The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.

Rapid dendritic morphogenesis in CA1 hippocampal dendrites induced by synaptic activity. (1/923)

Activity shapes the structure of neurons and their circuits. Two-photon imaging of CA1 neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in developing hippocampal slices from rat brains was used to characterize dendritic morphogenesis in response to synaptic activity. High-frequency focal synaptic stimulation induced a period (longer than 30 minutes) of enhanced growth of small filopodia-like protrusions (typically less than 5 micrometers long). Synaptically evoked growth was long-lasting and localized to dendritic regions close (less than 50 micrometers) to the stimulating electrode and was prevented by blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Thus, synaptic activation can produce rapid input-specific changes in dendritic structure. Such persistent structural changes could contribute to the development of neural circuitry.  (+info)

Geographic distribution and evolution of Sindbis virus in Australia. (2/923)

The molecular epidemiology and evolution of Sindbis (SIN) virus in Australia was examined. Several SIN virus strains isolated from other countries were also included in the analysis. Two regions of the virus genome were sequenced including a 418 bp region of the E2 gene and a 484 bp region containing part of the junction region and the 5' end of the C gene. Analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data from 40 SIN virus isolates clearly separated the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian genetic types of SIN virus. Examination of the Australian strains showed a temporal rather than geographic relationship. This is consistent with the virus having migratory birds as the major vertebrate host, as it allows for movement of virus over vast areas of the continent over a relatively short period of time. The results suggest that the virus is being periodically redistributed over the continent from an enzootic focus of evolving SIN virus. However, SIN virus strains isolated from mosquitoes collected in the south-west of Australia appear to represent a new SIN virus lineage, which is distinct from the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages. Given the widespread geographic dispersal of the Paleoarctic/Ethiopian and Oriental/Australian lineages, it is surprising that the South-west genetic type is so restricted in its area of circulation. Nucleotide sequence data from the C gene of the prototype strain of the alphavirus Whataroa were also determined. This virus was found to be genetically distinct from the SIN virus isolates included in the present study; however, it is clearly SIN-like and appears to have evolved from a SIN-like ancestral virus.  (+info)

Selection of RNA replicons capable of persistent noncytopathic replication in mammalian cells. (3/923)

The natural life cycle of alphaviruses, a group of plus-strand RNA viruses, involves transmission to vertebrate hosts via mosquitoes. Chronic infections are established in mosquitoes (and usually in mosquito cell cultures), but infection of susceptible vertebrate cells typically results in rapid shutoff of host mRNA translation and cell death. Using engineered Sindbis virus RNA replicons expressing puromycin acetyltransferase as a dominant selectable marker, we identified mutations allowing persistent, noncytopathic replication in BHK-21 cells. Two of these adaptive mutations involved single-amino-acid substitutions in the C-terminal portion of nsP2, the viral helicase-protease. At one of these loci, nsP2 position 726, numerous substitution mutations were created and characterized in the context of RNA replicons and infectious virus. Our results suggest a direct correlation between the level of viral RNA replication and cytopathogenicity. This work also provides a series of alphavirus replicons for noncytopathic gene expression studies (E. V. Agapov, I. Frolov, B. D. Lindenbach, B. M. Pragai, S. Schlesinger, and C. M. Rice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:12989-12994, 1998) and a general strategy for selecting RNA viral mutants adapted to different cellular environments.  (+info)

The cholesterol requirement for sindbis virus entry and exit and characterization of a spike protein region involved in cholesterol dependence. (4/923)

Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) are enveloped alphaviruses that enter cells via low-pH-triggered fusion in the endocytic pathway and exit by budding from the plasma membrane. Previous studies with cholesterol-depleted insect cells have shown that SFV requires cholesterol in the cell membrane for both virus fusion and efficient exit of progeny virus. An SFV mutant, srf-3, shows efficient fusion and exit in the absence of cholesterol due to a single point mutation in the E1 spike subunit, proline 226 to serine. We have here characterized the role of cholesterol in the entry and exit of SIN, an alphavirus quite distantly related to SFV. Growth, primary infection, fusion, and exit of SIN were all dramatically inhibited in cholesterol-depleted cells compared to control cells. Based on sequence differences within the E1 226 region between SFV, srf-3, and SIN, we constructed six SIN mutants with alterations within this region and characterized their cholesterol dependence. A SIN mutant, SGM, that had the srf-3 amino acid sequence from E1 position 224 to 235 showed increases of approximately 100-fold in infection and approximately 250-fold in fusion with cholesterol-depleted cells compared with infection and fusion of wild-type SIN. Pulse-chase analysis demonstrated that SGM exit from cholesterol-depleted cells was markedly more efficient than that of wild-type SIN. Thus, similar to SFV, SIN was cholesterol dependent for both virus entry and exit, and the cholesterol dependence of both steps could be modulated by sequences within the E1 226 region.  (+info)

Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. (5/923)

Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. We have sought to advance this field by devising DNA-based vectors and approaches for the production of recombinant vector particles. In this work, we generated a panel of alphavirus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. As such, translation of the structural proteins was highly inducible and was detected only after synthesis of an authentic subgenomic mRNA by the vector-encoded replicase proteins. Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10(7) infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors.  (+info)

Inhibition versus induction of apoptosis by proteasome inhibitors depends on concentration. (6/923)

We previously established that NF-kappaB DNA binding activity is required for Sindbis Virus (SV)-induced apoptosis. To investigate whether SV induces nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB via the proteasomal degradation pathway, we utilized MG132, a peptide aldehyde inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of the proteasome. 20 microM MG132 completely abrogated SV-induced NF-kappaB nuclear activity at early time points after infection. Parallel measures of cell viability 48 h after SV infection revealed that 20 microM MG132 induced apoptosis in uninfected cells. In contrast, a lower concentration of MG132 (200 nM) resulted in partial inhibition of SV-induced nuclear NF-kappaB activity and inhibition of SV-induced apoptosis without inducing toxicity in uninfected cells. The specific proteasomal inhibitor, lactacystin, also inhibited SV-induced death. Taken together, these results suggest that the pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic functions of peptide aldehyde proteasome inhibitors such as MG-132 depend on the concentration of inhibitor utilized and expand the list of stimuli requiring proteasomal activation to induce apoptosis to include viruses.  (+info)

Packaging of AeDNV-GFP transducing virus by expression of densovirus structural proteins from a sindbis virus expression system. (7/923)

Genetic recombination resulting in the production of wild-type infectious virus is an obstacle in the current system for producing densovirus transducing particles. In order to eliminate this problem, a double subgenomic Sindbis virus (TE/3'2J/VP) was engineered that expresses the structural proteins (VPs) of Aedes densonucleosis virus (AeDNV) from the second subgenomic promoter. Expression of AeDNV VPs from TE/3'2J/VP was confirmed by Northern analysis of RNA from infected C6/36 (Aedes albopictus) cells and by indirect immunofluorescence in infected C6/36 cells and BHK-21 cells. TE/3'2J/VP was used to infect C6/36 cells transfected with p7NS1-GFP, a plasmid expressing the nonstructural genes of AeDNV and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter gene. This infection resulted in the production of AeDNV-GFP transducing virus, which is infectious to C6/36 cells and Aedes aegypti larvae, as determined by GFP expression. The TE/3'2J/VP packaging system produced titers of transducing virus comparable to those produced by the standard two-plasmid method. The possibility of recombination resulting in wild-type infectious virus in transducing densovirus stocks was eliminated by employing an RNA virus expression system to supply AeDNV structural proteins.  (+info)

Endoprotease PACE4 is Ca2+-dependent and temperature-sensitive and can partly rescue the phenotype of a furin-deficient cell strain. (8/923)

