The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Uridine is a nucleoside, specifically a derivative of pyrimidine, that is composed of a uracil molecule joined to a ribose sugar molecule through a β-N1 glycosidic bond, and has significant roles in RNA synthesis, energy transfer, and cell signaling.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen (specifically, hydrogen-3) that contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus, making it radioactive with a half-life of about 12.3 years, and is used in various applications including nuclear research, illumination, and dating techniques due to its low energy beta decay.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification, such as cleavage, to produce the active functional protein or peptide hormone.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Acrylates are a group of synthetic compounds based on acrylic acid, commonly used in various industrial and medical applications such as adhesives, coatings, and dental materials, known to cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Glucosamine is a naturally occurring amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of various tissues, particularly in the synthesis of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, which are essential components of cartilage and synovial fluid in joints.

Rapid dendritic morphogenesis in CA1 hippocampal dendrites induced by synaptic activity. (1/923)

Activity shapes the structure of neurons and their circuits. Two-photon imaging of CA1 neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in developing hippocampal slices from rat brains was used to characterize dendritic morphogenesis in response to synaptic activity. High-frequency focal synaptic stimulation induced a period (longer than 30 minutes) of enhanced growth of small filopodia-like protrusions (typically less than 5 micrometers long). Synaptically evoked growth was long-lasting and localized to dendritic regions close (less than 50 micrometers) to the stimulating electrode and was prevented by blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Thus, synaptic activation can produce rapid input-specific changes in dendritic structure. Such persistent structural changes could contribute to the development of neural circuitry.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (2/923)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Selection of RNA replicons capable of persistent noncytopathic replication in mammalian cells. (3/923)

The natural life cycle of alphaviruses, a group of plus-strand RNA viruses, involves transmission to vertebrate hosts via mosquitoes. Chronic infections are established in mosquitoes (and usually in mosquito cell cultures), but infection of susceptible vertebrate cells typically results in rapid shutoff of host mRNA translation and cell death. Using engineered Sindbis virus RNA replicons expressing puromycin acetyltransferase as a dominant selectable marker, we identified mutations allowing persistent, noncytopathic replication in BHK-21 cells. Two of these adaptive mutations involved single-amino-acid substitutions in the C-terminal portion of nsP2, the viral helicase-protease. At one of these loci, nsP2 position 726, numerous substitution mutations were created and characterized in the context of RNA replicons and infectious virus. Our results suggest a direct correlation between the level of viral RNA replication and cytopathogenicity. This work also provides a series of alphavirus replicons for noncytopathic gene expression studies (E. V. Agapov, I. Frolov, B. D. Lindenbach, B. M. Pragai, S. Schlesinger, and C. M. Rice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:12989-12994, 1998) and a general strategy for selecting RNA viral mutants adapted to different cellular environments.  (+info)

The cholesterol requirement for sindbis virus entry and exit and characterization of a spike protein region involved in cholesterol dependence. (4/923)

Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) are enveloped alphaviruses that enter cells via low-pH-triggered fusion in the endocytic pathway and exit by budding from the plasma membrane. Previous studies with cholesterol-depleted insect cells have shown that SFV requires cholesterol in the cell membrane for both virus fusion and efficient exit of progeny virus. An SFV mutant, srf-3, shows efficient fusion and exit in the absence of cholesterol due to a single point mutation in the E1 spike subunit, proline 226 to serine. We have here characterized the role of cholesterol in the entry and exit of SIN, an alphavirus quite distantly related to SFV. Growth, primary infection, fusion, and exit of SIN were all dramatically inhibited in cholesterol-depleted cells compared to control cells. Based on sequence differences within the E1 226 region between SFV, srf-3, and SIN, we constructed six SIN mutants with alterations within this region and characterized their cholesterol dependence. A SIN mutant, SGM, that had the srf-3 amino acid sequence from E1 position 224 to 235 showed increases of approximately 100-fold in infection and approximately 250-fold in fusion with cholesterol-depleted cells compared with infection and fusion of wild-type SIN. Pulse-chase analysis demonstrated that SGM exit from cholesterol-depleted cells was markedly more efficient than that of wild-type SIN. Thus, similar to SFV, SIN was cholesterol dependent for both virus entry and exit, and the cholesterol dependence of both steps could be modulated by sequences within the E1 226 region.  (+info)

Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. (5/923)

Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. We have sought to advance this field by devising DNA-based vectors and approaches for the production of recombinant vector particles. In this work, we generated a panel of alphavirus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. As such, translation of the structural proteins was highly inducible and was detected only after synthesis of an authentic subgenomic mRNA by the vector-encoded replicase proteins. Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10(7) infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors.  (+info)

Inhibition versus induction of apoptosis by proteasome inhibitors depends on concentration. (6/923)

We previously established that NF-kappaB DNA binding activity is required for Sindbis Virus (SV)-induced apoptosis. To investigate whether SV induces nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB via the proteasomal degradation pathway, we utilized MG132, a peptide aldehyde inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of the proteasome. 20 microM MG132 completely abrogated SV-induced NF-kappaB nuclear activity at early time points after infection. Parallel measures of cell viability 48 h after SV infection revealed that 20 microM MG132 induced apoptosis in uninfected cells. In contrast, a lower concentration of MG132 (200 nM) resulted in partial inhibition of SV-induced nuclear NF-kappaB activity and inhibition of SV-induced apoptosis without inducing toxicity in uninfected cells. The specific proteasomal inhibitor, lactacystin, also inhibited SV-induced death. Taken together, these results suggest that the pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic functions of peptide aldehyde proteasome inhibitors such as MG-132 depend on the concentration of inhibitor utilized and expand the list of stimuli requiring proteasomal activation to induce apoptosis to include viruses.  (+info)

Packaging of AeDNV-GFP transducing virus by expression of densovirus structural proteins from a sindbis virus expression system. (7/923)

Genetic recombination resulting in the production of wild-type infectious virus is an obstacle in the current system for producing densovirus transducing particles. In order to eliminate this problem, a double subgenomic Sindbis virus (TE/3'2J/VP) was engineered that expresses the structural proteins (VPs) of Aedes densonucleosis virus (AeDNV) from the second subgenomic promoter. Expression of AeDNV VPs from TE/3'2J/VP was confirmed by Northern analysis of RNA from infected C6/36 (Aedes albopictus) cells and by indirect immunofluorescence in infected C6/36 cells and BHK-21 cells. TE/3'2J/VP was used to infect C6/36 cells transfected with p7NS1-GFP, a plasmid expressing the nonstructural genes of AeDNV and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene. This infection resulted in the production of AeDNV-GFP transducing virus, which is infectious to C6/36 cells and Aedes aegypti larvae, as determined by GFP expression. The TE/3'2J/VP packaging system produced titers of transducing virus comparable to those produced by the standard two-plasmid method. The possibility of recombination resulting in wild-type infectious virus in transducing densovirus stocks was eliminated by employing an RNA virus expression system to supply AeDNV structural proteins.  (+info)

Endoprotease PACE4 is Ca2+-dependent and temperature-sensitive and can partly rescue the phenotype of a furin-deficient cell strain. (8/923)

PACE4 is a member of the eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease family. The expression of human PACE4 in RPE.40 cells (furin-null mutants derived from Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells) resulted in the rescue of a number of wild-type characteristics, including sensitivity to Sindbis virus and the ability to process the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Expression of PACE4 in these cells failed to restore wild-type sensitivity to Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Co-expression of human PACE4 in these cells with either a secreted form of the human insulin pro-receptor or the precursor form of von Willebrand factor resulted in both proproteins being processed; RPE.40 cells were unable to process either precursor protein in the absence of co-expressed PACE4. Northern analysis demonstrated that untransfected RPE.40 cells express mRNA species for four PACE4 isoforms, suggesting that any endogenous PACE4 proteins produced by these cells are either non-functional or sequestered in a compartment outside of the secretory pathway. In experiments in vitro, PACE4 processed diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin protective antigen, but not Pseudomonas exotoxin A. The activity of PACE4 in vitro was Ca2+-dependent and, unlike furin, was sensitive to temperature changes between 22 and 37 degrees C. RPE.40 cells stably expressing human PACE4 secreted an endoprotease with the same Ca2+ dependence and temperature sensitivity as that observed in membrane fractions of these cells assayed in vitro. These results, in conjunction with other published work, demonstrate that PACE4 is an endoprotease with more stringent substrate specificity and more limited operating parameters than furin.  (+info)

Sindbis virus is an alphavirus that belongs to the Togaviridae family. It's named after the location where it was first isolated, in Sindbis, Egypt, in 1952. This virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes and can infect a wide range of animals, including birds and humans. In humans, Sindbis virus infection often causes a mild flu-like illness characterized by fever, rash, and joint pain. However, some people may develop more severe symptoms, such as neurological disorders, although this is relatively rare. There is no specific treatment for Sindbis virus infection, and management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms.

Alphavirus infections refer to a group of diseases caused by viruses belonging to the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family. These viruses are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response.

Some of the more common alphaviruses that cause human disease include:

* Chikungunya virus (CHIKV): This virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and can cause a fever, rash, and severe joint pain. While most people recover from CHIKV infection within a few weeks, some may experience long-term joint pain and inflammation.
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals, including humans. EEEV can cause severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, seizures, and coma. It has a high mortality rate of up to 30-50% in infected individuals.
* Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV): This virus is also transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals. WEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It has a lower mortality rate than EEEV but can still cause significant illness.
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on horses and other mammals, including humans. VEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It is considered a potential bioterrorism agent due to its ability to cause severe illness and death in large populations.

There are no specific treatments for alphavirus infections other than supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito hours. Public health efforts also focus on reducing mosquito populations through environmental controls such as eliminating standing water and using insecticides.

Alphaviruses are a genus of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that belong to the family Togaviridae. They are enveloped viruses and have a icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70 nanometers. Alphaviruses are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes and other arthropods, and can cause a range of diseases in humans and animals, including arthritis, encephalitis, and rash.

Some examples of alphaviruses that can infect humans include Chikungunya virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are usually found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and can cause outbreaks of disease in humans and animals.

Alphaviruses have a wide host range, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects. They replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and have a genome that encodes four non-structural proteins (nsP1 to nsP4) involved in viral replication, and five structural proteins (C, E3, E2, 6K, and E1) that form the virion.

Prevention and control of alphavirus infections rely on avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and reducing mosquito breeding sites. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for alphavirus infections, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. Vaccines are available for some alphaviruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis virus and Western equine encephalitis virus, but not for others, such as Chikungunya virus.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Togaviridae is a family of single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that includes several important pathogens affecting humans and animals. The most well-known member of this family is the genus Alphavirus, which includes viruses such as Chikungunya, Eastern equine encephalitis, Sindbis, O'nyong-nyong, Ross River, and Western equine encephalitis viruses.

Togaviridae infections typically cause symptoms such as fever, rash, arthralgia (joint pain), myalgia (muscle pain), and sometimes more severe manifestations like meningitis or encephalitis, depending on the specific virus and the host's immune status. The transmission of these viruses usually occurs through the bite of infected mosquitoes, although some members of this family can also be transmitted via other arthropod vectors or through contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids.

Prevention strategies for Togaviridae infections include using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes. Vaccines are available for some members of this family, such as the Eastern and Western equine encephalitis viruses, but not for others like Chikungunya virus. Treatment is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are primarily transmitted to humans and animals through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sandflies. The term "arbovirus" is short for "arthropod-borne virus."

Arboviruses can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the individual host's immune response. Some common symptoms associated with arboviral infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In severe cases, arboviral infections can lead to serious complications such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), or hemorrhagic fever (bleeding disorders).

There are hundreds of different arboviruses, and they are found in many parts of the world. Some of the most well-known arboviral diseases include dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika virus infection, West Nile virus infection, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis.

Prevention of arboviral infections typically involves avoiding mosquito bites and other arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito feeding times. Public health efforts also focus on reducing vector populations through environmental management and the use of larvicides. Vaccines are available for some arboviral diseases, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) is an alphavirus in the Togaviridae family, which is primarily transmitted to vertebrates through mosquito vectors. The virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest of Uganda and has since been found in various parts of Africa and Asia. SFV infection in humans can cause a mild febrile illness characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. However, it is more commonly known for causing severe disease in animals, particularly non-human primates and cattle, where it can lead to encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever. SFV has also been used as a model organism in laboratory studies of virus replication and pathogenesis.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

Viral interference is a phenomenon where the replication of one virus is inhibited or blocked by the presence of another virus. This can occur when two different viruses infect the same cell and compete for the cell's resources, such as nucleotides, energy, and replication machinery. As a result, the replication of one virus may be suppressed, allowing the other virus to predominate.

