Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
A species of Old World monkeys from the genera CERCOCEBUS that is important in AIDS research. They may be naturally or experimentally infected with the SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS. They inhabit African forests from Sierra Leone to the Congo Republic.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, comprising two species: the drill (M. leucophaeus) and the mandrill (M. sphinx). They are usually found in thick rainforest and have a gentle disposition despite their ferocious reputation. Some authors consider Mandrillus a subgenus of PAPIO.
A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE inhabiting the African forests. They are also known as mangabeys.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce immunodeficiencies in primates, including humans.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A genus of Old World monkeys, subfamily COLOBINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the forests of Africa. It consists of eight species: C. angolensis (Angolan colobus), C. badius or C. rufomitratus (Red or Bay colobus), C. guereza (Guereza or Eastern black-and-white colobus), C. kirkii (Kirk's colobus), C. polykomos (King colobus or Western black-and-white colobus), C. satanas (Black colobus), and C. verus (Olive colobus). Some authors recognize Procolobus as a separate genus and then the olive colobus is recognized as the species P. verus.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Retrovirally encoded accessary proteins that play an essential role VIRUS REPLICATION. They are found in the cytoplasm of host cells and associate with a variety of host cell proteins. Vif stands for "virion infectivity factor".
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the HIV-1 regulatory protein vpu (viral protein U) that greatly increases the export of virus particles from infected cells. The vpu genes are not present in HIV-2 or SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Polyprotein products of a fused portion of retroviral mRNA containing the gag and pol genes. The polyprotein is synthesized only five percent of the time since pol is out of frame with gag, and is generated by ribosomal frameshifting.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.
A species of the genus ERYTHROCEBUS, subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE. It inhabits the flat open arid country of Africa. It is also known as the patas monkey or the red monkey.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.

RANTES, IFN-gamma, CCR1, and CCR5 mRNA expression in peripheral blood, lymph node, and bronchoalveolar lavage mononuclear cells during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques. (1/2811)

Primary infection of macaques with pathogenic isolates of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (as a model of HIV infection in humans) represents a unique opportunity to study early lentivirus/host interactions. We sought to determine whether there is a temporal relationship linking SIV replication and dissemination and the expression of the chemokine RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) and the SIV/HIV coreceptor CCR5 in different tissues during acute SIV infection of macaques. Four cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a pathogenic primary isolate of SIVmac251. RT-PCR was used to monitor the expression of RANTES and CCR5 mRNA in fresh isolated mononuclear cells from blood, lymph node, and bronchoalveolar lavages. These expressions were compared to those of IFN-gamma as an indicator of the development of the immune response and to another receptor for RANTES, CCR1, which is not described as a coreceptor for SIV/HIV-1 entry. An enhancement of CCR1/CCR5 mRNA expression was noticed during primary SIVmac251 infection of macaques, mainly in tissue. In the three different compartments investigated, IFN-gamma and RANTES overexpression was noticed by the time of systemic viral replication containment. Our results put CCR5 and RANTES mRNA expression back in the context of inflammatory and immune responses to SIV primary infection.  (+info)

Effect of the attenuating deletion and of sequence alterations evolving in vivo on simian immunodeficiency virus C8-Nef function. (2/2811)

The simian immunodeficiency virus macC8 (SIVmacC8) variant has been used in a European Community Concerted Action project to study the efficacy and safety of live attenuated SIV vaccines in a large number of macaques. The attenuating deletion in the SIVmacC8 nef-long terminal repeat region encompasses only 12 bp and is "repaired" in a subset of infected animals. It is unknown whether C8-Nef retains some activity. Since it seems important to use only well-characterized deletion mutants in live attenuated vaccine studies, we analyzed the relevance of the deletion, and the duplications and point mutations selected in infected macaques for Nef function in vitro. The deletion, affecting amino acids 143 to 146 (DMYL), resulted in a dramatic decrease in Nef stability and function. The initial 12-bp duplication resulted in efficient Nef expression and an intermediate phenotype in infectivity assays, but it did not significantly restore the ability of Nef to stimulate viral replication and to downmodulate CD4 and class I major histocompatibility complex cell surface expression. The additional substitutions however, which subsequently evolved in vivo, gradually restored these Nef functions. It was noteworthy that coinfection experiments in the T-lymphoid 221 cell line revealed that even SIVmac nef variants carrying the original 12-bp deletion readily outgrew an otherwise isogenic virus containing a 182-bp deletion in the nef gene. Thus, although C8-Nef is unstable and severely impaired in in vitro assays, it maintains some residual activity to stimulate viral replication.  (+info)

Lentivirus vectors using human and simian immunodeficiency virus elements. (3/2811)