PACE4 is a member of the eukaryotic subtilisin-like endoprotease family. The expression of human PACE4 in RPE.40 cells (furin-null mutants derived from Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells) resulted in the rescue of a number of wild-type characteristics, including sensitivity to Sindbis virus and the ability to process the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Expression of PACE4 in these cells failed to restore wild-type sensitivity to Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Co-expression of human PACE4 in these cells with either a secreted form of the human insulin pro-receptor or the precursor form of von Willebrand factor resulted in both proproteins being processed; RPE.40 cells were unable to process either precursor protein in the absence of co-expressed PACE4. Northern analysis demonstrated that untransfected RPE.40 cells express mRNA species for four PACE4 isoforms, suggesting that any endogenous PACE4 proteins produced by these cells are either non-functional or sequestered in a compartment outside of the secretory pathway. In experiments in vitro, PACE4 processed diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin protective antigen, but not Pseudomonas exotoxin A. The activity of PACE4 in vitro was Ca2+-dependent and, unlike furin, was sensitive to temperature changes between 22 and 37 degrees C. RPE.40 cells stably expressing human PACE4 secreted an endoprotease with the same Ca2+ dependence and temperature sensitivity as that observed in membrane fractions of these cells assayed in vitro. These results, in conjunction with other published work, demonstrate that PACE4 is an endoprotease with more stringent substrate specificity and more limited operating parameters than furin.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The Effects of Sindbis Viral Vectors on Neuronal Function. AU - Uyaniker, Seçil. AU - van der Spek, Sophie J.F.. AU - Reinders, Niels R.. AU - Xiong, Hui. AU - Li, Ka Wan. AU - Bossers, Koen. AU - Smit, August B.. AU - Verhaagen, Joost. AU - Kessels, Helmut W.. PY - 2019/8/8. Y1 - 2019/8/8. N2 - Viral vectors are attractive tools to express genes in neurons. Transduction of neurons with a recombinant, replication-deficient Sindbis viral vector is a method of choice for studying the effects of short-term protein overexpression on neuronal function. However, to which extent Sindbis by itself may affect neurons is not fully understood. We assessed effects of neuronal transduction with a Sindbis viral vector on the transcriptome and proteome in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, and analyzed the electrophysiological properties of individual CA1 neurons, at 24 h and 72 h after viral vector injection. Whereas Sindbis caused substantial gene expression alterations, changes at the ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Effect of interferon on Sindbis virus growth in chick embryo cell cultures. by Robert B. Stewart et al.
The isolation and sequence comparison of avirulent and neurovirulent strains of polio virus, alpha virus, herpes virus, immunodeficiency virus, and other viruses have identified genetic changes that are required to cause disease in the nervous system. The molecular mechanisms by which these genetic changes result in neurovirulence are unknown. An avirulent laboratory strain of the Alphavirus Sindbis kills most cultured cell lines not by lethal parasitism, but by inducing apoptosis or programmed cell death. Transfection of cultured cells with the human bcl-2 oncogene can block Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis, resulting in a persistent viral infection resembling that observed in brains of immunodeficient mice. We investigated the possibility that neurovirulent strains of Sindbis virus could overcome the protective effects of bcl-2--a potential mechanism to explain the ability of these strains to cause fatal disease. Strains of Sindbis virus that were lethal for 2- to 4-week-old mice induced ...
The future progress of cancer gene therapy relies on the development of efficient and safe vectors that can deliver therapeutic genes specifically to tumor cells. Using a replication-competent viral vector targeted to tumor cells may be the most efficient way of specifically killing a large number of malignant cells. We intend to develop Sindbis virus SV, an aiphavirus, into a targeted replication-competent viral vector for breast cancer gene therapy. Since SV kills by apoptosis, specific destruction of tumor cells will occur if the virus is targeted to breast cancer cells. To target SV to breast cancer cells, the putative receptor-binding domains of the SV E2 glycoprotein was replaced with the ligand, heregulin, or with an NGR-containing peptide motif that binds to the CD13 receptor expressed on tumor associated endothelial cells. We have demonstrated that a heregulin-containing SV preferentially kills a breast cancer cell line that expresses the appropriate epidermal growth factor receptors. Analysis
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We isolated Sindbis virus (SINV) from the enzootic mosquito vectors Culex torrentium, Cx. pipiens, and Culiseta morsitans collected in an area of Sweden where SINV disease is endemic. The infection rate in Cx. torrentium mosquitoes was exceptionally high (36 infections/1,000 mosquitoes), defining Cx. torrentium as the main enzootic vector of SINV in Scandinavia.. ...
Sindbis virus (SINV) is an enveloped, mosquito-borne alphavirus. Here we generated and characterized a fluorescent protein-tagged (FP-tagged) SINV and found that the presence of the FP-tag (mCherry) affected glycoprotein transport to the plasma membrane whereas the specific infectivity of the virus was not affected. We examined the virions by transmission electron cryo-microscopy and determined the arrangement of the FP-tag on the surface of the virion. The fluorescent proteins are arranged icosahedrally on the virus surface in a stable manner that did not adversely affect receptor binding or fusion functions of E2 and E1, respectively. The delay in surface expression of the viral glycoproteins, as demonstrated by flow cytometry analysis, contributed to a 10-fold reduction in mCherry-E2 virus titer. There is a 1:1 ratio of mCherry to E2 incorporated into the virion, which leads to a strong fluorescence signal and thus facilitates single-particle tracking experiments. We used the FP-tagged virus for high
Li, Guangpu and La Starza, Mark W. and Hardy, W. Reef et al. (1990) Phosphorylation of sindbis virus nsP3 in vivo and in vitro. Virology, 179 (1). pp. 416-427. ISSN 0042-6822. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160229-145647392 Niesters, Hubert G. M. and Strauss, James H. (1990) Defined mutations in the 5 nontranslated sequence of Sindbis virus RNA. Journal of Virology, 64 (9). pp. 4162-4168. ISSN 0022-538X. PMCID PMC247880. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:NIEjvir90b Hahn, Y. S. and Lenches, Edith M. and Galler, R. et al. (1990) Expression of the structural proteins of dengue 2 virus and yellow fever virus by recombinant vaccinia viruses. Archives of Virology, 115 (3-4). pp. 251-265. ISSN 0304-8608. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160321-163102094 Preugschat, Frank and Yao, Chen-Wen and Strauss, James H. (1990) In vitro processing of dengue virus type 2 nonstructural proteins NS2A, NS2B, and NS3. Journal of Virology, 64 (9). pp. 4364-4374. ISSN 0022-538X. ...
BioAssay record AID 216207 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity (to reduce virus-induced cytopathogenicity) against Sindbis virus in vero cells.
Interior and exterior views of the three-dimensional reconstruction of Sindbis Virus. This virus is transmitted by mosquitos and causes fever and rash in humans. If was first discovered in Egypt. - Stock Image C006/2445
Oxidative stress has been proposed as a common mediator of apoptotic death. To investigate further the role of oxidants in this process we have studied the effects of antioxidants on Sindbis virus (SV)-induced apoptosis in two cell lines, AT-3 (a prostate carcinoma line) and N18 (a neuroblastoma line). The thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), at concentrations above 30 mM, completely abrogates SV-induced apoptosis in AT-3 and N18 cells. The effects of NAC cannot be attributed to inhibition of viral entry or viral replication, changes in extracellular osmolarity or to increases in cellular glutathione levels, nor can they be mimicked by chelators of trace metals, inhibitors of lipid peroxidation or peroxide scavengers. In contrast, other thiol agents including pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 75 microM) are protective. Because NAC and PDTC are among the most effective inhibitors of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, we examined SVs ability to activate NF-kappa B before the onset of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Superinfection exclusion of alphaviruses in three mosquito cell lines persistently infected with Sindbis virus. AU - Karpf, Adam R.. AU - Lenches, Edith. AU - Strauss, Ellen G.. AU - Strauss, James H.. AU - Brown, Dennis T.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Three Aedes albopictus (mosquito) cell lines persistently infected with Sindbis virus excluded the replication of both homologous (various strains of Sindbis) and heterologous (Aura, Semliki Forest, and Ross River) alphaviruses. In contrast, an unrelated flavivirus, yellow fever virus, replicated equally well in uninfected and persistently infected cells of each line. Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus are among the most distantly related alphaviruses, and our results thus indicate that mosquito cells persistently infected with Sindbis virus are broadly able to exclude other alphaviruses but that exclusion is restricted to members of the alphavirus genus. Superinfection exclusion occurred to the same extent in three biologically ...
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/32J) inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/32J virus expressing B2 (TE/32J/B2) compared to TE/32J and TE/32J virus expressing GFP. TE/32J/B2 exhibited increased
BioAssay record AID 216212 submitted by ChEMBL: Evaluated in vitro for antiviral activity in vero cell cultures against Sindbis virus.
The primary focus of Dr. Heidners research lab is the design and development of alphavirus-based vectors and vaccines. Alphaviruses are small RNA viruses that are spread to humans and other vertebrates through the bites of infected mosquitoes. Alphaviruses possess a number of properties that support their use as vectors for expressing foreign genes of interest. Therefore, these viruses have been researched extensively for use as recombinant vaccines.. The lab is using Sindbis virus, the prototype alphavirus, to develop and evaluate new strategies for targeting alphavirus vectors, or alphavirus-expressed antigens to immunologically relevant cell types such as dendritic cells. An additional project focuses on the development of an alphavirus-based influenza vaccine.. ...
The alphaviruses are a genus of 26 enveloped viruses that cause disease in humans and domestic animals. Mosquitoes or other hematophagous arthropods serve as vectors for these viruses. The complete sequences of the +/- 11.7-kb plus-strand RNA genomes of eight alphaviruses have been determined, and partial sequences are known for several others; this has made possible evolutionary comparisons between different alphaviruses as well as comparisons of this group of viruses with other animal and plant viruses. Full-length cDNA clones from which infectious RNA can be recovered have been constructed for four alphaviruses; these clones have facilitated many molecular genetic studies as well as the development of these viruses as expression vectors. From these and studies involving biochemical approaches, many details of the replication cycle of the alphaviruses are known. The interactions of the viruses with host cells and host organisms have been exclusively studied, and the molecular basis of ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population Biology. populationsbiologi. ...
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above. ...
The 9 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of Sindbis virus presented here provides structural information on the polypeptide topology of the E2 protein, on the interactions between the E1 and E2 glycoproteins in the formation of a heterodimer, on the difference in conformation of the two types of trimeric spikes, on the interaction between the transmembrane helices of the E1 and E2 proteins, and on the conformational changes that occur when fusing with a host cell. The positions of various markers on the E2 protein established the approximate topology of the E2 structure. The largest conformational differences between the icosahedral surface spikes at icosahedral 3-fold and quasi-3-fold positions are associated with the monomers closest to the 5-fold axes. The long E2 monomers, containing the cell receptor recognition motif at their extremities, are shown to rotate by about 180^o and to move away from the center of the spikes during fusion. ...
RNA-binding proteins are a critical component of the cellular machinery that dictate the fate of RNA molecules. As RNA virus genomes are small, they rely on host RNA-binding proteins to control the life of the viral RNA. However, which of these host proteins are required for virus infection remains largely unknown. Alfredos group developed a novel technique called comparative RNA interactome capture to interrogate which RNA-binding proteins are involved in the infection of a model virus called Sindbis (SINV). This work uncovered that SINV infection alters the activity of more than 200 cellular RNA-binding proteins, thus rewiring cellular RNA metabolism (Figure 1). ...
