A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses, infecting mainly MAMMALS, and containing a single genus: POLYOMAVIRUS.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A species of RUBULAVIRUS originally isolated from cultured primary monkey cells. Its natural host is the DOG in which it causes kennel cough, but it can also infect humans.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the species have hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities but lack a C protein. MUMPS VIRUS is the type species.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.

Human topoisomerase I promotes initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (1/4150)

Addition of purified human topoisomerase I (topo I) to simian virus 40 T antigen-driven in vitro DNA replication reactions performed with topo I-deficient extracts results in a greater than 10-fold stimulation of completed molecules as well as a more than 3-fold enhancement of overall DNA replication. To further characterize this stimulation, we first demonstrate that bovine topo I but not Escherichia coli topo I can also enhance DNA replication. By using several human topo I mutants, we show that a catalytically active form of topo I is required. To delineate whether topo I influences the initiation or the elongation step of replication, we performed delayed pulse, pulse-chase, and delayed pulse-chase experiments. The results illustrate that topo I cannot promote the completion of partially replicated molecules but is needed from the beginning of the reaction to initiate replication. Competitive inhibition experiments with the topo I binding T antigen fragment 1-246T and a catalytically inactive topo I mutant suggest that part of topo I's stimulation of replication is mediated through a direct interaction with T antigen. Collectively, our data indicate that topo I enhances the synthesis of fully replicated DNA molecules by forming essential interactions with T antigen and stimulating initiation.  (+info)

Induction of AT-specific DNA-interstrand crosslinks by bizelesin in genomic and simian virus 40 DNA. (2/4150)

Bizelesin is a bifunctional AT-specific DNA alkylating drug. Our study characterized the ability of bizelesin to induce interstrand crosslinks, a potential lethal lesion. In genomic DNA of BSC-1 cells, bizelesin formed from approx. 0.3 to 6.03+/-0.85 interstrand crosslinks per 106 base pairs, at 5-100 nM drug concentration, respectively, comparable to the number of total adducts previously determined in the same system (J.M. Woynarowski, M.M. McHugh, L.S. Gawron, T.A. Beerman, Biochemistry 34 (1995) 13042-13050). Bizelesin did not induce DNA-protein crosslinks or strand breaks. A model defined target, intracellular simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA, was employed to map at the nucleotide level sites of bizelesin adducts, including potential interstrand crosslinks. Preferential adduct formation was observed at AT tracts which are abundant in the SV40 matrix associated region and the origin of replication. Many sites, including each occurrence of 5'-T(A/T)4A-3', co-mapped on both DNA strands suggesting interstrand crosslinks, although monoadducts were also formed. Bizelesin adducts in naked SV40 DNA were found at similar sites. The localization of bizelesin-induced crosslinks in AT-rich tracts of replication-related regions is consistent with the potent anti-replicative properties of bizelesin. Given the apparent lack of other types of lesions in genomic DNA, interstrand crosslinks localized in AT-rich tracts, and to some extent perhaps also monoadducts, are likely to be lethal effects of bizelesin.  (+info)

Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (3/4150)

Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process.  (+info)

Association of simian virus 40 with a central nervous system lesion distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in macaques with AIDS. (4/4150)

The primate polyomavirus SV40 is known to cause interstitial nephritis in primary infections and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) upon reactivation of a latent infection in SIV-infected macaques. We now describe a second central nervous system manifestation of SV40: a meningoencephalitis affecting cerebral gray matter, without demyelination, distinct from PML. Meningoencephalitis appears also to be a primary manifestation of SV40 infection and can be seen in conjunction with SV40-induced interstitial nephritis and pneumonitis. The difference in the lesions of meningoencephalitis and PML does not appear to be due to cellular tropism, as both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are infected in PML and meningoencephalitis, as determined by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry for SV40 coupled with immunohistochemistry for cellular determinants. This is further supported by examination of SV40 nucleic acid sequences from the ori-enhancer and large-T-antigen regions, which reveals no tissue-or lesion-specific variation in SV40 sequences.  (+info)

Replication-dependent marking of DNA by PCNA facilitates CAF-1-coupled inheritance of chromatin. (5/4150)

Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is required for inheritance of epigenetically determined chromosomal states in vivo and promotes assembly of chromatin during DNA replication in vitro. Herein, we demonstrate that after DNA replication, replicated, but not unreplicated, DNA is also competent for CAF-1-dependent chromatin assembly. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase clamp, is a component of the replication-dependent marking of DNA for chromatin assembly. The clamp loader, replication factor C (RFC), can reverse this mark by unloading PCNA from the replicated DNA. PCNA binds directly to p150, the largest subunit of CAF-1, and the two proteins colocalize at sites of DNA replication in cells. We suggest that PCNA and CAF-1 connect DNA replication to chromatin assembly and the inheritance of epigenetic chromosome states.  (+info)

Increased ultraviolet sensitivity and chromosomal instability related to P53 function in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant. (6/4150)

The xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) variant (XPV) is a form of XP that has normal excision repair but shows defective DNA replication after UV irradiation. In developing various transformed fibroblast cell lines from these patients, we have found that there are significant phenotypic changes in transformed cells that seem to correlate with inactivation of p53. After transformation with SV40, XPV cell lines are only slightly UV sensitive, like their primary counterparts, but their sensitization with caffeine and the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by UV irradiation are greatly enhanced. After transformation by HPV16 E7, which targets the retinoblastoma cell cycle regulatory gene, there is no change in the UV sensitivity of XPV cells; but, when transformed by HPV16 E6 or E6 and E7 combined, there is a large increase in UV sensitivity and in the induction of SCEs. These changes are not associated with any detectable changes in the reactivation of an externally irradiated luciferase expression vector, the excision of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from bulk DNA, or unscheduled DNA synthesis and, therefore, do not involve excision repair. We suggest that if SCEs represent homologous recombination between sister chromatids, then in the absence of p53 function, the DNA chain arrest typical of UV-damaged XPV cells initiates strand exchange during recovery. In untransformed cells with normal p53, the preferred mode of recovery would then be replication bypass. The symptoms of elevated solar carcinogenesis in XPV patients may, therefore, be associated with increased genomic instability in cells of the skin in which p53 is inactivated by UV-induced mutations.  (+info)

Use of the Gal4-UAS technique for targeted gene expression in the zebrafish. (7/4150)