Lentivirus vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) constitute a recent development in the field of gene therapy. A key property of HIV-1-derived vectors is their ability to infect nondividing cells. Although high-titer HIV-1-derived vectors have been produced, concerns regarding safety still exist. Safety concerns arise mainly from the possibility of recombination between transfer and packaging vectors, which may give rise to replication-competent viruses with pathogenic potential. We describe a novel lentivirus vector which is based on HIV, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and which we refer to as HIV/SIVpack/G. In this system, an HIV-1-derived genome is encapsidated by SIVmac core particles. These core particles are pseudotyped with VSV glycoprotein G. Because the nucleotide homology between HIV-1 and SIVmac is low, the likelihood of recombination between vector elements should be reduced. In addition, the packaging construct (SIVpack) for this lentivirus system was derived from SIVmac1A11, a nonvirulent SIV strain. Thus, the potential for pathogenicity with this vector system is minimal. The transduction ability of HIV/SIVpack/G was demonstrated with immortalized human lymphocytes, human primary macrophages, human bone marrow-derived CD34(+) cells, and primary mouse neurons. To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first demonstration that the HIV-1-derived genome can be packaged by an SIVmac capsid. We demonstrate that the lentivirus vector described here recapitulates the biological properties of HIV-1-derived vectors, although with increased potential for safety in humans.  (+info)

Early short-term 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine treatment favorably alters the subsequent disease course in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn Rhesus macaques. (4/2811)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn macaques is a useful animal model of human pediatric AIDS to study disease pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies aimed at delaying disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that very early events of infection greatly determine the ultimate disease course, as short-term antiviral drug administration during the initial viremia stage significantly delayed the onset of AIDS. Fourteen newborn macaques were inoculated orally with uncloned, highly virulent SIVmac251. The four untreated control animals showed persistently high virus levels and poor antiviral immune responses; they developed fatal immunodeficiency within 15 weeks. In contrast, SIV-infected newborn macaques which were started on 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) treatment at 5 days of age and continued for either 14 or 60 days showed reduced virus levels and enhanced antiviral immune responses. This short-term PMPA treatment did not induce detectable emergence of SIV mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to PMPA. Although viremia increased in most animals after PMPA treatment was withdrawn, all animals remained disease-free for at least 6 months. Our data suggest that short-term treatment with a potent antiviral drug regimen during the initial viremia will significantly prolong AIDS-free survival for HIV-infected infants and adults.  (+info)

Protection of macaques against intrarectal infection by a combination immunization regimen with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne gp160 vaccines. (5/2811)

We previously reported that immunization with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne envelope (gp160) vaccines protected macaques against intravenous challenge by the cloned homologous virus E11S but that this protection was only partially effective against the uncloned virus, SIVmne. In the present study, we examine the protective efficacy of this immunization regimen against infection by a mucosal route. We found that the same gp160-based vaccines were highly effective against intrarectal infection not only with the E11S clone but also with the uncloned SIVmne. Protection against mucosal infection is therefore achievable by parenteral immunization with recombinant envelope vaccines. Protection appears to correlate with high levels of SIV-specific antibodies and, in animals protected against the uncloned virus, the presence of serum-neutralizing activities. To understand the basis for the differential efficacies against the uncloned virus by the intravenous versus the intrarectal routes, we examined viral sequences recovered from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of animals early after infection by both routes. We previously showed that the majority (85%) of the uncloned SIVmne challenge stock contained V1 sequences homologous to the molecular clone from which the vaccines were made (E11S type), with the remainder (15%) containing multiple conserved changes (the variant types). In contrast to intravenously infected animals, from which either E11S-type or the variant type V1 sequences could be recovered in significant proportions, animals infected intrarectally had predominantly E11S-type sequences. Preferential transmission or amplification of the E11S-type viruses may therefore account in part for the enhanced efficacy of the recombinant gp160 vaccines against the uncloned virus challenge by the intrarectal route compared with the intravenous route.  (+info)

Dramatic rise in plasma viremia after CD8(+) T cell depletion in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques. (6/2811)

To determine the role of CD8(+) T cells in controlling simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in vivo, we examined the effect of depleting this cell population using an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody, OKT8F. There was on average a 99.9% reduction of CD8 cells in peripheral blood in six infected Macaca mulatta treated with OKT8F. The apparent CD8 depletion started 1 h after antibody administration, and low CD8 levels were maintained until day 8. An increase in plasma viremia of one to three orders of magnitude was observed in five of the six macaques. The injection of a control antibody to an infected macaque did not induce a sustained viral load increase, nor did it significantly reduce the number of CD8(+) T cells. These results demonstrate that CD8 cells play a crucial role in suppressing SIV replication in vivo.  (+info)

Viral burden and disease progression in rhesus monkeys infected with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses. (7/2811)

