lastnostmi kovin in izolatorjev. Telur, pa tudi selen, se kljub temu pogosto razvrščata med kovine. Kovinski halkogenidi se v naravi pojavljajo kot minerali. Nekateri so zelo pogosti, na primer pirit (FeS), ki je železova ruda, nekateri pa so zelo redki, na primer zlatov ditelurid kalaverit (AuTe2). Najboolj pogosto formalno oksidacijsko stanje halkogenih spojin je 2-. Pogosta so tudi druga oksidacijska stanja, na primer 1- v piritu. Najvišje formalno oksidacijsko stanje je 6+ v sulfatih (žveplova kislina H2SO4), selenatih (natrijev selenat Na2SeO4) in teluratih. ...
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as
Implications for viral behavior and virulence.Alphavirus variants with reduced plaque sizes often have reduced virulence in vivo as well, although there are certainly exceptions to this rule, and fresh wild-type isolates frequently contain a mixture of large-plaque and small-plaque viruses. Repeated tissue culture passaging of alphaviruses can lead to decreased plaque size and decreased virulence (19, 39). Small-plaque and large-plaque alphavirus variants typically have different affinities for hydroxyapatite (a form of calcium phosphate), indicating changes in the surface charge of the glycoproteins (3, 23). It may be possible to reinterpret these findings in light of our demonstration that SV can bind to HS. We suggest that alphaviruses with a small-plaque phenotype under agar (indicating strong binding to the agar sulfated polysaccharide) may also bind better to HS and that strong binding to HS may decrease virulence in vivo.. The strain of SV used in this study, Toto 1101, is a relatively ...
We recently characterized three novel alphaviruses isolated from mosquitoes captured in New South Wales, Australia. Initial cross-neutralization studies revealed antigenic similarity to the Sindbis virus (SINV)-like Whataroa virus (WHAV), heretofore found only in New Zealand. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the WHAV-like viruses shared >99% nucleotide sequence similarity with each other, and 96-97% similarity with prototype WHAV. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactions of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to SINV showed that the novel WHAV-like viruses displayed identical binding patterns and were antigenically distinct from all SINV isolates examined. Although these viruses displayed a similar binding pattern to prototype WHAV, three monoclonal antibodies discriminated them from the New Zealand virus. Our results suggest that these novel alphaviruses are antigenic variants of WHAV and represent the first reported isolations of this virus from outside New Zealand. The monoclonal
Anders, E M.; Miller, J F.; and Gamble, J, A radioisotopic technique for measuring the mononuclear inflammatory response in sindbis virus-induced encephalitis of mice. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3366 ...
Regulatory and biophysical mechanisms of cell-cell fusion are largely unknown, despite the fundamental requirement for fused cells in eukaryotic development. Only two cellular fusogens that are not of obvious viral origin have been identified to date, both in nematodes. EFF-1 and AFF-1 comprise the FF family and together they are necessary for virtually all somatic cell fusions in C. elegans. Unregulated EFF-1 expression causes lethality due to ectopic fusion between cells not developmentally programmed to fuse, highlighting the necessity of tight fusogen regulation for proper development. ^ Identifying factors that regulate EFF-1 and its paralog AFF-1 could lead to discovery of molecular mechanisms that control cell fusion upstream of the action of a membrane fusogen. Yet, FF proteins are sufficient to fuse heterologous invertebrate cell types, suggesting that they function autonomously in foreign molecular and proteomic environments. The work presented here examines whether a predicted 14-3-3
Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. Alphaviruses cause a variety of human diseases,
No exactly related to surfaces, but in terms of killing viruses via heat, a study from a few years ago looked at the time required for inactivation of various Alphaviruses in blood serum samples at 56°C, finding that it could take anywhere from 20 min to 2 hrs [1]. If youre looking for ways that the average person can disinfect surfaces, some fairly common consumer disinfectants are actually already capable of killing certain types of viruses (e.g. Dettol claim that some of their products kill influenza, coronavirus, RSV, etc. [2]). [1] Park, S.L., Huang, Y.-J.S., Hsu, W.-W., Hettenbach, S.M., Higgs, S., and Vanlandingham, D.L. (2016). Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses. Journal of Virological Methods 234, 152-155. [2] ...
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Looking for online definition of Alphavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Alphavirus infections explanation free. What is Alphavirus infections? Meaning of Alphavirus infections medical term. What does Alphavirus infections mean?
Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
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Alphaviruses infect their host by binding to cellular receptors and fusing with cell membranes. New studies define the receptor-binding protein of these viruses and its regulation of the membrane-fusion reaction. See Letters p.705 & p.709 Alphaviruses are significant animal and human pathogens - as demonstrated in recent outbreaks of infection with the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus in India and southeast Asia. The E1 and E2 glycoproteins of alphaviruses are central to the way the virus infects host cells. The E1/E2 heterodimers that form spikes on the virus surface dissociate in the acidic conditions found in the internal vesicles of host cells, and E1 triggers infection by fusing with the endosomal membrane. Félix Rey and colleagues present the structure of Chikungunya virus envelope glycoprotein at neutral pH, and Michael Rossmann and colleagues reveal the structure of the envelope
In summary, our data indicate that SFV fusion and exit are highly cholesterol dependent, and that this sterol requirement is significantly reduced by the P226S mutation. Interestingly, preliminary data from our lab indicate that two independent mutants selected for cholesterol-independent growth also have the P226S mutation, supporting the importance of this region of the spike protein in the virus cholesterol requirement (Chatterjee, P., and M. Kielian, unpublished results). It is striking that although it is not conserved, the position analogous to SFV E1 P226 is not found as a serine residue in any of the alphavirus sequences in the database, including recent virus isolates from nature (Fig. 7). Other nonconserved proline residues in this and other E1 regions (eg., P237; Fig. 7) are present as a serine in some alphavirus sequences. Preliminary results with Sindbis virus, having alanine at position 226, indicate that both its infection and fusion are highly cholesterol dependent, similar to wt ...
A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The Viruses are transmitted by Mosquitoes. The type species is the Sindbis Virus ...
Arthropod vectored viruses are a major cause of human disease. The alphaviruses are a group of arthropod vectored agents which are responsible for a variety of...
Wolcott, J A.; Wust, C J.; and Brown, A, Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral immune responses to a second alphavirus. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4459 ...
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Odpadne vode so ustvarjene iz stanovanjskih, inšticionalnih ter poslovnih in industrijskih obratov in vključujejo gospodinjske odpadke, vodo iz stranišč, kadi, kuhinj in umivalnikov, ki jih odvržemo v kanalizacijo. Voda, ki se uporabi v gospodinjstvu in industriji, se zavrže kot odpadna voda. Ta se pri uporabniku zbere in odvede v kanalizacijo. Na mnogih področjih se v odpadne vode zlivajo tudi tekoči odpadki iz industrije in trgovin. Kanalizacijski sistem je omrežje podzemnih kanalov z jaški, v katerih se zbira odpadna voda iz hiš in tovarn, ter vodi do čistilne naprave, kjer se voda prečisti. Ločevanje in odvajanje gospodinjskih odpadkov v sive in črne vode je vse bolj pogosta v razvitem svetu. Sive vode lahko uporabljamo za zalivanje in splakovanje stranišč. V večino odpadnih voda se steka tudi deževnica in voda iz težko dostopnih področij. Kanalizacijskim sistemom, ki uporabljajo padavinske vode, pravimo tudi kombinirani sistemi ali mešani kanalizacijski sistem. Ti ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of alphavirus infection in cell culture and in mice with antisense morpholino oligomers. AU - Paessler, Slobodan. AU - Rijnbrand, Rene. AU - Stein, David A.. AU - Ni, Haolin. AU - Yun, Nadezhda E.. AU - Dziuba, Natallia. AU - Borisevich, Viktoriya. AU - Seregin, Alexey. AU - Ma, Yinghong. AU - Blouch, Robert. AU - Iversen, Patrick L.. AU - Zacks, Michele A.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors wish to thank The Chemistry Group at AVI BioPharma for the expert production of all PPMO compounds used in this study. This work was supported by grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases through the Western Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (U54 AI057156) and through the Galveston National Laboratory Operations, Advanced Veterinary Services Core (UC7 AI070083). S. Paessler was supported by a National Institutes of Health K08 Award (A1059491) and faculty support provided by the Institute for Human ...