The most common way to analyze the function of cloned genes in zebrafish is to misexpress the gene product or an altered variant of it by mRNA injection. However, mRNA injection has several disadvantages. The GAL4-UAS system for targeted gene expression allows one to overcome some of these disadvantages. To test the GAL4-UAS system in zebrafish, we generated two different kinds of stable transgenic lines, carrying activator and effector constructs, respectively. In the activator lines the gene for the yeast transcriptional activator GAL4 is under the control of a given promoter, while in the effectors the gene of interest is fused to the sequence of the DNA-binding motif of GAL4 (UAS). Crosses of animals from the activator and effector lines show that effector genes are transcribed with the spatial pattern of the activators. This work smoothes the way for a novel method of misexpression of gene products in zebrafish in order to analyze the function of genes in developmental processes.  (+info)

The simian virus 40 small-t and large-T antigens jointly regulate cell cycle reentry in human fibroblasts. (8/4150)

Focus formation in human diploid fibroblasts (HDF cells) is known to require both the simian virus 40 (SV40) large-T and small-t antigens. Similarly, both SV40 proteins were required to stimulate confluent, density-arrested HDF cells to reenter the cell cycle. This study used defective recombinant adenoviruses to examine the roles of the individual SV40 proteins in altering specific steps in the cell cycle. Small-t antigen and, to a lesser extent, large-T antigen increased the level of the S phase cyclin cyclin A but without increasing the activity of associated cyclin kinases unless the two SV40 proteins were coexpressed. The absence of kinase activity reflected the presence in density-arrested cells of high levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(WAF1) and p27(KIP1). We report here that expression of SV40 large-T antigen reduced levels of p21(WAF1), while expression of small-t antigen was required to decrease p27(KIP1). The separate effects of large-T and small-t antigens on these two inhibitors may explain the joint requirement for the two proteins to drive cell cycle reentry of HDF cells and ultimately transform these cells.  (+info)

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

There are several different types of tumor viruses, including:

1. Human papillomavirus (HPV): This virus is responsible for causing cervical cancer and other types of cancer, such as anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancer.
2. Hepatitis B virus (HBV): This virus can cause liver cancer, known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): This virus can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma.
4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV): This virus has been linked to the development of Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
5. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV): This virus is responsible for causing Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare type of skin cancer.
6. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1): This virus has been linked to the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).

Tumor virus infections can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies. Treatment for these infections often involves antiviral medications, chemotherapy, and surgery. In some cases, tumors may also be removed through radiation therapy.

It's important to note that not all tumors or cancers are caused by viruses, and that many other factors, such as genetics and environmental exposures, can also play a role in the development of cancer. However, for those tumor virus infections that are caused by a specific virus, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Overall, tumor virus infections are a complex and diverse group of conditions, and further research is needed to better understand their causes and develop effective treatments.

1. Types of Polyomaviruses: There are several types of polyomaviruses that can infect humans, including the common cold virus (Rhinovirus), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and the newly identified Parechovirus.
2. Infection: Polyomaviruses can be transmitted through contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as mucus and saliva, or through contaminated surfaces. Inhaling the virus can lead to an infection in the respiratory tract.
3. Symptoms: The symptoms of polyomavirus infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual's age and overall health. Common symptoms include runny nose, cough, fever, sore throat, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, polyomaviruses can cause pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and other respiratory disorders.
4. Diagnosis: A diagnosis of a polyomavirus infection is typically made based on the symptoms and medical history of the individual, as well as through laboratory tests such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture.
5. Treatment: There is no specific treatment for polyomavirus infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers, may also be recommended.
6. Prevention: Preventing the spread of polyomaviruses can be challenging, but good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and disinfecting surfaces can help reduce the risk of transmission. Vaccines are also being developed to protect against certain types of polyomaviruses.
7. Prognosis: In most cases, polyomavirus infections are mild and self-limiting, with symptoms resolving on their own within a few days to a week. However, severe infections can be life-threatening, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.
8. Epidemiology: Polyomaviruses are common and widespread, with the majority of individuals worldwide being infected at some point in their lives. Outbreaks of polyomavirus infections can occur in settings such as hospitals, long-term care facilities, and daycare centers, where individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection.
9. Research: Research on polyomaviruses is ongoing to better understand the viruses, their transmission, and their clinical impact. This includes development of vaccines and antiviral medications, as well as studies to identify risk factors for severe infections and to improve diagnostic tests.
10. Public health: Polyomaviruses are a public health concern, particularly in settings where individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection. Prevention strategies include practicing good hygiene, such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick.

Overall, polyomaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that can cause a range of diseases, from mild and self-limiting to severe and life-threatening. Understanding the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, epidemiology, research, and public health implications of polyomavirus infections is essential for providing appropriate care and preventing outbreaks.

Orthomyxoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, which includes influenza A and B viruses, as well as other related viruses. These infections can affect both humans and animals and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe.

The most common type of Orthomyxoviridae infection is seasonal influenza, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from person to person through the air or by contact with infected surfaces. Other types of Orthomyxoviridae infections include:

1. Pandemic influenza: This occurs when a new strain of the virus emerges and spreads quickly around the world, causing widespread illness and death. Examples of pandemic influenza include the Spanish flu of 1918 and the Asian flu of 1957.
2. Avian influenza: This occurs when birds are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected birds or their droppings.
3. Swine influenza: This occurs when pigs are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected pigs or their droppings.
4. H5N1 and H7N9: These are two specific types of bird flu viruses that have caused serious outbreaks in humans in recent years.

Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, these infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory complications, as well as hospitalization and even death.

Diagnosis of Orthomyxoviridae infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the immune system, with antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.

Prevention of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include avoiding close contact with infected birds or pigs, wearing protective clothing and gear when handling animals, and practicing good hygiene such as washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for some species of birds and pigs to protect against these viruses.

Overall, Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that can cause serious illness in humans and other animals, and it's important to take precautions to prevent exposure and spread of these viruses.

RSV infections can cause a range of symptoms, including:

* Runny nose
* Decreased appetite
* Coughing
* Sneezing
* Wheezing
* Apnea (pauses in breathing)
* Blue-tinged skin and lips (cyanosis)
* Fever
* Inflammation of the lower respiratory tract (bronchiolitis)
* Pneumonia

In severe cases, RSV infections can lead to hospitalization and may require oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation. In rare cases, RSV infections can be life-threatening, particularly in premature babies and infants with underlying medical conditions.