To determine the role of viral burden in simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-induced disease, cellular provirus and plasma viral RNA levels were measured after inoculation of rhesus monkeys with four different SHIVs. These SHIVs included SHIV-HXBc2 and SHIV-89.6, constructed with env, tat, rev, and vpu derived from either cell line-passaged or primary patient isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1; the viral quasispecies SHIV-89.6P derived after in vivo passage of SHIV-89.6; and a molecular clone, SHIV-KB9, derived from SHIV-89.6P. SHIV-HXBc2 and SHIV-89.6 are nonpathogenic in rhesus monkeys; SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KB9 cause rapid CD4(+) T cell depletion and an immunodeficiency syndrome. Relative SHIV provirus levels were highest during primary infection in monkeys infected with SHIV-89.6P, the virus that caused the most rapid and dramatic CD4(+) T cell depletion. However, by 10 weeks postinoculation, provirus levels were similar in monkeys infected with the pathogenic and nonpathogenic chimeric viruses. The virus infections that resulted in the highest peak and chronic viral RNA levels were the pathogenic viruses SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KB9. SHIV-89. 6P uniformly caused rapid and profound CD4(+) T cell depletion and immunodeficiency. Infection with the SHIV-KB9 resulted in very low CD4(+) T cell counts without seroconversion in some monkeys and a substantial but less profound CD4(+) T cell depletion and rapid seroconversion in others. Surprisingly, the level of plasma viremia did not differ between SHIV-KB9-infected animals exhibiting these contrasting outcomes, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in AIDS virus pathogenesis.  (+info)

Secretion of beta-chemokines by bronchoalveolar lavage cells during primary infection of macaques inoculated with attenuated nef-deleted or pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac251. (8/2811)