Purdue University researchers successfully eliminated the native infection preferences of a Sindbis virus engineered to target and kill cancer cells, a milestone in the manipulation of this promising viral vector.
Jain, A., Ranjan, A., Chatterji, U., Das, P., Ghosh, S., Habib, S., Pandey, S., Ramachandran, A., Venkaiah, B., and Hasnain, S.E. (1998) High level expression of heterologous genes in insect cells is not dependent on promoter alone in Invertebrate cell culture: Novel Direction and Biotechnological Applications (Eds: Maramorosch K and Mitsuhashi J) Science Publishers, Inc (USA) New Hampshire, p221-227 ...
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Together with the work of Dr G. Stanway on the neurovirulent strains P3/Leon/37 and P3/119, hundreds of cDNA clones were examined and more than 22 kbp of nucleotide sequence determined. These experiments resulted in the identification of a mall number of mutations in the genomes of the strains studied which must be responsible for their differences in neurovirulence. However, it has not yet been possible to identify the individual mutations involved in attenuation and reversion and further experiments are currently in progress. These experiments represent a number of different approaches. Firstly, the sequence of other neurovirulent vaccine revertants are being determined, to ascertain whether the mutations observed in P3/119 are shared by other strains. Secondly, the work of Racaniello and Baltimore (1981a) has demonstrated that the construction of recombinant virus genomes in vitro, at the level of cloned cDNA, is possible. Transfection of susceptible cells with these recombinant genomes gives ...
Kaj se zgodi pri darovanju krvne plazme? Pri darovanju krvne plazme, potuje kri preko igle v sterilnem, zaprtem, enocevnem sistemu na aparat za odvzem krvne plazme, kjer se kri filtrira in centrifugira, s tem procesom dosežemo, da se glavni sestavni deli krvi ločijo od plazme. Plazma teče v vrečo za plazmo, nakar se izmenično kri vrne nazaj po sistemu preko igle v žilo. Darovana količina plazme je odvisna od teže darovalca. Darovanje traja približno 45 minut. Kdo vse lahko daruje krvno plazmo?. Vsak človek, ki je dopolnil 18 let in ni starejši od 60 let ter ima vsaj 50kg in ne več kot 150kg ter je telesno in psihično sposoben za darovanje. O sposobnosti za darovanje presodi zdravnik. Kako pogosto se lahko daruje krvna plazma?. Darovanje krvne plazme bistveno ne vpliva na telo, zato lahko v enem letu darujemo 50 krat. Vendar je potrebno upoštevati predpise o darovanju. Med dvemi darovanji mora preteči 72ur, v enem tednu lahko darujete do 2 krat, v dveh tednih 3 krat in v enem ...
Z navedenimi odločbami je Banka Slovenije namreč odločila, da vse naštete delnice in podrejene obveznice prenehajo.. Izbris naštetih delnic in podrejenih obveznic iz centralnega registra nematerializiranih vrednostnih papirjev zato pomeni zgolj prenehanje evidentiranja pravic, ki pa so prenehale že pred samim izbrisom iz centralnega registra in neodvisno od njega.. Vse nove delnice Nove Ljubljanske banke d.d. z oznako NLBS, Nove Kreditne banke Maribor d.d. z oznako KBMS, Abanke d.d. z oznako ABKS, Factor banke d.d. z oznako FBNS in Probanke d.d. z oznako PRBS pa je KDD v skladu z nalogom za izdajo vpisala na račun Republike Slovenije.. ...
Kisik in žveplo sta nekovini, selen, telur in polonij pa so polprevodne polkovine. To pomeni, da so njihove električne lastnosti nekje med lastnostmi kovin in izolatorjev. Telur, pa tudi selen, se kljub temu pogosto razvrščata med kovine. Kovinski halkogenidi se v naravi pojavljajo kot minerali. Nekateri so zelo pogosti, na primer pirit (FeS), ki je železova ruda, nekateri pa so zelo redki, na primer zlatov ditelurid kalaverit (AuTe2). Najboolj pogosto formalno oksidacijsko stanje halkogenih spojin je 2-. Pogosta so tudi druga oksidacijska stanja, na primer 1- v piritu. Najvišje formalno oksidacijsko stanje je 6+ v sulfatih (žveplova kislina H2SO4), selenatih (natrijev selenat Na2SeO4) in teluratih. ...
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as
Implications for viral behavior and virulence.Alphavirus variants with reduced plaque sizes often have reduced virulence in vivo as well, although there are certainly exceptions to this rule, and fresh wild-type isolates frequently contain a mixture of large-plaque and small-plaque viruses. Repeated tissue culture passaging of alphaviruses can lead to decreased plaque size and decreased virulence (19, 39). Small-plaque and large-plaque alphavirus variants typically have different affinities for hydroxyapatite (a form of calcium phosphate), indicating changes in the surface charge of the glycoproteins (3, 23). It may be possible to reinterpret these findings in light of our demonstration that SV can bind to HS. We suggest that alphaviruses with a small-plaque phenotype under agar (indicating strong binding to the agar sulfated polysaccharide) may also bind better to HS and that strong binding to HS may decrease virulence in vivo.. The strain of SV used in this study, Toto 1101, is a relatively ...
We recently characterized three novel alphaviruses isolated from mosquitoes captured in New South Wales, Australia. Initial cross-neutralization studies revealed antigenic similarity to the Sindbis virus (SINV)-like Whataroa virus (WHAV), heretofore found only in New Zealand. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the WHAV-like viruses shared >99% nucleotide sequence similarity with each other, and 96-97% similarity with prototype WHAV. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reactions of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to SINV showed that the novel WHAV-like viruses displayed identical binding patterns and were antigenically distinct from all SINV isolates examined. Although these viruses displayed a similar binding pattern to prototype WHAV, three monoclonal antibodies discriminated them from the New Zealand virus. Our results suggest that these novel alphaviruses are antigenic variants of WHAV and represent the first reported isolations of this virus from outside New Zealand. The monoclonal
Anders, E M.; Miller, J F.; and Gamble, J, A radioisotopic technique for measuring the mononuclear inflammatory response in sindbis virus-induced encephalitis of mice. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 3366 ...
Regulatory and biophysical mechanisms of cell-cell fusion are largely unknown, despite the fundamental requirement for fused cells in eukaryotic development. Only two cellular fusogens that are not of obvious viral origin have been identified to date, both in nematodes. EFF-1 and AFF-1 comprise the FF family and together they are necessary for virtually all somatic cell fusions in C. elegans. Unregulated EFF-1 expression causes lethality due to ectopic fusion between cells not developmentally programmed to fuse, highlighting the necessity of tight fusogen regulation for proper development. ^ Identifying factors that regulate EFF-1 and its paralog AFF-1 could lead to discovery of molecular mechanisms that control cell fusion upstream of the action of a membrane fusogen. Yet, FF proteins are sufficient to fuse heterologous invertebrate cell types, suggesting that they function autonomously in foreign molecular and proteomic environments. The work presented here examines whether a predicted 14-3-3
Arthropod-borne alphaviruses are distributed worldwide and cause considerable human morbidity and mortality. Alphaviruses cause a variety of human diseases,
No exactly related to surfaces, but in terms of killing viruses via heat, a study from a few years ago looked at the time required for inactivation of various Alphaviruses in blood serum samples at 56°C, finding that it could take anywhere from 20 min to 2 hrs [1]. If youre looking for ways that the average person can disinfect surfaces, some fairly common consumer disinfectants are actually already capable of killing certain types of viruses (e.g. Dettol claim that some of their products kill influenza, coronavirus, RSV, etc. [2]). [1] Park, S.L., Huang, Y.-J.S., Hsu, W.-W., Hettenbach, S.M., Higgs, S., and Vanlandingham, D.L. (2016). Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses. Journal of Virological Methods 234, 152-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.04.004. [2] https://www.dettol.com.ng/products-old/see-all-products/. ...
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Looking for online definition of Alphavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Alphavirus infections explanation free. What is Alphavirus infections? Meaning of Alphavirus infections medical term. What does Alphavirus infections mean?
Humoral immunity is important for protection against viral infection and neutralization of extracellular virus, but clearance of virus from infected tissues is thought to be mediated solely by cellular immunity. However, in a SCID mouse model of persistent alphavirus encephalomyelitis, adoptive transfer of hyperimmune serum resulted in clearance of infectious virus and viral RNA from the nervous system, whereas adoptive transfer of sensitized T lymphocytes had no effect on viral replication. Three monoclonal antibodies to two different epitopes on the E2 envelope glycoprotein mediated viral clearance. Treatment of alphavirus-infected primary cultured rat neurons with these monoclonal antibodies to E2 resulted in decreased viral protein synthesis, followed by gradual termination of mature infectious virion production. Thus, antibody can mediate clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons by restricting viral gene expression. ...
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Alphaviruses infect their host by binding to cellular receptors and fusing with cell membranes. New studies define the receptor-binding protein of these viruses and its regulation of the membrane-fusion reaction. See Letters p.705 & p.709 Alphaviruses are significant animal and human pathogens - as demonstrated in recent outbreaks of infection with the mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus in India and southeast Asia. The E1 and E2 glycoproteins of alphaviruses are central to the way the virus infects host cells. The E1/E2 heterodimers that form spikes on the virus surface dissociate in the acidic conditions found in the internal vesicles of host cells, and E1 triggers infection by fusing with the endosomal membrane. Félix Rey and colleagues present the structure of Chikungunya virus envelope glycoprotein at neutral pH, and Michael Rossmann and colleagues reveal the structure of the envelope
In summary, our data indicate that SFV fusion and exit are highly cholesterol dependent, and that this sterol requirement is significantly reduced by the P226S mutation. Interestingly, preliminary data from our lab indicate that two independent mutants selected for cholesterol-independent growth also have the P226S mutation, supporting the importance of this region of the spike protein in the virus cholesterol requirement (Chatterjee, P., and M. Kielian, unpublished results). It is striking that although it is not conserved, the position analogous to SFV E1 P226 is not found as a serine residue in any of the alphavirus sequences in the database, including recent virus isolates from nature (Fig. 7). Other nonconserved proline residues in this and other E1 regions (eg., P237; Fig. 7) are present as a serine in some alphavirus sequences. Preliminary results with Sindbis virus, having alanine at position 226, indicate that both its infection and fusion are highly cholesterol dependent, similar to wt ...
A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The Viruses are transmitted by Mosquitoes. The type species is the Sindbis Virus ...
Arthropod vectored viruses are a major cause of human disease. The alphaviruses are a group of arthropod vectored agents which are responsible for a variety of...
Wolcott, J A.; Wust, C J.; and Brown, A, Immunization with one alphavirus cross-primes cellular and humoral immune responses to a second alphavirus. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 4459 ...
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Odpadne vode so ustvarjene iz stanovanjskih, inšticionalnih ter poslovnih in industrijskih obratov in vključujejo gospodinjske odpadke, vodo iz stranišč, kadi, kuhinj in umivalnikov, ki jih odvržemo v kanalizacijo. Voda, ki se uporabi v gospodinjstvu in industriji, se zavrže kot odpadna voda. Ta se pri uporabniku zbere in odvede v kanalizacijo. Na mnogih področjih se v odpadne vode zlivajo tudi tekoči odpadki iz industrije in trgovin. Kanalizacijski sistem je omrežje podzemnih kanalov z jaški, v katerih se zbira odpadna voda iz hiš in tovarn, ter vodi do čistilne naprave, kjer se voda prečisti. Ločevanje in odvajanje gospodinjskih odpadkov v sive in črne vode je vse bolj pogosta v razvitem svetu. Sive vode lahko uporabljamo za zalivanje in splakovanje stranišč. V večino odpadnih voda se steka tudi deževnica in voda iz težko dostopnih področij. Kanalizacijskim sistemom, ki uporabljajo padavinske vode, pravimo tudi kombinirani sistemi ali mešani kanalizacijski sistem. Ti ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of alphavirus infection in cell culture and in mice with antisense morpholino oligomers. AU - Paessler, Slobodan. AU - Rijnbrand, Rene. AU - Stein, David A.. AU - Ni, Haolin. AU - Yun, Nadezhda E.. AU - Dziuba, Natallia. AU - Borisevich, Viktoriya. AU - Seregin, Alexey. AU - Ma, Yinghong. AU - Blouch, Robert. AU - Iversen, Patrick L.. AU - Zacks, Michele A.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors wish to thank The Chemistry Group at AVI BioPharma for the expert production of all PPMO compounds used in this study. This work was supported by grants from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases through the Western Regional Center of Excellence for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (U54 AI057156) and through the Galveston National Laboratory Operations, Advanced Veterinary Services Core (UC7 AI070083). S. Paessler was supported by a National Institutes of Health K08 Award (A1059491) and faculty support provided by the Institute for Human ...