There is no specific treatment for RSV infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the infection, such as providing hydration and nutrition, administering oxygen therapy, and monitoring vital signs.

Prevention measures for RSV infections include:

* Frequent handwashing, especially after contact with an infected person or their secretions
* Avoiding close contact with anyone who has RSV infection
* Keeping children home from school or daycare if they are showing symptoms of RSV infection
* Practicing good hygiene, such as avoiding sharing utensils or personal items with anyone who is infected

There is currently no vaccine available to protect against RSV infections, but researchers are working on developing one.

Symptoms of influenza include:

* Fever (usually high)
* Cough
* Sore throat
* Runny or stuffy nose
* Headache
* Muscle or body aches
* Fatigue (tiredness)
* Diarrhea and nausea (more common in children than adults)

Influenza can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections. These complications are more likely to occur in people who have a weakened immune system, such as the elderly, young children, and people with certain chronic health conditions (like heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease).

Influenza is diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. A healthcare provider may also use a rapid influenza test (RIT) or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for influenza typically involves rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) to relieve fever and body aches. Antiviral medications, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza), may also be prescribed to help shorten the duration and severity of the illness. However, these medications are most effective when started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.

Prevention is key in avoiding influenza. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza, as well as practicing good hygiene such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and staying home when you are sick.

DNA virus infections can cause a wide range of diseases, from mild cold-like symptoms to life-threatening conditions such as cancer. Some common symptoms of DNA virus infections include fever, fatigue, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes. In severe cases, DNA virus infections can lead to organ failure, sepsis, and even death.

There are several ways that DNA viruses can be transmitted to humans, including:

1. Contact with an infected person or animal
2. Contaminated food or water
3. Insect or tick bites
4. Healthcare exposure
5. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy or childbirth

Some of the most common DNA virus infections include:

1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) - Causes cold sores and genital herpes.
2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) - Causes cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer and genital warts.
3. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) - Causes liver cancer and liver disease.
4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - Causes infectious mononucleosis.
5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - Causes AIDS.

Diagnosis of DNA virus infections typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) to detect the presence of viral antigens or genetic material.

Treatment for DNA virus infections varies depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Some common treatments include:

1. Antiviral medications - Used to suppress the replication of the virus.
2. Immune modulators - Used to boost the body's immune system to fight the virus.
3. Vaccines - Used to prevent infection with certain viruses, such as HPV and HBV.
4. Supportive care - Used to manage symptoms such as pain, fever, and fatigue.
5. Lifestyle modifications - Such as avoiding exposure to the virus, practicing good hygiene, and getting plenty of rest.

Symptoms of EBV infection can vary widely, ranging from asymptomatic to severe, and may include:

* Fatigue
* Fever
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
* Swollen liver or spleen
* Rash
* Headaches
* Muscle weakness

In some cases, EBV can lead to more serious complications such as infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as glandular fever, which can cause:

* Enlarged liver and spleen
* Splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen)
* Hepatomegaly (enlargement of the liver)
* Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Leukopenia (low white blood cell count)

EBV is also associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

There is no specific treatment for EBV infections, and most cases resolve on their own within a few weeks. Antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases or to prevent complications. Rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relief medication can help alleviate symptoms.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

1. Influenza (flu): Caused by the influenza virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
2. HIV/AIDS: Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is an RNA virus that attacks the body's immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
3. Hepatitis B: Caused by the hepatitis B virus, which is an RNA virus that infects the liver and can cause inflammation, scarring, and cancer.
4. Measles: Caused by the measles virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, and a rash.
5. Rabies: Caused by the rabies virus, which is an RNA virus that attacks the central nervous system and can cause brain damage and death.
6. Ebola: Caused by the Ebola virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the blood vessels and can cause fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding.
7. SARS-CoV-2: Caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause COVID-19.

RNA virus infections are often difficult to treat and can be highly contagious, so it's important to take precautions to prevent transmission and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Respirovirus infections are a group of viral infections that affect the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and lungs. These infections are caused by members of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses, which include the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human parainfluenza virus (HPIV).

The symptoms of respirovirus infections can vary depending on the age of the individual and the severity of the infection. In infants and young children, the symptoms may include coughing, sneezing, runny nose, fever, and difficulty breathing. In older children and adults, the symptoms may be more mild and may include a stuffy nose, sore throat, and cough.

Respirovirus infections are usually spread through contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as mucus and saliva. The viruses can also survive on surfaces for a period of time and be transmitted through touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the face.

There is no specific treatment for respirovirus infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and managing complications, such as pneumonia or bronchiolitis. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation.

Prevention of respirovirus infections is important, especially for high-risk individuals such as infants, young children, and people with weakened immune systems. Preventative measures include frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing good hygiene. Vaccines are also available for some types of respirovirus infections, such as RSV, and can help protect against infection.

There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.

Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.

Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.

Rubulavirus infections are a type of viral infection caused by the rubulavirus, which is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family. The virus primarily affects the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, and diarrhea.

Rubulavirus infections are most commonly seen in young children and can be severe in some cases, particularly in those with underlying medical conditions such as asthma or heart disease. In rare cases, the virus can also cause more serious complications such as pneumonia or encephalitis.

There is no specific treatment for rubulavirus infections, and treatment is primarily focused on managing symptoms and supporting the body's immune system. Over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be used to help manage fever and pain, while antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases.

Prevention is key to managing rubulavirus infections, and this includes practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and getting vaccinated against the virus. Vaccination is particularly important for children and individuals who work with young children, as they are at higher risk of contracting the virus.

In conclusion, rubulavirus infections can cause a range of symptoms and can be severe in some cases, particularly in young children and those with underlying medical conditions. Prevention and good hygiene practices are key to managing these infections, and treatment is focused on supporting the body's immune system and managing symptoms.

Viremia is a condition where the virus is present in the bloodstream, outside of infected cells or tissues. This can occur during the acute phase of an infection, when the virus is actively replicating and spreading throughout the body. Viremia can also be seen in chronic infections, where the virus may persist in the blood for longer periods of time.

In some cases, viremia can lead to the development of antibodies against the virus, which can help to neutralize it and prevent its spread. However, if the viremia is not controlled, it can cause serious complications, such as sepsis or organ damage.

Diagnosis of viremia typically involves laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which can detect the presence of virus in the blood. Treatment of viremia depends on the underlying cause and may include antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of any related complications.

Types of experimental neoplasms include:

* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.

The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.