Primary infection of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as a model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection represents a unique opportunity to investigate early lentivirus-host interactions. In order to gain insight into immunopathogenic events taking place in the lung during lentiviral infection, we analysed lymphocyte expansion in the lung and chemokine secretion by mononuclear cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BALMCs) during primary infection by a pathogenic and a non-pathogenic SIV. Two groups of cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a fully pathogenic isolate of SIVmac251 or with an attenuated, nef-deleted, molecular clone of SIVmac251. Spontaneous MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES production was assessed by ELISA in supernatants of short-term cultured BALMCs. Kinetics of haematological, virological and immunological parameters were investigated simultaneously. All 11 inoculated animals became infected. Monkeys inoculated with the nef-deleted SIV clone exhibited a significantly reduced plasma virus load and a less pronounced accumulation of lymphocytes in the lung compared to monkeys infected with the pathogenic SIVmac251 isolate. Compared to pre-infection levels, we observed an increase in the levels of RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta production in the two groups of monkeys, by the time of peak viraemia. Strikingly, a greater enhancement of RANTES and MIP-1alpha production was detected in monkeys infected with the attenuated virus. Given the potential influence of beta-chemokines on the immune response and virus replication, such results suggest that RANTES, MIP1-alpha and MIP1-beta could contribute to the singular features of the immune response elicited during infection of macaques with an attenuated SIV.  (+info)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection models in cynomolgus macaques are important for analysis of the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency virus and for studies on the efficacy of new vaccine candidates. However, very little is known about the pathogenesis of SIV or simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in cynomolgus macaques from different Asian countries. In the present study, we analysed the infectivity and pathogenicity of CCR5-tropic SIVmac and those of dual-tropic SHIV89.6P inoculated into cynomolgus macaques in Indonesian, Malaysian or Philippine origin. The plasma viral loads in macaques infected with either SIVmac239 or SHIV89.6P were maintained at high levels. CD4+ T cell levels in macaques infected with SIVmac239 gradually decreased. All of the macaques infected with SHIV89.6P showed greatly reduced CD4+ T-cell numbers within 6 weeks of infection. Eight of the 11 macaques infected with SIVmac239 were killed due to AIDS symptoms after 2-4.5 years, while four of the five macaques
To investigate the dynamics of spread of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the lymphoid organs, we sequentially analyzed the viral burden in lymph nodes
TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction and characterization of replication-competent simian immunodeficiency virus vectors that express gamma interferon. AU - Giavedoni, Luis D.. AU - Yilma, Tilahun. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - We report the construction and characterization of several replication- competent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vectors with a deletion in the viral nef gene (SIV(Δnef)) that express gamma interferon (IFN-γ). The expression of the cytokine gene was controlled either by the simian virus 40 early promoter or by the SIV 5 long terminal repeat regulatory sequences, utilizing the nef gene splice signals. To enhance the expression of IFN-γ, the two in-frame nef start codons were mutated without altering the Env amino acid sequence (SIV(Hy-IFN)). Plasmids containing full-length proviral genomes were used to obtain high-titer stocks of each recombinant virus in cell cultures. Expression of IFN-γ by SIV(HyIFN) reached levels as high as 106 U/ml after 11 days in culture. The IFN-γ ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structured treatment interruptions with tenofovir monotherapy for simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn macaques. AU - Van Rompay, Koen K.A.. AU - Singh, Raman P.. AU - Heneine, Walid. AU - Johnson, Jeffrey A.. AU - Montefiori, David C.. AU - Bischofberger, Norbert. AU - Marthas, Marta. PY - 2006/7/1. Y1 - 2006/7/1. N2 - We demonstrated previously that prolonged tenofovir treatment of infant macaques, starting early during infection with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251), can lead to persistently low or undetectable viremia even after the emergence of mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to tenofovir as a result of a K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase; this control of viremia was demonstrated to be mediated by the generation of effective antiviral immune responses. To determine whether structured treatment interruptions (STI) can induce similar immunologic control of viremia, eight newborn macaques were infected with highly virulent SIVmac251 ...
Determination of KP metabolites in plasma were determined using three separate LC/MS/MS methods. A 5-analyte method was used for simultaneous analysis of KYN, KYNA, 3HK, AA, and 3HAA. A second method was used for analysis of QA, and a third method was employed to quantitate TRP in plasma. The stability of KP metabolites in plasma following storage at −20°C up to 3 mo and following the freeze-thaw cycle was established prior to analysis of the samples. For the 5-analyte method, a 200-μl aliquot of plasma was first mixed with 25 μl of 10% ascorbic acid followed by the addition of 50 μl of internal standard solution (acetonitrile/water; 50:50) containing KYN-D6 (100 ng/ml), KYNA-D5 (50 ng/ml), 15N13C2 3HK (100 ng/ml), and 13C6 AA (50 ng/ml). To this mixture, 800 μl of acetonitrile/methanol (90:10; v/v) was added to precipitate the proteins. After mixing and centrifugation, a 700-μl aliquot of supernatant was transferred to a clean tube and evaporated at 40°C for up to 2 h using TurboVap. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vaccine protection of rhesus macaques against simian immunodeficiency virus infection. AU - Carlson, J. R.. AU - McGraw, T. P.. AU - Keddie, E.. AU - Yee, J. L.. AU - Rosenthal, A.. AU - Langlois, A. J.. AU - Dickover, R.. AU - Donovan, R.. AU - Luciw, P. A.. AU - Jennings, M. B.. AU - Gardner, M. B.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) immunized with an inactivated whole SIV(mac) vaccine and muramyl dipeptide (MDP), incomplete Freunds adjuvant (IFA), or aqueous suspension were challenged intravenously with 0.1 TCID50 of cell-free SIV(mac). Whereas virus was readily recovered from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 10 of 10 nonvaccinated controls following this challenge dose, virus was not recovered from the three animals that received the vaccine with MDP nor from one of two animals that received the vaccine with IFA and one of three animals that received the aqueous vaccine. The animals that were protected against challenge were those that had ...