This phenomenon has been observed in both in vitro (laboratory) studies and in vivo (in the body) studies. It has been suggested that viral interference may play a role in the outcome of viral coinfections, where an individual is infected with more than one virus at the same time. Viral interference can also be exploited as a potential strategy for antiviral therapy, where one virus is used to inhibit the replication of another virus.

It's important to note that not all viruses interfere with each other, and the outcome of viral coinfections can depend on various factors such as the specific viruses involved, the timing and sequence of infection, and the host's immune response.

"Aedes" is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases, including Zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They are distinguished by their black and white striped legs and thorax. Aedes aegypti is the most common species associated with disease transmission, although other species such as Aedes albopictus can also transmit diseases. It's important to note that only female mosquitoes bite and feed on blood, while males feed solely on nectar and plant juices.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Defective viruses are viruses that have lost the ability to complete a full replication cycle and produce progeny virions independently. These viruses require the assistance of a helper virus, which provides the necessary functions for replication. Defective viruses can arise due to mutations, deletions, or other genetic changes that result in the loss of essential genes. They are often non-infectious and cannot cause disease on their own, but they may interfere with the replication of the helper virus and modulate the course of infection. Defective viruses can be found in various types of viruses, including retroviruses, bacteriophages, and DNA viruses.

Vaccinia virus is a large, complex DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is the virus used in the production of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is not identical to the variola virus, which causes smallpox, but it is closely related and provides cross-protection against smallpox infection.

The vaccinia virus has a unique replication cycle that occurs entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. This allows the virus to evade host cell defenses and efficiently produce new virions. The virus causes the formation of pocks or lesions on the skin, which contain large numbers of virus particles that can be transmitted to others through close contact.

Vaccinia virus has also been used as a vector for the delivery of genes encoding therapeutic proteins, vaccines against other infectious diseases, and cancer therapies. However, the use of vaccinia virus as a vector is limited by its potential to cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or certain skin conditions.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Virus assembly, also known as virion assembly, is the final stage in the virus life cycle where individual viral components come together to form a complete viral particle or virion. This process typically involves the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins around the viral genome (DNA or RNA) and, in enveloped viruses, the acquisition of a lipid bilayer membrane containing viral glycoproteins. The specific mechanisms and regulation of virus assembly vary among different viral families, but it is often directed by interactions between viral structural proteins and genomic nucleic acid.

Ross River virus (RRV) is an infectious disease caused by the Ross River virus, which is a type of alphavirus. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes vigilax, Culex annulirostris, and Culex australicus in Australia.

RRV is endemic to Australia, Papua New Guinea, and some islands in the Pacific Ocean. The symptoms of RRV include fever, rash, joint pain and swelling, muscle aches, fatigue, and headache, which can last for several weeks to months. In severe cases, it can lead to chronic arthritis and other long-term complications.

There is no specific treatment for RRV, and management typically involves relieving symptoms with rest, fluids, and pain relief medications. Preventive measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

A chick embryo refers to the developing organism that arises from a fertilized chicken egg. It is often used as a model system in biological research, particularly during the stages of development when many of its organs and systems are forming and can be easily observed and manipulated. The study of chick embryos has contributed significantly to our understanding of various aspects of developmental biology, including gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis, and pattern formation. Researchers may use various techniques to observe and manipulate the chick embryo, such as surgical alterations, cell labeling, and exposure to drugs or other agents.

Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae and genus Vesiculovirus. It is the causative agent of vesicular stomatitis (VS), a viral disease that primarily affects horses and cattle, but can also infect other species including swine, sheep, goats, and humans.

The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their saliva, as well as through insect vectors such as black flies and sandflies. The incubation period for VS ranges from 2 to 8 days, after which infected animals develop fever, lethargy, and vesicular lesions in the mouth, nose, and feet. These lesions can be painful and may cause difficulty eating or walking.

In humans, VSIV infection is typically asymptomatic or causes mild flu-like symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, and headache. Occasionally, individuals may develop vesicular lesions on their skin or mucous membranes, particularly if they have had contact with infected animals.

Diagnosis of VSIV infection is typically made through virus isolation from lesion exudates or blood, as well as through serological testing. Treatment is generally supportive and aimed at relieving symptoms, as there are no specific antiviral therapies available for VS. Prevention measures include vaccination of susceptible animals, vector control, and biosecurity measures to prevent the spread of infection between animals.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Virus shedding refers to the release of virus particles by an infected individual, who can then transmit the virus to others through various means such as respiratory droplets, fecal matter, or bodily fluids. This occurs when the virus replicates inside the host's cells and is released into the surrounding environment, where it can infect other individuals. The duration of virus shedding varies depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response. It's important to note that some individuals may shed viruses even before they show symptoms, making infection control measures such as hand hygiene, mask-wearing, and social distancing crucial in preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A Cytopathic Effect (CPE) is a visible change in the cell or group of cells due to infection by a pathogen, such as a virus. When the cytopathic effect is caused specifically by a viral infection, it is referred to as a "Viral Cytopathic Effect" (VCPE).

The VCPE can include various changes in the cell's morphology, size, and structure, such as rounding, shrinkage, multinucleation, inclusion bodies, and formation of syncytia (multinucleated giant cells). These changes are often used to identify and characterize viruses in laboratory settings.

The VCPE is typically observed under a microscope after the virus has infected cell cultures, and it can help researchers determine the type of virus, the degree of infection, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The severity and timing of the VCPE can vary depending on the specific virus and the type of cells that are infected.

Viral diseases are illnesses caused by the infection and replication of viruses in host organisms. These infectious agents are obligate parasites, meaning they rely on the cells of other living organisms to survive and reproduce. Viruses can infect various types of hosts, including animals, plants, and microorganisms, causing a wide range of diseases with varying symptoms and severity.

Once a virus enters a host cell, it takes over the cell's machinery to produce new viral particles, often leading to cell damage or death. The immune system recognizes the viral components as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response can result in inflammation, fever, and other symptoms associated with viral diseases.

Examples of well-known viral diseases include:

1. Influenza (flu) - caused by influenza A, B, or C viruses
2. Common cold - usually caused by rhinoviruses or coronaviruses
3. HIV/AIDS - caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
4. Measles - caused by measles morbillivirus
5. Hepatitis B and C - caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively
6. Herpes simplex - caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2)
7. Chickenpox and shingles - both caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
8. Rabies - caused by rabies lyssavirus
9. Ebola - caused by ebolaviruses
10. COVID-19 - caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Prevention and treatment strategies for viral diseases may include vaccination, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms while the immune system fights off the infection.

Encephalitis viruses are a group of viruses that can cause encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain. Some of the most common encephalitis viruses include:

1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2: These viruses are best known for causing cold sores and genital herpes, but they can also cause encephalitis, particularly in newborns and individuals with weakened immune systems.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV): This virus causes chickenpox and shingles, and it can also lead to encephalitis, especially in people who have had chickenpox.
3. Enteroviruses: These viruses are often responsible for summertime meningitis outbreaks and can occasionally cause encephalitis.
4. Arboviruses: These viruses are transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Examples include West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus.
5. Rabies virus: This virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal and can cause encephalitis in its later stages.
6. Measles virus: Although rare in developed countries due to vaccination, measles can still cause encephalitis as a complication of the infection.
7. Mumps virus: Like measles, mumps is preventable through vaccination, but it can also lead to encephalitis as a rare complication.
8. Cytomegalovirus (CMV): This virus is a member of the herpesvirus family and can cause encephalitis in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients.
9. La Crosse virus: This arbovirus is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected eastern treehole mosquitoes and mainly affects children.
10. Powassan virus: Another arbovirus, Powassan virus is transmitted through the bites of infected black-legged ticks (also known as deer ticks) and can cause severe encephalitis.

It's important to note that many of these viruses are preventable through vaccination or by avoiding exposure to infected animals or mosquitoes. If you suspect you may have been exposed to one of these viruses, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

Arbovirus infections are a group of diseases caused by viruses that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and midges. "Arbo" is short for "arthropod-borne."

There are over 150 different Arboviruses, but only a few cause significant illness in humans. Some of the most common Arbovirus infections include:

* Dengue fever
* Chikungunya fever
* Yellow fever
* Zika virus infection
* Japanese encephalitis
* West Nile fever
* Tick-borne encephalitis

The symptoms of Arbovirus infections can vary widely, depending on the specific virus and the individual infected. Some people may experience only mild illness or no symptoms at all, while others may develop severe, life-threatening complications.

Common symptoms of Arbovirus infections include fever, headache, muscle and joint pain, rash, and fatigue. In more severe cases, Arbovirus infections can cause neurological problems such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

There is no specific treatment for most Arbovirus infections. Treatment is generally supportive, with fluids and medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as dehydration or neurological problems.

Prevention of Arbovirus infections involves avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks. Vaccines are available to prevent some Arbovirus infections, such as yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis.

Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. It is a DNA virus that has been extensively studied in laboratory settings due to its ability to transform cells and cause tumors in animals. In fact, SV40 was discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines that were prepared using rhesus monkey kidney cells in the 1950s and 1960s.

SV40 is not typically associated with human disease, but there has been some concern that exposure to the virus through contaminated vaccines or other means could increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as mesothelioma and brain tumors. However, most studies have failed to find a consistent link between SV40 infection and cancer in humans.

The medical community generally agrees that SV40 is not a significant public health threat, but researchers continue to study the virus to better understand its biology and potential impact on human health.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

A plant virus is not defined in medical terms, as viruses are typically considered within the context of living organisms and plants are not classified as such. However, I can provide a general virology definition for you:

Plant viruses are small infectious agents that consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They infect various plant species, causing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, which can result in significant economic losses in agriculture and horticulture. Plant viruses lack the ability to replicate outside a host cell, and they rely on the host's metabolic machinery for their reproduction. They can be transmitted through various means, such as insect vectors, seeds, or mechanical contact.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

DNA viruses are a type of virus that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. These viruses replicate by using the host cell's machinery to synthesize new viral components, which are then assembled into new viruses and released from the host cell.

DNA viruses can be further classified based on the structure of their genomes and the way they replicate. For example, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses have a genome made up of two strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have a genome made up of a single strand of DNA.

Examples of DNA viruses include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, human papillomavirus, and adenoviruses. Some DNA viruses are associated with specific diseases, such as cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus) or neurological disorders (e.g., herpes simplex virus).

It's important to note that while DNA viruses contain DNA as their genetic material, RNA viruses contain RNA (ribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. Both DNA and RNA viruses can cause a wide range of diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Hemagglutination is a process where red blood cells (RBCs) agglutinate or clump together. Viral hemagglutination refers to the ability of certain viruses to bind to and agglutinate RBCs. This is often due to viral surface proteins known as hemagglutinins, which can recognize and attach to specific receptors on the surface of RBCs.

In virology, viral hemagglutination assays are commonly used for virus identification and quantification. For example, the influenza virus is known to hemagglutinate chicken RBCs, and this property can be used to identify and titrate the virus in a sample. The hemagglutination titer is the highest dilution of a virus that still causes visible agglutination of RBCs. This information can be useful in understanding the viral load in a patient or during vaccine production.

Viral encephalitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the brain caused by a viral infection. The infection can be caused by various types of viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, enteroviruses, arboviruses (transmitted through insect bites), or HIV.

The symptoms of viral encephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and altered level of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage, coma, or even death. The diagnosis is usually made based on clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scan. Treatment typically involves antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of complications.

Viral structural proteins are the protein components that make up the viral particle or capsid, providing structure and stability to the virus. These proteins are encoded by the viral genome and are involved in the assembly of new virus particles during the replication cycle. They can be classified into different types based on their location and function, such as capsid proteins, matrix proteins, and envelope proteins. Capsid proteins form the protein shell that encapsulates the viral genome, while matrix proteins are located between the capsid and the envelope, and envelope proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane that surrounds some viruses.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an Flavivirus, which is a type of virus that is spread by mosquitoes. It was first discovered in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937 and has since been found in many countries throughout the world. WNV can cause a mild to severe illness known as West Nile fever.