The symptoms of West Nile Fever typically develop within 3-14 days after the bite of an infected mosquito and can range from mild to severe. Mild symptoms may include fever, headache, muscle weakness, and joint pain. Severe symptoms can include high fever, stiff neck, confusion, loss of consciousness, and in rare cases, death.

There is no specific treatment for West Nile Fever, but supportive care such as rest, hydration, and pain relief medications may be provided to help manage the symptoms. The prognosis for most people with West Nile Fever is generally good, but it can be more severe in older adults and those with underlying health conditions.

Prevention of West Nile Fever involves protecting oneself against mosquito bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of the virus.

In conclusion, West Nile Fever is a viral disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and can cause mild to severe symptoms. Prevention involves protecting oneself against mosquito bites and eliminating standing water to reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of the virus.

The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.

Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Symptoms of dengue fever typically begin within 2-7 days after the bite of an infected mosquito and can include:

* High fever
* Severe headache
* Pain behind the eyes
* Severe joint and muscle pain
* Rash
* Fatigue
* Nausea
* Vomiting

In some cases, dengue fever can develop into a more severe form of the disease, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which can be life-threatening. Symptoms of DHF include:

* Severe abdominal pain
* Vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin
* Easy bruising
* Petechiae (small red spots on the skin)
* Black stools
* Decreased urine output

Dengue fever is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests. Treatment for dengue fever is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and managing fluid and electrolyte imbalances. There is no specific treatment for the virus itself, but early detection and proper medical care can significantly lower the risk of complications and death.

Prevention of dengue fever relies on measures to prevent mosquito bites, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the breeding of mosquitoes. Vaccines against dengue fever are also being developed, but none are currently available for widespread use.

In summary, dengue is a viral disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes and can cause a range of symptoms from mild to severe. Early detection and proper medical care are essential to prevent complications and death from dengue fever. Prevention of dengue relies on measures to prevent mosquito bites and eliminating standing water around homes and communities.


1. World Health Organization. (2020). Dengue and severe dengue. Retrieved from
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Dengue fever: Background. Retrieved from
3. Mayo Clinic. (2020). Dengue fever. Retrieved from
4. MedlinePlus. (2020). Dengue fever. Retrieved from