In biology and immunology, an alphavirus belongs to the group IV Togaviridae family of viruses, according to the system of classification based on viral genome composition introduced by David Baltimore in 1971. Alphaviruses, like all other group IV viruses, have a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are thirty alphaviruses able to infect various vertebrates such as humans, rodents, fish, birds, and larger mammals such as horses as well as invertebrates. Transmission between species and individuals occurs mainly via mosquitoes making the alphaviruses a contributor to the collection of Arboviruses - or Arthropod-Borne Viruses. Alphavirus particles are enveloped, have a 70 nm diameter, tend to be spherical (although slightly pleomorphic), and have a 40 nm isometric nucleocapsid. The alphaviruses are small, spherical, enveloped viruses with a genome of a single positive sense strand RNA. The total genome length ranges between 11,000 and 12,000 nucleotides, and has a 5 cap, and 3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Semliki-Forest-virus-specific nonstructural protein nsP4 is an autoproteinase. AU - Takkinen, Kristiina. AU - Peränen, Johan. AU - Keränen, Sirkka. AU - Söderlund, Hans. AU - Kääriäinen, Leevi. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The Semliki‐Forest‐virus‐specific nonstructural proteins are translated as a large polyprotein (2431 amino acid residues), from which the mature polymerase components nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4 are released by proteolytic cleavages. The complete ns polyprotein (P1234) can be cleaved in two alternative ways yielding either P123 (with sequences of nsP1, nsP2 and nsP3) and nsP4 or P12 (nsP1 plus nsP2) and P34 (nsP3 plus nsP4). We studied the possible autoproteolytic role of nsP4 involved in the cleavage between nsP3 and nsP4 in an in vitro transcription‐translation system. cDNAs encoding P34 precursor and shorter precursor protein segments covering the nsP3‐nsP4 cleavage region, were cloned under the T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The mRNAs ...
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order to establish a productive infection. Of importance are the midgut, basal lamina and the salivary glands. Infection of the salivary glands is crucial for virus transmission during the mosquitos subsequent bloodfeed. Other factors that may contribute to vector competence include the microflora and parasites present in the mosquito, environmental conditions, the molecular determinants of the virus to adapt to the vector, as well as the effect of co-infection with other viruses. Though mosquito innate immunity is a contributing factor to vector competence, it will not be discussed in this review. Detailed understanding of these factors will be instrumental in minimising transmission of alphaviral
Types of Viruses Used in Gene Therapy: There are 6 main types of viruses used in gene therapy:. 1) Retroviruses - A class of viruses that can create double-stranded DNA copies of their RNA genomes. These copies of its genome can be integrated into the chromosomes of host cells. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus.. 2) Adenoviruses - A class of viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes that cause respiratory, intestinal, and eye infectious in humans. The virus that causes the common cold is an adenovirus.. 3) Adeno-associated viruses - A class of small, single-stranded DNA viruses that can insert their genetic material at a specific site on chromosome 19.. 4) Herpes simplex viruses - A class of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a particular cell type, neurons. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common human pathogen that causes cold sores.. 5) Alphaviruses - A single stranded positive sense RNA, particularly used to develop viral vectors for the Ross-River virus, Sindbis virus, ...
A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The Viruses are transmitted by Mosquitoes. The type species is the Sindbis Virus ...
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File name extensions will help your computer know the nature of a particular file is. It will help you quickly access these files, and you can open them anytime you want. File name extensions are usually followed by a dot and an acronym of some sort. Usually, there are three to four letters or numbers on the acronym, but the character limit can be as long as 260 characters for some operating system, like Windows 10. And there are thousands of file name extensions available right now, all with different purposes and natures.. One of these file name extensions is the nsv file, which carries the .NSA file name extension So if youre wondering how to open nsv file, you will learn it all here. Not to mention what its nature is and where its mainly being used. Read on below to find out!. What is an NSV File Name?. NSV is an acronym for Nullsoft Streaming Video, which means its primarily associated with Nullsoft by Nullsoft Inc. Its a streaming video container format, which Nullsoft developed to ...
Sočasna okužba, sookužba ali koinfekcija je hkratna okužba celice ali organizma z dvema mikroorganizmoma (na primer pljučnica, ki jo povzročata ortomiksovirus in streptokok).[1] Kadar pa se nova okužba pridruži že obstoječi kasneje in ne istočasno, govorimo o nadokužbi (naknadni okužbi).[2] V svetovnem merilu je pogosta sookužba z jetiko (tuberkulozo) in HIV-om. V nekaterih državah je do 80 % bolnikov s tuberkulozo okuženih tudi z virusom HIV.[3] Nadalje je okoli 10 % bolnikov, okuženih s HIV-om, sočasno okuženih tudi z virusom hepatitisa B.[4] Pri okužbi s HIV-om pa je možna tudi sookužba z več sevi istega virusa; kadar pa se bolnik najprej okuži z enim sevom virusa, kasneje v življenju pa še z drugim, gre za nadokužbo.[5] ...
Pogosta disease and Sindbis virus Sindbis virus-ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Cao, S.; Zhang, W. (2013). " ... Humans are infected with Sindbis virus when bitten by an infected mosquito. Sindbis viruses are enveloped particles with an ... Sindbis virus (SINV) is a member of the Togaviridae family, in the Alphavirus genus. The virus was first isolated in 1952 in ... Sindbis virus is widely and continuously found in insects and vertebrates in Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania. Clinical infection ...
... such as Brom mosaic bromovirus and Sindbis virus. Positive-strand RNA viruses are found in three phyla: Kitrinoviricota, ... Positive-sense RNA viruses include pathogens such as the Hepatitis C virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and the MERS, SARS, ... Positive-strand RNA viruses (+ssRNA viruses) are a group of related viruses that have positive-sense, single-stranded genomes ... ssRNA viruses. Double-stranded RNA virus Negative-strand RNA virus Sense (molecular biology) Baltimore D (September 1971). " ...
... virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus Sindbis virus Southern ... virus Western equine encephalitis complex Aura virus Babanki virus Kyzylagach virus Sindbis virus Ockelbo virus Whataroa virus ... virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus ... Cabassou virus Everglades virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Paramana virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Trocara virus ...
... he was involved in researching the genome of Sindbis virus and the establishment of flaviviruses as their own family of viruses ... While exploring Sindbis virus at Washington University in St. Louis, Rice described how he produced infectious flavivirus RNA ... Rice, Charles Moen, III (1981). Studies on the Structural Proteins of Sindbis Virus (Ph.D. thesis). California Institute of ... Rice cultured the first infectious clone of hepatitis C virus for use in studies on chimpanzees in whom the virus was also ...
Mowshowitz, D (1973). "Identification of Polysomal RNA in BHK Cells Infected by Sindbis Virus". Journal of Virology. 11 (4): ...
"Evolution and properties of Aedes albopictus cell cultures persistently infected with sindbis virus". Virology. 82 (1): 69-83. ... Drosophila X virus. In: ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia University, New York, ... Drosophila X virus (DXV) belongs to the Birnaviridae family of viruses. Birnaviridae currently consists of three genera. The ... In addition, the Espirito Santo virus (ESV) is defined as a sister species to DXV. This particular virus, ESV, was observed in ...
Wang, KS; Kuhn, RJ; Strauss, EG; Ou, S; Strauss, JH (1992). "High-affinity laminin receptor is a receptor for Sindbis virus in ... including the Sindbis virus (SINV). The N-domain of RPSA includes a binding site for SINV in vitro. The N-domain also includes ... West-Nile virus and serotype 2 of DENV. The C-domain includes weak binding sites for domain 3 of the yellow fever virus (YFV) ... In contrast, domain 3 from the Japanese encephalitis virus does not appear to bind RPSA in vitro. RPSA is also a receptor for ...
... (EC, Sindbis virus protease, Sindbis virus core protein, NsP2 proteinase) is an enzyme. This enzyme ... Tong L, Wengler G, Rossmann MG (March 1993). "Refined structure of Sindbis virus core protein and comparison with other ... "Identification of the active site residues in the nsP2 proteinase of Sindbis virus". Virology. 191 (2): 932-40. doi:10.1016/ ... bond This enzyme is isolated from the Sindbis and Semliki forest togaviruses. Kräusslich HG, Wimmer E (1988). "Viral ...