In biology and immunology, an alphavirus belongs to the group IV Togaviridae family of viruses, according to the system of classification based on viral genome composition introduced by David Baltimore in 1971. Alphaviruses, like all other group IV viruses, have a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are thirty alphaviruses able to infect various vertebrates such as humans, rodents, fish, birds, and larger mammals such as horses as well as invertebrates. Transmission between species and individuals occurs mainly via mosquitoes making the alphaviruses a contributor to the collection of Arboviruses - or Arthropod-Borne Viruses. Alphavirus particles are enveloped, have a 70 nm diameter, tend to be spherical (although slightly pleomorphic), and have a 40 nm isometric nucleocapsid. The alphaviruses are small, spherical, enveloped viruses with a genome of a single positive sense strand RNA. The total genome length ranges between 11,000 and 12,000 nucleotides, and has a 5 cap, and 3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Semliki-Forest-virus-specific nonstructural protein nsP4 is an autoproteinase. AU - Takkinen, Kristiina. AU - Peränen, Johan. AU - Keränen, Sirkka. AU - Söderlund, Hans. AU - Kääriäinen, Leevi. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The Semliki‐Forest‐virus‐specific nonstructural proteins are translated as a large polyprotein (2431 amino acid residues), from which the mature polymerase components nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4 are released by proteolytic cleavages. The complete ns polyprotein (P1234) can be cleaved in two alternative ways yielding either P123 (with sequences of nsP1, nsP2 and nsP3) and nsP4 or P12 (nsP1 plus nsP2) and P34 (nsP3 plus nsP4). We studied the possible autoproteolytic role of nsP4 involved in the cleavage between nsP3 and nsP4 in an in vitro transcription‐translation system. cDNAs encoding P34 precursor and shorter precursor protein segments covering the nsP3‐nsP4 cleavage region, were cloned under the T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The mRNAs ...
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order to establish a productive infection. Of importance are the midgut, basal lamina and the salivary glands. Infection of the salivary glands is crucial for virus transmission during the mosquitos subsequent bloodfeed. Other factors that may contribute to vector competence include the microflora and parasites present in the mosquito, environmental conditions, the molecular determinants of the virus to adapt to the vector, as well as the effect of co-infection with other viruses. Though mosquito innate immunity is a contributing factor to vector competence, it will not be discussed in this review. Detailed understanding of these factors will be instrumental in minimising transmission of alphaviral
Types of Viruses Used in Gene Therapy: There are 6 main types of viruses used in gene therapy:. 1) Retroviruses - A class of viruses that can create double-stranded DNA copies of their RNA genomes. These copies of its genome can be integrated into the chromosomes of host cells. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus.. 2) Adenoviruses - A class of viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes that cause respiratory, intestinal, and eye infectious in humans. The virus that causes the common cold is an adenovirus.. 3) Adeno-associated viruses - A class of small, single-stranded DNA viruses that can insert their genetic material at a specific site on chromosome 19.. 4) Herpes simplex viruses - A class of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a particular cell type, neurons. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common human pathogen that causes cold sores.. 5) Alphaviruses - A single stranded positive sense RNA, particularly used to develop viral vectors for the Ross-River virus, Sindbis virus, ...
A genus of Togaviridae, also known as Group A Arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The Viruses are transmitted by Mosquitoes. The type species is the Sindbis Virus ...
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Sočasna okužba, sookužba ali koinfekcija je hkratna okužba celice ali organizma z dvema mikroorganizmoma (na primer pljučnica, ki jo povzročata ortomiksovirus in streptokok).[1] Kadar pa se nova okužba pridruži že obstoječi kasneje in ne istočasno, govorimo o nadokužbi (naknadni okužbi).[2] V svetovnem merilu je pogosta sookužba z jetiko (tuberkulozo) in HIV-om. V nekaterih državah je do 80 % bolnikov s tuberkulozo okuženih tudi z virusom HIV.[3] Nadalje je okoli 10 % bolnikov, okuženih s HIV-om, sočasno okuženih tudi z virusom hepatitisa B.[4] Pri okužbi s HIV-om pa je možna tudi sookužba z več sevi istega virusa; kadar pa se bolnik najprej okuži z enim sevom virusa, kasneje v življenju pa še z drugim, gre za nadokužbo.[5] ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Sindbis appears to be essentially a bird virus transmitted mainly by Culex mosquitoes, but man and other mammals may become ... Arthropod species & virus source(a) Method of Infection log10/ml (b) Incubation period (c) Transmision by bite (d) Assay of ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Pogosta disease and Sindbis virus Sindbis virus-ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Cao, S.; Zhang, W. (2013). " ... Sindbis virus (SINV) is a member of the Togaviridae family, in the Alphavirus genus. The virus was first isolated in 1952 in ... The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes (Culex spp.) SINV causes sindbis fever in humans and the symptoms include arthralgia, ... Structure, genome & replication Sindbis viruses are enveloped particles with an icosahedral capsid. Its genome is a positive ...
SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Epidemic polyarthritis and rash, Sindbis virus disease, SIN, ockelbo virus ... CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Biosafety level 2 practices and containment facilities for all activities involving the virus or ...
Viruses › ssRNA viruses › ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage › Togaviridae › Alphavirus. ... Host gene expression shutoff by virus, Host-virus interaction, Inhibition of host RNA polymerase II by virus, mRNA capping, ... "Identification of the active site residues in the nsP2 proteinase of Sindbis virus.". Strauss E.G., De Groot R.J., Levinson R. ... "Identification of the active site residues in the nsP2 proteinase of Sindbis virus.". Strauss E.G., De Groot R.J., Levinson R. ...
At minimum, gloves, closed toed shoes, lab coat, and appropriate face and eye protection prior to working with Sindbus virus. ...
Sindbis virus;. RCV,. replication-competent virus;. PCL,. packaging cell line;. SV40,. simian virus 40;. CMV,. cytomegalovirus; ... Sindbis Virus-Derived PCLs Function with Both Sindbis Virus and SFV Vectors.. We wanted to determine whether other alphavirus ... Sindbis virus-derived PCLs were shown to package both Sindbis virus and SFV vectors efficiently and provided a method for ... Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus are among the alphaviruses being exploited ...
This virus is transmitted by mosquitos and causes fever and rash in humans. If was first discovered in Egypt. - Stock Image ... Interior and exterior views of the three-dimensional reconstruction of Sindbis Virus. ... rna virus, section, sindbis virus, sindv, single stranded, studio shot, togaviridae, two objects, vector borne, virus ... Caption: Interior and exterior views of the three-dimensional reconstruction of Sindbis Virus. This virus is transmitted by ...
Sindbis viruses.. Recombinant double-subgenomic Sindbis viruses were produced as described in ref. 21. Briefly, dsTE12Q was ... Increased susceptibility to Sindbis virus infection in ISG15−/− mice can be complemented by Sindbis viruses expressing ISG15- ... including influenza A and B viruses, the herpes viruses HSV-1 and γHV68, and Sindbis virus. Although it is clear that ISG15 has ... For Sindbis virus experiments, 4-day-old pups were infected with the indicated virus at a dose of 1,000 pfu in 10 μl of HBSS ...
Sindbis virus (SIN), a member of the Togaviridae family, infects a broad range of cells and has been shown to be an effective ... The infection efficiency of the virus, however, varies greatly among target cells. In this report, we compared the ability of ...
Alternative forms of a strain-specific neutralizing antigenic site on the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein.. Davis NL1, Pence DF, ... Experiments with monoclonal antibodies raised against two laboratory strains of Sindbis virus, SB and SIN, suggested the ...
Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Sindbis Viruses from Mosquitoes in Germany. Hanna Jöst, Alexandra Bialonski, Volker ... Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Sindbis Viruses from Mosquitoes in Germany. Hanna Jöst, Alexandra Bialonski, Volker ... Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Sindbis Viruses from Mosquitoes in Germany. Hanna Jöst, Alexandra Bialonski, Volker ... Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Sindbis Viruses from Mosquitoes in Germany Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Mosquitoborne viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus (SINV) are members of the genus Alphavirus ... Bergqvist J, Forsman O, Larsson P, Näslund J, Lilja T, Engdahl C, et al. Detection and isolation of Sindbis virus from ... Sindbis virus as a human pathogen-epidemiology, clinical picture and pathogenesis. Rev Med Virol. 2016;26:221-41. DOIPubMed ... Seroprevalence of Sindbis virus and associated risk factors in northern Sweden. Epidemiol Infect. 2014;142:1559-65. DOIPubMed ...
... foot-and-mouth disease virus, respiratory syncytial virus, dengue virus, and adeno-associated virus type 2 (9, 21, 32, 47, 62 ... we immobilized various GAGs on plastic plates and examined the binding of radiolabeled virus. Sindbis virus bound at ... Binding of Sindbis Virus to Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal ... Binding of Sindbis Virus to Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate. Andrew P. Byrnes, Diane E. Griffin ...
triseriatus became infected only at high doses and all showed reduced virus titers after 7 days post-infection. Armigeres ... but these species did show persistence of virus which may indicate multiplication. Anopheles quadrimaculatus, An. stephensi, ... Abstract An evaluation of the susceptibility of eight mosquito species to Sindbis virus was conducted as a prelude to studies ... Comparative Susceptibility of Eight Mosquito Species to Sindbis Virus * * Bernard A. Schiefer, James R. Smith ...
Summary of 16 Sindbis virus isolates from ornithophilic Culex and Culiseta species mosquitoes collected in central Sweden, 2009 ... Culex torrentium Mosquito Role as Major Enzootic Vector Defined by Rate of Sindbis Virus Infection, Sweden, 2009 Jenny C. ... Culex torrentium Mosquito Role as Major Enzootic Vector Defined by Rate of Sindbis Virus Infection, Sweden, 2009. ...
We used the FP-tagged virus for high-resolution live-cell imaging to study the spatial and temporal aspects of alphavirus ... The fluorescent proteins are arranged icosahedrally on the virus surface in a stable manner that did not adversely affect ... contributed to a 10-fold reduction in mCherry-E2 virus titer. There is a 1:1 ratio of mCherry to E2 incorporated into the ... affected glycoprotein transport to the plasma membrane whereas the specific infectivity of the virus was not affected. We ...
This Sindbis-virus-binding protein was detected by cross-linking Sindbis virus, modified with 4-[6-formyl-3-azidophenoxy] ... Identification of a cell-surface protein involved in the binding site of Sindbis virus on human lymphoblastic cell lines using ... protein of molecular weight 90000 was identified as the major protein located at or near the binding site of Sindbis virus on ...
Requirement for host transcription in the replication of Sindbis virus.. R S Baric, L J Carlin, R E Johnston ... Requirement for host transcription in the replication of Sindbis virus. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Host cell involvement in Sindbis virus (SB) replication was examined in cells which had been treated with either actinomycin D ... while having little or no effect on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. SB replication was sensitive to alpha-A in ...
Kuhn, Richard J. and Hong, Zhang and Strauss, James H. (1990) Mutagenesis of the 3 nontranslated region of Sindbis virus RNA. ... In most cases, viable virus was recovered, but almost all mutants grew more poorly than wild-type virus when tested under a ... Mutations having a more severe effect led to lower virus yields. In many cases, virus growth was more severely impaired in ... nontranslated region of the Sindbis virus genome. The majority of these mutations were made in the 3-terminal 19-nucleotide ...
... Lindström, Karin M Uppsala University, ...
Employing these antisera, more mosquito-propagated virus was neutralized than was virus grown in cultures of Vero cells. The ... Abstract Sindbis virus harvested from infected cultures of Vero cells and from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was used in ... Neutralization of Sindbis Virus by Antisera to Antigens of Vector Mosquitoes * * Fred M. Feinsod, Andrew Spielman, Joseph L. ... Sindbis virus harvested from infected cultures of Vero cells and from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was used in neutralization tests ...
Dynamics of transmembrane proteins during Sindbis virus budding. A. Pavan, E. Covelli, M.C. Pascale, G. Lucania, S. Bonatti, P ... Dynamics of transmembrane proteins during Sindbis virus budding. A. Pavan, E. Covelli, M.C. Pascale, G. Lucania, S. Bonatti, P ... Dynamics of transmembrane proteins during Sindbis virus budding. A. Pavan, E. Covelli, M.C. Pascale, G. Lucania, S. Bonatti, P ... Dynamics of transmembrane proteins during Sindbis virus budding Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal ...