Most people who become infected with WNV do not develop any symptoms, but some may experience fever, headache, body aches, joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or a rash. In rare cases, the virus can cause serious neurological illnesses such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord). These severe forms of the disease can be fatal, especially in older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

WNV is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, but it can also be spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. There is no specific treatment for WNV, and most people recover on their own with rest and supportive care. However, hospitalization may be necessary in severe cases. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours.

Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) is a type of viral encephalitis that is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes. It is caused by the western equine encephalitis virus, which belongs to the family Togaviridae and the genus Alphavirus.

WEEV is most commonly found in North America, particularly in the western and central regions of the United States and Canada. The virus is maintained in a natural cycle between mosquitoes and birds, but it can also infect horses and humans.

In humans, WEEV infection can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological manifestations such as encephalitis, meningitis, and seizures. The virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex tarsalis.

The incubation period for WEEV is typically 4-10 days, after which symptoms may appear suddenly or gradually. Mild cases of WEEV may be asymptomatic or may cause fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Severe cases may involve neck stiffness, disorientation, seizures, coma, and permanent neurological damage.

There is no specific treatment for WEEV, and management is primarily supportive. Prevention measures include the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito hours. Public health authorities may also implement mosquito control measures to reduce the risk of transmission.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

Culture techniques are methods used in microbiology to grow and multiply microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses, in a controlled laboratory environment. These techniques allow for the isolation, identification, and study of specific microorganisms, which is essential for diagnostic purposes, research, and development of medical treatments.

The most common culture technique involves inoculating a sterile growth medium with a sample suspected to contain microorganisms. The growth medium can be solid or liquid and contains nutrients that support the growth of the microorganisms. Common solid growth media include agar plates, while liquid growth media are used for broth cultures.

Once inoculated, the growth medium is incubated at a temperature that favors the growth of the microorganisms being studied. During incubation, the microorganisms multiply and form visible colonies on the solid growth medium or turbid growth in the liquid growth medium. The size, shape, color, and other characteristics of the colonies can provide important clues about the identity of the microorganism.

Other culture techniques include selective and differential media, which are designed to inhibit the growth of certain types of microorganisms while promoting the growth of others, allowing for the isolation and identification of specific pathogens. Enrichment cultures involve adding specific nutrients or factors to a sample to promote the growth of a particular type of microorganism.

Overall, culture techniques are essential tools in microbiology and play a critical role in medical diagnostics, research, and public health.

Measles virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of measles, a highly contagious infectious disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a red, blotchy rash. The virus primarily infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream.

The genome of the measles virus is approximately 16 kilobases in length and encodes for eight proteins: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin (H), large protein (L), and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The H protein is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor CD150 (SLAM) and mediating viral entry, while the F protein facilitates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Measles virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals. The virus can remain airborne for up to two hours in a closed space, making it highly contagious. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which has led to significant reductions in the incidence of the disease worldwide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "replicon" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. It is a term that is used in the field of molecular biology, where it refers to a segment of DNA that contains an origin of replication. The origin of replication is the site on the DNA molecule where the process of DNA replication is initiated. This concept is important in the fields of genetics and virology, but it is not a term that is commonly used in clinical medicine.

If you have any questions related to the medical field, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

'Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype' is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes flu in humans and animals. It contains certain proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) on its surface, with this subtype specifically having H1 and N1 antigens. The H1N1 strain is well-known for causing the 2009 swine flu pandemic, which was a global outbreak of flu that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. This subtype can also cause seasonal flu, although the severity and symptoms may vary. It is important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and new strains or subtypes can emerge over time, requiring regular updates to vaccines to protect against them.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Rabies is a viral disease that affects the nervous system of mammals, including humans. It's caused by the rabies virus (RV), which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae and genus Lyssavirus. The virus has a bullet-shaped appearance under an electron microscope and is encased in a lipid envelope.

The rabies virus primarily spreads through the saliva of infected animals, usually via bites. Once inside the body, it travels along nerve fibers to the brain, where it multiplies rapidly and causes inflammation (encephalitis). The infection can lead to symptoms such as anxiety, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, paralysis, coma, and ultimately death if left untreated.

Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear, but prompt post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which includes vaccination and sometimes rabies immunoglobulin, can prevent the disease from developing when administered after an exposure to a potentially rabid animal. Pre-exposure vaccination is also recommended for individuals at high risk of exposure, such as veterinarians and travelers visiting rabies-endemic areas.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

"Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the Influenza A virus that is often found in avian species (birds) and can occasionally infect humans. The "H5N1" refers to the specific proteins (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) found on the surface of the virus. This subtype has caused serious infections in humans, with high mortality rates, especially in cases where people have had close contact with infected birds. It does not commonly spread from person to person, but there is concern that it could mutate and adapt to efficiently transmit between humans, which would potentially cause a pandemic.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Encephalomyelitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and spinal cord (myelitis). This condition can be caused by various infectious agents, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites, or it can be due to an autoimmune response where the body's own immune system attacks the nervous tissue.

The symptoms of encephalomyelitis can vary widely depending on the extent and location of the inflammation, but they may include fever, headache, stiff neck, seizures, muscle weakness, sensory changes, and difficulty with coordination or walking. In severe cases, encephalomyelitis can lead to permanent neurological damage or even death.

Treatment for encephalomyelitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as administering antiviral medications for viral infections or immunosuppressive drugs for autoimmune reactions. Supportive care, such as pain management, physical therapy, and rehabilitation, may also be necessary to help manage symptoms and promote recovery.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

"Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes respiratory illness and is known to circulate in humans and animals, including birds and pigs. The "H3N2" refers to the two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). In this subtype, the H protein is of the H3 variety and the N protein is of the N2 variety. This subtype has been responsible for several influenza epidemics and pandemics in humans, including the 1968 Hong Kong flu pandemic. It is one of the influenza viruses that are monitored closely by public health authorities due to its potential to cause significant illness and death, particularly in high-risk populations such as older adults, young children, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and causes the infectious disease known as hepatitis B. This virus primarily targets the liver, where it can lead to inflammation and damage of the liver tissue. The infection can range from acute to chronic, with chronic hepatitis B increasing the risk of developing serious liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.

The Hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle, involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. It enters hepatocytes (liver cells) via binding to specific receptors and is taken up by endocytosis. The viral DNA is released into the nucleus, where it is converted into a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, which serves as the template for viral transcription.

HBV transcribes several RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is used as a template for reverse transcription during virion assembly. The pgRNA is encapsidated into core particles along with the viral polymerase and undergoes reverse transcription to generate new viral DNA. This process occurs within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte, resulting in the formation of immature virions containing partially double-stranded DNA.

These immature virions are then enveloped by host cell membranes containing HBV envelope proteins (known as surface antigens) to form mature virions that can be secreted from the hepatocyte and infect other cells. The virus can also integrate into the host genome, which may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic cases.

Hepatitis B is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids containing the virus, such as through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Prevention strategies include vaccination, safe sex practices, and avoiding needle-sharing behaviors. Treatment for hepatitis B typically involves antiviral medications that can help suppress viral replication and reduce the risk of liver damage.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The name "Chikungunya" is derived from a Makonde word meaning "to become contorted," which describes the stooped posture developed as a result of severe arthralgia (joint pain) that is a primary symptom of infection with this virus.

CHIKV infection typically causes a febrile illness, characterized by an abrupt onset of high fever, severe joint pain, muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue, and rash. While the symptoms are usually self-limiting and resolve within 10 days, some individuals may experience persistent or recurring joint pain for several months or even years after the initial infection.

There is no specific antiviral treatment available for Chikungunya virus infection, and management primarily focuses on relieving symptoms with rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, staying in air-conditioned or screened rooms, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Chikungunya virus is found primarily in Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, but it has also caused outbreaks in Europe and the Americas due to the spread of its vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The virus can cause large-scale epidemics, with millions of cases reported during outbreaks. There is currently no approved vaccine for Chikungunya virus infection.

Viral core proteins are the structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or protein shell, enclosing and protecting the viral genome. These proteins play a crucial role in the assembly of the virion, assist in the infection process by helping to deliver the viral genome into the host cell, and may also have functions in regulating viral replication. The specific composition and structure of viral core proteins vary among different types of viruses.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Uridine is a nucleoside that consists of a pyrimidine base (uracil) linked to a pentose sugar (ribose). It is a component of RNA, where it pairs with adenine. Uridine can also be found in various foods such as beer, broccoli, yeast, and meat. In the body, uridine can be synthesized from orotate or from the breakdown of RNA. It has several functions, including acting as a building block for RNA, contributing to energy metabolism, and regulating cell growth and differentiation. Uridine is also available as a dietary supplement and has been studied for its potential benefits in various health conditions.

Respiratory Syncytial Viruses (RSV) are a common type of virus that cause respiratory infections, particularly in young children and older adults. They are responsible for inflammation and narrowing of the small airways in the lungs, leading to breathing difficulties and other symptoms associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia.

The term "syncytial" refers to the ability of these viruses to cause infected cells to merge and form large multinucleated cells called syncytia, which is a characteristic feature of RSV infections. The virus spreads through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and it can also survive on surfaces for several hours, making transmission easy.

RSV infections are most common during the winter months and can cause mild to severe symptoms depending on factors such as age, overall health, and underlying medical conditions. While RSV is typically associated with respiratory illnesses in children, it can also cause significant disease in older adults and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is no vaccine available for RSV, but antiviral medications and supportive care are used to manage severe infections.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Tritium is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of nuclear physics and chemistry. Tritium (symbol: T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton in its nucleus. It is also known as heavy hydrogen or superheavy hydrogen.

Tritium has a half-life of about 12.3 years, which means that it decays by emitting a low-energy beta particle (an electron) to become helium-3. Due to its radioactive nature and relatively short half-life, tritium is used in various applications, including nuclear weapons, fusion reactors, luminous paints, and medical research.

In the context of medicine, tritium may be used as a radioactive tracer in some scientific studies or medical research, but it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Viral activation, also known as viral reactivation or virus reactivation, refers to the process in which a latent or dormant virus becomes active and starts to replicate within a host cell. This can occur when the immune system is weakened or compromised, allowing the virus to evade the body's natural defenses and cause disease.

In some cases, viral activation can be triggered by certain environmental factors, such as stress, exposure to UV light, or infection with another virus. Once activated, the virus can cause symptoms similar to those seen during the initial infection, or it may lead to new symptoms depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response.

Examples of viruses that can remain dormant in the body and be reactivated include herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It is important to note that not all viruses can be reactivated, and some may remain dormant in the body indefinitely without causing any harm.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Host-pathogen interactions refer to the complex and dynamic relationship between a living organism (the host) and a disease-causing agent (the pathogen). This interaction can involve various molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that occur between the two entities. The outcome of this interaction can determine whether the host will develop an infection or not, as well as the severity and duration of the illness.

During host-pathogen interactions, the pathogen may release virulence factors that allow it to evade the host's immune system, colonize tissues, and obtain nutrients for its survival and replication. The host, in turn, may mount an immune response to recognize and eliminate the pathogen, which can involve various mechanisms such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and the production of antimicrobial agents.

Understanding the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases. This knowledge can help identify new targets for therapeutic interventions, inform vaccine design, and guide public health policies to control the spread of infectious agents.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Virus latency, also known as viral latency, refers to a state of infection in which a virus remains dormant or inactive within a host cell for a period of time. During this phase, the virus does not replicate or cause any noticeable symptoms. However, under certain conditions such as stress, illness, or a weakened immune system, the virus can become reactivated and begin to produce new viruses, potentially leading to disease.

One well-known example of a virus that exhibits latency is the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes chickenpox in children. After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus remains dormant in the nervous system for years or even decades. In some cases, the virus can reactivate later in life, causing shingles, a painful rash that typically occurs on one side of the body.

Virus latency is an important concept in virology and infectious disease research, as it has implications for understanding the persistence of viral infections, developing treatments and vaccines, and predicting the risk of disease recurrence.