Alphavirus Sindbis virus Chikungunya Scholia has a topic profile for Semliki Forest virus. Mancini, E. J.; Clarke, M.; Gowen, B ... The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-strand RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... The modified virus reduced tumour growth and prolonged survival of mice with brain tumours. The modified virus was also found ... Atkins, G. J.; Sheahan, B. J.; Liljeström, P. (1999). "The molecular pathogenesis of Semliki Forest virus: A model virus made ...
"Protection against fatal Sindbis virus encephalitis by beclin, a novel Bcl-2-interacting protein". Journal of Virology. 72 (11 ...
"Enhanced full-length transcription of Sindbis virus RNA by effective denaturation with methylmercury hydroxide". Acta Virol. 33 ... Thorne HV (1966). "Electrophoretic separation of polyoma virus DNA from host cell DNA". Virology. 29 (2): 234-9. doi:10.1016/ ...
November 1998). "Protection against fatal Sindbis virus encephalitis by beclin, a novel Bcl-2-interacting protein". Journal of ...
Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). Many of ... "Sindbis virus proteins nsP1 and nsP2 contain homology to nonstructural proteins from several RNA plant viruses". Journal of ... One option is to use a strain of plant that is resistant to this virus. Since this is a virus fungicides will have no effect on ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ...
Rathore AP, Ng ML, Vasudevan SG (28 January 2013). "Differential unfolded protein response during Chikungunya and Sindbis virus ... In contrast, viruses rely on host BiP to successfully replicate, largely by infecting cells through cell-surface BiP, ...
Sindbis virus, an extremely similar virus to MIDV has spread outside of Africa and effects humans. The horses themselves cannot ... MIDV is classified as an Old World Alphavirus which also includes Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Ndumu virus, Barmah Forest virus ... These include: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are more ... Middelburg virus is a single stranded, linearly arranged, positive stranded RNA virus. MIDV has an enveloped capsid that ...
Suppression of the diptericin B and attacin C genes in Drosophila leads to increased Sindbis virus growth. Overexpression of ...
2006). "Identification of interferon-stimulated gene 15 as an antiviral molecule during Sindbis virus infection in vivo". J. ... Yuan W, Krug RM (2001). "Influenza B virus NS1 protein inhibits conjugation of the interferon (IFN)-induced ubiquitin-like ...
"Longevity Studies of Sindbis Virus Infected Aedes Albopictus" Archived 2012-04-25 at the Wayback Machine. All Volumes (2001- ... Equine encephalitis viruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, and Venezuelan ... "Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection". Viral ... West Nile virus is a significant concern in the United States but there are no reliable statistics on worldwide cases. Dengue ...
In the same cells, the stable expression of TRIM14 allowed the suppression of the replication of Sindbis virus. The influence ... "Enhanced expression of trim14 gene suppressed Sindbis virus reproduction and modulated the transcription of a large number of ... Additionally, TRIM14 knockout mice are lethal after herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The antiviral role of TRIM14 has also ... "Genomic analysis of the host response to hepatitis B virus infection". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
hnRNP A1's pro-viral effect is present in the Sindbis virus (a positive sense RNA virus) infection model. hnRNP A1 has been ... In the case of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a positive sense RNA virus, hnRNP A1 interacts with a crucial region near the 3' end of ... In the case of some viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), contradictory results have been reported in ... hnRNP A1 is involved in the life cycle of DNA, positive sense RNA, and negative sense RNA viruses are multiple stages post- ...
Sindbis virus (Togaviridae family) - anterograde with small amount retrograde. Adeno-associated virus AAV (Parvoviridae family ... Viruses can jump across the relatively short space from one neuron to the next. This trait is what makes viruses so useful in ... During this stage, viruses leave the original host cell in search of a new host. In the case of neurotropic viruses, this ... Certain viruses, such as adeno-associated virus, can be injected into the blood stream and can cross the blood-brain barrier to ...
... end of Sindbis virus genome RNA regulate minus- and plus-strand RNA synthesis". RNA. 7 (11): 1638-1651. doi:10.1017/ ... Alpha viruses contain secondary structural motifs in the 5′ UTR that allow them to avoid detection by IFIT1. Rubella virus 3′ ...
... for Mosquito-Borne Viruses Sindbis, Ťahyňa, and Batai in a South Moravian Wetland (Czech Republic)". Vector-Borne and Zoonotic ... In 1958 a virus transmitted by a mosquito was isolated in the Slovak village of Ťahyňa. The virus was unknown in Europe and was ... Lu Z, Fu S-H, Wang F-T, Nasci RS, Tang Q, Liang G-D. Circulation of Diverse Genotypes of Tahyna Virus in Xinjiang, People's ... These enveloped viruses have a three-segmented negative-strand RNA genome. of approximately 13 kb in total length. The three ...
... the specificity of the vector by manipulating the Fab region of the viral genome and pseudotyped it with the Sindbis virus. ... Many such viruses have been the basis of research using viruses in gene therapy, but the lentivirus is unique in its ability to ... Because the virus has been adapted to lose most of its genome, the virus becomes safer and more effective in transplanting the ... They did this by trans-infecting the virus in a 293T cell, creating a virus known as 2bF8 expressing generation of viral ...
... researching the effects of Sindbis virus and the measles virus on the brain. Further, her work has contributed to our knowledge ...
... an ancestral Sindbis virus-like virus, and an ancestral Eastern equine encephalitis virus-like virus. There have been under 700 ... This virus contains an envelope that is made up of glycoproteins and nucleic acids. The virus is transmitted to people and ... the WEE virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) transmitted by mosquitoes of the genera Culex and Culiseta. WEE is a ... The virus affects the brain and spinal cord of the infected host. WEE was discovered in 1930 when a number of horses in the San ...
Sindbis virus and causes similar symptoms in humans like fever, arthralgia or joint pain and a rash. It is spread by an ... Babanki virus (BBKV) is a member of the virus family Togaviridae of Class IV of the Baltimore classification system and the ... The Universal Virus Database, version 3. [6] (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles ...
... may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Virus-related ...
Sindbis virus, chikungunya and rubella); and phleboviruses (Rift Valley fever virus and Uukuniemi virus). Class III fusogens ... Virus-cell fusions occur during infections of several viruses that are health concerns relevant today. Some of these include ... At this point, the cytoplasmic components of the cell and the virus begin to mix. As the fusion pore expands, virus-cell fusion ... Fusogens involved in virus-to-cell fusion mechanisms were the first of these proteins to be discovered. Viral fusion proteins ...
Other diseases from which these animals suffer are foot-and-mouth disease, sindbis fever, yellow fever, bluetongue, bovine ... virus diarrhoea, brucellosis, and anthrax. They are more resistant to rinderpest than are other antelopes. They are unaffected ...
Quaranfil virus was initially isolated in 1953 from two children with mild fever in the villages of Quaranfil and Sindbis, near ... Johnston Atoll virus and Quaranfil virus. The species or strains Cygnet River virus, Lake Chad virus, Tyulek virus and ... The two viruses are closely related and might be strains of the same virus; they are also related to Quaranfil virus. Lake Chad ... Quaranfil virus was first isolated from humans in Egypt in 1953. Johnston Atoll virus and Lake Chad virus were first isolated ...
Orungo virus (ORUV), Restan virus (RESV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Sindbis virus (SINV), ... Kunjin virus (KUNV), La Crosse virus (LACV), Mayaro virus (MAYV), Marburg virus (MBGV), Marco virus (MCOV), Melao virus (MELV) ... West Nile virus (WNV), Wesselsbron virus (WSLV), Yaounde virus (YAOV) Yellow fever virus (YFV), Zegla virus (ZEGV), Zika virus ... Mount Elgon bat virus (MEBV), Mucambo virus (MUCV), Murray Valley Encephalitis virus (MVEV), Navarro virus (NAVV), Nepuyo virus ...
California encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon virus, Sindbis virus, West Nile virus Aedes clivis ... carries California encephalitis virus, Keystone virus, trivittatus virus, West Nile virus, Western equine encephalitis Aedes ... Ross River virus, West Nile virus, Yellow Fever, Zika virus Aedes africanus Aedes albolineatus Aedes alboniveus Aedes ... Louis encephalitis Aedes esoensis Aedes fulvus Bites humans, carries Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, West Nile virus ...
"Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection". Viral ... The virus is believed to have entered in an infected bird or mosquito, although there is no clear evidence. West Nile virus is ... Medicine portal Viruses portal De Filette M, Ulbert S, Diamond M, Sanders NN (2012). "Recent progress in West Nile virus ... West Nile Virus. Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service. "West Nile virus". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 26 ...
... ross river virus MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.840 - semliki forest virus MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.860 - sindbis virus MeSH B04.909. ... ross river virus MeSH B04.820.850.054.840 - semliki forest virus MeSH B04.820.850.054.860 - sindbis virus MeSH B04.820.850.700 ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 - GB virus C MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.310.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.909.777.310.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.909.777.310.410 - GB ...
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) require cholesterol and sphingolipids in target membrane lipid rafts for ... Human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-1) enter cells via glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). Ebola virus and Marburg virus use ... Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as a sexually-transmitted animal virus, must first penetrate a barrier of epithelial cells ... Viruses, as obligate intracellular parasites, have to involve specific interaction of virus and cellular receptor expressed at ...
... including Japanese encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus and West Nile virus). It has also been shown to transmit seadornaviruses ...
It can treat arboviruses like Saint Louis encephalitis and Sindbis. Other viruses that can be treated with Rimantadine include ... The M2 channel is known to be responsible for viral replication in the influenza virus. Genetic studies suggest that the virus ... Rimantadine is believed to inhibit influenza's viral replication, possibly by preventing the uncoating of the virus's ... Rimantadine is shown to be effective against other RNA-containing viruses. ...
... and Sindbis viruses)." In small case series, routine chemistry and complete blood counts have been normal in most patients. A ... "Zika Virus". CDC. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2019. "Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment of Zika Virus". Zika Virus Home. ... Zika virus has been isolated from semen samples, with one person having 100,000 times more virus in semen than blood or urine, ... Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to the dengue and yellow fever viruses. While mosquitoes are the ...
... and Sindbis virus. Symons, RH (1997). "Plant pathogenic RNAs and RNA catalysis". Nucleic Acids Res. 25 (14): 2683-2689. doi: ... satellite RNA of chicory yellow mottle virus (sCYMV) satellite RNA of arabis mosaic virus (sARMV) Later work in 2021 revealed ... Like the hammerhead ribozyme it is found in RNA satellites of plant viruses. It was first identified in the minus strand of the ... before they can be packaged by viruses and carried to other cells for further rounds of replication. In the 1980s, the hairpin ...
... includes Rubella virus, Ross River virus, Sindbis virus, Chikungunya virus Family Tombusviridae Family Virgaviridae Unassigned ... virus Extra small virus Goji berry chlorosis virus Harmonia axyridis virus 1 Hepelivirus Jingmen tick virus Le Blanc virus ... includes Yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue fever virus, Zika virus Family Fusariviridae Family ... includes Measles virus, Mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, and NDV Family Pneumoviridae - includes RSV and Metapneumovirus ...
Sindbis virus, and O'nyong'nyong virus. Receveur MC, Grandadam M, Pistone T, Malvy D (2010). "Infection with Mayaro virus in a ... Mayaro virus has a structure similar to other alphaviruses. It is an enveloped virus and has an icosahedral capsid with a ... Infection with Mayaro virus causes an acute, self-limited dengue-like illness of 3-5 days' duration. The causative virus, ... The virus isolation in cell culture is effective during viremia. RT-PCR helps to identify virus. Serology tests detect ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Central Sweden is endemic for Sindbis virus (SINV), where it is mainly transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens and ... torrentium are enzootic vectors of both WNV and Sindbis virus (SINV), transmitting these viruses among birds [19,20,21,22]. ... Sindbis virus polyarthritis outbreak signalled by virus prevalence in the mosquito vectors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13: ... Wolbachia prevalence in the vector species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium in a Sindbis virus-endemic region of Sweden. * ...
... and Sindbis (SINV) virus circulating in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and some parts of Russia. These viruses are associated with ... and Snowshoe hare virus (SSHV). The occurrence and prevalence of INKV in BSI and the high seroprevalence against the virus ... There has been an upsurge in the number of mosquito-borne viruses in Europe, mostly belonging to the families Togaviridae, ... It is therefore essential to monitor both viruses in the human population. Our findings are important to raise awareness ...
... Academic Article ... Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, ... Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs ... lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus ...
Study warns of a potential Sindbis virus epidemic in 2022 Researchers seek to raise awareness of a potentially impending ... Researchers explore whether FebriDx could differentiate between bacteria- and virus-induced immune responses during acute ...
Presence of Sindbis Virus in Anal Discharge of Infected Aedes Aegypti Debhanom Muangman ...
Production of a Sindbis/eastern equine encephalitis chimeric virus inactivated cell culture antigen. J Virol Methods 2015;223: ... Louis encephalitis virus surveillance and in some states for EEE virus surveillance. Surveillance for SLE and EEE viruses can ... 1962; Emord and Morris 1984). Virus activity and antibody seroprevalence for EEE virus in local bird populations usually ... virus activity. However, high mosquito abundance can occur in the absence of virus, and outbreaks can occur when abundance is ...
Other lipid-enveloped viruses (eg, Sindbis virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus) also have been used to monitor inactivation. ... TT virus contaminates first-generation recombinant factor VIII concentrates. Blood. 2001 Oct 15. 98(8):2571-3. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Virus-inactivated FXIII concentrates made from human plasma or placenta are an improvement over traditional products. Human ... Rigas B, Hasan I, Rehman R, Donahue P, Wittkowski KM, Lebovics E. Effect on treatment outcome of coinfection with SEN viruses ...
Sindbis virus (SINV), a mosquito-borne virus that causes rash and arthritis, has been causing outbreaks in humans every seventh ... Sindbis Virus Infection in Resident Birds, Migratory Birds, and Humans, Finland [PDF - 225 KB - 7 pages] S. Kurkela et al. View ... Sindbis Virus Infection in Resident Birds, Migratory Birds, and Humans, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008;14(1):41-47 ... Kurkela, S., Rätti, O., Huhtamo, E., Uzcátegui, N. Y., Nuorti, J. P., Laakkonen, J....Vapalahti, O. (2008). Sindbis Virus ...
Virus-derived PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) can also be generated during infection, at least in some insects. Finally, ... Our work describes for the first time a model to study virus infection in sandflies and highlights the importance of the siRNA ... Here we show that virus infection triggers activation of the siRNA pathway but not production of piRNAs in the sandfly ... We also show that virus infection caused mild changes to the expression of endogenous miRNAs. ...
Carey, A-M., Lombi, E., Donner, E., de Jonge, M. D., Punshon, T., Jackson, B. P., Guerinot, M. L., Price, A. H. & Meharg, A. A., Apr 2012, In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 402, 10, p. 3275-3286 12 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Literature review › peer-review ...
We are using the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the arbovirus Sindbis virus to study these interactions. The overall question ... Effects of manipulating apoptosis on Sindbis virus infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Journal of Virology 86:6546-6554. ... Effects of manipulating fibroblast growth factor expression on Sindbis virus replication in vitro and in Aedes aegypti ... Viruses 7:3741-3767.. ONeill, K., Olson, B.J.S.C., Huang, N., Unis, D., and R.J. Clem. 2015. Rapid selection against arbovirus ...
Bovine viral diarrhea virus and Sindbis virus were chosen to model hepatitis C virus. Porcine pseudorabies virus was selected ... HUMAN RABIES VIRUS IMMUNE GLOBULIN (HUMAN RABIES VIRUS IMMUNE GLOBULIN). HUMAN RABIES VIRUS IMMUNE GLOBULIN. 150 [iU] in 1 mL. ... Human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) were selected as relevant viruses for plasma derived products. ... to model hepatitis B virus and herpes virus. Avian reovirus was used to model non-enveloped RNA viruses and for its relative ...
Hexagonal glycoprotein arrays from Sindbis virus membranes. J Virol. 1978 Nov; 28(2):578-83. ... neutralization of human rhinovirus 14 explored by means of cryoelectron microscopy and X-ray crystallography of virus-Fab ...
Sindbis Virus Infection Alters Blood Feeding Responses and DEET Repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) ... Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than ... Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) transmission in northern Australia has, in the past, been facilitated by Culex annulirostris ... In a previous study, the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in questing Ixodes ricinus L. ticks and in field ...
