Simian virus 40
Antigens, Viral, Tumor
Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
Cell Transformation, Viral
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Molecular Sequence Data
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
Parainfluenza Virus 5
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic
Tumor Virus Infections
Hepatitis B virus
Viral Plaque Assay
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype
West Nile virus
Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human
Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus
DNA Restriction Enzymes
Viral Structural Proteins
Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Avian Sarcoma Viruses
Simian immunodeficiency virus
Amino Acid Sequence
Centrifugation, Density Gradient
Hepatitis A virus
Moloney murine leukemia virus
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Avian leukosis virus
Oncogene Proteins, Viral
Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
Enhancer Elements, Genetic
Yellow fever virus
Herpesvirus 4, Human
Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human
Viral Fusion Proteins
Tobacco Mosaic Virus
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
Cell Line, Transformed
Gene Expression Regulation
Herpesvirus 1, Human
Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human
Sarcoma Viruses, Murine
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne
Leukemia Virus, Feline
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus
Viral Core Proteins
Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral
Hepatitis E virus
Friend murine leukemia virus
Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse
RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype
Open Reading Frames
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Human topoisomerase I promotes initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (1/4150)Addition of purified human topoisomerase I (topo I) to simian virus 40 T antigen-driven in vitro DNA replication reactions performed with topo I-deficient extracts results in a greater than 10-fold stimulation of completed molecules as well as a more than 3-fold enhancement of overall DNA replication. To further characterize this stimulation, we first demonstrate that bovine topo I but not Escherichia coli topo I can also enhance DNA replication. By using several human topo I mutants, we show that a catalytically active form of topo I is required. To delineate whether topo I influences the initiation or the elongation step of replication, we performed delayed pulse, pulse-chase, and delayed pulse-chase experiments. The results illustrate that topo I cannot promote the completion of partially replicated molecules but is needed from the beginning of the reaction to initiate replication. Competitive inhibition experiments with the topo I binding T antigen fragment 1-246T and a catalytically inactive topo I mutant suggest that part of topo I's stimulation of replication is mediated through a direct interaction with T antigen. Collectively, our data indicate that topo I enhances the synthesis of fully replicated DNA molecules by forming essential interactions with T antigen and stimulating initiation. (+info)
Induction of AT-specific DNA-interstrand crosslinks by bizelesin in genomic and simian virus 40 DNA. (2/4150)Bizelesin is a bifunctional AT-specific DNA alkylating drug. Our study characterized the ability of bizelesin to induce interstrand crosslinks, a potential lethal lesion. In genomic DNA of BSC-1 cells, bizelesin formed from approx. 0.3 to 6.03+/-0.85 interstrand crosslinks per 106 base pairs, at 5-100 nM drug concentration, respectively, comparable to the number of total adducts previously determined in the same system (J.M. Woynarowski, M.M. McHugh, L.S. Gawron, T.A. Beerman, Biochemistry 34 (1995) 13042-13050). Bizelesin did not induce DNA-protein crosslinks or strand breaks. A model defined target, intracellular simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA, was employed to map at the nucleotide level sites of bizelesin adducts, including potential interstrand crosslinks. Preferential adduct formation was observed at AT tracts which are abundant in the SV40 matrix associated region and the origin of replication. Many sites, including each occurrence of 5'-T(A/T)4A-3', co-mapped on both DNA strands suggesting interstrand crosslinks, although monoadducts were also formed. Bizelesin adducts in naked SV40 DNA were found at similar sites. The localization of bizelesin-induced crosslinks in AT-rich tracts of replication-related regions is consistent with the potent anti-replicative properties of bizelesin. Given the apparent lack of other types of lesions in genomic DNA, interstrand crosslinks localized in AT-rich tracts, and to some extent perhaps also monoadducts, are likely to be lethal effects of bizelesin. (+info)
Downregulation of metallothionein-IIA expression occurs at immortalization. (3/4150)Metallothioneins (MTs) may modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating the activity of zinc-binding proteins. These proteins have been implicated in cell growth regulation, and their expression is abnormal in some tumors. In particular, MT-IIA is expressed 27-fold less in human colorectal tumors and tumor cell lines compared with normal tissue (Zhang et al., 1997). Here we demonstrate that MT-IIA downregulation occurs when human cells become immortal, a key event in tumorigenesis. After immortalization MT-IIA expression remains inducible but the basal activity of the MT-IIA promoter is decreased. MT-IIA downregulation at immortalization is one of the most common immortalization-related changes identified to date, suggesting that MT-IIA has a role in this process. (+info)