'Culicidae' is the biological family that includes all species of mosquitoes. It consists of three subfamilies: Anophelinae, Culicinae, and Toxorhynchitinae. Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that are known for their ability to transmit various diseases to humans and other animals, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The medical importance of Culicidae comes from the fact that only female mosquitoes require blood meals to lay eggs, and during this process, they can transmit pathogens between hosts.

Hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins are surface proteins found on influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect and spread within host organisms.

The HAs are responsible for binding to sialic acid receptors on the host cell's surface, allowing the virus to attach and enter the cell. After endocytosis, the viral and endosomal membranes fuse, releasing the viral genome into the host cell's cytoplasm.

There are several subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified so far, with H1, H2, and H3 being common in human infections. The significant antigenic differences among these subtypes make them important targets for the development of influenza vaccines. However, due to their high mutation rate, new vaccine formulations are often required to match the circulating virus strains.

In summary, hemagglutinin glycoproteins on influenza viruses are essential for host cell recognition and entry, making them important targets for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of influenza infections.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

A nucleocapsid is a protein structure that encloses the genetic material (nucleic acid) of certain viruses. It is composed of proteins encoded by the virus itself, which are synthesized inside the host cell and then assemble around the viral genome to form a stable complex.

The nucleocapsid plays an important role in the viral life cycle. It protects the viral genome from degradation by host enzymes and helps to facilitate the packaging of the genome into new virus particles during assembly. Additionally, the nucleocapsid can also play a role in the regulation of viral gene expression and replication.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid is encased within an envelope derived from the host cell membrane, while in others, it exists as a naked capsid. The structure and composition of the nucleocapsid can vary significantly between different virus families.

Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human (HPIV-1) is a type of respiratory virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which are important causes of acute respiratory infections in children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly.

HPIV-1 primarily infects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and fever. However, it can also cause lower respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, particularly in young children and infants.

HPIV-1 is transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals. The incubation period for HPIV-1 infection ranges from 2 to 7 days, after which symptoms can last for up to 10 days. There is no specific antiviral treatment available for HPIV-1 infections, and management typically involves supportive care such as hydration, fever reduction, and respiratory support if necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and practicing cough etiquette. Vaccines are not currently available for HPIV-1 infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

Oncogenic viruses are a type of viruses that have the ability to cause cancer in host cells. They do this by integrating their genetic material into the DNA of the infected host cell, which can lead to the disruption of normal cellular functions and the activation of oncogenes (genes that have the potential to cause cancer). This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. Examples of oncogenic viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is important to note that only a small proportion of viral infections lead to cancer, and the majority of cancers are not caused by viruses.

Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification to become active. These modifications typically include cleavage of the precursor protein by specific enzymes, resulting in the release of the active protein. This process allows for the regulation and control of protein activity within the body. Protein precursors can be found in various biological processes, including the endocrine system where they serve as inactive hormones that can be converted into their active forms when needed.

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) is a retrovirus that primarily infects African non-human primates and is the direct ancestor of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 2 (HIV-2). It is similar to HIV in its structure, replication strategy, and ability to cause an immunodeficiency disease in its host. SIV infection in its natural hosts is typically asymptomatic and non-lethal, but it can cause AIDS-like symptoms in other primate species. Research on SIV in its natural hosts has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis and potential strategies for prevention and treatment of AIDS.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Hemagglutinins are glycoprotein spikes found on the surface of influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the viral infection process by binding to sialic acid receptors on host cells, primarily in the respiratory tract. After attachment, hemagglutinins mediate the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes, allowing the viral genome to enter the host cell and initiate replication.

There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified in influenza A viruses, which naturally infect various animal species, including birds, pigs, and humans. The specificity of hemagglutinins for particular sialic acid receptors can influence host range and tissue tropism, contributing to the zoonotic potential of certain influenza A virus subtypes.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are commonly used in virology and epidemiology to measure the antibody response to influenza viruses and determine vaccine effectiveness. In these assays, hemagglutinins bind to red blood cells coated with sialic acid receptors, forming a diffuse mat of cells that can be observed visually. The addition of specific antisera containing antibodies against the hemagglutinin prevents this binding and results in the formation of discrete buttons of red blood cells, indicating a positive HI titer and the presence of neutralizing antibodies.

Japanese Encephalitis Viruses (JEV) are part of the Flaviviridae family and belong to the genus Flavivirus. JEV is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected Culex mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui complex.

JEV has a complex transmission cycle involving mosquito vectors, amplifying hosts (primarily pigs and wading birds), and dead-end hosts (humans). The virus is maintained in nature through a enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and amplifying hosts. Humans become infected when bitten by an infective mosquito, but they do not contribute to the transmission cycle.

The incubation period for JEV infection ranges from 5 to 15 days. Most infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and malaise. However, a small percentage of infected individuals develop severe neurological manifestations, including encephalitis, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. The case fatality rate for JEV-induced encephalitis is approximately 20-30%, with up to half of the survivors experiencing long-term neurological sequelae.

There are no specific antiviral treatments available for Japanese encephalitis, and management primarily focuses on supportive care. Prevention strategies include vaccination, personal protective measures against mosquito bites, and vector control programs. JEV vaccines are available and recommended for travelers to endemic areas and for residents living in regions where the virus is circulating.

The Mumps virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and Rubulavirus genus. It is the causative agent of mumps, an acute infectious disease characterized by painful swelling of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid glands.

The Mumps virus has a spherical or pleomorphic shape with a diameter of approximately 150-250 nanometers. It is surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane derived from the host cell, which contains viral glycoproteins that facilitate attachment and entry into host cells.

The M protein, located beneath the envelope, plays a crucial role in virus assembly and budding. The genome of the Mumps virus consists of eight genes encoding nine proteins, including two major structural proteins (nucleocapsid protein and matrix protein) and several non-structural proteins involved in viral replication and pathogenesis.

Transmission of the Mumps virus occurs through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected saliva. After infection, the incubation period ranges from 12 to 25 days, followed by a prodromal phase characterized by fever, headache, malaise, and muscle pain. The characteristic swelling of the parotid glands usually appears 1-3 days after the onset of symptoms.

Complications of mumps can include meningitis, encephalitis, orchitis, oophoritis, pancreatitis, and deafness. Prevention relies on vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, which is highly effective in preventing mumps and its complications.

Mosaic viruses are a group of plant viruses that can cause mottled or mosaic patterns of discoloration on leaves, which is why they're named as such. These viruses infect a wide range of plants, including important crops like tobacco, tomatoes, and cucumbers. The infection can lead to various symptoms such as stunted growth, leaf deformation, reduced yield, or even plant death.

Mosaic viruses are typically spread by insects, such as aphids, that feed on the sap of infected plants and then transmit the virus to healthy plants. They can also be spread through contaminated seeds, tools, or contact with infected plant material. Once inside a plant, these viruses hijack the plant's cellular machinery to replicate themselves, causing damage to the host plant in the process.

It is important to note that mosaic viruses are not related to human or animal health; they only affect plants.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape. This method involves the use of a centrifuge and a density gradient medium, such as sucrose or cesium chloride, to create a stable density gradient within a column or tube.

The sample is carefully layered onto the top of the gradient and then subjected to high-speed centrifugation. During centrifugation, the particles in the sample move through the gradient based on their size, density, and shape, with heavier particles migrating faster and further than lighter ones. This results in the separation of different components of the mixture into distinct bands or zones within the gradient.

This technique is commonly used to purify and concentrate various types of biological materials, such as viruses, organelles, ribosomes, and subcellular fractions, from complex mixtures. It allows for the isolation of pure and intact particles, which can then be collected and analyzed for further study or use in downstream applications.

In summary, Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape using a centrifuge and a density gradient medium.

Encephalitis is defined as inflammation of the brain parenchyma, which is often caused by viral infections but can also be due to bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to toxins. The infection or inflammation can cause various symptoms such as headache, fever, confusion, seizures, and altered consciousness, ranging from mild symptoms to severe cases that can lead to brain damage, long-term disabilities, or even death.

The diagnosis of encephalitis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis). Treatment may include antiviral medications, corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the causative agent of hepatitis A, a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver. It is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family and Hepatovirus genus. The virus primarily spreads through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water, or close contact with an infected person. After entering the body, HAV infects hepatocytes in the liver, leading to liver damage and associated symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and nausea. The immune system eventually clears the infection, providing lifelong immunity against future HAV infections. Preventive measures include vaccination and practicing good hygiene to prevent transmission.

Acrylates are a group of chemical compounds that are derived from acrylic acid. They are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications, including the production of plastics, resins, paints, and adhesives. In the medical field, acrylates are sometimes used in the formation of dental restorations, such as fillings and dentures, due to their strong bonding properties and durability.

However, it is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions or sensitivities to acrylates, which can cause skin irritation, allergic contact dermatitis, or other adverse effects. Therefore, medical professionals must use caution when working with these materials and ensure that patients are informed of any potential risks associated with their use.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Togaviridae and the genus Alphavirus. It is the causative agent of Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), a rare but serious viral disease that can affect humans, horses, and some bird species.

EEEV is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culiseta and Coquillettidia genera. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and wild birds, primarily passerine birds. Horses and humans are considered dead-end hosts, meaning they do not develop high enough levels of viremia to infect feeding mosquitoes and perpetuate the transmission cycle.

EEE is most commonly found in the eastern and Gulf Coast states of the United States, as well as in parts of Canada, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. The disease can cause severe neurological symptoms, including inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), meningitis, and neuritis. In severe cases, EEE can lead to seizures, coma, and death. There is no specific treatment for EEE, and prevention efforts focus on reducing mosquito populations and avoiding mosquito bites.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

Avian sarcoma viruses (ASVs) are a group of retroviruses that primarily infect birds and cause various types of tumors, particularly sarcomas. These viruses contain an oncogene, which is a gene that has the ability to transform normal cells into cancerous ones. The oncogene in ASVs is often derived from cellular genes called proto-oncogenes, which are normally involved in regulating cell growth and division.

ASVs can be divided into two main types: non-defective and defective. Non-defective ASVs contain a complete set of viral genes that allow them to replicate independently, while defective ASVs lack some of the necessary viral genes and require assistance from other viruses to replicate.

One well-known example of an avian sarcoma virus is the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which was first discovered in chickens by Peyton Rous in 1910. RSV causes a highly malignant form of sarcoma in chickens and has been extensively studied as a model system for cancer research. The oncogene in RSV is called v-src, which is derived from the normal cellular gene c-src.

Avian sarcoma viruses have contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and have provided valuable insights into the role of oncogenes in tumorigenesis.

Zonal centrifugation is a type of centrifugation technique used in laboratory settings, particularly in the field of molecular biology and biochemistry. It involves the use of a specialized rotor with a radial gradient that allows for the separation of particles based on their size, density, and shape.

In zonal centrifugation, a sample is placed in a zone or sector of the rotor, which is then spun at high speeds to generate centrifugal force. This force causes the particles within the sample to migrate through the radial gradient towards the outer edge of the rotor, where they are separated based on their physical properties.

Zonal centrifugation is often used to purify subcellular fractions, such as organelles or membrane fragments, from complex biological samples. It can also be used to separate and concentrate viruses, ribosomes, and other large macromolecular complexes. The technique allows for high resolution separation of particles, making it a valuable tool in many areas of research.

Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, most commonly Aedes and Haemagogus species. The virus is named for the jaundice that can occur in some patients, giving their skin and eyes a yellowish color.

Yellow fever is endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America, with outbreaks occurring when large numbers of people are infected. After an incubation period of 3 to 6 days, symptoms typically begin with fever, chills, headache, back pain, and muscle aches. In more severe cases, the infection can progress to cause bleeding, organ failure, and death.

Prevention measures include vaccination, mosquito control, and personal protective measures such as wearing long sleeves and using insect repellent in areas where yellow fever is endemic or outbreaks are occurring.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

A viral attachment, in the context of virology, refers to the initial step in the infection process of a host cell by a virus. This involves the binding or adsorption of the viral particle to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell. The viral attachment proteins, often located on the viral envelope or capsid, recognize and interact with these receptors, leading to a close association between the virus and the host cell. This interaction is highly specific, as different viruses may target various cell types based on their unique receptor-binding preferences. Following attachment, the virus can enter the host cell and initiate the replication cycle, ultimately leading to the production of new viral particles and potential disease manifestations.