Two chimeric vaccine candidates were constructed using a cDNA clone with a Sindbis virus (SINV) backbone and struct … ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes sporadic, often fatal disease outbreaks in ... Two chimeric vaccine candidates were constructed using a cDNA clone with a Sindbis virus (SINV) backbone and structural protein ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes sporadic, often fatal disease outbreaks in ...
A small glycoprotein (E3) was purified from the culture fluid of Sindbis virus-infected primary chick embryo fibroblasts. ... Biochemical studies of the maturation of the small Sindbis virus glycoprotein E3 ... Biochemical studies of the maturation of the small Sindbis virus glycoprotein E3. Virology, 134 (2). pp. 338-357. ISSN 0042- ... Biochemical studies of the maturation of the small sindbis virus glycoprotein E3, Virology, Volume 134, Issue 2, 1984, Pages ...
Evaluated in vitro for antiviral activity in vero cell cultures against Sindbis virus. ...
... to reduce virus-induced cytopathogenicity) against Sindbis virus in vero cells. ...
Sindbis Group Viruses: Global Status. Sindbis Group Viruses: Global Status is one in a series of GIDEON ebooks which explore ... Sindbis Group Viruses: Global Status includes separate sections on Karelian fever, Ockelbo disease, Pogosta disease, and ...
We isolated Sindbis virus (SINV) from the enzootic mosquito vectors Culex torrentium, Cx. pipiens, and Culiseta morsitans ... Culex torrentium Mosquito Role as Major Enzootic Vector Defined by Rate of Sindbis Virus Infection, Sweden, 2009. Hesson, Jenny ...
Imaging of viral neuroinvasion in the zebrafish reveals that Sindbis and chikungunya viruses favour different entry routes ... Imaging of viral neuroinvasion in the zebrafish reveals that Sindbis and chikungunya viruses favour different entry routes ... Imaging of viral neuroinvasion in the zebrafish reveals that Sindbis and chikungunya viruses favour different entry routes ... Imaging of viral neuroinvasion in the zebrafish reveals that Sindbis and chikungunya viruses favour different entry routes ...
  • Sindbis virus (SINV) is a member of the Togaviridae family, in the Alphavirus genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • SINV causes sindbis fever in humans and the symptoms include arthralgia, rash and malaise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mosquitoborne viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus (SINV) are members of the genus Alphavirus (family Togaviridae ) and cause human arthritic diseases ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Sindbis virus (SINV) is an enveloped, mosquito-borne alphavirus. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we generated and characterized a fluorescent protein-tagged (FP-tagged) SINV and found that the presence of the FP-tag (mCherry) affected glycoprotein transport to the plasma membrane whereas the specific infectivity of the virus was not affected. (mdpi.com)
  • Two chimeric vaccine candidates were constructed using a cDNA clone with a Sindbis virus (SINV) backbone and structural protein genes from either a North (SIN/NAEEEV) or South American (SIN/SAEEEV) strain of EEEV. (nih.gov)
  • We isolated Sindbis virus (SINV) from the enzootic mosquito vectors Culex torrentium, Cx. (diva-portal.org)
  • Taken together, these data confirmed our hypothesis that RNA viruses, such as SinV, do in fact interface with the cellular mRNA decay machinery. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To determine the feasibility of applying this technology to viral RNA, we have used cDNA clones of the TE strain of Sindbis virus (SINV) to construct multiple viruses containing one or two copies of tRNA-scaffolded Spinach2 after a second subgenomic promoter, TEds-1Sp and TEds-2Sp within the 3′UTR, TE-1UTRSp, or after a second subgenomic promoter and in the 3′UTR, TEds-1Sp+1 UTRSp. (elsevier.com)
  • Since RNAi has a well-established role in controlling infection of the alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) in insects, we have used this virus to investigate the role of RNAi in SINV infection of human cells. (uea.ac.uk)
  • The genome of this virus encoded the replicative enzymes and the cis-acting RNA elements derived from Sindbis virus (SINV), one of the least human-pathogenic alphaviruses. (utmb.edu)
  • Methods We used a model system consisting of Sindbis virus (SINV) and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. (illinois.edu)
  • Variants of the prototype Alphavirus , Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). (mdpi.com)
  • Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne avian hosted virus that is widely distributed in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Oceania. (cdc.gov)
  • We screened 52 mosquito pools (570 mosquitoes) and 223 human sera for SINV with real-time RT-PCR and the positive samples with virus isolation. (cdc.gov)
  • Sindbis virus (SINV) is the prototype member of the Alphavirus genus, whose members cause severe human diseases for which there is no specific treatment. (princeton.edu)
  • v t e Alphavirus infection MicrobiologyBytes: Togaviruses CDC: Pogosta disease and Sindbis virus Sindbis virus-ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors. (pnas.org)
  • Cell surface binding of another alphavirus, Ross River virus, was found to be independent of heparan sulfate. (asm.org)
  • We used the FP-tagged virus for high-resolution live-cell imaging to study the spatial and temporal aspects of alphavirus assembly and budding from mammalian cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes sporadic, often fatal disease outbreaks in humans and equids, and is also a biological threat agent. (nih.gov)
  • The members of genus Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae are a group of geographically diverse single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses ( Strauss and Strauss, 1994 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus are among the most distantly related alphaviruses, and our results thus indicate that mosquito cells persistently infected with Sindbis virus are broadly able to exclude other alphaviruses but that exclusion is restricted to members of the alphavirus genus. (nebraska.edu)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus, re-emerged as a global pathogen in recent past. (portlandpress.com)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an aedes mosquito-transmitted re-emerging alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a debilitating disease [ 1 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • There are currently no treatments for alphavirus infections, and detailed information on the structure and life cycle of these viruses is crucial for developing antiviral strategies and vaccines. (nature.com)
  • The virus then exits by budding from the cell surface, with some alphavirus species retaining E3 and others releasing it. (nature.com)
  • The togavirus genera are Alphavirus , which is carried by mosquitoes, and Rubivirus, which contains rubella, or German measles, virus. (britannica.com)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, family Togaviridae , genus Alphavirus ) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the Semliki Forest serocomplex, which includes Ross River virus (RRV) , O'nyong-nyong (ONN) , Mayaro (MAY) , and Barmah Forest viruses (BFV) . (plos.org)
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that requires cellular membrane cholesterol for both membrane fusion and efficient exit of progeny virus from infected cells. (rupress.org)
  • Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus Bromovirus, family Bromoviridae, in the alphavirus-like superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alphavirus-like superfamily includes more than 250 plant and animal viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the positive-strand RNA viruses that belong to the alphavirus family share a high degree of similarity in proteins involved in genomic replication and synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. (pnas.org)
  • ISG15 −/− mice also exhibited increased susceptibility to both herpes simplex virus type 1 and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection and to Sindbis virus infection. (pnas.org)
  • The increased susceptibility of ISG15 −/− mice to Sindbis virus infection was rescued by expressing wild-type ISG15, but not a mutant form of ISG15 that cannot form conjugates, from the Sindbis virus genome. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, more direct evidence comes from the observation that the overexpression of ISG15 by a recombinant Sindbis virus attenuates infection in IFN-αβ receptor-deficient (IFNαβR −/− ) mice ( 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Yet, the initial evaluation of ISG15-deficient mice revealed normal IFN signaling and ISG induction as well as normal resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection ( 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • We show that mice lacking ISG15 have increased susceptibility to influenza, herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1), and Sindbis virus infection. (pnas.org)
  • The infection efficiency of the virus, however, varies greatly among target cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • An evaluation of the susceptibility of eight mosquito species to Sindbis virus was conducted as a prelude to studies on the mechanisms of arbovirus infection in mosquitoes at the cellular and molecular level. (ajtmh.org)
  • triseriatus became infected only at high doses and all showed reduced virus titers after 7 days post-infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • Host cell involvement in Sindbis virus (SB) replication was examined in cells which had been treated with either actinomycin D (AMD) or alpha-amanitin (alpha-A). Treatment with these inhibitors of host transcription before infection reduced the ability of cells to support SB growth by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, while having little or no effect on the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, Sindbis virus induces the selective movement of HuR protein out of the nucleus of mammalian cells during infection thereby increasing the cytoplasmic pool of the protein available to the virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Collectively these data indicate that Sindbis virus, and likely other alphaviruses, usurp the HuR protein to avoid the cellular mRNA decay machinery and maintain a highly productive infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sindbis virus infection of cultured cells and of neurons in mouse brains leads to programmed cell death exhibiting the classical characteristics of apoptosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The role of innate versus adaptive immune responses in a mouse model of O'nyong-nyong virus infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification of mutations in a Sindbis virus variant able to establish persistent infection in BHK cells: the importance of a mutation in the nsP2 gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sindbis virus infection of neonatal mice results in a severe stress response. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some protection also occurred after an i.p. infection with these viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We consider that the protection afforded by the alpha viruses is due to interference with the multiplication of Langat virus and is related to the maximum level of brain infectivity reached in the alpha virus infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In contrast to the defence mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and invertebrates, its role in the innate response to virus infection of mammals is a matter of debate. (uea.ac.uk)
  • We have investigated the infection of Aedes albopictus (mosquito) cell clones by Sindbis virus. (nebraska.edu)
  • Variation in the multiplicity of infection (MOI) from ranges of 50-0.00005 pfu/cell was determined to have no effect on the progression of the infection to high acute phase titer, suggesting that intracellular factors alone are responsible for the restriction of virus production seen as the infection enters the persistent phase. (nebraska.edu)
  • content analysis, we found that persistent Sindbis virus infection induces distinct cytological effects on these cells, including an increase in apoptosis and polyploidy in one clone and cell cycle phase effects in another. (nebraska.edu)
  • Superinfection of persistently infected C7-10 cells, which show a severe cytopathic effect during primary Sindbis virus infection, by homologous virus does not produce cytopathology, consistent with the idea that cytopathology requires significant levels of viral replication. (nebraska.edu)
  • Her team is currently investigating how measles virus infection suppresses the immune system. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Vaccine-induced measles virus-specific T cells do not prevent infection or disease but facilitate subsequent clearance of viral RNA. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Prolonged persistence of measles virus RNA is characteristic of primary infection dynamics. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Overall amount of glycoproteins present on the PM and the number of virus particles budding out are relatively reduced compared to the late stage of infection. (zenodo.org)
  • These results demonstrate the dynamic nature of the virus-host interaction that occurs over the course of infection and suggest that different host proteins may be required for the multiple functions carried out by nsP4. (princeton.edu)