... of dengue viruses reacted with Edge Hill virus, confirming the genetic relationship between the viruses. ... relationship was detected between dengue viruses of serotype 1 and 4 and between dengue virus serotype 2 and Edge Hill virus. A ... virus serotypes. The synthesis was carried out using an oligo(dT) primer, suggesting the presence of a short poly(A) region at ... Brawner T. A., Lee J. C., Trent D. W. 1977; A comparison of Saint Louis encephalitis and Sindbis virus RNA. Archives of ...
Onyong-nyong and Semliki Forest viruses are found in Africa, whereas Sindbis virus is distributed in Africa, Europe, Asia and ... Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus are indigenous to Australia. ... Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus. The elevated antibody titres to chikungunya virus and the clinical course were ... Seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection on Lamu Island, Kenya, October 2004. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2008;78:333-7. ...
Serological evidence of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus infection of birds in the UK. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:2807- ... VIRUS. West Nile virus (WNV) is a small enveloped virus about 50 nm in diameter. The genomic RNA is enclosed within a ... GeneBank Accesions: Usutu virus (USUV) (AY453412), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) (NC_001437), St. Louis encephalitis virus ... This complex includes also other neurovirulent viruses such as Murray Valley encephalitis virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, ...
... we have undertaken studies of T ceHs derived from the brains of mice with acute Sindbis virus (SV) encephalitis. These T eels ... we have undertaken studies of T ceHs derived from the brains of mice with acute Sindbis virus (SV) encephalitis. These T eels ... we have undertaken studies of T ceHs derived from the brains of mice with acute Sindbis virus (SV) encephalitis. These T eels ... we have undertaken studies of T ceHs derived from the brains of mice with acute Sindbis virus (SV) encephalitis. These T eels ...
Burge, Boyce W. and Strauss, James H., Jr. (1970) Glycopeptides of the membrane glycoprotein of Sindbis virus. Journal of ... Carbohydrate content of the membrane protein of Sindbis virus. Journal of Molecular Biology, 47 (3). pp. 437-448. ISSN 0022- ... Measurement of Virus-Specific Proteins During a Normal Cycle of Infection. Journal of Virology, 6 (3). pp. 310-319. ISSN 0022- ... Baltimore, David and Huang, Alice S. and Stampfer, Martha (1970) Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus, II. ...
Sindbis and Semliki Forest viruses, but also from flaviruses, nodamura viruses and nidoviruses. Although the successful COVID- ... The vesicular stomatitis virus-based Ebola virus vaccine: from concept to clinical trials. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018; 14:2107- ... vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) [62], adeno-associated viruses (AAV) [63], integration-deficient lentiviruses (IDLV) [64,65], ... However, a difficult virus may require a complex approach. Proof of concept for HIV-1 prevention and cure might be at reach, ...
Rescue of Infectious Sindbis Virus by Yeast Spheroplast-Mammalian Cell Fusion.. Viruses. 2021-04-01; 13.4: PMID: 33916100 ... Influenza A Virus Discovered in Heart Muscle Tissue Causing Damage Long After It Has Cleared from the Lungs. Strategies to ... Virus pathogen database and analysis resource (ViPR): a comprehensive bioinformatics database and analysis resource for the ... Gene Tan, PhD is leading efforts to develop SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein pseudotyped viruses for receptor binding and antibody ...
The infection of mice with Sindbis-group viruses provides an excellent model for studying virus-induced neurologic disease. The ... and computer virus strain (5, 6, 13, 31). The infection of neonatal mice with Sindbis computer virus results in a lethal ... most Sindbis-group viruses are avirulent in mice greater than 14 days of age (28). Previous neurovirulence studies with Sindbis ... research using the Sindbis trojan S.A.AR86 (AR86) and Semliki PF 429242 supplier Forest virus (SFV) indicate the fact that ...
A new defective helper RNA to produce recombinant sindbis virus that infects neurons but does not propagate. JM Kebschull, P ...
These means are based on the use of thermally highly stable viruses (e.g., the sindbis virus) as virus inactivation indicators ... eg the sindbis virus) as virus inactivation indicators is a very powerful tool. This transpires from e.g., Example VI of ... eg the sindbis virus) as virus inactivation indicators. This technical information was considered by that Board 3.3.2 to be ... the sindbis virus) as virus inactivation indicators. In the Boards judgement, adopting this technique for overcoming the ...
keywords = "Antiviral agent, Host defense, Sindbis virus, Virus inhibitor",. author = "Singh, {Indra P.} and Chopra, {Ashok K ... most likely by preventing virus attachment to target cells. Its occurrence in concentrations sufficient to reduce virus yield ... most likely by preventing virus attachment to target cells. Its occurrence in concentrations sufficient to reduce virus yield ... most likely by preventing virus attachment to target cells. Its occurrence in concentrations sufficient to reduce virus yield ...
Viruses 2022 v.14 no.1 pp. -. ISSN:. 1999-4915. Subject:. Aedes aegypti, etc ; Sindbis virus; arboviruses; arthropods; blood; ... Aedes aegypti, etc ; Dengue virus; excretion; feces; viability; viruses; Show all 6 Subjects. Abstract:. ... The transmission ... Factors Contributing to Individual Variation in Viral Titer after Oral Infection of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes by Sindbis Virus ... Detection of Zika RNA virus in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, São Paulo, Brazil ...
  • Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. (
  • Researchers explore whether FebriDx could differentiate between bacteria- and virus-induced immune responses during acute respiratory infection. (
  • Here, we analyzed the small non-coding RNA response to Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in the sandfly Lutzoymia longipalpis . (
  • We detected abundant production of virus-derived siRNAs after VSV infection in adult sandflies. (
  • However, there was no production of virus-derived piRNAs and only mild changes in the expression of vector miRNAs in response to infection. (
  • Virus-derived PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) can also be generated during infection, at least in some insects. (
  • Here we show that virus infection triggers activation of the siRNA pathway but not production of piRNAs in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis . (
  • We also show that virus infection caused mild changes to the expression of endogenous miRNAs. (
  • Our work describes for the first time a model to study virus infection in sandflies and highlights the importance of the siRNA pathway for the control of virus infection in L . longipalpis . (
  • 2012. Effects of manipulating apoptosis on Sindbis virus infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes . (
  • 7] Similar catastrophes in been potentially more useful for the dengue-endemic areas[2] would adversely discrimination of primary from secondary reduce the observed sensitivity and specificity dengue virus infection, irrespective of the type of the marketed dengue diagnostic kits during of dengue antigen used. (
  • immunochromatographic assays for the Circulating human antibodies against dengue diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection. (
  • The infection of mice with Sindbis-group viruses provides an excellent model for studying virus-induced neurologic disease. (
  • The infection of neonatal mice with Sindbis computer virus results in a lethal disease characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and high viral titers in the muscle tissue, brain, and serum in the absence of overt encephalitis (11, 26, 27). (
  • The recent autochthonous European cases of dengue fever and chikungunya virus infection and outbreaks of malaria, and the now frequent case reports of West Nile fever in Europe and neighbouring countries provide firm evidence of the vulnerability of the region to the transmission of these pathogens. (
  • We investigated a case of dengue virus type 1 infection acquired in Benin. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a global health problem for which the pathogenic mechanisms causing disease occurrence and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are incompletely understood [ 1 - 5 ]. (
  • In addition infection of man and animals by SSH and Melao related viruses was likely. (
  • Chandipura: Serological evidence for Chandipura virus infection was obtained in man and animals for the first time in Sri Lanka. (
  • They compared Vero and tick cells for virus replication, and saw significant differences: while tick cells could go out to 60+ days and look fine, Vero cells were severely affected at much shorter times post infection. (
  • She noted that pigs can be protected if they survive natural infection and if vaccinated with TC-attenuated virus, and can be protected by passive transfer of Abs from immune pigs - which indicated that an effective live vaccine was very possible. (
  • Samples collected from 342 pools were tested using reverse-transcription PCR to determine the species, distribution, and infection rates of virus and parasite, and further analyze their genotypes, phylogenetic relationships, infection rate, and potential pathogenicity. (
  • Johnston Atoll virus is closely related to the Quaranfil group of viruses, which have been isolated from symptomatic humans, 16 and it has been hypothesized that humans may also be susceptible to infection with Johnston Atoll virus. (