Chronic-phase HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication is reduced by as much as 10,000-fold in elite controllers (ECs) compared with typical progressors (TPs), but sufficient viral replication persists in EC tissues to allow viral sequence evolution and induce excess immune activation …
A reliable method for the quantitation of plasma viremia in nonhuman primates infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and related viruses is described. This method is based on an established quantitative-competitive PCR format and includes a truncated control for internal assay calibration. Optimization of assay conditions has significantly improved amplification specificity, and interassay variability is comparable to that of commercially available assays for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) quantitation. This procedure was used to monitor viral loads in a group of Macaca mulatta animals that were infected with SIVsmE660 for over 2 years. Highly diverse profiles of plasma viremia were observed among animals, and high viral loads were associated with more rapid disease progression. Spearman rank correlation analyses were done for survival versus three parameters of viral load: plasma viremia, p27 core antigen, and frequency of infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Plasma ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lymph node T cell responses predict the efficacy of live attenuated SIV vaccines. AU - Fukazawa, Yoshinori. AU - Park, Haesun. AU - Cameron, Mark J.. AU - Lefebvre, Francois. AU - Lum, Richard. AU - Coombes, Noel. AU - Mahyari, Eisa. AU - Hagen, Shoko I.. AU - Bae, Jin Young. AU - Reyes, Marcelo Delos. AU - Swanson, Tonya. AU - Legasse, Alfred W.. AU - Sylwester, Andrew. AU - Hansen, Scott. AU - Smith, Andrew T.. AU - Stafova, Petra. AU - Shoemaker, Rebecca. AU - Li, Yuan. AU - Oswald, Kelli. AU - Axthelm, Michael. AU - McDermott, Adrian. AU - Ferrari, Guido. AU - Montefiori, David C.. AU - Edlefsen, Paul T.. AU - Piatak, Michael. AU - Lifson, Jeffrey D.. AU - Sékaly, Rafick P.. AU - Picker, Louis. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - Live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines (LAVs) remain the most efficacious of all vaccines in nonhuman primate models of HIV and AIDS, yet the basis of their robust protection remains poorly understood. Here we show that the degree ...
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag-specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity was elicited in four out of six cynomolgus macaques after two immunizations with SIV gag recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV). No activity could be seen in three out of three non-immunized control animals. Low levels of anti-gag antibody were also seen in the same four responding animals. Virus-specific, MHC-restricted CTL are thought to give some protection and to assist in recovery in viral infection, and the induction of such CTL following vaccination with a single viral protein should act as an encouragement to those proposing similar vaccination studies in man.
A highly conserved threonine near the C terminus of gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was investigated for its contributions to envelope protein function and virion infectivity. When this highly conserved Thr residue was substituted with anything other than serine (the other amino acid that can accept O-glycosylation), the resulting virus was noninfectious. We found that this Thr was critical for the association of gp120 with the virion and that amino acid substitution increased the amount of dissociated gp120 in the cell culture supernatant. When HIV virions were generated in cells overexpressing polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (GalNAcT1), viral infectivity was increased 2.5-fold compared to that of virus produced in wild-type HEK293T cells; infectivity was increased 8-fold when the Thr499Ser mutant was used. These infectivity enhancements were not observed when GalNAcT3 was used. Using HEK293T knockout cell lines totally devoid ...
In vivo blockade of CD28 and CD40 T cell costimulation pathways during acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques was performed to assess the relative contributions of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and Ab responses in modulating SIV replication and disease progression. Transient administration of CTLA4-Ig and anti-CD40L mAb to SIV-infected rhesus macaques resulted in dramatic inhibition of the generation of both SIV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Acute levels of proliferating CD8+ T cells were associated with early control of SIV viremia but did not predict ensuing set point viremia or survival. The level of in vivo CD4+ T cell proliferation during acute SIV infection correlated with concomitant peak levels of SIV plasma viremia, whereas measures of in vivo CD4+ T cell proliferation that extended into chronic infection correlated with lower SIV viral load and increased survival. These results suggest that proliferating CD4+ T cells function both as ...
African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM) are well-studied natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that do not progress to AIDS when