  • The resulting recombinant viruses may sometimes cause an outbreak of infection in humans, as in the case of SARS and MERS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction of an arginine-rich component during infection with influenza virus. (springer.com)
  • E1 inserts its hydrophobic fusion loop into the membrane of the host-cell vesicle, forms E1 trimers, and refolds to pull the host-cell and viral membranes together, thereby causing membrane fusion and virus infection 9 . (nature.com)
  • During the West Nile virus infection transmission season from June to November, ECDC publishes weekly updates each Friday. (europa.eu)
  • Such findings may be particularly useful in the development of future prevention and care strategies for this emerging virus infection. (plos.org)
  • A striking example of a defined lipid requirement in membrane fusion is the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) 1 fusion protein, which mediates the cholesterol and sphingolipid- dependent fusion of the virus membrane with the cellular membrane during virus infection. (rupress.org)
  • This simple virus structure protects the virus RNA genome, mediates virus fusion with the cell membrane to release the nucleocapsid and initiate infection, and is efficiently assembled during the budding of progeny virions from the host cell plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • SFV is a highly developed system to study virus membrane fusion and budding, two key steps in infection by all enveloped viruses. (rupress.org)
  • Studies have not found chikungunya virus in breast milk and there have been no reports to date of infants acquiring chikungunya virus infection through breastfeeding. (cdc.gov)
  • Because the benefits of breastfeeding likely outweigh the risk of chikungunya virus infection in breastfeeding infants, mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed even if they are infected with chikungunya virus or live in an area with ongoing virus transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Chikungunya virus infection should be considered in patients with acute onset of fever and polyarthralgia, especially travelers who recently returned from areas with known virus transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • The differential diagnosis of chikungunya virus infection varies based on place of residence, travel history, and exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • It is important to rule out dengue virus infection because proper clinical management of dengue can improve outcome. (cdc.gov)
  • There is no specific antiviral therapy for chikungunya virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Sindbis appears to be essentially a bird virus transmitted mainly by Culex mosquitoes, but man and other mammals may become tangentially infected. (cdc.gov)
  • The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes (Culex spp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mosquitoes that assayed positive for Sindbis virus were exclusively trapped at Weinheim (in bold and underlined). (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses cycle alternately between vertebrates and hematophagous insects (usually mosquitoes), suggesting either that virions bind to receptors that are highly conserved between species or that the virus can use multiple receptors. (asm.org)
  • v) The sequence of the 3' nontranslated region found in virus isolated from nature appears to represent a compromise between sequences that allow the most efficient replication in mosquitoes and those most efficient for replication in vertebrates, which provides the optimal solution for alternating between these two hosts. (caltech.edu)
  • Sindbis virus harvested from infected cultures of Vero cells and from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was used in neutralization tests with sera obtained from guinea pigs immunized with ground A. aegypti and from guinea pigs repetitively bitten by mosquitoes. (ajtmh.org)
  • Detection and isolation of Sindbis virus from mosquitoes captured during an outbreak in Sweden, 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • All three diseases are attributed to Sindbis-related arboviruses, and the spreading vector appears to be the late summer mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alphaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that use arthropods such as mosquitoes for transmission to their vertebrate hosts, and include Semliki Forest and Sindbis viruses [ PMID: 15378043 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. (europa.eu)
  • Control measures include strengthening mosquito surveillance in areas in Europe at risk of importation of mosquitoes and virus transmission. (europa.eu)
  • Transmitted by day-biting mosquitoes, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), causing febrile illness and joint pain, is widespread in Africa and Asia. (plos.org)
  • The Viruses are transmitted by Mosquitoes . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • The hypothesis underlying the research described here is that genetic manipulation of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can profoundly and permanently reduce their competence to transmit dengue viruses to human hosts. (jove.com)
  • Barry Beaty and his colleagues at Colorado State University in Fort Collins infected Aedes triseriatus mosquitoes with a harmless virus carrying genes from another virus that causes a human disease that can be fatal. (newscientist.com)
  • The mosquitoes were then unable to spread the pathogenic virus. (newscientist.com)
  • The researchers placed female mosquitoes on a membrane covering a sample of blood containing the modified Sindbis virus. (newscientist.com)
  • And when the female mosquitoes were subsequently infected with the LaCrosse virus, the antisense RNA blocked the production of this protein, so the virus could not reproduce. (newscientist.com)
  • Chikungunya virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes, predominantly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus . (cdc.gov)
  • Dengue and chikungunya viruses are transmitted by the same mosquitoes and have similar clinical features. (cdc.gov)
  • Because both viruses are maintained in a transmission cycle involving Culex mosquitoes and birds, screening mosquitoes for FLAV has been suggested as an enhancement to WNV surveillance and epidemic prediction. (tripdatabase.com)
  • abstract = "Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important, naturally emerging zoonotic virus. (utmb.edu)
  • These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. (pnas.org)
  • The virus structural proteins are translated from the subgenomic mRNA as a polyprotein that is processed into the individual components of the virion. (pnas.org)
  • The fluorescent proteins are arranged icosahedrally on the virus surface in a stable manner that did not adversely affect receptor binding or fusion functions of E2 and E1, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • Label-fracture and immunogold fracture-flip techniques are used to address at the ultrastructural level the dynamics of viral and cellular transmembrane proteins during the budding of Sindbis virus on the plasma membrane of infected cells. (biologists.org)
  • Immunolabeling with anti-Sindbis spike antibodies shows that the viral proteins are mostly in clusters, all associated with budding viruses. (biologists.org)
  • Effect of the viral proteins on the fluidity of the membrane lipids in Sindbis virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An alternative approach involved soluble avian sarcoma/leukosis virus receptors fused to cell-specific ligands including stem cell factor and erythropoietin for targeting lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with avian sarcoma/leukosis virus envelope proteins to cells that express the corresponding receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The titers of unconcentrated vector particles bearing Sindbis virus strain TR339 or vesicular stomatitis virus G fusion proteins plus stem cell factor in the context of c-kit expressing cells were up to 3.2 × 10 5 transducing units per ml while vector particles lacking the stem cell factor ligand displayed titers that were approximately 80 fold lower. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with avian sarcoma/leukosis virus subgroup A or B envelope proteins and bearing bi-functional bridge proteins encoding erythropoietin or stem cell factor fused to the soluble extracellular domains of the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus subgroup A or B receptors resulted in efficient transduction of erythropoietin receptor or c-kit-expressing cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transduction of erythropoietin receptor-expressing cells mediated by bi-functional bridge proteins was found to be dependent on the dose, the correct subgroup-specific virus receptor and the correct envelope protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The background levels were lower compared to alternative strategies involving Sindbis virus strain TR339 or vesicular stomatitis virus fusion proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on crystal structures of component proteins and homology modeling, we constructed a nearly complete, pseudo-atomic model of the virus. (rcsb.org)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The possible role of B protein, a postulated precursor of viral envelope proteins, was studied in Sindbis virus infected BHK cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Proteomic analysis of nsP4-containing complexes isolated from cells infected with the tagged virus revealed 29 associated host proteins. (princeton.edu)
  • Plant viruses may serve as expression vectors for the efficient production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Host cell proteins recruited by +ssRNA viruses during replication include RNA-binding proteins, chaperone proteins, and membrane remodeling and lipid synthesis proteins, which collectively participate in exploiting the cell's secretory pathway for viral replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • So much has been learnt about the proteins of influenza virus during the last three years that most of the gene products can now be tentatively assigned a structural or functional role in the virion or in the infected cell. (springer.com)
  • To infect a new host cell, specialized membrane-fusion proteins on the virus envelope fuse it with a membrane of the host cell, delivering the viral genome into the cell. (nature.com)
  • 2 provide structural insights into the regulation of the membrane-fusion proteins of enveloped alphaviruses during the viruses' entry into and exit from the host cell. (nature.com)
  • Alternatively, agents preventing cleavage of viral surface (glyco)proteins block fusion capacity and multicyclic virus replications. (springer.com)
  • Virus membrane fusion is carried out by the 80 spike proteins on the surface of the virus. (rupress.org)
  • Structure, genome & replication Sindbis viruses are enveloped particles with an icosahedral capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A non-coding RNA element has been found to be essential for Sindbis virus genome replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10 7 infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. (pnas.org)
  • Some potential limitations of the RNA-based vector replicon systems are utility for large-scale preparations and the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus (RCV). (pnas.org)
  • Requirement for host transcription in the replication of Sindbis virus. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest (i) that the synthesis of cellular mRNA (and presumably protein) is required for replication of SB, (ii) that prior treatment with either drug affects the same aspect of SB replication, and (iii) that mutations in the SB genome allow the virus to overcome the effect of inhibitors of host transcription. (asm.org)
  • i) The entire 3' nontranslated region is important for efficient virus replication, although there is considerable plasticity in this region in that most nucleotide substitutions or deletions made resulted in viable virus and, in some cases, in virus that grew quite efficiently. (caltech.edu)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We intend to develop Sindbis virus SV, an aiphavirus, into a targeted replication-competent viral vector for breast cancer gene therapy. (dtic.mil)
  • Three Aedes albopictus (mosquito) cell lines persistently infected with Sindbis virus excluded the replication of both homologous (various strains of Sindbis) and heterologous (Aura, Semliki Forest, and Ross River) alphaviruses. (nebraska.edu)
  • These inhibitors appear to protect cells by inhibiting the cellular death pathway rather than impairing virus replication or by inhibiting the nsP2 and capsid viral proteases. (elsevier.com)
  • MacDonald, Margaret R. / Host factors associated with the Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase : Role for G3BP1 and G3BP2 in virus replication . (princeton.edu)
  • The purified soluble SS Ext mIFNγ(SP) 10 protein was glycosylated with abundant complex-type N-glycan attached to residues N 56 and N 128 , and exhibited biological activity against Sindbis virus and Influenza virus replication in human cell culture systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • Positive-strand RNA viruses encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which is used during replication of the genome to synthesize a negative-sense antigenome that is then used as a template to create a new positive-sense viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphology of influenza A, B, C and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) virions and their replication. (springer.com)
  • Insect cell culture: virus replication and applications in biotechnology. (gc.ca)
  • This may be significant for Sindbis virus RNA replication. (uniprot.org)