BK virus, also known as BK polyomavirus, is a type of virus that belongs to the Polyomaviridae family. It is named after the initials of a patient in whom the virus was first isolated. The BK virus is a common infection in humans and is typically acquired during childhood. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the body, often found in the urinary tract and kidneys.

In immunocompetent individuals, the virus usually does not cause any significant problems. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as those who have undergone organ transplantation or have HIV/AIDS, BK virus can lead to severe complications. One of the most common manifestations of BK virus infection in immunocompromised individuals is hemorrhagic cystitis, a condition characterized by inflammation and bleeding in the bladder. In transplant recipients, BK virus can also cause nephropathy, leading to kidney damage or even failure.

There is no specific treatment for BK virus infection, but antiviral medications may be used to help control the virus's replication in some cases. Maintaining a strong immune system and monitoring viral load through regular testing are essential strategies for managing BK virus infections in immunocompromised individuals.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

A tumor virus infection is a condition in which a person's cells become cancerous or transformed due to the integration and disruption of normal cellular functions by a viral pathogen. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses, and they can cause tumors or cancer by altering the host cell's genetic material, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and division, evading immune surveillance, and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of tumor viruses include:

1. DNA tumor viruses: These are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
2. RNA tumor viruses: Also known as retroviruses, these single-stranded RNA viruses can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Tumor virus infections are responsible for approximately 15-20% of all cancer cases worldwide, making them a significant public health concern. Prevention strategies, such as vaccination against HPV and HBV, have been shown to reduce the incidence of associated cancers.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Viruses, Unclassified" is not a recognized medical or scientific category. Generally, viruses are classified based on various characteristics such as genome structure, mode of replication, host range, and symptoms they cause. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is the organization responsible for the formal classification of viruses.

If you have any specific questions about certain unclassified viral entities or phenomena, I'd be happy to help if I can! Please provide more context so I can give a more accurate and helpful response.

The JC (John Cunningham) virus, also known as human polyomavirus 2 (HPyV-2), is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Polyomaviridae family. It is named after the initials of the patient in whom it was first identified.

JC virus is a ubiquitous virus, meaning that it is commonly found in the general population worldwide. Most people get infected with JC virus during childhood and do not experience any symptoms. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the kidneys and other organs of the body.

However, in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who have undergone organ transplantation, JC virus can reactivate and cause a serious brain infection called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a rare but often fatal disease that affects the white matter of the brain, causing cognitive decline, weakness, and paralysis.

There is currently no cure for PML, and treatment is focused on managing the underlying immune deficiency and controlling the symptoms of the disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Virus Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term or concept. It seems to be a combination of two concepts: "virus" and "physiological phenomena."

1. A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can cause many different types of illnesses, from the common cold to more serious diseases like HIV/AIDS or hepatitis.

2. Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including cells, tissues, and organs.

If you're looking for information about how viruses affect physiological processes in the body, I would be happy to help provide some general information on that topic! However, it would be best to consult a specific medical text or expert for more detailed or specialized knowledge.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a type of retrovirus that primarily affects chickens and other birds. It is responsible for a group of diseases known as avian leukosis, which includes various types of tumors and immunosuppressive conditions. The virus is transmitted horizontally through the shedder's dander, feathers, and vertical transmission through infected eggs.

There are several subgroups of ALV (A, B, C, D, E, and J), each with different host ranges and pathogenicity. Some strains can cause rapid death in young chickens, while others may take years to develop clinical signs. The most common form of the disease is neoplastic, characterized by the development of various types of tumors such as lymphomas, myelomas, and sarcomas.

Avian leukosis virus infection can have significant economic impacts on the poultry industry due to decreased growth rates, increased mortality, and condemnation of infected birds at processing. Control measures include eradication programs, biosecurity practices, vaccination, and breeding for genetic resistance.

Cell fusion is the process by which two or more cells combine to form a single cell with a single nucleus, containing the genetic material from all of the original cells. This can occur naturally in certain biological processes, such as fertilization (when a sperm and egg cell fuse to form a zygote), muscle development (where multiple muscle precursor cells fuse together to create multinucleated muscle fibers), and during the formation of bone (where osteoclasts, the cells responsible for breaking down bone tissue, are multinucleated).

Cell fusion can also be induced artificially in laboratory settings through various methods, including chemical treatments, electrical stimulation, or viral vectors. Induced cell fusion is often used in research to create hybrid cells with unique properties, such as cybrid cells (cytoplasmic hybrids) and heterokaryons (nuclear hybrids). These hybrid cells can help scientists study various aspects of cell biology, genetics, and disease mechanisms.

In summary, cell fusion is the merging of two or more cells into one, resulting in a single cell with combined genetic material. This process occurs naturally during certain biological processes and can be induced artificially for research purposes.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A polyprotein is a long, continuous chain of amino acids that are produced through the translation of a single mRNA (messenger RNA) molecule. This occurs in some viruses, including retroviruses like HIV, where the viral genome contains instructions for the production of one or more polyproteins.

After the polyprotein is synthesized, it is cleaved into smaller, functional proteins by virus-encoded proteases. These individual proteins then assemble to form new virus particles. The concept of polyproteins is important in understanding viral replication and may provide targets for antiviral therapy.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which are the causative agents of flu in humans and animals. These viruses are enveloped, meaning they have a lipid membrane derived from the host cell, and have a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome. The genome is segmented, meaning it consists of several separate pieces of RNA, which allows for genetic reassortment or "shuffling" when two different strains infect the same cell, leading to the emergence of new strains.

The viral envelope contains two major glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA protein is responsible for binding to host cells and facilitating entry into the cell, while NA helps release newly formed virus particles from infected cells by cleaving sialic acid residues on the host cell surface.

Orthomyxoviruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans and animals, with influenza A viruses being the most virulent and capable of causing pandemics. Influenza B viruses typically cause less severe illness and are primarily found in humans, while influenza C viruses generally cause mild upper respiratory symptoms and are also mainly restricted to humans.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an infectious agent that causes Bluetongue disease, a non-contagious viral disease affecting sheep and other ruminants. It is a member of the Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family. The virus is transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species and can infect various animals such as sheep, cattle, goats, and wild ruminants.

The virus has a double-stranded RNA genome and consists of ten segments that encode seven structural and four non-structural proteins. The clinical signs of Bluetongue disease in sheep include fever, salivation, swelling of the head and neck, nasal discharge, and respiratory distress, which can be severe or fatal. In contrast, cattle usually show milder symptoms or are asymptomatic, although they can serve as reservoirs for the virus.

Bluetongue virus is an important veterinary pathogen that has a significant economic impact on the global sheep industry. The disease is prevalent in many parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions, but has also spread to temperate areas due to climate change and the movement of infected animals. Prevention and control measures include vaccination, insect control, and restricting the movement of infected animals.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which can cause respiratory infections in humans. Orthomyxoviridae infections are typically characterized by symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches, and fatigue.

Influenza A and B viruses can cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that occur mainly during the winter months in temperate climates. Influenza A viruses can also cause pandemics, which are global outbreaks of disease that occur when a new strain of the virus emerges to which there is little or no immunity in the human population.

Influenza C viruses are less common and typically cause milder illness than influenza A and B viruses. They do not cause epidemics and are not usually included in seasonal flu vaccines.

Orthomyxoviridae infections can be prevented through vaccination, good respiratory hygiene (such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing), hand washing, and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. Antiviral medications may be prescribed to treat influenza A and B infections, particularly for people at high risk of complications, such as older adults, young children, pregnant women, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Sendai virus, also known as murine parainfluenza virus or pneumonia virus of mice, is a species of paramyxovirus that primarily infects rodents. It is an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus with a nonsegmented genome. The virus is named after the city of Sendai in Japan where it was first isolated in 1952.

Sendai virus is highly contagious and can cause respiratory illness in mice, rats, and other small rodents. It replicates in the respiratory epithelium, leading to inflammation and necrosis of the airways. The virus can also suppress the host's immune response, making infected animals more susceptible to secondary bacterial infections.

In laboratory settings, Sendai virus is sometimes used as a tool for studying viral pathogenesis, immunology, and gene therapy. It has been used as a vector for delivering genes into mammalian cells, including human cells, due to its ability to efficiently infect and transduce a wide range of cell types.

It's important to note that Sendai virus is not known to infect humans or cause disease in humans, and it is not considered a significant public health concern.

The Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV) is a type of retrovirus, specifically a gammaretrovirus, that is commonly found in mice. It was first discovered and isolated by John Moloney in 1960. Mo-MLV is known to cause various types of cancerous conditions, particularly leukemia, in susceptible mouse strains.

Mo-MLV has a single-stranded RNA genome that is reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA upon infection of the host cell. This viral DNA then integrates into the host's genome and utilizes the host's cellular machinery to produce new virus particles. The Mo-MLV genome encodes for several viral proteins, including gag (group-specific antigen), pol (polymerase), and env (envelope) proteins, which are essential for the replication cycle of the virus.

Mo-MLV is widely used in laboratory research as a model retrovirus to study various aspects of viral replication, gene therapy, and oncogenesis. It has also been engineered as a vector for gene delivery applications due to its ability to efficiently integrate into the host genome and deliver large DNA sequences. However, it is important to note that Mo-MLV and other retroviruses have the potential to cause insertional mutagenesis, which can lead to unintended genetic alterations and adverse effects in some cases.

Virus integration, in the context of molecular biology and virology, refers to the insertion of viral genetic material into the host cell's genome. This process is most commonly associated with retroviruses, such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), which have an enzyme called reverse transcriptase that converts their RNA genome into DNA. This DNA can then integrate into the host's chromosomal DNA, becoming a permanent part of the host's genetic material.

This integration is a crucial step in the retroviral life cycle, allowing the virus to persist within the host cell and evade detection by the immune system. It also means that the viral genome can be passed on to daughter cells when the host cell divides.

However, it's important to note that not all viruses integrate their genetic material into the host's genome. Some viruses, like influenza, exist as separate entities within the host cell and do not become part of the host's DNA.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Glucosamine is a natural compound found in the body, primarily in the fluid around joints. It is a building block of cartilage, which is the tissue that cushions bones and allows for smooth joint movement. Glucosamine can also be produced in a laboratory and is commonly sold as a dietary supplement.

Medical definitions of glucosamine describe it as a type of amino sugar that plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. It is often used as a supplement to help manage osteoarthritis symptoms, such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, by potentially reducing inflammation and promoting cartilage repair.

There are different forms of glucosamine available, including glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetyl glucosamine. Glucosamine sulfate is the most commonly used form in supplements and has been studied more extensively than other forms. While some research suggests that glucosamine may provide modest benefits for osteoarthritis symptoms, its effectiveness remains a topic of ongoing debate among medical professionals.