  • Early WNV infection can be diagnosed by PCR and virus isolation ( 4 ), but success has been limited in diagnosing more advanced disease with these techniques. (
  • Bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemotactic protein synthesis, protects against bone loss induced by chikungunya virus infection. (
  • Osteoblasts from osteoarthritis patients show enhanced susceptibility to Ross River virus infection associated with delayed type I interferon responses. (
  • Attenuating mutations in nsP1 reveal tissue-specific mechanisms for control of Ross River virus infection. (
  • Mosquitoborne viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus (SINV) are members of the genus Alphavirus (family Togaviridae ) and cause human arthritic diseases ( 1 ). (
  • Central Sweden is endemic for Sindbis virus (SINV), where it is mainly transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium , with the latter established as the main vector. (
  • The principal focus of this study was Inkoo (INKV) and Sindbis (SINV) virus circulating in Norway, Sweden, Finland, and some parts of Russia. (
  • Surveillance of mosquito-borne viruses and their prevalence in the human and animal populations is highly required, since INKV, SINV, Chikungunya virus and West Nile virus infections often are not reported and remain undiagnosed [ 2 ]. (
  • Sindbis virus (SINV), a mosquito-borne virus that (the Americas). (
  • The virus has been isolated from several mosquito searched for SINV antibodies in 621 resident grouse, whose species, frogs ( 8 ), reed warblers ( 9 ), bats ( 10 ), ticks ( 11 ), population declines have coincided with human SINV out- and humans ( 12-14 ). (
  • The persistent arthralgia combined with a negative dengue IgM suggested false-positive (cross-reactive) dengue IgG, which can be seen after infections with, or vaccinations against, other Raviviruses, such as yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus. (
  • West Nile virus (WNV), a flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and ornithophilic mosquito vectors, although the virus occasionally infects other vertebrates. (
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is a small enveloped virus about 50 nm in diameter. (
  • Finnish Forest Research Institute, es, as they do with West Nile and avian infl uenza viruses. (
  • Different mosquito species can be vectors of different diseases of public health concern in Europe, such as malaria and West Nile fever, or participate in the emergence and persistence of viruses, such as Usutu and Sindbis. (
  • The 'native' mosquito species can also be vectors for viruses, already present to the areas: the native West Nile virus is now known to be transmitted to humans by native mosquitoes in a number of European and neighbouring countries each year. (
  • As per Ministry of Health laboratory policy all dengue-negative samples were screened for other relevant viral haemorrhagic fevers of concern in Saudi Arabia, which the time included PCR assay for West Nile fever, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Alkhurma viruses (TIB MOLBIOL). (
  • The virus data were viewed in channel 640, and the internal control in channel 705, quantification modes, for dengue, West Nile, Alkhurma, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever viruses. (
  • Viruses in the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae Family, including West Nile, tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue and Zika viruses cause significant human disease and are global health threats. (
  • We investigated West Nile virus (WNV) as a possible disease etiology in persons hospitalized in South Africa. (
  • West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus ( 1 ), is a reemerging pathogen of global concern ( 2 ). (
  • Maximum-likelihood tree of an ≈200-bp fragment of the nonstructural 5 gene of a reverse transcription PCR-positive West Nile virus (WNV) specimen SAH5238/08 (GenBank accession no. (
  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy detection of West Nile virus particles was carried out using antibody functionalized Au microwires, achieving a detection limit of 10.2 particles in 50 uL of cell culture media. (
  • This same schedule is used for updating West Nile virus and chikungunya case counts on the CDC website and updating the CDC Disease Maps (formerly USGS maps). (
  • West Nile virus disease and Saint Louis encephalitis). (
  • Detection and isolation of Sindbis virus from mosquitoes captured during an outbreak in Sweden, 2013. (
  • Because mosquito-based surveillance relies on identifying virus in the collected mosquitoes through detection of viral proteins, viral RNA, or live virus (see Laboratory Diagnosis and Testing section), specimens should be handled in a way that minimizes exposure to conditions (e.g., heat, successive freeze-thaw cycles) that would degrade the virus. (
  • 2020. Effects of manipulating fibroblast growth factor expression on Sindbis virus replication in vitro and in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes . (
  • 2014. Novel genetic and molecular tools for the investigation and control of dengue virus transmission by mosquitoes . (
  • Isolation of virus strains from mosquitoes collected in Queensland, 1972-1976. (
  • The transmission pathways of dengue virus (DENV) among mosquitoes are a topic that has gained relevance in recent years because they could explain the maintenance of the virus in the wild independently of the human-mosquito horizontal transmission cycle. (
  • Similar disease is also mosquitoes collected from a village in the Nile River delta found in Sweden (Ockelbo disease) and Russian Karelia in Egypt, after which the virus was named ( 1 ). (
  • Europe has witnessed the return of malaria, the emergence of Usutu virus, as well as the ongoing transmission of Sindbis virus - all transmitted by native European mosquitoes. (
  • These arthropod-borne viruses, or Arboviruses, cycle between vertebrate hosts and insect vectors, most frequently mosquitoes or ticks. (
  • Limited studies on virus isolation from field caught mosquitoes were used to supplement the seroepidemiological data. (
  • Techniques used for isolation of virus from field caught mosquitoes viz. (
  • JE virus was isolated from field caught Culex pseudovishnui mosquitoes in the Kandy area. (
  • Alphaviruses: A Sagiyama related virus was isolated from Culex fuscoeephala and Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes collected in Anuradhapura. (
  • Mosquitoes which transmit clinically relevant viruses in China include Aedes albopictus , Culex tritaeniorhynchus , and Anopheles sinensis as the dominant species in several areas, mainly transmitting dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and Plasmodium spp. (
  • Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors. (
  • Especie tipo de ALPHAVIRUS que normalmente es transmitida a las aves por los mosquitos CULEX en Egipto, Sudáfrica, la India, Malaya, Filipinas y Australia. (
  • Four potential viral zoonoses associated with wildlife have previously been documented in New Zealand: three flaviviruses (Johnston Atoll virus, 16,17 Saumarez Reef virus and an unnamed Hughes group virus 17 ) and one alphavirus (Whataroa virus 18 ). (
  • 21 The Whataroa virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that belongs to the Sindbis virus subgroup that has had a known public health impact in several countries. (
  • In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 107 infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. (
  • In agreement with this hypothesis, pre-treatment of cells with dsRNA against VSV was able to inhibit viral replication while knock-down of the central siRNA component, Argonaute-2, led to increased virus levels. (
  • The attenuating mutations didn't adversely impact viral replication in vitro, and the attenuated viruses established contamination in the brain and spinal cord as efficiently as the virulent viruses. (
  • The inhibitor does not directly neutralize virus or induce an antiviral state in cells, but appears to act early in the replication cycle, most likely by preventing virus attachment to target cells. (
  • Replication of Sindbis virus. (
  • 0.05) but both viruses exhibited similar levels of gene expression and replication. (
  • It was interesting, as a sometime plant virologist, to hear that they look for dsRNA as a marker for replication, and do Ab staining for it: the technique was invented with plant viruses, and very few other virologists seem to appreciate that dsRNA can be quite easily isolated and detected. (
  • The flaviviruses studied are related to each other to some extent since the hybrids formed exhibited about 30% S 1 nuclease resistance, but a closer relationship was detected between dengue viruses of serotype 1 and 4 and between dengue virus serotype 2 and Edge Hill virus. (
  • Dengue virus-specific and flavivirus group determinants identified with monoclonal antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. (
  • Serological anti- tried as diagnostic aids,[6] might be invaluable dengue virus IgM and IgG and platelet counts in earlier diagnosis of dengue viremia. (
  • Four dengue virus serotypes found circulating during an outbreak of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in Jakarta, Indonesia, during 2004. (
  • 4] Matheus S, Deparis X, Labeau B, Lelarge J, Morvan J, Dussart P. Use of four dengue virus antigens for determination of dengue immune status by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of immunoglobulin G avidity. (
  • Our finding suggests the introduction of Asian dengue virus in West Africa. (
  • Dengue fever, a major public health concern throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, is a mosquitoborne disease caused by 4 distinct dengue virus (DENV) serotypes that share antigenic relationships (DENV-1–4). (