TY - JOUR. T1 - Route of simian immunodeficiency virus inoculation determines the complexity but not the identity of viral variant populations that infect rhesus macaques. AU - Greenier, J. L.. AU - Miller, C. J.. AU - Lu, D.. AU - Dailey, P. J.. AU - Lü, F. X.. AU - Kunstman, K. J.. AU - Wolinsky, S. M.. AU - Marthas, M. L.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - A better understanding of the host and viral factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is essential to developing effective strategies to curb the global HIV epidemic. Here we used the rhesus macaque-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) animal model of HIV infection to study the range of viral genotypes that are transmitted by different routes of inoculation and by different types of viral inocula. Analysis of transmitted variants was undertaken in outbred rhesus macaques inoculated intravenously (IV) or intravaginally (IVAG) with a genetically heterogeneous SIVmac251 stock derived from a well-characterized rhesus ...
Although the cellular immune response is essential for controlling SIV replication in Asian macaques, its role in maintaining nonpathogenic SIV infection in natural hosts such as sooty mangabeys (SM) remains to be defined. We have previously shown that similar to rhesus macaques (RM), SM are able to mount a T lymphocyte response against SIV infection. To investigate early control of SIV replication in natural hosts, we performed a detailed characterization of SIV-specific cellular immunity and viral control in the first 6 mo following SIV infection in SM. Detection of the initial SIV-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT response in SIVsmE041-infected SM coincided temporally with a decline in peak plasma viremia and was similar in magnitude, specificity, and breadth to SIVsmE041-infected and SIVmac239-infected RM. Despite these similarities, SM showed a greater reduction in postpeak plasma viremia and a more rapid disappearance of productively SIV-infected cells from the lymph node compared with ...
Immunization of rhesus macaques with strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that are limited to a single cycle of infection elicits T-cell responses to multiple viral gene products and antibodies capable of neutralizing lab-adapted SIV, but not neutralization-resistant primary isolates of SIV. In an effort to improve upon the antibody responses, we immunized rhesus macaques with three strains of single-cycle SIV (scSIV) that express envelope glycoproteins modified to lack structural features thought to interfere with the development of neutralizing antibodies. These envelope-modified strains of scSIV lacked either five potential N-linked glycosylation sites in gp120, three potential N-linked glycosylation sites in gp41, or 100 amino acids in the V1V2 region of gp120. Three doses consisting of a mixture of the three envelope-modified strains of scSIV were administered on weeks 0, 6, and 12, followed by two booster inoculations with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G trans-complemented scSIV on
Opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have been shown to increase the rate of HIV replication. In populations where prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia is utilized, bacterial pneumonia is now the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in HIV+ patients. Our prior studies have shown that chronic alcohol consumption in demarcated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques increases plasma viral load set point and accelerates progression to end-stage acquired immune deficiency syndrome. While chronic alcohol abuse is well known to increase the incidence and severity of bacterial pneumonia, the impact of alcohol consumption on local and systemic SIV/HIV burden during lung infection is unknown. Therefore, we utilized the macaque SIV infection model to examine the effect of chronic ethanol (EtOH) feeding on SIV burden during the course of pulmonary infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most commonly identified ...
We have investigated the molecular basis of biological differences observed among cell line-adapted isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in response to receptor binding by using a soluble form of CD4 (sCD4) as a receptor mimic. We find that sCD4 binds to the envelope glycoproteins of all of the HIV-1 isolates tested with affinities within a threefold range, whereas those of the HIV-2 and SIV isolates have relative affinities for sCD4 two- to eightfold lower than those of HIV-1. Treatment of infected cells with sCD4 induced the dissociation of gp120 from gp41 and increased the exposure of a cryptic gp41 epitope on all of the HIV-1 isolates. By contrast, neither dissociation of the outer envelope glycoprotein nor increased exposure of the transmembrane glycoprotein was observed when sCD4 bound to HIV-2- or SIV-infected cells. Moreover, immunoprecipitation with sCD4 resulted in the coprecipitation of the surface and
This chapter summarizes advances in the following areas: (1) dendritic cell (DC)-mediated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission, (2) role of DCs in innate and adaptive immunity against...
Blum, F. C., Hardy, B. L., Bishop-Lilly, K, A., Frey, K. G., Hamilton, T., Whitney, J. B., Lewis, M. G., Merrell, D. S., and Mattapallil, J. 2020. Microbial dysbiosis during Simian immunodeficiency virus infection is partially reverted with combination anti-retroviral therapy. Scientific Reports: 10(1):6387.. George, J., Johnson, R. C., Mattapallil, M. J., Renn, L., Rabin, R., Merrell, D. S and Mattapallil, J. J. 2019. Gender differences in innate responses and gene expression profiles in memory CD4 T cells are apparent very early during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection. PLoS One. 14(9):e0221159. Valiant, W. G., Mattapallil, M. J., Higgs, S., Huang, Y. S., Vanlandingham, D. L., Lewis, M. G and Mattapallil, J. 2019. Simultaneous coinfection of macaques with zika and dengue viruses does not enhance acute viremia but leads to activation of monocyte subsets and biphasic release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Scientific Reports: 9: 7877 (1-11).. Valiant, W. G., Huang, Y., Vanlandingham, ...