Pogosta disease and Sindbis virus Sindbis virus-ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Cao, S.; Zhang, W. (2013). " ... Humans are infected with Sindbis virus when bitten by an infected mosquito. Sindbis viruses are enveloped particles with an ... Sindbis virus (SINV) is a member of the Togaviridae family, in the Alphavirus genus. The virus was first isolated in 1952 in ... Sindbis virus is widely and continuously found in insects and vertebrates in Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania. Clinical infection ...
... such as Brom mosaic bromovirus and Sindbis virus. Positive-strand RNA viruses are found in three phyla: Kitrinoviricota, ... Positive-sense RNA viruses include pathogens such as the Hepatitis C virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and the MERS, SARS, ... Positive-strand RNA viruses (+ssRNA viruses) are a group of related viruses that have positive-sense, single-stranded genomes ... ssRNA viruses. Double-stranded RNA virus Negative-strand RNA virus Sense (molecular biology) "Current ICTV Taxonomy Release , ...
... virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus Sindbis virus Southern ... virus Western equine encephalitis complex Aura virus Babanki virus Kyzylagach virus Sindbis virus Ockelbo virus Whataroa virus ... virus Fort Morgan virus Getah virus Highlands J virus Madariaga virus Mayaro virus Middelburg virus Mosso das Pedras virus ... Cabassou virus Everglades virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Paramana virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Trocara virus ...
... he was involved in researching the genome of Sindbis virus and the establishment of flaviviruses as their own family of viruses ... While exploring Sindbis virus at Washington University in St. Louis, Rice described how he produced infectious flavivirus RNA ... Rice, Charles Moen, III (1981). Studies on the Structural Proteins of Sindbis Virus (Ph.D. thesis). California Institute of ... Rice cultured the first infectious clone of hepatitis C virus for use in studies on chimpanzees in whom the virus was also ...
Mowshowitz, D (1973). "Identification of Polysomal RNA in BHK Cells Infected by Sindbis Virus". Journal of Virology. 11 (4): ...
"Evolution and properties of Aedes albopictus cell cultures persistently infected with sindbis virus". Virology. 82 (1): 69-83. ... Drosophila X virus. In: ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C. (Ed), Columbia University, New York, ... Drosophila X virus (DXV) belongs to the Birnaviridae family of viruses. Birnaviridae currently consists of three genera. The ... In addition, the Espirito Santo virus (ESV) is defined as a sister species to DXV. This particular virus, ESV, was observed in ...
Wang, KS; Kuhn, RJ; Strauss, EG; Ou, S; Strauss, JH (1992). "High-affinity laminin receptor is a receptor for Sindbis virus in ... including the Sindbis virus (SINV). The N-domain of RPSA includes a binding site for SINV in vitro. The N-domain also includes ... West-Nile virus and serotype 2 of DENV. The C-domain includes weak binding sites for domain 3 of the yellow fever virus (YFV) ... In contrast, domain 3 from the Japanese encephalitis virus does not appear to bind RPSA in vitro. RPSA is also a receptor for ...
... (EC, Sindbis virus protease, Sindbis virus core protein, NsP2 proteinase) is an enzyme. This enzyme ... Tong L, Wengler G, Rossmann MG (March 1993). "Refined structure of Sindbis virus core protein and comparison with other ... "Identification of the active site residues in the nsP2 proteinase of Sindbis virus". Virology. 191 (2): 932-40. doi:10.1016/ ... bond This enzyme is isolated from the Sindbis and Semliki forest togaviruses. Kräusslich HG, Wimmer E (1988). "Viral ...
Alphavirus Sindbis virus Chikungunya Scholia has a topic profile for Semliki Forest virus. Mancini, E. J.; Clarke, M.; Gowen, B ... The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-strand RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... The modified virus reduced tumour growth and prolonged survival of mice with brain tumours. The modified virus was also found ... Atkins, G. J.; Sheahan, B. J.; Liljeström, P. (1999). "The molecular pathogenesis of Semliki Forest virus: A model virus made ...
"Protection against fatal Sindbis virus encephalitis by beclin, a novel Bcl-2-interacting protein". Journal of Virology. 72 (11 ...
Schelp C, Kaaden OR (1989). "Enhanced full-length transcription of Sindbis virus RNA by effective denaturation with ... Thorne HV (1966). "Electrophoretic separation of polyoma virus DNA from host cell DNA". Virology. 29 (2): 234-9. doi:10.1016/ ...
November 1998). "Protection against fatal Sindbis virus encephalitis by beclin, a novel Bcl-2-interacting protein". Journal of ...
Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). Many of ... "Sindbis virus proteins nsP1 and nsP2 contain homology to nonstructural proteins from several RNA plant viruses". Journal of ... One option is to use a strain of plant that is resistant to this virus. Since this is a virus fungicides will have no effect on ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ...
Rathore AP, Ng ML, Vasudevan SG (28 January 2013). "Differential unfolded protein response during Chikungunya and Sindbis virus ... In contrast, viruses rely on host BiP to successfully replicate, largely by infecting cells through cell-surface BiP, ...
Sindbis virus, an extremely similar virus to MIDV has spread outside of Africa and effects humans. The horses themselves cannot ... MIDV is classified as an Old World Alphavirus which also includes Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Ndumu virus, Barmah Forest virus ... These include: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are more ... Middelburg virus is a single stranded, linearly arranged, positive stranded RNA virus. MIDV has an enveloped capsid that ...
Suppression of the diptericin B and attacin C genes in Drosophila leads to increased Sindbis virus growth. Overexpression of ...
2006). "Identification of interferon-stimulated gene 15 as an antiviral molecule during Sindbis virus infection in vivo". J. ... Yuan W, Krug RM (2001). "Influenza B virus NS1 protein inhibits conjugation of the interferon (IFN)-induced ubiquitin-like ...
"Longevity Studies of Sindbis Virus Infected Aedes Albopictus" Archived 2012-04-25 at the Wayback Machine. All Volumes (2001- ... Equine encephalitis viruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, and Venezuelan ... "Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection". Viral ... West Nile virus is a significant concern in the United States but there are no reliable statistics on worldwide cases. Dengue ...
Sindbis virus (Togaviridae family) - anterograde with small amount retrograde. Adeno-associated virus AAV (Parvoviridae family ... Viruses can jump across a relatively short space from one neuron to the next. This trait is what makes viruses so useful in ... During this stage, viruses leave the original host cell in search of a new host. In the case of neurotropic viruses, this ... Certain viruses, such as adeno-associated virus, can be injected into the bloodstream and can cross the blood-brain barrier to ...
In the same cells, the stable expression of TRIM14 allowed the suppression of the replication of Sindbis virus. The influence ... "Enhanced expression of trim14 gene suppressed Sindbis virus reproduction and modulated the transcription of a large number of ... Additionally, TRIM14 knockout mice are lethal after herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The antiviral role of TRIM14 has also ... "Genomic analysis of the host response to hepatitis B virus infection". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
hnRNP A1's pro-viral effect is present in the Sindbis virus (a positive sense RNA virus) infection model. hnRNP A1 has been ... In the case of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a positive sense RNA virus, hnRNP A1 interacts with a crucial region near the 3' end of ... In the case of some viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), contradictory results have been reported in ... hnRNP A1 is involved in the life cycle of DNA, positive sense RNA, and negative sense RNA viruses are multiple stages post- ...
... end of Sindbis virus genome RNA regulate minus- and plus-strand RNA synthesis". RNA. 7 (11): 1638-1651. doi:10.1017/ ... Alpha viruses contain secondary structural motifs in the 5′ UTR that allow them to avoid detection by IFIT1. Rubella virus 3′ ...
... for Mosquito-Borne Viruses Sindbis, Ťahyňa, and Batai in a South Moravian Wetland (Czech Republic)". Vector-Borne and Zoonotic ... In 1958 a virus transmitted by a mosquito was isolated in the Slovak village of Ťahyňa. The virus was unknown in Europe and was ... Lu Z, Fu S-H, Wang F-T, Nasci RS, Tang Q, Liang G-D. Circulation of Diverse Genotypes of Tahyna Virus in Xinjiang, People's ... These enveloped viruses have a three-segmented negative-strand RNA genome. of approximately 13 kb in total length. The three ...
... the specificity of the vector by manipulating the Fab region of the viral genome and pseudotyped it with the Sindbis virus. ... Many such viruses have been the basis of research using viruses in gene therapy, but the lentivirus is unique in its ability to ... Because the virus has been adapted to lose most of its genome, the virus becomes safer and more effective in transplanting the ... They did this by trans-infecting the virus in a 293T cell, creating a virus known as 2bF8 expressing generation of viral ...
... researching the effects of Sindbis virus and the measles virus on the brain. Further, her work has contributed to our knowledge ...
... an ancestral Sindbis virus-like virus, and an ancestral Eastern equine encephalitis virus-like virus. There have been under 700 ... This virus contains an envelope that is made up of glycoproteins and nucleic acids. The virus is transmitted to people and ... the WEE virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) transmitted by mosquitoes of the genera Culex and Culiseta. WEE is a ... The virus affects the brain and spinal cord of the infected host. WEE was discovered in 1930 when a number of horses in the San ...
Sindbis virus and causes similar symptoms in humans like fever, arthralgia or joint pain and a rash. It is spread by an ... Babanki virus (BBKV) is a member of the virus family Togaviridae of Class IV of the Baltimore classification system and the ... The Universal Virus Database, version 3. [6] (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles ...
... may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Virus-related ...
Sindbis virus, chikungunya and rubella); and phleboviruses (Rift Valley fever virus and Uukuniemi virus). Class III fusogens ... Virus-cell fusions occur during infections of several viruses that are health concerns relevant today. Some of these include ... At this point, the cytoplasmic components of the cell and the virus begin to mix. As the fusion pore expands, virus-cell fusion ... Fusogens involved in virus-to-cell fusion mechanisms were the first of these proteins to be discovered. Viral fusion proteins ...
Synthesis and processing of the Sindbis virus structural proteins, 1978 Malaria : Natural Selection and New Medicine, 2010 ...
Pogosta disease and Sindbis virus Sindbis virus-ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Cao, S.; Zhang, W. (2013). " ... Humans are infected with Sindbis virus when bitten by an infected mosquito. Sindbis viruses are enveloped particles with an ... Sindbis virus (SINV) is a member of the Togaviridae family, in the Alphavirus genus. The virus was first isolated in 1952 in ... Sindbis virus is widely and continuously found in insects and vertebrates in Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania. Clinical infection ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
... but did inhibit virus-mediated haemolysis. Both monoclonal antibodies could enhance virus infectivity of Fc receptor-bearing ... One of them was capable of neutralizing virus infectivity and inhibiting haemagglutination, while the other had no significant ... SUMMARY Two monoclonal antibodies raised against Sindbis virus were shown to be specific for the envelope glycoprotein E1 by ... Symington J., Mccann A. K., Schlesinger M. J. 1977; Infectious virus-antibody complexes of Sindbis virus. Infection and ...
aegypti as a model system to determine how the mosquitos anti-viral RNAi pathway interacts with recombinant Sindbis virus ( ... We show virus-dependent effects on RNAi component transcript and protein levels during infection. Monitoring midgut Ago2, Dcr2 ... Lastly, the RNAi response varies in a virus-dependent manner. These data define important features of RNAi anti-viral defense ... Ago2 protein levels were depleted immediately following a non-infectious bloodmeal and varied during SINV infection in a virus- ...
Climatic, ecological and socioeconomic factors as predictors of Sindbis virus infections in Finland. Research output: ...
Viruses, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. ... Interests: Sindbis virus; chikungunya virus; viral entry; virus ... Negative strand RNA viruses (NSVs) include many important human pathogens, such as influenza virus, Ebola virus, and rabies ... Negative strand RNA viruses (NSVs) include many important human pathogens, such as influenza virus, Ebola virus, and rabies ... Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are small, non-pathogenic ssDNA viruses being used as therapeutic gene delivery vectors for the ...
Sindbis virus is suppressed in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti by ATG-6/Beclin-1 mediated activation of autophagy. ... Sindbis virus is suppressed in the yellow fever mosquito ,i,Aedes aegypti,/i, by ATG-6/Bec ... infected with a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV) expressing an autophagy activator. We first demonstrate a 17-amino acid ... We find that modulation of autophagy using this recombinant SINV negatively regulated production of infectious viruses. The ...
Effects of L-lysine-α-oxidase from trichoderma in vitro experiments on the model of viruses as sindbis, tick-borne encephalitis ... the high activity of L-lysine-α-oxidase in a model of tick-borne encephalitis and the lack of activity against viruses Sindbis ...
Infection of Aedes sollicitans and Aedes taeniorhynchus with Two Chimeric Sindbis/Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Vaccine ... Detection of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Deposition in Culiseta Melanura Following Ingestion of Radiolabeled Virus ... Ultrastructural Aspects of Replication of the New Jersey Serotype of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in a Suspected Sand Fly Vector ... Pathologic Changes in the Midgut of Culex tarsalis Following Infection with Western Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus ...