Association of simian virus 40 with a central nervous system lesion distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in macaques with AIDS. (4/4150)The primate polyomavirus SV40 is known to cause interstitial nephritis in primary infections and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) upon reactivation of a latent infection in SIV-infected macaques. We now describe a second central nervous system manifestation of SV40: a meningoencephalitis affecting cerebral gray matter, without demyelination, distinct from PML. Meningoencephalitis appears also to be a primary manifestation of SV40 infection and can be seen in conjunction with SV40-induced interstitial nephritis and pneumonitis. The difference in the lesions of meningoencephalitis and PML does not appear to be due to cellular tropism, as both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are infected in PML and meningoencephalitis, as determined by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry for SV40 coupled with immunohistochemistry for cellular determinants. This is further supported by examination of SV40 nucleic acid sequences from the ori-enhancer and large-T-antigen regions, which reveals no tissue-or lesion-specific variation in SV40 sequences. (+info)
Replication-dependent marking of DNA by PCNA facilitates CAF-1-coupled inheritance of chromatin. (5/4150)Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is required for inheritance of epigenetically determined chromosomal states in vivo and promotes assembly of chromatin during DNA replication in vitro. Herein, we demonstrate that after DNA replication, replicated, but not unreplicated, DNA is also competent for CAF-1-dependent chromatin assembly. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase clamp, is a component of the replication-dependent marking of DNA for chromatin assembly. The clamp loader, replication factor C (RFC), can reverse this mark by unloading PCNA from the replicated DNA. PCNA binds directly to p150, the largest subunit of CAF-1, and the two proteins colocalize at sites of DNA replication in cells. We suggest that PCNA and CAF-1 connect DNA replication to chromatin assembly and the inheritance of epigenetic chromosome states. (+info)
Increased ultraviolet sensitivity and chromosomal instability related to P53 function in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant. (6/4150)The xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) variant (XPV) is a form of XP that has normal excision repair but shows defective DNA replication after UV irradiation. In developing various transformed fibroblast cell lines from these patients, we have found that there are significant phenotypic changes in transformed cells that seem to correlate with inactivation of p53. After transformation with SV40, XPV cell lines are only slightly UV sensitive, like their primary counterparts, but their sensitization with caffeine and the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by UV irradiation are greatly enhanced. After transformation by HPV16 E7, which targets the retinoblastoma cell cycle regulatory gene, there is no change in the UV sensitivity of XPV cells; but, when transformed by HPV16 E6 or E6 and E7 combined, there is a large increase in UV sensitivity and in the induction of SCEs. These changes are not associated with any detectable changes in the reactivation of an externally irradiated luciferase expression vector, the excision of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from bulk DNA, or unscheduled DNA synthesis and, therefore, do not involve excision repair. We suggest that if SCEs represent homologous recombination between sister chromatids, then in the absence of p53 function, the DNA chain arrest typical of UV-damaged XPV cells initiates strand exchange during recovery. In untransformed cells with normal p53, the preferred mode of recovery would then be replication bypass. The symptoms of elevated solar carcinogenesis in XPV patients may, therefore, be associated with increased genomic instability in cells of the skin in which p53 is inactivated by UV-induced mutations. (+info)
Use of the Gal4-UAS technique for targeted gene expression in the zebrafish. (7/4150)The most common way to analyze the function of cloned genes in zebrafish is to misexpress the gene product or an altered variant of it by mRNA injection. However, mRNA injection has several disadvantages. The GAL4-UAS system for targeted gene expression allows one to overcome some of these disadvantages. To test the GAL4-UAS system in zebrafish, we generated two different kinds of stable transgenic lines, carrying activator and effector constructs, respectively. In the activator lines the gene for the yeast transcriptional activator GAL4 is under the control of a given promoter, while in the effectors the gene of interest is fused to the sequence of the DNA-binding motif of GAL4 (UAS). Crosses of animals from the activator and effector lines show that effector genes are transcribed with the spatial pattern of the activators. This work smoothes the way for a novel method of misexpression of gene products in zebrafish in order to analyze the function of genes in developmental processes. (+info)
The simian virus 40 small-t and large-T antigens jointly regulate cell cycle reentry in human fibroblasts. (8/4150)Focus formation in human diploid fibroblasts (HDF cells) is known to require both the simian virus 40 (SV40) large-T and small-t antigens. Similarly, both SV40 proteins were required to stimulate confluent, density-arrested HDF cells to reenter the cell cycle. This study used defective recombinant adenoviruses to examine the roles of the individual SV40 proteins in altering specific steps in the cell cycle. Small-t antigen and, to a lesser extent, large-T antigen increased the level of the S phase cyclin cyclin A but without increasing the activity of associated cyclin kinases unless the two SV40 proteins were coexpressed. The absence of kinase activity reflected the presence in density-arrested cells of high levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(WAF1) and p27(KIP1). We report here that expression of SV40 large-T antigen reduced levels of p21(WAF1), while expression of small-t antigen was required to decrease p27(KIP1). The separate effects of large-T and small-t antigens on these two inhibitors may explain the joint requirement for the two proteins to drive cell cycle reentry of HDF cells and ultimately transform these cells. (+info)
1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.
Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.
Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:
1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.
Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.
Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.
Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.
Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.
In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.
It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.
See also: Cancer, Tumor
Word count: 190
There are several different types of tumor viruses, including:
1. Human papillomavirus (HPV): This virus is responsible for causing cervical cancer and other types of cancer, such as anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancer.
2. Hepatitis B virus (HBV): This virus can cause liver cancer, known as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): This virus can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma.
4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV): This virus has been linked to the development of Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
5. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV): This virus is responsible for causing Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare type of skin cancer.
6. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1): This virus has been linked to the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).
Tumor virus infections can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsies. Treatment for these infections often involves antiviral medications, chemotherapy, and surgery. In some cases, tumors may also be removed through radiation therapy.
It's important to note that not all tumors or cancers are caused by viruses, and that many other factors, such as genetics and environmental exposures, can also play a role in the development of cancer. However, for those tumor virus infections that are caused by a specific virus, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
Overall, tumor virus infections are a complex and diverse group of conditions, and further research is needed to better understand their causes and develop effective treatments.
1. Types of Polyomaviruses: There are several types of polyomaviruses that can infect humans, including the common cold virus (Rhinovirus), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and the newly identified Parechovirus.
2. Infection: Polyomaviruses can be transmitted through contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as mucus and saliva, or through contaminated surfaces. Inhaling the virus can lead to an infection in the respiratory tract.
3. Symptoms: The symptoms of polyomavirus infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual's age and overall health. Common symptoms include runny nose, cough, fever, sore throat, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, polyomaviruses can cause pneumonia, bronchiolitis, and other respiratory disorders.
4. Diagnosis: A diagnosis of a polyomavirus infection is typically made based on the symptoms and medical history of the individual, as well as through laboratory tests such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture.
5. Treatment: There is no specific treatment for polyomavirus infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers, may also be recommended.
6. Prevention: Preventing the spread of polyomaviruses can be challenging, but good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and disinfecting surfaces can help reduce the risk of transmission. Vaccines are also being developed to protect against certain types of polyomaviruses.
7. Prognosis: In most cases, polyomavirus infections are mild and self-limiting, with symptoms resolving on their own within a few days to a week. However, severe infections can be life-threatening, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.
8. Epidemiology: Polyomaviruses are common and widespread, with the majority of individuals worldwide being infected at some point in their lives. Outbreaks of polyomavirus infections can occur in settings such as hospitals, long-term care facilities, and daycare centers, where individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection.
9. Research: Research on polyomaviruses is ongoing to better understand the viruses, their transmission, and their clinical impact. This includes development of vaccines and antiviral medications, as well as studies to identify risk factors for severe infections and to improve diagnostic tests.
10. Public health: Polyomaviruses are a public health concern, particularly in settings where individuals with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to infection. Prevention strategies include practicing good hygiene, such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are sick.
Overall, polyomaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that can cause a range of diseases, from mild and self-limiting to severe and life-threatening. Understanding the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, epidemiology, research, and public health implications of polyomavirus infections is essential for providing appropriate care and preventing outbreaks.
Orthomyxoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, which includes influenza A and B viruses, as well as other related viruses. These infections can affect both humans and animals and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe.
The most common type of Orthomyxoviridae infection is seasonal influenza, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from person to person through the air or by contact with infected surfaces. Other types of Orthomyxoviridae infections include:
1. Pandemic influenza: This occurs when a new strain of the virus emerges and spreads quickly around the world, causing widespread illness and death. Examples of pandemic influenza include the Spanish flu of 1918 and the Asian flu of 1957.