The interplay between host and virus that controls disease progression in HIV- and SIV-infected individuals is undoubtedly complex. Host factor(s) play a major role in this process, however, because in the SIV-infected macaque, differences in disease progression and survival persist even though identical virus stocks, doses, and routes of inoculation are used for infection. We have developed a simplified in vitro assay that significantly correlated with disease progression after infection in vivo. The amount of virus produced from primary CD4+ T cells obtained from uninfected monkeys and infected in vitro correlated significantly with the rate of disease progression and survival after inoculation of the animal. The goal of this dissertation was to conduct a detailed molecular and immunological analysis of why differential in vivo virus production occurs and how it relates to disease progression and survival.Analyses of the events occurring during virus infection in vivo revealed two findings: 1) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A single amino acid change and truncated TM are sufficient for simian immunodeficiency virus to enter cells using CCR5 in a CD4-independent pathway. AU - Bonavia, A.. AU - Bullock, B. T.. AU - Gisselman, K. M.. AU - Margulies, B. J.. AU - Clements, Janice E. PY - 2005/10/10. Y1 - 2005/10/10. N2 - Entry of HIV and SIV into susceptible cells is mediated by CD4 and chemokine receptors, which act as coreceptors. To study cell entry of SIV, we constructed a cell line, xKLuSIV, derived from non-susceptible human K562 cells, that express the firefly luciferase reporter gene under control of a minimal SIV long terminal repeat (LTR). Using these susceptible cells, we studied the entry of a well-characterized molecularly cloned macrophage-tropic SIV. xKLuSIV cells that express rhesus macaque CD4 and/or the rhesus chemokine receptor CCR5 are susceptible to infection with the macrophage-tropic, neurovirulent strain SIV/17E-Fr, but only xKLuSIV cells expressing both CCR5 and CD4 were ...
猴免疫缺陷病毒(英语:Simian immunodeficiency virus,简称SIV),也称为非洲绿猴病毒(英语:African Green Monkey virus),是一种可影响至少33种非洲灵长目的逆转录病毒。[1][2]在对比奥科岛(于大约11000年前因海平面上升而从大陆隔离出来的一座岛屿)的四种猴中所发现的病毒株进行分析后,科学家们得出结论,称SIV在猴和猿中至少已存在了32000年,且实际存在时间可能比这长得多。[3][4] 这些灵长目动物中的两个物种中存在的病毒株,即白顶白眉猴(英语:sooty mangabey)体内的SIVsmm和黑猩猩体内的SIVcpz,被认为已跨越了种间屏障而进入人体,并最终成为了HIV的两个亚型,即HIV-2和HIV-1。HIV-1转移到人体最可能的路径之一是人类与黑猩猩(在非洲常作为丛林肉的来源而被捕猎)血液的接触。[3] ...
Breadth and magnitude of antigen-specific antibody responses in the control of plasma viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infected macaques. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Genetic and antigenic variation may be one means by which lentiviruses that cause AIDS avoid elimination by host immune responses. Genetic variation in the envelope gene (env) was studied by comparing the nucleotide sequences of 27 clones obtained from two rhesus monkeys infected with molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus. All 27 clones differed from each other and differed from the input clone in the gp120 (SU) portion of the envelope gene. Nucleotide substitutions were shown to accumulate with time at an average rate of 8.5 per 1,000 per year in SU. Surprisingly, the majority of nucleotide substitutions (81%) resulted in amino acid changes. Variation in SU was not random but occurred predominantly in five discrete regions. Within these variable regions, a remarkable 98% of the nucleotide substitutions changed the amino acid. These results demonstrate that extensive sequence variability accumulates in vivo after infection with molecularly cloned virus and that selection occurs in vivo for
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Homeostatic cytokines induce CD4 downregulation in African green monkeys Independently of antigen exposure to generate simian immunodeficiency Virus-Resistant CD8αα T cells. AU - Perkins, Molly R.. AU - Briant, Judith A.. AU - Calantone, Nina. AU - Whitted, Sonya. AU - Vinton, Carol L.. AU - Klatt, Nichole R.. AU - Ourmanov, Ilnour. AU - Ortiz, Alexandra M.. AU - Hirsch, Vanessa M.. AU - Brenchley, Jason M.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - African green monkeys (AGMs; genus Chlorocebus) are a natural host of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVAGM). As they do not develop simian AIDS, there is great interest in understanding how this species has evolved to avoid immunodeficiency. Adult African green monkeys naturally have low numbers of CD4+ T cells and a large population of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted CD8αdim T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4+ T cells. Mechanisms that drive this process of CD4 downregulation are unknown. Here, we ...
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules expressed on the surface of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are potential targets for neutralizing antibodies. Since MHC molecules are polymorphic, nonself MHC can also be immunogenic. We have used combinations of novel recombinant HLA class I and II and HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antigens, all linked to dextran, to investigate whether they can elicit protective immunity against heterologous simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge in rhesus macaques. Three groups of animals were immunized with HLA (group 1, n = 8), trimeric YU2 HIV type 1 (HIV-1) gp140 and SIV p27 (HIV/SIV antigens; group 2, n = 8), or HLA plus HIV/SIV antigens (group 3, n = 8), all with Hsp70 and TiterMax Gold adjuvant. Another group (group 4, n = 6) received the same vaccine as group 3 without TiterMax Gold. Two of eight macaques in group 3 were completely protected against intravenous challenge with 18 50% animal infective doses (AID(50)) of ...
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A post we made last week suggested a new vaccine can protect macaques against the monkey equivalent of HIV, however the vaccine using the common virus cytomegalovirus (CMV) as the vector or container of proteins from the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) protected none of a group of 24 rhesus macaques from infection. But in 13…