Sindbis Virus Replication Reduces Dependence on Mitochondrial Metabolism During Infection. Rodriguez JL, Costlow JL, Sheedy M, ...
Mayaro virus - South America. * Sindbis virus - Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and Philippines ... Rubella virus. Rubella virus is the sole member of the Rubivirus genus (Togaviridae family) and is a single-stranded RNA virus ... Hepatitis viruses ( hepatitis A virus [HAV], hepatitis B virus [HBV], and HCV) ... Other viruses. A number of other viruses have also been found to be capable of causing arthritis, including the following:. * ...
Ross River virus. H00397. T40127. Semliki Forest virus. T40377. Sindbis virus. T40028. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. ... Influenza C virus (C/Ann Arbor/1/50). H00398. Kolmioviridae. Deltavirus. T40085. Hepatitis D virus (Hepatitis delta virus). ... Hepatitis B virus. H00412. ssRNA-RT viruses. Retroviridae. Deltaretrovirus. T40003. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) ... Bean leafroll virus. -ssRNA viruses. Rhabdoviridae. Alphanucleorhabdovirus. T40199. Maize mosaic virus (Maize mosaic ...
... is a mosquito-borne zoonotic virus and one of the causes of flavivirus encephalitis in birds and occasionally in humans. USUV ... is a mosquito-borne zoonotic virus and one of the causes of flavivirus encephalitis in birds and occasionally in humans. USUV ... Serological evidence of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus infection of birds in the UK. J. Gen. Virol. 84, 2807- ... 2019). Evidence for West Nile virus and Usutu virus infections in wild and resident birds in Germany, 2017 and 2018. Viruses 11 ...
Alphaviruses: Semliki Forest Virus and Sindbis Virus as Gene Delivery Vectors. K. Lundstrom. 29. Gene Transfer into Mammalian ... 8. Spleen Necrosis Virus based Vectors. Z. Parveen, M. Mukhtar, and R.J. Pomerantz. 9. Foamy Virus Vector Production and ... Simian Foamy Virus Type 1 Vectors. J. Park and A. Mergia. 11. Generation of VSV G pseudotyped Retroviral Vectors. J. K. Yee. 12 ... Recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus Vectors. W.F. Goins, D. M. Krisky, J.B. Wechuck, D. Wolfe, S. Huang, and J.C. Glorioso. 21. ...
Larval environmental stress alters Aedes aegypti competence for Sindbis virus. EJ Muturi, CH Kim, BW Alto, MR Berenbaum, MA ... Transmission potential of Mayaro virus in Florida Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. K Wiggins, B Eastmond, BW Alto ... Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) for Dengue Virus in the Florida Keys. SL Richards ... Temperature and dengue virus infection in mosquitoes: independent effects on the immature and adult stages. BW Alto, D ...
... considerably increases levels of interferon found in sera of mice after infection with Calovo and Sindbis viruses. After ... Tahyna virus was active in the Neusiedlersee area in 1968 and 1969. The incidence of Calovo virus was only found in 1969. ... Male Ixodes ricinus whose bite is seldom noticed, transmit TBE virus. Cats and stoats can act as hosts of TBE virus. Roe deer ... They inhibit competitively the hemagglutination of all viruses of group B so far tested and of Semliki Forest virus of group A ...
Scherwitzl, Opp, Hurtado, Pampeno, Loomis, Kannan, Yu, Meruelo: "Sindbis Virus with Anti-OX40 Overcomes the Immunosuppressive ...
Purified virions of Aura virus, a South American alphavirus related to Sindbis virus, were found to contain two RNA species, ... In contrast, in parallel experiments with Sindbis virus, packaging of subgenomic RNA was not detectable. We also found that ... about threefold-greater amounts relative to genomic RNA in cells infected by Aura virus than in cells infected by Sindbis virus ... Packaging of the Aura virus subgenomic RNA, but not those of other alphaviruses, suggests that Aura virus 26S RNA contains a ...
Information on Zika virus. Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... and sindbis viruses).. Preliminary diagnosis is based on the patients clinical features, places and dates of travel, and ... Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Zika virus is transmitted to humans ... Due to concerns of microcephaly caused by maternal Zika virus infection, fetuses and infants of women infected with Zika virus ...
1969) Inhibition of interjacent ribonucleic acid (26S) synthesis in cells infected by Sindbis virus. Journal of Virology. 4: ...
Viruses. 2021-04-01; 13.4: Rescue of Infectious Sindbis Virus by Yeast Spheroplast-Mammalian Cell Fusion. Ding L, Brown DM, ... Viruses. 2012-11-19; 4.11: 3209-26.. Virus pathogen database and analysis resource (ViPR): a comprehensive bioinformatics ... Influenza A Virus Discovered in Heart Muscle Tissue Causing Damage Long After It Has Cleared from the Lungs. Strategies to ... Gene Tan, PhD is leading efforts to develop SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein pseudotyped viruses for receptor binding and antibody ...
AN Sindbis virus protease. CA Autocatalytic release of the core protein from the N-terminus of the CA togavirus structural ...
HIV-1: Human Immunodeficiency Virus - 1. PRV: Pseudorabies Virus. SBV: Sindbis Virus ... by testing the donated plasma for certain virus infections and by inactivating and/or removing certain viruses during ... Because this product is made from human blood, it may carry a risk of transmitting infectious agents, e.g., viruses and ... The product is made from human plasma and may contain infectious agents, e.g. viruses and, theoretically, the Creutzfeldt-Jakob ...
Semliki-Forest-Virus, Sindbis-Virus, Venezuelanisches Pferdeenzephalitisvirus) konstruiert. Vakzinia- und ... induced by immunization of rhesus macaques with virus-derived or vaccinia virus-expressed gp130. J Gen Virol 1993; 74: 1757 ... induced by immunization of rhesus macaques with virus-derived or vaccinia virus-expressed gp130. J Gen Virol 1993; 74: 1757 ... An ihnen greifen Virus neutralisierende Antik rper an und k nnen dadurch die Infektion des K rpers verhindern. Die Mutationsf ...
virus answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and ... Sindbis virus. Sindbis virus. Sindbis virus. An Alphavirus typically found in South Africa or Oceania and disseminated to ... RNA virus. RNA virus. RNA virus. A virus such as the HIV, influenza virus, and polio virus whose genome is RNA (ribonucleic ... helper virus. helper virus. helper virus. A virus that permits a defective virus present in the same cell to replicate. SEE: ...
This platform, termed ID-VP02, utilizes a novel genetic variant of a Sindbis virus envelope glycoprotein with posttranslational ...
Liang XH, Kleeman LK, Jiang HH, Gordon G, Goldman JE, Berry G, Herman B and Levine B: Protection against fatal Sindbis virus ... Tang H, Da L, Mao Y, Li Y, Li D, Xu Z, Li F, Wang Y, Tiollais P, Li T, et al: Hepatitis B virus X protein sensitizes cells to ... Jiang YF, He B, Li NP, Ma J, Gong GZ and Zhang M: The oncogenic role of NS5A of Hepatitis C virus is mediated by up-regulation ... Tamura R, Kanda T, Imazeki F, Wu S, Nakamoto S, Tanaka T, Arai M, Fujiwara K, Saito K, Roger T, et al: Hepatitis C Virus ...
Sindbis and Barmah Forest viruses. All of them cause symptoms of fever, joint pains and rash. The symptoms are of short ... Chikungunya virus, an arthritogenic alpha virus, was first described in Tanzania in a febrile female [1]. The disease is ... An epidemic of virus disease in southern province, Tanganyika territory in 53; an additional note on chikungunya virus ... The chikungunya virus qRT-PCR showed clear amplification signals.. The serum sample was run for complete dengue serology, IgM ...
Predicting Spatial Patterns of Sindbis Virus (SINV) Infection Risk in Finland Using Vector, Host and Environmental Data ... West Nile Virus Surveillance in 2013 via Mosquito Screening in Northern Italy and the Influence of Weather on Virus Circulation ...
  • Sindbis virus (SINV) is a member of the Togaviridae family, in the Alphavirus genus. (
  • Mosquitoborne viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus (SINV) are members of the genus Alphavirus (family Togaviridae ) and cause human arthritic diseases ( 1 ). (
  • To address this gap, we use a genetic approach to activate macroautophagy / autophagy in the yellow fever mosquito ( Aedes aegypti ), infected with a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV) expressing an autophagy activator. (
  • We find that modulation of autophagy using this recombinant SINV negatively regulated production of infectious viruses . (
  • We further investigate how the opal termination codon contributes to severe disease using a related alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV). (
  • ii) RNA viruses transmitted by arthropods such as Sindbis virus (SINV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Zika virus (ZIKV) or tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV). (
  • Because of similar geographic distribution and symptoms, patients with suspected Zika virus infections also should be evaluated and managed for possible dengue or chikungunya virus infection. (
  • Chikungunya virus, an arthritogenic alpha virus, was first described in Tanzania in a febrile female [1]. (
  • The chikungunya virus qRT-PCR showed clear amplification signals. (
  • Sequencing confirmed the presence of chikungunya virus in the sample. (
  • Currently, the greatest risk to human health among the alphaviruses is chikungunya virus (CHIKV). (
  • 4-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine-6-carboxamide (G10) requires STING to trigger IRF3/IFN-associated transcription in human fibroblasts and subsequently blocking replication of Chikungunya virus, Venezuelan Encephalitis virus, and Sindbis virus. (
  • Alphavirus infection MicrobiologyBytes: Togaviruses CDC: Pogosta disease and Sindbis virus Sindbis virus-ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. (
  • Purified virions of Aura virus, a South American alphavirus related to Sindbis virus, were found to contain two RNA species, one of 12 kb and the other of 4.2 kb. (
  • Four potential viral zoonoses associated with wildlife have previously been documented in New Zealand: three flaviviruses (Johnston Atoll virus, 16,17 Saumarez Reef virus and an unnamed Hughes group virus 17 ) and one alphavirus (Whataroa virus 18 ). (
  • 21 The Whataroa virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that belongs to the Sindbis virus subgroup that has had a known public health impact in several countries. (
  • Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus . (
  • Zika virus RNA has been identified in asymptomatic blood donors during an ongoing outbreak. (
  • Many people infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic. (
  • However, there have been cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome reported in patients following suspected Zika virus infection. (
  • Recently, CDC concluded that Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. (
  • Due to concerns of microcephaly caused by maternal Zika virus infection, fetuses and infants of women infected with Zika virus during pregnancy should be evaluated for possible congenital infection and neurologic abnormalities. (
  • Based on the typical clinical features, the differential diagnosis for Zika virus infection is broad. (
  • As an arboviral disease , Zika virus is a nationally notifiable condition. (
  • No specific antiviral treatment is available for Zika virus disease. (
  • People infected with Zika, chikungunya, or dengue virus should be protected from further mosquito exposure during the first few days of illness to prevent other mosquitoes from becoming infected and reduce the risk of local transmission. (
  • Its portfolio ranges from lentivirus, retrovirus, adenovirus, AAV, VSV, sindbis virus, and Zika virus products as well as customized "The Works" viral vector construction and swapping service package. (
  • The recent increase in reported cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barre Syndrome potentially associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) has highlighted the urgent need to identify individuals infected with ZIKV. (
  • Packaging of the Aura virus subgenomic RNA, but not those of other alphaviruses, suggests that Aura virus 26S RNA contains a packaging signal for incorporation into virions. (
  • The Kuhn laboratory studies the replication of human RNA enveloped viruses that are known as alphaviruses and flaviviruses. (
  • Alphaviruses are members of the Togaviridae family of viruses. (
  • Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic virus and one of the causes of flavivirus encephalitis in birds and occasionally in humans. (
  • Usutu virus (USUV), a neglected Old World flavivirus, causes annually reoccurring epizootics in the avian fauna and sporadic human infections. (
  • For example, increased rainfall raised the likelihood of Usutu, Sindbis, and avian flu viruses appearing, as well as the presence of salmonella bacteria. (
  • Usutu and Sindbis viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, and rainfall can boost the prevalence of the wetlands where mosquitoes thrive. (
  • It will sentinel spots for arbovirus introduction in some study sites, monitoring for the presence of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus. (
  • Instead of the classical types of vaccines such as live and inactivated viruses, several novel immunogens including protein subunit and DNA vaccines as well as viral and bacterial vectors are currently being examined. (
  • Surprisingly, intrastriatal injections of adeno-associated virus serotype 2/1 (AAV2/1) vectors expressing different shRNAs, whether targeting torsinA expression or mismatched controls, resulted in significant toxicity with progressive weight loss, motor dysfunction and animal demise. (
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus circulates in enzootic cycles between rodent hosts and mosquito vectors in Mexico, Central and South America [ 16 ] and has a complex transmission cycle involving regular mutation of the virus, facilitating transmission to humans and horses through broadening of the vector and host ranges. (
  • They inhibit competitively the hemagglutination of all viruses of group B so far tested and of Semliki Forest virus of group A. Infectivity of West Nile virus is also inhibited. (
  • As per Ministry of Health laboratory policy all dengue-negative samples were screened for other relevant viral haemorrhagic fevers of concern in Saudi Arabia, which the time included PCR assay for West Nile fever, Rift Valley fever, chikungunya fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and Alkhurma viruses (TIB MOLBIOL). (