2. Avian influenza: This occurs when birds are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected birds or their droppings.
3. Swine influenza: This occurs when pigs are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected pigs or their droppings.
4. H5N1 and H7N9: These are two specific types of bird flu viruses that have caused serious outbreaks in humans in recent years.
Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, these infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory complications, as well as hospitalization and even death.
Diagnosis of Orthomyxoviridae infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the immune system, with antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.
Prevention of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include avoiding close contact with infected birds or pigs, wearing protective clothing and gear when handling animals, and practicing good hygiene such as washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for some species of birds and pigs to protect against these viruses.
Overall, Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that can cause serious illness in humans and other animals, and it's important to take precautions to prevent exposure and spread of these viruses.
RSV infections can cause a range of symptoms, including:
* Runny nose
* Decreased appetite
* Apnea (pauses in breathing)
* Blue-tinged skin and lips (cyanosis)
* Inflammation of the lower respiratory tract (bronchiolitis)
In severe cases, RSV infections can lead to hospitalization and may require oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation. In rare cases, RSV infections can be life-threatening, particularly in premature babies and infants with underlying medical conditions.
There is no specific treatment for RSV infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the infection, such as providing hydration and nutrition, administering oxygen therapy, and monitoring vital signs.
Prevention measures for RSV infections include:
* Frequent handwashing, especially after contact with an infected person or their secretions
* Avoiding close contact with anyone who has RSV infection
* Keeping children home from school or daycare if they are showing symptoms of RSV infection
* Practicing good hygiene, such as avoiding sharing utensils or personal items with anyone who is infected
There is currently no vaccine available to protect against RSV infections, but researchers are working on developing one.
Symptoms of influenza include:
* Fever (usually high)
* Sore throat
* Runny or stuffy nose
* Muscle or body aches
* Fatigue (tiredness)
* Diarrhea and nausea (more common in children than adults)
Influenza can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections. These complications are more likely to occur in people who have a weakened immune system, such as the elderly, young children, and people with certain chronic health conditions (like heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease).
Influenza is diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. A healthcare provider may also use a rapid influenza test (RIT) or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for influenza typically involves rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) to relieve fever and body aches. Antiviral medications, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza), may also be prescribed to help shorten the duration and severity of the illness. However, these medications are most effective when started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.
Prevention is key in avoiding influenza. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza, as well as practicing good hygiene such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and staying home when you are sick.
DNA virus infections can cause a wide range of diseases, from mild cold-like symptoms to life-threatening conditions such as cancer. Some common symptoms of DNA virus infections include fever, fatigue, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes. In severe cases, DNA virus infections can lead to organ failure, sepsis, and even death.
There are several ways that DNA viruses can be transmitted to humans, including:
1. Contact with an infected person or animal
2. Contaminated food or water
3. Insect or tick bites
4. Healthcare exposure
5. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy or childbirth
Some of the most common DNA virus infections include:
1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) - Causes cold sores and genital herpes.
2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) - Causes cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer and genital warts.
3. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) - Causes liver cancer and liver disease.
4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - Causes infectious mononucleosis.
5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - Causes AIDS.
Diagnosis of DNA virus infections typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) to detect the presence of viral antigens or genetic material.
Treatment for DNA virus infections varies depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Some common treatments include:
1. Antiviral medications - Used to suppress the replication of the virus.
2. Immune modulators - Used to boost the body's immune system to fight the virus.
3. Vaccines - Used to prevent infection with certain viruses, such as HPV and HBV.
4. Supportive care - Used to manage symptoms such as pain, fever, and fatigue.
5. Lifestyle modifications - Such as avoiding exposure to the virus, practicing good hygiene, and getting plenty of rest.
Symptoms of EBV infection can vary widely, ranging from asymptomatic to severe, and may include:
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
* Swollen liver or spleen
* Muscle weakness
In some cases, EBV can lead to more serious complications such as infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as glandular fever, which can cause:
* Enlarged liver and spleen
* Splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen)
* Hepatomegaly (enlargement of the liver)
* Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Leukopenia (low white blood cell count)
EBV is also associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
There is no specific treatment for EBV infections, and most cases resolve on their own within a few weeks. Antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases or to prevent complications. Rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relief medication can help alleviate symptoms.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:
1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.
Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.
1. Influenza (flu): Caused by the influenza virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
2. HIV/AIDS: Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is an RNA virus that attacks the body's immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
3. Hepatitis B: Caused by the hepatitis B virus, which is an RNA virus that infects the liver and can cause inflammation, scarring, and cancer.
4. Measles: Caused by the measles virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, and a rash.
5. Rabies: Caused by the rabies virus, which is an RNA virus that attacks the central nervous system and can cause brain damage and death.
6. Ebola: Caused by the Ebola virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the blood vessels and can cause fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding.
7. SARS-CoV-2: Caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause COVID-19.
RNA virus infections are often difficult to treat and can be highly contagious, so it's important to take precautions to prevent transmission and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Respirovirus infections are a group of viral infections that affect the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and lungs. These infections are caused by members of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses, which include the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human parainfluenza virus (HPIV).
The symptoms of respirovirus infections can vary depending on the age of the individual and the severity of the infection. In infants and young children, the symptoms may include coughing, sneezing, runny nose, fever, and difficulty breathing. In older children and adults, the symptoms may be more mild and may include a stuffy nose, sore throat, and cough.
Respirovirus infections are usually spread through contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as mucus and saliva. The viruses can also survive on surfaces for a period of time and be transmitted through touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the face.
There is no specific treatment for respirovirus infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and managing complications, such as pneumonia or bronchiolitis. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation.
Prevention of respirovirus infections is important, especially for high-risk individuals such as infants, young children, and people with weakened immune systems. Preventative measures include frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing good hygiene. Vaccines are also available for some types of respirovirus infections, such as RSV, and can help protect against infection.
There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.
Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.
Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.
Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.
Rubulavirus infections are a type of viral infection caused by the rubulavirus, which is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family. The virus primarily affects the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, and diarrhea.
Rubulavirus infections are most commonly seen in young children and can be severe in some cases, particularly in those with underlying medical conditions such as asthma or heart disease. In rare cases, the virus can also cause more serious complications such as pneumonia or encephalitis.
There is no specific treatment for rubulavirus infections, and treatment is primarily focused on managing symptoms and supporting the body's immune system. Over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be used to help manage fever and pain, while antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases.
Prevention is key to managing rubulavirus infections, and this includes practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and getting vaccinated against the virus. Vaccination is particularly important for children and individuals who work with young children, as they are at higher risk of contracting the virus.
In conclusion, rubulavirus infections can cause a range of symptoms and can be severe in some cases, particularly in young children and those with underlying medical conditions. Prevention and good hygiene practices are key to managing these infections, and treatment is focused on supporting the body's immune system and managing symptoms.
Viremia is a condition where the virus is present in the bloodstream, outside of infected cells or tissues. This can occur during the acute phase of an infection, when the virus is actively replicating and spreading throughout the body. Viremia can also be seen in chronic infections, where the virus may persist in the blood for longer periods of time.
In some cases, viremia can lead to the development of antibodies against the virus, which can help to neutralize it and prevent its spread. However, if the viremia is not controlled, it can cause serious complications, such as sepsis or organ damage.
Diagnosis of viremia typically involves laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which can detect the presence of virus in the blood. Treatment of viremia depends on the underlying cause and may include antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of any related complications.
Types of experimental neoplasms include:
* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.
The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.
The symptoms of West Nile Fever typically develop within 3-14 days after the bite of an infected mosquito and can range from mild to severe. Mild symptoms may include fever, headache, muscle weakness, and joint pain. Severe symptoms can include high fever, stiff neck, confusion, loss of consciousness, and in rare cases, death.
There is no specific treatment for West Nile Fever, but supportive care such as rest, hydration, and pain relief medications may be provided to help manage the symptoms. The prognosis for most people with West Nile Fever is generally good, but it can be more severe in older adults and those with underlying health conditions.
Prevention of West Nile Fever involves protecting oneself against mosquito bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of the virus.
In conclusion, West Nile Fever is a viral disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and can cause mild to severe symptoms. Prevention involves protecting oneself against mosquito bites and eliminating standing water to reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of the virus.
The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.
Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.
Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.
Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Symptoms of dengue fever typically begin within 2-7 days after the bite of an infected mosquito and can include:
* High fever
* Severe headache
* Pain behind the eyes
* Severe joint and muscle pain
In some cases, dengue fever can develop into a more severe form of the disease, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which can be life-threatening. Symptoms of DHF include:
* Severe abdominal pain
* Bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin
* Easy bruising
* Petechiae (small red spots on the skin)
* Black stools
* Decreased urine output
Dengue fever is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests. Treatment for dengue fever is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and managing fluid and electrolyte imbalances. There is no specific treatment for the virus itself, but early detection and proper medical care can significantly lower the risk of complications and death.
Prevention of dengue fever relies on measures to prevent mosquito bites, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the breeding of mosquitoes. Vaccines against dengue fever are also being developed, but none are currently available for widespread use.
In summary, dengue is a viral disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes and can cause a range of symptoms from mild to severe. Early detection and proper medical care are essential to prevent complications and death from dengue fever. Prevention of dengue relies on measures to prevent mosquito bites and eliminating standing water around homes and communities.
1. World Health Organization. (2020). Dengue and severe dengue. Retrieved from
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Dengue fever: Background. Retrieved from
3. Mayo Clinic. (2020). Dengue fever. Retrieved from
4. MedlinePlus. (2020). Dengue fever. Retrieved from
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- http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-49-10-937 that described detection of viruses in semen by nucleic acid amplification or detection, antigen detection, replication in Address for correspondence: Timothy M. Baird, Metro South Clinical cell culture, or replication in an animal system. (cdc.gov)
- In fact, abortive replication may result in oncogenic transformation which has rendered polyomaviruses prototypes of DNA tumor virus well amenable to studies in experimental models. (biomedcentral.com)
- Simian virus 40 DNA replication: functional organization of regulatory elements. (ntnu.edu.tw)
- Commercial Simian Virus Antisera that Inhibit Virus Replication in Primary Monkey Kidney Cell Cultures. (epa.gov)
- No vaccines used today contain SV40 virus. (cdc.gov)
- Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a DNA tumor virus. (unife.it)
- Eddy was also an expert on pneumococcus and streptococcus, influenza and polio-myelitis vaccines, and on tumor-producing viruses. (nih.gov)
- Tumor Induction by SE Polyoma Virus and the Inhibition of Tumors by Specific Neutralizing Antibodies" by Sarah E. Stewart and Bernice E. Eddy in the American Journal of Public Health (1959) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1373057/ . (nih.gov)
- To study the effect of the transcription activator on a target gene (for example, Simian Virus 40 (SV4) large tumor (T) antigen (TAg)) specifically in liver, Alb-tTA mice were mated with transgenic mice in which the Target gene (TAg) was controlled by the E.Coli Tetracycline Operator (Tet-O). In this example, TAg was expressed in hepatocytes in the absence of Tetracycline, leading to hepatoma formation. (nih.gov)
- Apoptin, a viral death protein derived from chicken anemia virus, displays a number of tumor-specific behaviors. (lonza.com)
- Human polyomavirus BK (BKV) is a DNA virus belonging to the Polyomaviridae family that also includes human polyomavirus JC (JCV), and Simian virus 40 (SV40) (International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICVD))[ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- By treating monkey COS cells with oligonucleotides linked to psoralen, we have generated targeted mutations in a simian virus 40 (SV40) vector contained within the cells via intracellular triple helix formation. (nih.gov)
- 16. Molecular epidemiology of deletions and mutations of the latent membrane protein 1 oncogene of the Epstein-Barr virus in posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders. (nih.gov)
- 5 It has been associated with viral infections (eg, simian virus 40), 6 human immunodeficiency virus, and parvovirus B19. (ndnr.com)
- In 1955, some batches of polio vaccine given to the public contained live polio virus, even though they had passed required safety testing. (cdc.gov)
- From 1955 to 1963, an estimated 10-30% of polio vaccines administered in the US were contaminated with simian virus 40 (SV40). (cdc.gov)
- The virus came from monkey kidney cell cultures used to make polio vaccines at that time. (cdc.gov)
- Cutter Laboratories accidentally released vaccine that retained live polio virus, resulting in 260 paralytic cases of the disease, a disaster that caused panic among parents and scientists alike. (nih.gov)
- Dr. Eddy later won a Superior Service Medal from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in 1967 for her work on control testing of vaccines for polio-myelitis and respiratory diseases, and for her discovery and characterization of tumorigenic viruses. (nih.gov)