  • Multiple introductions of dengue virus strains contribute to dengue outbreaks in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, in 2015-2016. (
  • In the laboratory, viral surface proteins are being generated for use as ELISA antigens, pseudotyped recombinant viruses are being constructed for neutralizing assays, and candidate vaccine constructs are being synthetized to define the immunogenicity of the viral proteins and to understand the basis of immune response and protection against SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. (
  • Sandflies are well known vectors for Leishmania but also transmit a number of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). (
  • Sandflies are important insect vectors that transmit many species of Leishmania , bacteria and viruses. (
  • Arthropod borne viruses are transmitted by vectors and are sustained in a complex, often zoonotic transmission cycle between mammalian hosts and arthropod vectors. (
  • 3. Ahlm C, Eliasson M, Vapalahti O, Evander M. Seroprevalence of Sindbis virus and associated risk factors in northern Sweden. (
  • The occurrence and prevalence of INKV in BSI and the high seroprevalence against the virus among semi-domesticated reindeer in Norway indicate that further studies are required for monitoring this virus. (
  • The anomalies and pitfalls of Mayaro fever, Ross River fever, Sindbis virus, serological kits have been recently evaluated haemorrhagic fever viruses, malaria, meningitis, meticulously. (
  • The CHIKV antigens had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for serological diagnosis of CHIKV infected patients, with no cross reactivity when testing serum from closely related sindbis virus infected patients. (
  • Serological evidence in man and animals for a LUM related virus was obtained in many parts of the island. (
  • Batai and Bhanja viruses: An extension of serological studies was conducted in man and animals to Bhanja virus. (
  • Decreased intracellular superoxide levels activate Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis. (
  • Insect viruses express suppressors of RNA interference or apoptosis, highlighting the importance of these cell intrinsic antiviral mechanisms in invertebrates. (
  • In 2007, a study concluded that 20% ethanol completely inactivated three enveloped viruses - sindbis, herpes simplex-1, and vaccinia. (
  • Porcine pseudorabies virus was selected to model hepatitis B virus and herpes virus. (
  • Previously immunized persons are those who have had a documented rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer and who have completed one of the recommended regimens (pre-exposure or post-exposure) with a cell culture vaccine or another vaccine. (
  • Antibody-mediated neutralization of human rhinovirus 14 explored by means of cryoelectron microscopy and X-ray crystallography of virus-Fab complexes. (
  • A monoclonal antibody to the envelope protein (V3) of dengue viruses reacted with Edge Hill virus, confirming the genetic relationship between the viruses. (
  • The elevated antibody titres to chikungunya virus and the clinical course were diagnostic of chikungunya fever. (
  • Gene Tan, PhD is leading efforts to develop SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein pseudotyped viruses for receptor binding and antibody neutralization assays. (
  • California serogroup viruses: The prevalence of antibody to California serogroup viruses, viz. (
  • Hexagonal glycoprotein arrays from Sindbis virus membranes. (
  • Previous neurovirulence studies with Sindbis-group viruses have recognized virulence determinants in both the E2 glycoprotein gene (29, 30) PF 429242 supplier and the 5 noncoding region (3, 12). (
  • Studies with the neuroadapted Sindbis computer virus (NSV) recognized a PF 429242 supplier His at amino acid position 55 in the E2 glycoprotein that plays a major role in adult mouse neurovirulence (8, 30). (
  • A tyrosine-to-histidine switch at position 18 of the Ross River virus E2 glycoprotein is a determinant of virus fitness in disparate hosts. (
  • Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 13 species, and one Australasian gannet ( Morus serrator ) from one site was positive for antibodies to Ross River virus. (
  • Evidence for flavivirus exposure in seabirds at Kaikoura Peninsula and Cape Kidnappers suggests that viruses isolated from seabirds and associated ticks in New Zealand in the late 1970s are still present. (
  • Comparative testing with Wesselsbron virus, a closely related flavivirus, did not show cross-reactivity within the parameters of what we considered positive. (
  • We use the specific example of Zika virus disease and dengue below, but the concepts apply to other endemic flavivirus diseases with cross-reactivity (e.g. (
  • Sindbis pathogen infections of mice provides provided valuable understanding into viral and web host factors that donate to virus-induced neurologic disease. (
  • Dr. MacDonald also studies Powassan virus, an emerging tick-borne pathogen that causes encephalitis. (
  • This is likely due to the dearth of research into the possibility of oral antiviral strategies in the fight against the virus. (
  • An antiviral activity found in human, bovine, ovine, porcine, lapine, murine and piscine brain tissues shares some properties with a contact blocking-virus inhibitor, which was previously found only in cell culture supernatants. (
  • Our results reveal an endogenous pathway that is exploited by insect viruses to modulate NF-κB signaling and promote fly survival during the antiviral response. (
  • Avian reovirus was used to model non-enveloped RNA viruses and for its relative resistance to inactivation by chemical and physical methods. (
  • She and her colleagues study three mosquito-transmitted RNA viruses, Sindbis, a virus that causes arthritis, yellow fever, a virus that causes liver failure, and Zika, a virus associated with congenital microcephaly. (
  • Inter- and intra-lineage genetic diversity of wild-type Zika viruses reveals both common and distinctive nucleotide variants and clusters of genomic diversity. (
  • Zika virus disease case counts are updated on the CDC website the first Thursday of each month. (
  • The CDC Disease maps for Zika virus disease cases are also updated on the same monthly schedule. (
  • For cases meeting the case definition criteria for both Zika virus disease and dengue it may be difficult to distinguish between the two diseases for reporting purposes. (
  • For these cases, we request that you do not report the case twice as both a Zika virus disease case and a dengue case. (
  • Isolation and characterization of the membrane proteins of Semliki Forest virus. (
  • In the second season, blood clots ( n = 544) were screened for viral presence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for alphaviral and flaviviral RNA, and virus isolation ( n = 146) was conducted. (
  • PCR tests and virus isolation were all negative. (
  • We are using the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the arbovirus Sindbis virus to study these interactions. (
  • Mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance can serve as an early warning in evaluating the status of mosquito-borne virus prevalence and thus prevent local outbreaks. (
  • Powassan virus is a newly emerging tick-borne virus that infects ticks of the Ixodes genus, including Ixodes scapularis, the same tick that transmits Lyme disease. (
  • Although the lack of a cold chain might impact the ability to culture the virus, it does not appear to reduce the ability to detect viral RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (Turell et al. (
  • The researchers assessed the potential of each of these to disrupt the lipid envelope of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and potentially reduce viral spread. (
  • A heat-treatment process step (58° to 60°C, 10 hours) to inactivate viruses is used to further reduce any risk of blood-borne viral transmission. (
  • Bovine viral diarrhea virus and Sindbis virus were chosen to model hepatitis C virus. (
  • Furthermore to demonstrating the function from the structural genes in adult mouse neurovirulence, research using the Sindbis trojan S.A.AR86 (AR86) and Semliki PF 429242 supplier Forest virus (SFV) indicate the fact that viral non-structural genes donate to adult mouse neurovirulence (9, 32, 33). (
  • Its occurrence in concentrations sufficient to reduce virus yield in cell cultures at least 30-fold may indicate a role in limiting viral infections of the central nervous system. (
  • Viral diversity and abundance are defining properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1's biology and pathogenicity. (
  • Also, I've frequently researched the up-regulation of Interferons (a group of signaling proteins in your body that are released in response to the presence of virus by heightening their anti-viral defenses) through other mechanisms including T regulatory cell up-regulation. (
  • Characterization of Ross River virus tropism and virus-induced inflammation in a mouse model of viral arthritis and myositis. (
  • These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. (
  • Studies on the amphipathic nature of the membrane proteins in Semliki Forest virus. (
  • Analysis of Semliki-Forest-virus structural proteins to illustrate polyprotein processing of alpha viruses. (
  • Carboxyl-terminal sequence analysis of the four structural proteins of Semliki Forest virus. (
  • Here, we report the identification and characterization of a family of proteins encoded by insect DNA viruses that are homologous to a 12-kDa circulating protein encoded by the virus-induced Drosophila gene diedel (die). (
  • The inactivation and removal of model laboratory strains of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses during the manufacturing and heat treatment processes for Imogam Rabies - HT have been validated by spiking experiments. (