  • The virus data were viewed in channel 640, and the internal control in channel 705, quantification modes, for dengue, West Nile, Alkhurma, chikungunya and Rift Valley fever viruses. (
  • is potentially an efficient laboratory vector of JEV at temperatures as low as 18 °C warrants further investigation, as this mosquito is abundant in cooler regions of Europe and is considered an important vector for West Nile Virus, which has a comparable transmission ecology. (
  • West Nile Virus West Nile virus is a flavivirus that is now the primary cause of arbovirus encephalitis in the United States. (
  • A non-coding RNA element has been found to be essential for Sindbis virus genome replication. (
  • Sindbis Virus Replication Reduces Dependence on Mitochondrial Metabolism During Infection. (
  • The subgenomic RNA is the messenger for translation of the viral structural proteins, and its synthesis is absolutely required for replication of the virus. (
  • Rubella Virus Replication and Links to TeratogenicityJIA-YEE LEE* ANDD. (
  • Pseudoviruses (PsV) are synthetic viruses that can include genetic material such as DNA and RNA, and are closely related to the structures and characteristics of its native viruses, but lack characteristics shown in the authentic viruses such as capability for replication [ 1 ]. (
  • Influenza B virus induces IRF3 activation and IL29 (IFNL1) gene expression without a requirement for viral protein synthesis or replication and DDX58 is the critical pattern recognition receptor needed for IRF3 activation. (
  • The flaviviruses are all tick-borne viruses that have remained largely unstudied since their detection in the late 1970s. (
  • Humans are infected with Sindbis virus when bitten by an infected mosquito. (
  • Rubella virus naturally infects humans, primarily women, and is transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions, with a peak incidence in late winter and spring. (
  • The virus is harmless to macaques or may cause only a herpetic rash in macaques, but in humans it often produces fatal infections of the brain and meninges. (
  • Protozoans, bacteria, and viruses that can be harmful to both humans and domestic animals were the focus of this comprehensive research. (
  • Johnston Atoll virus is closely related to the Quaranfil group of viruses, which have been isolated from symptomatic humans, 16 and it has been hypothesized that humans may also be susceptible to infection with Johnston Atoll virus. (
  • Arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) is defined as any virus that is transmitted to humans and/or other vertebrates by certain species of blood-feeding arthropods, mostly insects (flies and mosquitoes) and arachnids (ticks). (
  • These viruses may spread to humans from nonhuman reservoirs, but most arboviral diseases are not transmissible by humans, perhaps because the typical viremia is inadequate to infect the arthropod vector. (
  • The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes (Culex and Culiseta). (
  • Whilst the emergence in Europe of dengue and chikungunya has been associated with Aedes aegypti and the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus [ 2 ], for most of the equine viruses Culex mosquitoes are significantly involved in transmission. (
  • Most arboviruses are transmitted by mosquitoes, but some are transmitted by ticks, and one (Oropouche virus) is transmitted by midges. (
  • Sindbis viruses are enveloped particles with an icosahedral capsid, with a positive single stranded RNA genome, with an approximate size of 11.7 kb. (
  • To honor Michael, we invite submissions for this Special Issue of Viruses focusing on Michael's interests: virus structures and assembly mechanisms, conformational transitions and structure-function relationships, and genome packaging and virus infection mechanisms. (
  • Viral architecture is very complex, but every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid. (
  • The 400 known viruses are classified in several ways: by genome core (RNA or DNA), host (animals, plants, or bacteria), method of reproduction (such as retrovirus), mode of transmission (such as enterovirus), and disease produced (such as hepatitis virus). (
  • Upon entry of a virus into a host cell, the environment of that cell promotes the disassembly of the virus leading to the release of its genome RNA. (
  • Indeed, by their nature, viruses are strictly dependent on a host cell to translate their genome, replicate, and generate new viral particles for propagation. (
  • It is not part of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses classification of viruses (ie, it is not a species, genus, or family), which is based on the nature and structure of the viral genome. (
  • Viruses are also responsible for the common cold, childhood exanthems (such as chickenpox, measles, rubella), latent infections (such as herpes simplex), some cancers or lymphomas (such as Epstein-Barr virus), and diseases of all organ systems. (
  • This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence, Volume 28, Number 2 In 2002, discusses the Ross River virus (RRV) infections in Tasmania after the largest number of RRV infections ever recorded for the state was reported. (
  • In 2002, Tasmania reported the largest number of Ross River virus (RRV) infections ever recorded for the state. (
  • The term arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) describes a virus that is transmitted by certain species of arthropods. (
  • IRF3 is strongly phosphorylated at the late stages of a Sindbis virus infection to mount antiviral responses in human embryonic kidney cells. (
  • Antigenic characterisation of two Sindbis envelope glycoproteins separated by isoelectric focusing. (
  • Both are mosquito-borne viruses that have emerged as fatal equine diseases, in Peru and Argentina respectively, within the last 25 years. (
  • Sindbis virus is suppressed in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti by ATG-6/Beclin-1 mediated activation of autophagy. (
  • Packaging of the Aura virus subgenomic mRNA occurred following infection of mosquito (Aedes albopictus C6/36), hamster (BHK-21), or monkey (Vero) cells. (
  • Interleukin-10 expression induced by adeno-associated virus vector suppresses proteinuria in Zucker obese rats. (
  • Tahyna virus was active in the Neusiedlersee area in 1968 and 1969. (
  • The incidence of Calovo virus was only found in 1969. (
  • 1969 ) Inhibition of interjacent ribonucleic acid (26S) synthesis in cells infected by Sindbis virus. (
  • Density gradient characterization of disrupted and untreated Eastern encephalitis virus. (
  • Ochlerotatus detritus for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) and Ross River virus (RRV), and Culiseta annulata and Culex pipiens for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). (
  • Rubella virus is the sole member of the Rubivirus genus (Togaviridae family) and is a single-stranded RNA virus. (
  • ABBR: AAV A genus in the parvovirus family whose members cannot replicate without the presence of another virus. (
  • Rubella virus (RV) is the causative agent of the diseasecommonly known as German measles. (
  • The notion that rubella wasonly a mild illness of children was dispelled in 1941, whenNorman Gregg, an Australian ophthalmic surgeon, reportedthe devastating teratogenic effects of the virus (47). (
  • Viral proteins are made that redirect cellular machinery to establish sites for viral RNA synthesis, and concomitant virus particle assembly. (
  • 22 Whataroa virus has been detected only in bird populations and two endemic mosquito species ( Culex pervigilans and Culiseta tonnoiri ) to date, around Whataroa township on New Zealand's South Island. (
  • The common influenza viruses have antigens that mutate or combine readily, requiring new vaccines with each mutation. (
  • PsV systems permit the continuous production of virus particles mimicking naturally occurring particles, and provide high-throughput systems for evaluating anti-viral agents and vaccine candidates. (
  • For this reason, synthetic HPV particles such as virus-like particles (VLPs), PsVs and quasivirions (QVs) have been substituted for native HPV virions in studies investigating aspects of infection, transmission, immunogenicity, and viral structure [ 18 ]. (
  • Some of the most virulent diseases are caused by viruses, e.g., the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. (
  • Both monoclonal antibodies could enhance virus infectivity of Fc receptor-bearing macrophage-like cells when present at suitable dilutions. (
  • On the entry of Semliki virus into BHK-21 cells. (
  • Parvovirus B19 is a small, single-stranded DNA virus that replicates in dividing cells and thus has a remarkable tropism for human erythroid progenitor cells. (
  • Northern (RNA) blot analysis, primer extension analysis, and limited sequencing showed that the 12-kb RNA was the viral genomic RNA, whereas the 4.2-kb RNA present in virus preparations was identical to the 26S subgenomic RNA present in infected cells. (
  • We also found that subgenomic RNA was present in about threefold-greater amounts relative to genomic RNA in cells infected by Aura virus than in cells infected by Sindbis virus. (
  • New viruses are then released either by destroying their host cell or by forming small buds that break off and infect other cells. (
  • AAVs are nonenveloped single-stranded DNA viruses used in gene therapy to insert copies of missing genes into host cells. (
  • The mature virus is a complex macromolecular machine designed to withstand harsh external environments yet be sufficiently facile to enter and disassemble into new host cells. (
  • PsVs for Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCV) have been generated by co-transfection with the VP1 and VP2 genes of MCV strain 339 and a Green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter plasmid of 293TT cells engineered to stably express the cDNA of Simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen [ 3 ]. (
  • Their roles include directly killing host cells infected by viruses, activating other immune cells, producing cytokines and regulating the immune response. (
  • The virus destroying cells are especially important in a viral infection. (
  • Because viruses are not living, they can only replicate within host cells. (
  • Viruses are usually made in an inactive "immature" form that relies again on the host environment for 'maturation' and virion release. (
  • HCV is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. (
  • A study by the John Hopkins University tested the effect of MSCs in rats which were paralyzed with the Sindbis virus. (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase inhibits TMEM173-stimulated IRF3 activation and IFNB1 induction. (
  • Most viruses associated with hemorrhagic fevers are classified in the families Arenaviridae and Filoviridae . (
  • Hantavirus Infection Hantaviridae are a family of enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses, which consists of at least 4 serotypes with 9 viruses causing 2 major, sometimes overlapping, clinical syndromes: Hemorrhagic. (
  • These viruses are arboviruses, most often transmitted by a mosquito host. (
  • Received 7 June 1993/Accepted 22 September 1993 We are grateful to the late Joel Dalrymple for encouragement and helpful discussions in the early stages of this project and for furnishing virus and virus RNA preparations. (
  • Through his NIH-sponsored Bioinformatics Resource Center project, his team released a dedicated public web portal for the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the early stages of the outbreak to ensure data and tools are accessible to frontline researchers worldwide. (
  • After passages in baby hamsters, Marburg virus became pathogenic for newborn mice. (
  • On the other hand, pathogenic viruses prefer a moist climate. (
  • Laboratory diagnosis is generally accomplished by testing whole blood, serum, or plasma to detect virus, viral nucleic acid, or virus-specific immunoglobulin M and neutralizing antibodies. (
  • The viruses assemble at the host cell surfaces and acquire their envelope through budding. (
  • Two monoclonal antibodies raised against Sindbis virus were shown to be specific for the envelope glycoprotein E1 by radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP). (
  • Most animal viruses are also surrounded by a lipid envelope (a bilayered membrane analogous to a cell membrane). (
  • 16,19 Saumarez Reef virus is believed to have been responsible for febrile illness in meteorological workers on the Saumarez and Frederick reefs in Australia. (
  • 20 A closely related Hughes group virus, Soldado virus, has been implicated as a cause of human illness overseas. (
  • IRF3 is directly activated after virus infection and functions as a key activator of the intermediate/early alpha/beta interferon (IFN) genes as well as the RANTES chemokine gene. (
  • IRF3 phosphorylation is virus-inducible and results in IRF3 alteration of protein conformation to permit nuclear translocation, association with transcriptional partners, and primary activation of interferon (IFN)- and IFN-responsive genes. (
  • An unexpected human outbreak of the mosquitoborne Sind- bis virus occurred in a previously nonendemic area of Swe- den. (
  • Nonhuman and human primates are likely the main reservoirs of the virus, and anthroponotic (human-to-vector-to-human) transmission occurs during outbreaks. (
  • Our study models are viruses associated with several pathologies that represent a threat to human health. (
  • When human-to-human transmission occurs, it can be by blood transfusion, organ transplantation, sexual contact, and from mother to child during birth depending on the specific virus involved. (
  • Sindbis virus is widely and continuously found in insects and vertebrates in Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania. (
  • that viruses could be teratogenic agents was introduced.Greggs report initially drew little attention. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) modulates cellular apoptosis, which is involved in the occurrence and development of liver cancer. (
  • From an informatics perspective, the use of comparative genomics methods and predictive machine learning algorithms are being used to identify the key determinants for immune system recognition and to monitor the impact of virus evolution in immune system evasion. (
  • In contrast, in parallel experiments with Sindbis virus, packaging of subgenomic RNA was not detectable. (
  • Our interests parallel the important phases of the virus life cycle. (