- Simian Virus 40 (SV40) was found in polio vaccines that got injected into 100 million Americans between 1955 and 1963. (naturalnews.com)
- Here, we show that in normal cells apoptin can also be activated by the transient transforming signals conferred by ectopically expressed simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT), which rapidly induces apoptin's phosphorylation, nuclear accumulation, and the ability to induce apoptosis. (lonza.com)
- Seeding to the male reproductive tract may fre- tory syndrome virus, parvovirus, smallpox virus, vaccinia quently occur in the context of viremia because the blood- virus, and rubella virus ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
- To learn more about persistence of barrier permeability), systemic immunosuppression, male viruses in genital fluids, we searched PubMed for relevant reproductive tract immune responses, presence of sexu- articles. (cdc.gov)
- How- These viruses include influenza virus, lymphocytic cho- ever, it is probable that many more viruses capable of caus- riomeningitis virus, phlebotomus fever virus, cocksackie ing viremia (presence of virus in the blood) can be found B virus, echovirus, dengue virus, systemic acute respira- in semen. (cdc.gov)
- Given these findings, the following questions need to to viruses, especially in the presence of systemic or local be addressed: which viruses are shed and remain viable inflammation ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- The presence of virus in be transmitted to semen as a result of survival and replica- the male reproductive tract may increase the risk for ac- tion within the accessory glands ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- The transcription activator was a fused protein consisting of a tetracycline repressor gene (tetR) that was only active in the presence of tetracycline and a herpes simplex virus protein (VP-16) transcription activating domain. (nih.gov)
- This mechanism is used by the virus to keep the infected cells alive during productive infection but in non-permissive cells it may lead to cell transformation[ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
Herpes simplex virus1
- Processing of herpes simplex virus protein and evidence that translation of thymidine kinase mRNA is initiated at three separate AUG codons. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Zika virus RNA is frequently detected in the semen of men level of viremia, inflammatory mediators (altering blood- after Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
- that Zika virus RNA is fre- Japanese encephalitis virus, foot and mouth disease virus, quently detected in the semen of men after infection ( 1 ) parainfluenza virus, and paravaccinia virus ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- No detection of simian virus 40 in malignant mesothelioma in Korea. (cdc.gov)
- 10. Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus latent and replicative gene expression in Epstein-Barr virus B cell lymphoproliferative disorders after organ transplantation. (nih.gov)
- A portion of the nicked circular DNA isolated from purified simian virus 40 contains a protein-DNA complex in which protein(s) is covalently attached to the end of a DNA single strand. (caltech.edu)
- Internal initiation of translation on the vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein mRNA yields a second protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Infectious vaccine-derived rubella viruses emerge, persist, and evolve in cutaneous granulomas of children with primary immunodeficiencies. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Studies on a Subtype of Influenza Virus Virulent for Mice" by Bernice E. Eddy and Thomas G. Ward in the Journal of Bacteriology (1952). (nih.gov)
- Virus may persist even if incapable of in semen, for how long, and at what concentrations? (cdc.gov)
- In 1956, she worked with Dr. Sarah Stewart of the National Cancer Institute, and they identified the SE (Stewart-Eddy) polyoma virus, which can cause tumors. (nih.gov)
- Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. (lookformedical.com)
- In case you were unaware, SV40 is a cancer-promoting virus and the CDC once had a fact page on their website about it. (naturalnews.com)
- 11. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder associated with an Epstein-Barr-related virus in cynomolgus monkeys. (nih.gov)
- Today's vaccines not only contain live versions of diseases they're not even addressing, but also contain GMOs, hormones from infected cows, pigs, chickens and monkeys, untested virus combinations (like H1N1), aluminum, mercury, emulsifiers and crossbred bacteria from animals, mosquitoes and diseased humans. (naturalnews.com)
- Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. (cdc.gov)
- ally transmitted diseases, and virus structural stability. (cdc.gov)
- 2. Impact of Epstein-Barr virus in monomorphic B-cell posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders: a histogenetic study. (nih.gov)
- No association between simian virus 40 and diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura in Iranian patients: a molecular and epidemiologic case-control study of 60 patients. (cdc.gov)
- 7. Association between Epstein-Barr virus seroconversion and immunohistochemical changes in tonsils of pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. (nih.gov)
- Her work led to the newborn hamster becoming the preferred animal for testing potentially cancer-causing viruses of mammalian origin. (nih.gov)
- Virus may also logic and transmission models. (cdc.gov)