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Vaccine contamination with Simian vacuolating virus 40, known as SV40 occurred in the United States and other countries between ... live virus) and the Salk vaccine (injectable, killed virus) were affected; the technique used to inactivate the polio virus in ... Martini, F; Corallini, A; Balatti, V; Sabbioni, S; Pancaldi, C; Tognon, M (9 July 2007). "Simian virus 40 in humans". ... NIH/National Cancer Institute (2004-08-25). "Studies Find No Evidence That Simian Virus 40 Is Related To Human Cancer". Science ...
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14 species are known to infect humans, while others, such as Simian Virus 40, have been identified in humans to a lesser extent ... most notably BK virus, JC virus, and SV40. It is essential for proliferation in the viruses that express it and is thought to ... Kelley WL, Georgopoulos C (April 1997). "The T/t common exon of simian virus 40, JC, and BK polyomavirus T antigens can ... Two viruses-HPyV6 and HPyV7-are most closely related to KI and WU viruses, while HPyV9 is most closely related to the African ...
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Other risk factors include genetics and infection with the simian virus 40. The diagnosis may be suspected based on chest X-ray ... Some studies suggest that simian virus 40 (SV40) may act as a cofactor in the development of mesothelioma. This has been ... Asbestos exposure and the onset of cancer are generally separated by about 40 years. Washing the clothing of someone who worked ... It is virtually never less than fifteen years and peaks at 30-40 years. The duration of exposure to asbestos causing ...
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Later, Daniel Nathans and Kathleen Danna showed that cleavage of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA by restriction enzymes yields ... Danna K, Nathans D (December 1971). "Specific cleavage of simian virus 40 DNA by restriction endonuclease of Hemophilus ... There is research on REases and ZFN that can cleave the DNA of various human viruses, including HSV-2, high-risk HPVs and HIV-1 ... The term restriction enzyme originated from the studies of phage λ, a virus that infects bacteria, and the phenomenon of host- ...
"Interactions of early mouse embryos with oncogenic viruses-Simian virus 40 and polyoma. I. Ultrastructural studies." Journal ... "Virus particles in early mouse embryos." Journal National Cancer Institute 51 (1973): 1041-1050. Print. Lewandowski, L.J., F.S ... "Analysis of a viral agent isolated from multiple sclerosis (MS) brain tissue: Characterization as a parainfluenza virus type I ... They were cultured." At Wistar, Pienkowski collaborated with Koprowski on research into cancer-causing viruses. Upon returning ...
... 'SV40 stands for Simian Virus 40' official website website in memory of Alexander Horwin (All articles ... Rogue virus in the vaccine: Early polio vaccine harbored virus now feared to cause cancer in humans, William Carlsen, San ... Martin's Press, 2004, ISBN 0-312-27872-1 The Virus and the Vaccine official website "The Virus and the Vaccine", Debbie ... The Virus and the Vaccine, The Reading Room, WNYC website. Who We Are, SV40 Cancer Foundation official website Demanding a ...
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BK virus or Simian virus. The Ebola virus may also be found in urine from an infected person. The exact survival time of this ... Vanchiere, John A. (12 January 2005). "Detection of BK virus and simian virus 40 in the urine of healthy children". Journal of ... "Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)Transmission, Q&As on Transmission". CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention). 20 November ... particular virus in human urine outside of the human body is unclear but probably "up to several days" like with other body ...
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The disease is caused by the monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus in the genus Orthopoxvirus. The variola virus, the causative ... On 30 June, the Bahamas confirmed its first monkeypox case in a male visitor in his 40s who had most likely contracted the ... Quebec: "Simian pox". Government of Quebec. 23 August 2022. Archived from the original on 2 June 2022. Retrieved 23 August 2022 ... Diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a lesion for the virus's DNA. There is no known cure. A study in 1988 found that the ...
The only human genotype that does not have a simian relative is A. It is thought that genotypes B, D, E, F and G originated in ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type ... Few, if any, free virions are produced and there is usually no detectable virus in the blood plasma though the virus is present ... The virus activates a subset of T-helper cells called Th1 cells. The result is a proliferation of Th1 cells and overproduction ...
His laboratory was among the first to discover and describe the Simian foamy virus. In 2008, he warned that the world was not ... Wolfe has been awarded more than $40 million in funding from a diverse array of sources including the U.S. Department of ...
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For example, consider one of the earliest oncogenes to be identified, p28sis from the simian sarcoma virus, which causes ... Platelet-derived growth factor is structurally related to the putative transforming protein p28sis of simian sarcoma virus. ... tumors formed by the simian sarcoma virus are no longer dependent on the fluctuations of PDGF that control cell growth; instead ... 15 (1): 40-50. doi:10.1177/1933719107309647. PMID 18212353. S2CID 10706385. Mitogens at the US National Library of Medicine ...
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Host-specific activation of transcription by tandem repeats from simian virus 40 and Moloney murine sarcoma virus. PNAS. 1982. ...
USAMRIID is the only U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) laboratory equipped to study highly hazardous viruses at Biosafety Level ... While investigating an outbreak of simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) in 1989, USAMRIID electron microscopist Thomas Geisbert ... the woman was trapped in the life-threatening conditions for over 40 minutes. Thankfully by chance she was recovered and the ...
... simians). Instead, they evolved independently in isolation on Madagascar. All in strepsirrhines including lemurs are ... and the herpes simplex virus carried by humans. Climate change and weather-related natural disasters also threaten lemur ... 34-40. Mittermeier et al. 2006, pp. 23-26. Matthew, W. D. (1915). "Climate and Evolution". Annals of the New York Academy of ... 34-40. Krause, D.W. (2003). Late Cretaceous Vertebrates of Madagascar: A Window into Gondwanan Biogeography at the End of the ...
Sakai K, Ami Y, Suzaki Y, Matano T (December 2016). "First Complete Genome Sequence of a Simian Foamy Virus Isolate from a ... Equine foamy virus (EFV), also called foamy virus (FV), is virus in the genus Equispumavirus. It shares similarities, with ... Through studies performed with simian foamy virus, it can be predicted that EFV can spread through saliva and bites, yet there ... With the discovery and isolation of foamy viruses in other natural hosts such as bovine, feline, and simian, the hypothesis ...
April 2019). "Antibodies reacting to mimotopes of Simian virus 40 large T antigen, the viral oncoprotein, in sera from children ... August 2014). "Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) for the precise quantification of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 proviral loads in ...
E1 is similar to COOH-terminal domain of the Simian virus 40, plays a role in viral DNA replication maintaining plasmids within ... He separated the virus from horny warts on cottontail rabbits, and made one of the first mammalian tumor virus discoveries. ... The virus particles are assembled in the upper epithelium. The virus capsomere icosahedral shell is packaged with an 8000 base ... The Shope papilloma virus (SPV), also known as cottontail rabbit papilloma virus (CRPV) or Kappapapillomavirus 2, is a ...