  • We have identified viral genome-derived RNA segments that can be expressed in mosquito midguts and salivary glands to ablate homologous virus replication and transmission. (jove.com)
  • We have demonstrated that both transient and heritable expression of virus-derived effector RNAs in cultured mosquito cells can silence virus replication, and have characterized the mechanism of RNA-mediated resistance. (jove.com)
  • The sequence similarities of RNA replication genes and strategies for BMV have been shown to extend to a wide range of plant and animal viruses beyond the alphaviruses, including many other positive-strand RNA viruses from other families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. (pnas.org)
  • The use of virus-derived expression vectors for gene therapy and vaccine applications increasingly is being pursued, with a number of diverse virus types and approaches. (pnas.org)
  • Pseudotyped retroviral vectors consist of vector particles bearing envelope (Env) glycoproteins derived from other enveloped viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sindbis virus bound to immobilized heparin, and this interaction was blocked by neutralizing antibodies against the viral E2 glycoprotein. (asm.org)
  • The delay in surface expression of the viral glycoproteins, as demonstrated by flow cytometry analysis, contributed to a 10-fold reduction in mCherry-E2 virus titer. (mdpi.com)
  • Finally, knockdown of HuR results in a significant increase in the rate of decay of Sindbis virus RNAs and diminishes viral yields in both human and mosquito cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The lipids in the viral membrane are noticeably less fluid than the lipids in the membrane of the cells in which the virus was grown. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme ( transcriptase ) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Duda, E 1975, ' Effect of cycloheximide on viral precursor protein B in Sindbis virus infected BHK cells ', Medical biology , vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 368-371. (elsevier.com)
  • Viral architecture is very complex, but every virus contains at least a genome and a capsid. (tabers.com)
  • in some viruses, such as poliovirus and rhinoviruses, normal protein synthesis is further disrupted by viral proteases degrading components required to initiate translation of cellular mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • All positive-strand RNA virus genomes encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerase a viral protein that synthesizes RNA from an RNA template. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous positive-strand RNA viruses can undergo genetic recombination when at least two viral genomes are present in the same host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of these viruses to switch RNA templates suggests a copy choice model of RNA recombination that may be an adaptive mechanism for coping with damage in the viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enveloped virus cell entry, viral and host membrane fusion follows receptor binding. (portlandpress.com)
  • Similar to other enveloped viruses, CHIKV enters cells in a sequential, two-step process: (i) virus binding to cell surface receptor, followed by endocytosis and (ii) fusion of viral envelope with endocytic vesicle membrane that leads to opening of a fusion pore. (portlandpress.com)
  • This fusion activity must be deployed at precisely the right time during virus entry, and must also be silenced during viral assembly and exit. (nature.com)
  • Upon exposure of the virus to the acidity of the endosome, E1 dissociates from E2 to form an E1 homotrimer, which is necessary for the fusion step to drive the cellular and viral membranes together [ PMID: 11301009 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Most alphaviruses lose the peripheral protein E3, but in Semliki viruses it remains associated with the viral surface. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Laboratory diagnosis is generally accomplished by testing serum or plasma to detect virus, viral nucleic acid, or virus-specific immunoglobulin M and neutralizing antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • A cDNA clone from which infectious RNA can be transcribed was used to construct 42 site-specific mutations in the 3' nontranslated region of the Sindbis virus genome. (caltech.edu)
  • The 400 known viruses are classified in several ways: by genome core (RNA or DNA), host (animals, plants, or bacteria), method of reproduction (such as retrovirus), mode of transmission (such as enterovirus), and disease produced (such as hepatitis virus). (tabers.com)
  • This is a list of representative viruses (grouped by genome structure) compiled from: 'Virus Taxonomy', the Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 1995. (virology.net)
  • Recombination in RNA viruses appears to be an adaptation for coping with genome damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus are among the alphaviruses being exploited by using such approaches ( 4 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses with wide species ranges and diverse tissue tropisms. (asm.org)
  • The alphaviruses belong to a genus of enveloped RNA viruses which can replicate in insects, birds, and mammals, including humans ( 60 ). (asm.org)
  • A better knowledge of the cellular receptors used by alphaviruses would have obvious implications for understanding of the different cellular tropisms and pathogeneses of these viruses, as well as applications to the design of safe live-attenuated vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Alternative forms of a strain-specific neutralizing antigenic site on the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein. (nih.gov)
  • Experiments with monoclonal antibodies raised against two laboratory strains of Sindbis virus, SB and SIN, suggested the existence of a strain-specific neutralizing antigenic site (E2-b) on the E2 glycoprotein. (nih.gov)
  • A small glycoprotein (E3) was purified from the culture fluid of Sindbis virus-infected primary chick embryo fibroblasts. (caltech.edu)
  • In one of the strategies, vector particles bearing a membrane-bound stem cell factor sequence plus a separate fusion protein based either on Sindbis virus strain TR339 glycoproteins or the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein were used to selectively transduce cells expressing the corresponding stem cell factor receptor (c-kit). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such targeting approaches have involved engineered versions of the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein bearing either a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain [ 4 - 14 ] or single chain antibody fragments fused in-frame to the E2 glycoprotein coding region [ 15 ], allowing antibody-mediated cell targeting in the presence of the Sindbis virus E1 fusion protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One drawback of these approaches is that background transduction levels are substantial even in the absence of the ligand or when using cells lacking the corresponding receptors due to the leakiness of the mutations that were introduced into the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein for abolishing cell binding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A single glycoprotein spike cross-links three neighboring CP capsomers as might occur during initiation of virus budding. (rcsb.org)
  • Glycoprotein-containing red vesicles originate from Golgi as evidenced from the colocalization of red and green and these vesicles display anterograde transport to the PM and the virus particles are released by budding from the PM. Fluorescent particles are also seen budding from filopodial extensions (white arrows). (zenodo.org)
  • Analysis of the glycoprotein gene of Tacaribe virus and neutralization-resistant variants. (springer.com)
  • Structural localization of the E3 glycoprotein in attenuated Sindbis virus mutants. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Fusion glycoprotein shell of Semliki Forest virus: an icosahedral assembly primed for fusogenic activation at endosomal pH. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Bayesian phylogenetic tree based on partial structural polyprotein nucleotide sequences (length, 2,116 nucleotides) of Sindbis virus strains. (asm.org)
  • Significant protection to heterologous i.c. challenge with the flavovirus Langat occurred after a single i.c. injection of avirulent strains of the alpha viruses Semliki Forest or Sindbis given 1 day to 5 weeks before challenge. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Although it has been hypothesized that ISG15 functions as an antiviral molecule, the initial evaluation of ISG15-deficient mice revealed no defects in their responses to vesicular stomatitis virus or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, leaving open the important question of whether ISG15 is an antiviral molecule in vivo . (pnas.org)
  • Semliki forest virus-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress accelerates apoptotic death of mammalian cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The organization of the spike complex of Semliki Forest virus. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Known from the Sindbis and Semliki forest togaviruses. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • 2.11 Semliki Forest virus (K. Lundstrom). (booktopia.com.au)
  • Sindbis virus (SIN), a member of the Togaviridae family, infects a broad range of cells and has been shown to be an effective anti-tumor agent. (ebscohost.com)
  • An attempt was made to recover mutant viruses after transfection of SP6-transcribed RNA into chicken cells. (caltech.edu)
  • Immunolabeling with anti-CD8 antibodies of cells expressing by transfection the CD8 transmembrane protein and infected with Sindbis virus shows absence of labeling on the particle aggregates over the forming virions. (biologists.org)
  • The video shows the absence of fluorescent virus particle budding from the PM at 6 h post transfection even though the PM and filopodial extensions contain mCherry-E2. (zenodo.org)
  • BHK cells transfected with RNA from an E1 Fusion loop (G91D) mutant of mCherry-E2 virus at 6 h post transfection. (zenodo.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that the influenza B virus targets the disruption of the ISG15 pathway through the activity of its NS1 protein ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Identification of a cell-surface protein involved in the binding site of Sindbis virus on human lymphoblastic cell lines using a heterobifunctional. (nih.gov)
  • A cell-surface protein of molecular weight 90000 was identified as the major protein located at or near the binding site of Sindbis virus on the lymphoblastic cell lines JY and Daudi. (nih.gov)
  • This Sindbis-virus-binding protein was detected by cross-linking Sindbis virus, modified with 4-[6-formyl-3-azidophenoxy]butyrimidate, to the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate that Sindbis virus uses U-rich 3' UTR sequences in its RNAs to recruit the cellular HuR protein during infections of both human and mosquito cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A three-dimensional reconstruction of Sindbis virus at 7.0 Å resolution presented here provides a detailed view of the virion structure and includes structural evidence for key interactions that occur between the capsid protein (CP) and transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins E1 and E2. (rcsb.org)
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recombinant Sindbis virus expressing functional GFP in the nonstructural protein nsP3 is not formatted in HTML just yet , but will be available very soon! (gtmb.org)
  • New studies define the receptor-binding protein of these viruses and its regulation of the membrane-fusion reaction. (nature.com)
  • Identification of a novel C-terminal cleavage of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus PreGN that leads to generation of an NSM protein. (springer.com)
  • The srf-3 mutant emphasizes the relationship between the role of cholesterol in membrane fusion and virus exit, and most significantly, identifies a novel spike protein region involved in the virus cholesterol requirement. (rupress.org)
  • Ultrastructural observation of the unlabeled freeze-fractured plasma membranes shows that membrane particles aggregate over the budding viruses. (biologists.org)
  • RNA isolated from purified St. Louis encephalitis and Sindbis virus particles was compared by cellulose CF-11 chromatography, and RNase T 1 and pancreatic RNase A digestion. (utmb.edu)
  • Enlarged area of video S1A showing budding virus particles from PM. White arrow indicates single particle post-budding moving away from the cell. (zenodo.org)
  • Enlarged area of video S2A showing budding virus particles from filopodia. (zenodo.org)
  • This non-budding mutant is unable to release fluorescent virus particles from the infected cells. (zenodo.org)
  • This non-fusing mutant produces fluorescent virus particles at a slower rate compared to WT that are unable to fuse after entering a new cell. (zenodo.org)
  • Sindbis virus induces apoptosis through a caspase-dependent, CrmA-sensitive pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In an epidemiological study we analysed, using a semi-purified Sindbis-virus as antigen, antibodies against Pogosta disease in 2250 serum samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Undisturbed release of influenza virus in the presence of univalent antineuraminidase antibodies. (springer.com)
  • ABBR: AAV A genus in the parvovirus family whose members cannot replicate without the presence of another virus. (tabers.com)
  • ISG15 −/− mice are more susceptible to influenza A/WSN/33 and influenza B/Lee/40 virus infections. (pnas.org)