  • The use of hybridization analysis with complementary DNA to determine the RNA sequence homology between strains of plant viruses: its application to several strains of cucumoviruses. (
  • They are pairing this with a rapid, modular reverse genetic system to assess genomic variants identified in the wealth of global sequencing data, develop and test vaccine candidates, and generate needed reagents, including fluorescent and tagged virus strains. (
  • Within genotype V, American-Caribbean, Asian, and African clades are strongly associated with DENV strains detected in these specific geographic regions, suggesting a local dispersion of those viruses. (
  • They studied the interaction of viruses with cells and the immune system, and compared the genomes of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, in order to understand how to develop an effective vaccine. (
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus ( SARSr-CoV or SARS-CoV ) [note 1] is a species of virus consisting of many known strains phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) that have been shown to possess the capability to infect humans , bats , and certain other mammals . (
  • Two strains of the virus have caused outbreaks of severe respiratory diseases in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1), which caused the 2002-2004 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is causing the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 . (
  • To bailer linderstand how lymphocyte function is regulated within the CNS during an immune response that does not produce local tissue injury, we have undertaken studies of T ceHs derived from the brains of mice with acute Sindbis virus (SV) encephalitis. (
  • Of the 60 reindeer sera- analysed by PRNT for INKV, 80% were confirmed positive, and there was no cross-reactivity with the closely related Tahyna virus (TAHV) and Snowshoe hare virus (SSHV). (
  • 20 A closely related Hughes group virus, Soldado virus, has been implicated as a cause of human illness overseas. (
  • In 2000 she left St. Louis to join the Rockefeller University's Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease in New York City, where she has focused on unraveling various aspects of virus-host interactions. (
  • however, because of cross-reactivity between flaviviruses, positive results should be confirmed by virus neutralization assay. (
  • Two such trials, both conducted in vitro, yielded positive outcomes in relation to virus denaturation. (
  • Variable amounts of cDNA were synthesized in vitro from RNA extracted from several flaviviruses, including the four prototype dengue (DEN) virus serotypes. (
  • Assembly of the Semliki Forest virus membrane glycoproteins in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in vitro. (
  • Since its introduction in the Americas, the virus spread across the continent with worrisome consequences in bird mortality and a considerable number of outbreaks among humans and horses, which have resulted in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV disease ever documented. (
  • Arthritogenic alphaviruses including Ross River virus (RRV), Sindbis virus, and chikungunya virus cause worldwide outbreaks of musculoskeletal disease. (
  • Our work begins to elucidate the role of RNAi mechanisms in the interaction between L . longipalpis and viruses and should also open the way for studies with other sandfly-borne pathogens. (
  • There is increasing evidence that many people don't have symptoms, yet they are positive for SARS-CoV-2 through detection of virus in throat and nasal swabs," he added. (
  • The flaviviruses are all tick-borne viruses that have remained largely unstudied since their detection in the late 1970s. (
  • Development of an electrochemical paper-based analytical device for trace detection of virus particles. (
  • Here, we describe a label-free, point-of-care approach toward detection of virus particles, based on a microfluidic paper-based analytical device with integrated microwire Au electrodes. (
  • Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites that suffer strong evolutionary pressure from the host immune system. (
  • Claim 2 of the first auxiliary request was worded identically as claim 1 with the exception that the virus which was being rendered substantially inactive was a non-A, non-B hepatitis virus (NANB hepatitis virus). (
  • Reconstruction of the spatial and temporal dynamics of hepatitis B virus genotype D in the Americas. (
  • The virus is endemic to much of Africa, and keeps escaping - and there is no effective vaccine to prevent spread, so regulation is by slaughter. (
  • 22 Whataroa virus has been detected only in bird populations and two endemic mosquito species ( Culex pervigilans and Culiseta tonnoiri ) to date, around Whataroa township on New Zealand's South Island. (
  • the ornithophilic late summer mos- veloped virus with a genome of single-stranded, positive- quito species, Culex and Culiseta , are presumed to be the polarity, 11.7-kb RNA ( 2 ). (
  • 5. Manni T, Kurkela S, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O. Diagnostics of Pogosta disease: antigenic properties and evaluation of Sindbis virus IgM and IgG enzyme immunoassays. (
  • Identification of distinct antigenic determinants of dengue-2 virus by using monoclonal antibodies. (
  • The SARS-CoV-2 virus is surrounded by a lipid envelope. (
  • Robust though the virus may be, the lipid biomembrane may be its Achilles heel, said coinvestigator Syed A. Sattar, PhD, University of Ottawa, Canada. (
  • and porcine parvovirus (PPV), a model virus for non-lipid enveloped DNA viruses. (
  • The amphiphilic membrane glycoproteins of Semliki Forest virus are attached to the lipid bilayer by their COOH-terminal ends. (
  • In brief, we mixed 50% tissue culture infective doses of Kunjin virus strain MRM61C (100 U/mL) in 2% fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) with 2-fold dilutions of heat-inactivated patient serum (1:10-1:640) in equal volumes and incubated the mixture for 1 h at 37°C in 5% CO 2 . (
  • He pointed out that while about 95% of the virus life cycle takes place in a tick, transmission to a vertebrate means suddenly adapting to a very different host. (
  • For example, many vertebrate DNA viruses have hijacked cellular genes encoding cytokines or cytokine receptors to disrupt host cell communication. (
  • Studies of arthropod-borne virus infections in Queensland. (
  • Changing this Thr of AR86 with an Ile, within most Sindbis-group infections, attenuates the trojan, while introduction from the Thr right into a nonneurovirulent lab stress of Sindbis trojan led to a rise in neurovirulence (9). (
  • Table 1: Viruses for which antigens were selected, spotted on protein microarrays and tested. (
  • however, most Sindbis-group viruses are avirulent in mice greater than 14 days of age (28). (
  • In wild-type mice, infectious virus was detected in the femur, tibia, patella, and foot, together with reduced bone volume in the tibial epiphysis and vertebrae detected by microcomputed tomographic (µCT) analysis. (
  • A study of Batai virus was carried out on human sera and one human seroconversion associated with febrile illness was documented fer the first time with this virus. (
  • 16,19 Saumarez Reef virus is believed to have been responsible for febrile illness in meteorological workers on the Saumarez and Frederick reefs in Australia. (
  • From an informatics perspective, the use of comparative genomics methods and predictive machine learning algorithms are being used to identify the key determinants for immune system recognition and to monitor the impact of virus evolution in immune system evasion. (
  • However, the computer virus made up of the four virulence determinants grew to higher levels in the spinal cord at late occasions postinfection, suggesting that this computer virus made up of the four attenuating determinants either failed to spread or was cleared more efficiently than the wild-type computer virus. (
  • In this scholarly study, we used a newly produced clone from the Sindbis trojan Girdwood to map determinants of adult mouse neurovirulence within AR86. (
  • As such, strategies aimed at reducing the number of infective virus particles in mucous membranes may help reduce the risk for transmission. (
  • The infiltrating virus uses a specific spike protein and host receptor ACE2 to help penetrate the cell. (
  • INKV, a member of the California serogroup together with TAHV and Snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), is an enveloped virus belonging to the genus Orthobunyavirus in the Peribunyaviridae family with a tri-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded (ss) 12.4-kb (kilo-base pair) RNA genome [ 12 ]. (
  • This dissertation includes studies on the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis, California serogroup viruses, Alphaviruses, Chandipura virus (Rhabdoviridae), Bhanja and Batai viruses. (
  • The prevalence of mosquito-borne viruses is rising steeply with increasing frequency of international trade and travel. (
  • abstract = "Brain tissue extracts from vertebrates were examined for non-specific, broad-spectrum virus inhibitors, previously identified and characterized from other body tissues and fluids. (
  • Nucleotide sequence of cdna coding for Semliki Forest virus membrane glycoproteins. (
  • Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses. (
  • Although thoroughly infected with a rhinovirus, he held our attention most ably while reminding us that while many flaviviruses are tick borne, the hard and soft body ticks that vector them are very phylogenetically different - as different as they are from spiders - meaning that if similar flaviruses replicated in them, these viruses may have much wider host range than we know. (
  • [4] The SARSr-CoV species is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus and of the subgenus Sarbecovirus ( SAR S Be ta co rona virus ). (