1971). "Induction of Tumors in Marmoset Monkeys by Simian Sarcoma Virus, Type 1 (Lagothrix): A Preliminary Report". JNCI: ... Kawakami, T. G.; Buckley, P. M.; Depaoli, A.; Noll, W.; Bustad, L. K. (1975). "Studies on the prevalence of type C virus ... 40 (40): 385-389. doi:10.1159/000397556. ISBN 978-3-8055-2090-4. PMID 51628. Bustad, L. K.; Hines, L. (1984). "Our Professional ...
... simian genius Beast, metal-skinned Colossus, and cryokinetic Iceman. In its first year, the series was the best-selling comic ... to create a cure for the Legacy virus and convinced he is still working with the X-Men (thanks to Professor X's mental ... Originally published in: Ultimate X-Men #40-45 (February 2004 - July 2004) Creators: writer Brian Michael Bendis, artist David ...
"Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing ... "A secret is discovered in a plane crash". New York Magazine: 40. July 1, 1974. Whiting, Charles (1996) [1973]. The Hunt for ...
"Characterization of Simian Virus 40 Late Leader Region Mutants". Barkan joined the University of Oregon in 1991, where she is ...
Killer Viruses (June 9, 2014) - Paul F. Tompkins discusses Killer Viruses with Dr. Mooz, Steeewwww, Princess, and Thomas Lennon ... He is a recycled version of the monkey puppet used for Spank from Late Night Buffet with Augie and Del and Yeager from Simian ... I'm Taylor Swift (December 11, 2014) - Paul F. Tompkins discusses the Ebola Virus outbreak with Star Schlessinger. Paul then ... 35, 37, 38, 40, 42, 50), Mr. Frankfurter (ep. 51), P.W. Butz, Professor Cornelius Nougat, Steeewwww, Wade the Bat (ep. 43) ...
"Mammalian topoisomerase II activity is modulated by the DNA minor groove binder distamycin in simian virus 40 DNA". The Journal ...
A vector based on Simian virus 40 (SV40) was used in first cloning experiment involving mammalian cells. A number of vectors ... In case of plants like Cauliflower mosaic virus, Tobacco mosaic virus and Gemini viruses have been used with limited success. ... The cloning vector may be DNA taken from a virus, the cell of a higher organism, or it may be the plasmid of a bacterium. The ... Viruses that infect plant and animal cells have also been manipulated to introduce foreign genes into plant and animal cells. ...
In this simian version of the Marvel Universe, Shang-Chi and his father work as a subversive organization, trying to get the ... he briefly gained the same powers and abilities as Spider-Man after being infected by the Spider-Virus. After mutating into a ... Shang-Chi and other inhabitants of Manhattan are infected by the Spider-Virus, giving him the same powers and abilities as ... 8) #40. Marvel Comics. Avengers (vol. 8) #41. Marvel Comics. Avengers (vol. 8) #42. Marvel Comics. Shang-Chi (vol. 2) #1-6. ...
He argued that the black bisexual man is often described as a duplicitous heterosexual man spreading the HIV/AIDS virus. ... which was reprinted in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (1991). Haraway's essay states that the cyborg " ... while approximately 30 to 40 percent assumed a gay/lesbian identity over time. Rosario et al. suggested that "although there ...
Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) primer binding site (PBS) RtT RNA Rubella virus 3′ cis-acting element S-element SerC leader Simian ... Hepatitis C virus 3'X element Hepatitis C virus stem-loop VII Hepatitis E virus cis-reactive element HIV gag stem loop 3 (GSL3 ... Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA cis-regulatory element Bovine leukaemia virus RNA packaging signal Citrus tristeza virus ... 23S methyl RNA motif 6C RNA Actino-pnp RNA motif AdoCbl riboswitch Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA Alfalfa ...
Jaenisch R, Mintz B. (1974). "Simian Virus 40 DNA Sequences in DNA of Healthy Adult Mice Derived from Preimplantation ... They showed that DNA from a virus, SV40, could be integrated into the DNA of developing mice and persist into adulthood without ... He was interested in why only certain types of cancer occurred when he injected adult mice with viruses. Inspired by Mintz's ... earlier work, he wanted to know whether injecting virus into early-stage embryos would result in the DNA being incorporated, ...
T Cell Death in Early Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Lymphoid Tissues". Journal of Virology. 90 (2): 1080-1087. doi: ... therapy for HIV-infected subjects in which the treatment targets the host instead of the virus. Of note, Caspase-1 deficient ... 38 (1): 31-40. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2000.02103.x. PMID 11029688. S2CID 30022137. Fang Y, Tian S, Pan Y, Li W, Wang Q, Tang Y ...
Start Over You searched for: Format Text ✖ Remove constraint Format: Text Subject Simian virus 40 ✖ Remove constraint Subject: ... 6. Lab notes on determining fragments made by Hind on SV 40 DNA Format: Text ... 5. Lab notes on identifying SV 40 proteins in infected cells Format: Text ...
A portion of the nicked circular DNA isolated from purified simian virus 40 contains a protein-DNA complex in which protein(s) ... Structure of a nicked DNA-protein complex isolated from simian virus 40: Covalent attachment of the protein to DNA and nick ... Kasamatsu, Harumi and Wu, Madeline (1976) Structure of a nicked DNA-protein complex isolated from simian virus 40: Covalent ...
... is a Single protocol of the Early Detection Research Network. ... Presence of simian virus 40 DNA sequences in human. Lead Investigator. Gazdar, Adi - UT Southwestern Medical Center ...
... Mayer F, Mazaitis AJ, Pühler A (1975) J ... After isolation, the DNA of simian virus 40 appeared as a negative supertwist (form I) or as an open circle with at least one ... Electron microscopy of simian virus 40 DNA configuration under denaturation conditions. J Virol, 15(3), p 585-598. ... "Electron microscopy of simian virus 40 DNA configuration under denaturation conditions". J Virol 15.3 (1975): 585-598. ...
Simian virus 40. Terminology as Topic Archival Collection: The Daniel Nathans Papers (Profiles in Science) 8. SV 40 Prep ... Simian virus 40 Archival Collection: The Daniel Nathans Papers (Profiles in Science) 9. SV 40 Prep ... Simian virus 40 Archival Collection: The Paul Berg Papers (Profiles in Science) 4. Studies of SV40 DNA: VI. Cleavage of SV40 ... Simian virus 40 Archival Collection: The Paul Berg Papers (Profiles in Science) 2. Summary of Data on Effects of Chemical ...
Simian virus 40. DNA Restriction Enzymes. Haemophilus influenzae. DNA Cleavage. Genre(s):. Archival Materials. Articles. ... Specific Cleavage of Simian Virus 40 DNA by Restriction Endonuclease of Hemophilus Influenzae. Contributor(s):. Alan Mason ...
No association between simian virus 40 and diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura in Iranian patients: a molecular and ... Polio vaccines, Simian Virus 40, and human cancer: the epidemiologic evidence for a causal association. Oncogene. 2004 Aug 23; ... From 1955 to 1963, an estimated 10-30% of polio vaccines administered in the US were contaminated with simian virus 40 (SV40). ... Qi F, Carbone M, Yang H, Gaudino G. Simian virus 40 transformation, malignant mesothelioma and brain tumors. Expert Rev Respir ...
Simian virus 40, DNA Restriction Enzymes, Haemophilus influenzae, and DNA Cleavage Format:. Text Extent:. 5 pages Language:. ... Specific Cleavage of Simian Virus 40 DNA by Restriction Endonuclease of Hemophilus Influenzae. body { margin: 0; padding: 0; ... Specific Cleavage of Simian Virus 40 DNA by Restriction Endonuclease of Hemophilus Influenzae Creator:. Danna, Kathleen J.. ... Specific Cleavage of Simian Virus 40 DNA by Restriction Endonuclease of Hemophilus Influenzae. Proceedings of the National ...
Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a DNA tumor virus. SV40 sequences and the expression of its oncoprotein, named large T antigen (Tag ... Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a DNA tumor virus. SV40 sequences and the expression of its oncoprotein, named large T antigen (Tag ... SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE ONCOGENIC SIMIAN VIRUS 40 IN SERA OF ONCOLOGIC PATIENTS AND HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS DETECTED BY AN ... Our serologic data confirm that SV40 is associated with specific human tumors, while this oncogenic virus is circulating, ...