  • The common influenza viruses have antigens that mutate or combine readily, requiring new vaccines with each mutation. (tabers.com)
  • Indeed, it could be said that influenza vies with reovirus and poliovirus for the privilege of becoming the first mammalian virus to be completely characterized chemically and genetically. (springer.com)
  • A precise understanding of the evolution of novel variants of influenza virus, by antigenic drift or genetic reassortment, is crucial to the development of satisfactory combative measures, whether based on immunization, chemoprophylaxis, chemotherapy, or even ecological control. (springer.com)
  • Some observations on the envelope of an influenza virus. (springer.com)
  • Morphological aspects of influenza virus. (springer.com)
  • Further observations on the structure of influenza viruses A and C. J. gen. (springer.com)
  • On the fine structure of influenza virus. (springer.com)
  • Morphogenesis of influenza A virus in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells as revealed by thinsectioning and freeze-etching. (springer.com)
  • The action of protease on influenza A 2 virus. (springer.com)
  • Differential action of Aspergillus glycosidases on the hemag-glutinating and neuraminidase activities of influenza and Newcastle disease viruses. (springer.com)
  • Fatty acid composition of individual phospholipids of influenza virus. (springer.com)
  • The lipids of incomplete influenza virus. (springer.com)
  • CrmA (a serpin from cowpox virus) and zVAD-FMK (N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone) inhibited Sindbis virus-induced cell death, suggesting that cellular caspases facilitate apoptosis induced by Sindbis virus. (elsevier.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of increasing Ca2+o on apoptosis induced by Sindbis Virus in AT-3 prostate carcinoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • Considerably higher infectivity thresholds were observed with C. salinarius (4.41) and Aedes aegypti (4.46), but these species did show persistence of virus which may indicate multiplication. (ajtmh.org)
  • The fluidity of the lipids in the membrane of Sindbis virus was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Most animal viruses are also surrounded by a lipid envelope (a bilayered membrane analogous to a cell membrane). (tabers.com)
  • Many viruses are enclosed in an envelope - a membrane that is derived from the infected host cell during virus exit. (nature.com)
  • Membrane fusion and budding are key steps in the life cycle of all enveloped viruses. (rupress.org)
  • SFV infects cells by cell surface receptor binding, uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and low pH-triggered fusion of the virus membrane with that of the endosome. (rupress.org)
  • One partial structural polyprotein nucleotide sequence of Whataroa virus is used as an outgroup. (asm.org)
  • To overcome these negative effects, we developed a recombinant, chimeric Sindbis/VEE virus (SIN-83) that is more highly attenuated. (utmb.edu)
  • In addition, recent work has shown that HS is also involved in the binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, respiratory syncytial virus, dengue virus, and adeno-associated virus type 2 ( 9 , 21 , 32 , 47 , 62 ). (asm.org)
  • To get these genes into the mosquito, the team spliced them into a Sindbis virus, which infects insects without causing the disease. (newscientist.com)
  • prototypes include Sindbis virus and eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses. (britannica.com)
  • Humans are infected with Sindbis virus when bitten by an infected mosquito. (wikipedia.org)
  • This virus is transmitted by mosquitos and causes fever and rash in humans. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The virus is harmless to macaques or may cause only a herpetic rash in macaques, but in humans it often produces fatal infections of the brain and meninges. (tabers.com)
  • The capability for recombination among +ssRNA virus pathogens of humans is common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans are the primary host of chikungunya virus during epidemic periods. (cdc.gov)
  • A previous study has identified a role for the 67-kDa high-affinity laminin receptor in binding of Sindbis virus (SV) to rodent and monkey cells but not to avian cells ( 68 ). (asm.org)
  • Another study using Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus identified a 32-kDa receptor in mosquito cells which also appears to be a laminin receptor ( 34 ). (asm.org)
  • The first virus found to bind HS was herpes simplex virus (HSV) ( 70 ), and since then a number of other herpesviruses have been demonstrated to use HS as an initial receptor ( 43 , 45 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • b Against homologous virus. (asm.org)
  • The demonstration of ISG15 as a novel antiviral molecule with activity against both RNA and DNA viruses provides a target for the development of therapies against important human pathogens. (pnas.org)
  • A novel mitochondrial MAVS/Caspase-8 platform links RNA virus-induced innate antiviral signaling to Bax/Bak-independent apoptosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PC inhibitors are suggested as promising antiviral drugs for quite a number of viruses causing severe infections. (springer.com)
  • Understanding how these viruses replicate and targeting key points in their life cycle can help advance antiviral treatments worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show here that the widely expressed glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate can participate in the binding of Sindbis virus to cells. (asm.org)
  • Enzymatic removal of heparan sulfate or the use of heparan sulfate-deficient cells led to a large reduction in virus binding. (asm.org)
  • However, Sindbis virus was still able to infect and replicate on cells which were completely deficient in heparan sulfate, indicating that additional receptors must be involved. (asm.org)
  • In many cases, virus growth was more severely impaired in mosquito cells than in chicken cells, but the opposite phenotype was also seen, in which the mutant grew as well as or better than the wild type in mosquito cells but more poorly in chicken cells. (caltech.edu)
  • Deletion of large regions (31 to 293 nucleotides long) of the 3' nontranslated region outside of the 19-nucleotide element resulted in viruses which were more severely crippled in mosquito cells than in chicken cells. (caltech.edu)
  • Employing these antisera, more mosquito-propagated virus was neutralized than was virus grown in cultures of Vero cells. (ajtmh.org)
  • But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Selection of baby hamster kidney cells infected with TEds-1Sp+1 UTRSp for improved signal intensity identified a virus with a stronger signal and point mutations in the tRNA scaffold. (elsevier.com)
  • The interaction of Sindbis virus with the membranes of infected cells. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Since SV kills by apoptosis, specific destruction of tumor cells will occur if the virus is targeted to breast cancer cells. (dtic.mil)
  • In contrast, an unrelated flavivirus, yellow fever virus, replicated equally well in uninfected and persistently infected cells of each line. (nebraska.edu)
  • Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. (mdpi.com)
  • New viruses are then released either by destroying their host cell or by forming small buds that break off and infect other cells. (tabers.com)
  • AAVs are nonenveloped single-stranded DNA viruses used in gene therapy to insert copies of missing genes into host cells. (tabers.com)
  • Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy performed on chicken sera with a neutralization titre of 1/80 (diluted 1:1000 in PBS) on West Nile virus infected Vero cells (Bar 50μm). (biomedcentral.com)
  • BHK cells infected with mCherry-E2 virus at 3 h p.i. (zenodo.org)
  • Virus budding and single particle movement associated with filopodial extensions observed from mCherry-E2 virus-infected BHK cells at 6 h p.i. (zenodo.org)
  • red) colocalizing with Golgi stain (green) in BHK cells infected with mCherry-E2 virus and stained with BODIPY FL C5 ceramide at 5 h p.i. and imaged at 6 h p.i. (zenodo.org)
  • Effect of concanavalin A on cells infected with enveloped RNA viruses. (springer.com)
  • 7. Co-transfer of multiple p lasmids/viruses to introduce several genes in mammalian cells (F. Wurm). (booktopia.com.au)
  • The virus multiplies in mosquito cells, and the researchers decided to try to disable the virus in its insect vector using modified versions of the virus's own genes. (newscientist.com)
  • Once inside a mosquito's cells, the Sindbis virus started to produce large quantities of "antisense" RNA. (newscientist.com)
  • Sindbis fever is most common in Southern Africa, East Africa, Egypt, Palestine, the Philippines and parts of Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sindbis Group Viruses: Global Status includes separate sections on Karelian fever, Ockelbo disease, Pogosta disease, and Sindbis. (gideononline.com)
  • Some of the most virulent diseases are caused by viruses, e.g., the hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. (tabers.com)
  • Common clinical manifestations caused by these viruses include abrupt onset of fever, headache, backache, and arthralgia [1] . (plos.org)
  • 5. Manni T, Kurkela S, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O. Diagnostics of Pogosta disease: antigenic properties and evaluation of Sindbis virus IgM and IgG enzyme immunoassays. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the acute manifestations of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) illness are well-documented, few data exist about the long-term rheumatic outcomes of CHIKV-infected patients. (plos.org)
  • The majority of people infected with chikungunya virus become symptomatic. (cdc.gov)
  • Chikungunya virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. (cdc.gov)
  • Portion of thesis entitled Characterization of Brome Mosaic Virus RNA3 interaction with GCD10, a tRNA binding host factor from yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the mechanism by which Sindbis virus activates the cell suicide program is not known, we demonstrate here that Sindbis virus activates caspases, a family of death-inducing proteases, resulting in cleavage of several cellular substrates. (elsevier.com)
  • To study the role of caspases in virus-induced apoptosis, we determined the effects of specific caspase inhibitors on Sindbis virus-induced cell death. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, these data suggest a central role for caspases in Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • In the case of mutations having only a moderate effect, the virus grew as well as the wild type but was slightly delayed in growth. (caltech.edu)
  • Mutations having a more severe effect led to lower virus yields. (caltech.edu)
  • These mutations had little effect on virus growth. (caltech.edu)
  • Here, we describe bioprocess applications of the pCytTS temperature-regulatable Sindbis virus replicon-based expression system. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Positive-sense RNA viruses include pathogens such as the hepacivirus C, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and the MERS, SARS, and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses, as well as less clinically serious pathogens such as the coronaviruses and rhinoviruses that cause the common cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dissecting the Components of Sindbis Virus from Arthropod and Vertebrate Hosts: Implications for Infectivity Differences. (nih.gov)
  • Recombination has been demonstrated between RNAs of Sindbis virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMCID: PMC372854 Weiss BG, Schlesinger S. Recombination between Sindbis virus RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are now developing virus-resistant mosquito lines by transformation with transposable elements that express effector RNAs from mosquito-active promoters. (jove.com)
  • Recombination can also occur infrequently between +ssRNA viruses of the same species but of divergent lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type species is the Sindbis Virus . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • This species is of major concern to public and veterinary health because of its vector role in the transmission of several pathogens, such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses. (tripdatabase.com)
  • a The nucleotide positions are given according to the numbering in the Sindbis virus reference strain Edsbyn (GenBank accession number M69205). (asm.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 12225924 Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses are increasingly significant public health problems, and novel methods are needed to control pathogen transmission. (jove.com)
  • The SIN-83 virus, which contained an additional adaptive mutation in the nsP2 gene, replicated efficiently in common cell lines and did not cause detectable disease in adult or suckling mice after either i.c. or s.c. inoculation. (utmb.edu)
  • The mechanisms utilized by viruses to protect their transcripts from the cellular RNA decay machinery, as well as the biological relevance of this protection, are largely unknown. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Viruses with lipid envelopes have a greater ability to adhere to cell membranes and to avoid destruction by the immune system. (tabers.com)
  • The specificity of CrmA indicates that the Sindbis virus- induced death pathway is similar to that induced by Fas or tumor necrosis factor alpha rather than being like the death pathway induced by DNA damage. (elsevier.com)
  • Association of a Sindbis- like virus with Ockelbo disease in Sweden. (cdc.gov)

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