English Translation for 40 - dict.cc German-English Dictionary ... simian virus 40 ,SV40,. Simian-40-Virus {n}. ,SV 40, [ugs.. ... simian (vacuolating) virus 40 ,SV40,. Affenvirus {n}. [ugs.. auch. {m}]. [Simian-40-Virus]. ... zwischen 40 und 49 [ugs.]. law. Regulation (EC) No. 40/94 on the Community trade mark. Verordnung {f}. (EG) Nr. 40/94 über die ... bald 40 sein transp.. 40-foot container [40. ISO. container,. equals. 1. FEU]. 40-Fuß-Container {m}. [40-Fuß-ISO-Container,. ...
Simian Virus 40 232. Polyomavirus 234. Papillomavirus 234. Herpes Simplex Virus 234 ... A Role of Viruses in the Evolution of DNA Genomes? 412. Did DNA Evolve in Viruses as a Way to Evade Host Defenses? 412. ... Viruses: Ubiquitous Parasites 37. Summary 37. Additional Reading 37. Chapter 3 Replication Forks 39. DNA Replication 39. Semi- ...
Problem Substances : Simian virus 40 (SV40). [+] Aborted fetal cells (diploid) have been used to create the rubella, measles, ... Measles virus DNA from the MMR vaccine has been found in peripheral mononuclear cells in patients with ulcerative colitis and ... If wild virus can be spread via individuals with subclinical infections, it is doubtful whether population immunity (herd ... Several investigators have shown that the presence of anti-rubella antibody is not sufficient to eliminate rubella virus.Nov 09 ...
Santerre, R. F. et al. Insulin synthesis in a clonal cell line of simian virus 40-transformed hamster pancreatic beta cells. ... 40,41. Glucagon was shown to bind to GLP-1 receptors and elevate cAMP levels of β-cells. In these studies, intraislet GLP-1 and ... C followed by 40 cycles of 5 s at 95 °C and 31 s at 60 °C. Standard curves were generated separately for each target gene and ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Section IV - Virus Properties. Physicochemical. RNA Pieces (number of genome segments). Infectivity. Sedimentation Coefficients ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
By treating monkey COS cells with oligonucleotides linked to psoralen, we have generated targeted mutations in a simian virus ... 40 (SV40) vector contained within the cells via intracellular triple helix formation. Oligonucleotide entry into the cells and ...
The Presumed Polyomavirus Viroporin VP4 of Simian Virus 40 or Human BK Polyomavirus Is Not Required for Viral Progeny Release. ... Yang JF, You J. Yang JF, et al. Viruses. 2020 Sep 24;12(10):1072. doi: 10.3390/v12101072. Viruses. 2020. PMID: 32987952 Free ... simian virus 40 (SV40). We identify pervasive wraparound transcription in PyV, wherein transcription runs through the polyA ... Regulation of Virus Replication by BK Polyomavirus Small T Antigen. Zou W, Imperiale MJ. Zou W, et al. J Virol. 2023 Mar 30;97( ...
Eddy also identified the simian virus 40. Her work led to the newborn hamster becoming the preferred animal for testing ... "Studies on a Subtype of Influenza Virus Virulent for Mice" by Bernice E. Eddy and Thomas G. Ward in the Journal of Bacteriology ... Twice Stewart and Eddy were nominated for the Nobel Prize for their work on the S-E polyoma virus, but unfortunately, they ... "Characteristics of the SE polyoma virus" by Bernice Eddy and Sarah Stewart in the American Journal of Public Health (1959) ...
Simian virus 40 in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders.. Vilchez RA; Jauregui MP; Hsi ED; Novoa-Takara L; Chang CC. ... Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus latent and replicative gene expression in Epstein-Barr virus B cell lymphoproliferative ... Epstein-Barr virus-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: a distinct entity?. Nelson BP; Nalesnik MA; Bahler ... Molecular epidemiology of deletions and mutations of the latent membrane protein 1 oncogene of the Epstein-Barr virus in ...
Studies have shown that Simian virus (SV) 40 is associated with the occurrence of choroid plexus tumors. BK virus and John ... Cunningham (JC) viruses have also been implicated. Binding of the large T antigen with both p53 and pRb tumor suppressor ...
Noteworthy viral agents of interest to this program are HPV, Hepatitis B and C viruses, EBV, and Simian Virus 40. Furthermore, ... For example, 10 million women in the U.S. have cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) infections, but only 15 thousand develop ... For example, infection with Hepatitis C and B viruses are major risk factors for hepatocellular cancer, but most infected ... Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant neoplasm of the nasopharynx that is associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) ...
Simian Virus 40 (SV40) was found in polio vaccines that got injected into 100 million Americans between 1955 and 1963. In case ... Plus, formaldehyde has been known to fail to deactivate the virus the vaccine is intended to cure, thus enabling a live virus ... Measles Live Virus Vaccine: (Attenuvax) Made by Merck. Two injections are given; one at 1 year and another at 4 years old. ... Paul Offit made his fortune, by making millions of children sick from a pig virus that should never have been in a vaccine for ...
Characterization of human tracheal epithelial cells transformed by an origin-defective simian virus 40. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 02; 109(40):16354-9. Huang F, Zhang H, Wu M, Yang H, Kudo M, Peters CJ, Woodruff PG, Solberg ... 2009 Dec; 297(6):L1131-40. Song Y, Namkung W, Nielson DW, Lee JW, Finkbeiner WE, Verkman AS. PMID: 19820035; PMCID: PMC2793186. ... 1990 Oct 30; 119(1):37-40. Levine JD, Coderre TJ, White DM, Finkbeiner WE, Basbaum AI. PMID: 2097582. ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Simian Virus 40. Furthermore, an escalating prevalence of early cervical, lung, and colon cancers ... Human papilloma virus (HPV) is responsible for as many as 100,000 cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas worldwide per ... For example, infections with Hepatitis C and B viruses are major risk factors for hepatocellular cancer, but most infected ... Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant neoplasm of the nasopharynx that is associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) ...
entry term SV40 VIRUS is from Simian Vacuolating virus; infection: coord IM with POLYOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS (IM) and TUMOR VIRUS ... Viruses [B04] * DNA Viruses [B04.280] * DNA Tumor Viruses [B04.280.210] * Polyomaviridae [B04.280.210.700] * Polyomavirus [ ... Viruses [B04] * Oncogenic Viruses [B04.613] * DNA Tumor Viruses [B04.613.204] * Polyomaviridae [B04.613.204.670] * Polyomavirus ... Simian virus 40 Preferred Term Term UI T039842. Date03/30/1974. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID UNK (19XX). ...
One major contaminant that McKernan identified is simian virus 40 (SV40) promoters, which are linked to mesotheliomas, ...
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-49-10-937 that described detection of viruses in semen by nucleic acid amplification or detection, antigen detection, replication in Address for correspondence: Timothy M. Baird, Metro South Clinical cell culture, or replication in an animal system. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, abortive replication may result in oncogenic transformation which has rendered polyomaviruses prototypes of DNA tumor virus well amenable to studies in experimental models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Simian virus 40 DNA replication: functional organization of regulatory elements. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • Commercial Simian Virus Antisera that Inhibit Virus Replication in Primary Monkey Kidney Cell Cultures. (epa.gov)
  • No vaccines used today contain SV40 virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a DNA tumor virus. (unife.it)
  • Eddy was also an expert on pneumococcus and streptococcus, influenza and polio-myelitis vaccines, and on tumor-producing viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor Induction by SE Polyoma Virus and the Inhibition of Tumors by Specific Neutralizing Antibodies" by Sarah E. Stewart and Bernice E. Eddy in the American Journal of Public Health (1959) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1373057/ . (nih.gov)
  • To study the effect of the transcription activator on a target gene (for example, Simian Virus 40 (SV4) large tumor (T) antigen (TAg)) specifically in liver, Alb-tTA mice were mated with transgenic mice in which the Target gene (TAg) was controlled by the E.Coli Tetracycline Operator (Tet-O). In this example, TAg was expressed in hepatocytes in the absence of Tetracycline, leading to hepatoma formation. (nih.gov)
  • Apoptin, a viral death protein derived from chicken anemia virus, displays a number of tumor-specific behaviors. (lonza.com)
  • Human polyomavirus BK (BKV) is a DNA virus belonging to the Polyomaviridae family that also includes human polyomavirus JC (JCV), and Simian virus 40 (SV40) (International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICVD))[ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By treating monkey COS cells with oligonucleotides linked to psoralen, we have generated targeted mutations in a simian virus 40 (SV40) vector contained within the cells via intracellular triple helix formation. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Molecular epidemiology of deletions and mutations of the latent membrane protein 1 oncogene of the Epstein-Barr virus in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders. (nih.gov)
  • 5 It has been associated with viral infections (eg, simian virus 40), 6 human immunodeficiency virus, and parvovirus B19. (ndnr.com)
  • In 1955, some batches of polio vaccine given to the public contained live polio virus, even though they had passed required safety testing. (cdc.gov)
  • From 1955 to 1963, an estimated 10-30% of polio vaccines administered in the US were contaminated with simian virus 40 (SV40). (cdc.gov)
  • The virus came from monkey kidney cell cultures used to make polio vaccines at that time. (cdc.gov)
  • Cutter Laboratories accidentally released vaccine that retained live polio virus, resulting in 260 paralytic cases of the disease, a disaster that caused panic among parents and scientists alike. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Eddy later won a Superior Service Medal from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in 1967 for her work on control testing of vaccines for polio-myelitis and respiratory diseases, and for her discovery and characterization of tumorigenic viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Simian Virus 40 (SV40) was found in polio vaccines that got injected into 100 million Americans between 1955 and 1963. (naturalnews.com)
  • Here, we show that in normal cells apoptin can also be activated by the transient transforming signals conferred by ectopically expressed simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT), which rapidly induces apoptin's phosphorylation, nuclear accumulation, and the ability to induce apoptosis. (lonza.com)
  • Seeding to the male reproductive tract may fre- tory syndrome virus, parvovirus, smallpox virus, vaccinia quently occur in the context of viremia because the blood- virus, and rubella virus ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To learn more about persistence of barrier permeability), systemic immunosuppression, male viruses in genital fluids, we searched PubMed for relevant reproductive tract immune responses, presence of sexu- articles. (cdc.gov)
  • How- These viruses include influenza virus, lymphocytic cho- ever, it is probable that many more viruses capable of caus- riomeningitis virus, phlebotomus fever virus, cocksackie ing viremia (presence of virus in the blood) can be found B virus, echovirus, dengue virus, systemic acute respira- in semen. (cdc.gov)
  • Given these findings, the following questions need to to viruses, especially in the presence of systemic or local be addressed: which viruses are shed and remain viable inflammation ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of virus in be transmitted to semen as a result of survival and replica- the male reproductive tract may increase the risk for ac- tion within the accessory glands ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The transcription activator was a fused protein consisting of a tetracycline repressor gene (tetR) that was only active in the presence of tetracycline and a herpes simplex virus protein (VP-16) transcription activating domain. (nih.gov)
  • This mechanism is used by the virus to keep the infected cells alive during productive infection but in non-permissive cells it may lead to cell transformation[ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Processing of herpes simplex virus protein and evidence that translation of thymidine kinase mRNA is initiated at three separate AUG codons. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Zika virus RNA is frequently detected in the semen of men level of viremia, inflammatory mediators (altering blood- after Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • that Zika virus RNA is fre- Japanese encephalitis virus, foot and mouth disease virus, quently detected in the semen of men after infection ( 1 ) parainfluenza virus, and paravaccinia virus ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • No detection of simian virus 40 in malignant mesothelioma in Korea. (cdc.gov)
  • 10. Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus latent and replicative gene expression in Epstein-Barr virus B cell lymphoproliferative disorders after organ transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • A portion of the nicked circular DNA isolated from purified simian virus 40 contains a protein-DNA complex in which protein(s) is covalently attached to the end of a DNA single strand. (caltech.edu)
  • Internal initiation of translation on the vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein mRNA yields a second protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Infectious vaccine-derived rubella viruses emerge, persist, and evolve in cutaneous granulomas of children with primary immunodeficiencies. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Studies on a Subtype of Influenza Virus Virulent for Mice" by Bernice E. Eddy and Thomas G. Ward in the Journal of Bacteriology (1952). (nih.gov)
  • Of these 27 viruses, many cause chronic or latent infec- tion (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • The virus is ubiquitous in the human population, establishing latent infections in the kidney and the urogenital tract[ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virus may persist even if incapable of in semen, for how long, and at what concentrations? (cdc.gov)
  • Tuberculosis Service and Respiratory and Sleep Medicine Department, ed the results to viruses capable of causing viremia. (cdc.gov)
  • In February 1961, Murray informed Eddy that her research interests conflicted with her control work on respiratory viruses. (nih.gov)
  • In 1956, she worked with Dr. Sarah Stewart of the National Cancer Institute, and they identified the SE (Stewart-Eddy) polyoma virus, which can cause tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. (lookformedical.com)
  • In case you were unaware, SV40 is a cancer-promoting virus and the CDC once had a fact page on their website about it. (naturalnews.com)
  • 11. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder associated with an Epstein-Barr-related virus in cynomolgus monkeys. (nih.gov)
  • Today's vaccines not only contain live versions of diseases they're not even addressing, but also contain GMOs, hormones from infected cows, pigs, chickens and monkeys, untested virus combinations (like H1N1), aluminum, mercury, emulsifiers and crossbred bacteria from animals, mosquitoes and diseased humans. (naturalnews.com)
  • Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. (cdc.gov)
  • ally transmitted diseases, and virus structural stability. (cdc.gov)
  • 2. Impact of Epstein-Barr virus in monomorphic B-cell posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders: a histogenetic study. (nih.gov)
  • Our search revealed that 27 viruses that can result in viremia have been found in human semen (Table). (cdc.gov)
  • We found evidence that 27 viruses, across a broad range of virus families, can be found in human semen. (cdc.gov)
  • No association between simian virus 40 and diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura in Iranian patients: a molecular and epidemiologic case-control study of 60 patients. (cdc.gov)
  • 7. Association between Epstein-Barr virus seroconversion and immunohistochemical changes in tonsils of pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. (nih.gov)
  • Her work led to the newborn hamster becoming the preferred animal for testing potentially cancer-causing viruses of mammalian origin. (nih.gov)
  • Virus may also logic and transmission models. (cdc.gov)