At the end of the recovery period after huOKT4 treatment, the CD4+ TN-depleted cohort manifested almost a complete absence of circulating CD4+ TN cells. Importantly, no CD4+ TN regeneration was observed throughout the entire course of SIV infection in the CD4+ TN-depleted cohort, in sharp contrast to the CD4+ TN-repleted RMs (Fig. 2 B). CD4+ TN lack CCR5 expression, and are thus not primary targets of CCR5-tropic SIV (Picker et al., 2004). Therefore, given the essentially equivalent CD4+ TM populations in the CD4+ TN-depleted and -repleted cohorts (Fig. 1), it is not surprising that the absence of CD4+ TN in the former group had no effect on peak pvl (Fig. 2 C). More surprising was the observation that early plateau- and chronic-phase pvl were also not significantly different between the CD4+ TN-depleted and -repleted groups (Fig. 2 C), despite the facts that SIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were essentially absent in CD4+ TN-depleted RMs during acute infection (Fig. 2 D), and that only 11% of ...
The human T-lymphotropic viruses, type I (HTLV-I) and type II (HTLV-II), are closely related but distinct retroviruses that can infect humans. They are different from the human immunodeficiency viruses that cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Screening of the U.S. blood supply for HTLV-I/II, which began in 1988, identifies HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-infected persons who should be counseled regarding their infections. This document summarizes CURRENT information about HTLV, types I and II, and presents recommendations developed by CDC and a U.S. Public Health Service working group for counseling HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-infected persons ...
The RAPAd® method of Adenovirus construction, developed by ViraQuest Inc. scientists, has been used by other scientists around the world.. Request Quote ...
What type of virus is HIV? HIV is a lentivirus, and like all viruses of this type, it attacks the immune system. Lentiviruses are in turn part of a larger group of viruses known as retroviruses. The name lentivirus literally means slow virus because they take such a long time to produce any adverse effects in the body. They have been found in a number of different animals, including cats, sheep, horses and cattle. However, the most interesting lentivirus in terms of the investigation into the origins of HIV is the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) that affects monkeys, which is believed to be at least 32,000 years old.1 So did HIV come from an SIV? It is now thought that HIV came from a similar virus found in chimpanzees. It is now thought that HIV came from a similar virus found in chimpanzees. It is now generally accepted that HIV is a descendant of a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus because certain strains of SIVs bear a very close resemblance to HIV-1 and HIV-2, the two types of HIV. ...
Immunosuppressive CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, which play a pivotal role in peripheral tolerance [1], have also been found to play a role in the immunopathogenesis of disease caused by certain persistent infections [2,3]. The overall impact of Treg cells on HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) disease progression remains controversial and has proven difficult to assess due to lack of specific inhibitors of Treg-cell activity and the complex role of immune activation in HIV/SIV disease. Treg cells potentially exert contrasting effects: slowing progression by suppressing generalized immune hyperactivation and HIV replication in non-Treg cells, or accelerating progression by suppressing virus-specific immune responses, and/or contributing to the loss of T helper-17 cells, thereby increasing immune activation mediated by microbial translocation from the gut [3-7]. Although there is conflicting data regarding the frequency of Treg cells in the blood during the course of infection, it ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rare Control of SIVmac239 Infection in a Vaccinated Rhesus Macaque. AU - Martins, Mauricio A.. AU - Tully, Damien C.. AU - Shin, Young C.. AU - Gonzalez-Nieto, Lucas. AU - Weisgrau, Kim L.. AU - Bean, David J.. AU - Gadgil, Rujuta. AU - Gutman, Martin J.. AU - Domingues, Aline. AU - Maxwell, Helen S.. AU - Magnani, Diogo M.. AU - Ricciardi, Michael. AU - Pedreño-Lopez, Nuria. AU - Bailey, Varian. AU - Cruz, Michael A.. AU - Lima, Noemia S.. AU - Bonaldo, Myrna C.. AU - Altman, John D.. AU - Rakasz, Eva. AU - Capuano, Saverio. AU - Reimann, Keith A.. AU - Piatak, Michael. AU - Lifson, Jeffrey D.. AU - Desrosiers, Ronald C.. AU - Allen, Todd M.. AU - Watkins, David I.. PY - 2017/8. Y1 - 2017/8. N2 - Effector memory T cell (TEM) responses display potent antiviral propertis and have been linked to stringent control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Since recurrent antigen stimulation drives the differentiation of CD8+ T cells toward the TEM phenotype, in this study ...
Increasing evidence suggests an unexpected potential for non-neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV infection. Consequently, identification of functional linear B-cell epitopes for HIV are important for developing preventative and therapeutic strategies. We therefore explored the role of antigen-specific immune responses in controlling plasma viremia in SIV infected rhesus macaques. Thirteen rhesus macaques were inoculated either intravaginally or intrarectally with SIVMAC251. Peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells were quantified. Plasma was examined for viremia, antigen specific IgG, IgA and IgM binding responses and neutralizing antibodies. Regions containing binding epitopes for antigen-specific IgG, IgM and IgA responses were determined, and the minimum size of linear Envelope epitope responsible for binding antibodies was identified. The presence of neutralizing antibodies did not correlate the outcome of the disease. In a few SIV-infected macaques, antigen-specific IgG and IgM responses in plasma
The sexual transmission of viruses is responsible for the spread of multiple infectious diseases. Although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic remains fueled by sexual contacts with infected semen, the origin of virus in semen is still unknown. In a substantial number of HIV-infected men, viral strains present in semen differ from the ones in blood, suggesting that HIV is locally produced within the genital tract. Such local production may be responsible for the persistence of HIV in semen despite effective antiretroviral therapy. In this study, we used single-genome amplification, amplicon sequencing ( gene), and phylogenetic analyses to compare the genetic structures of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) populations across all the male genital organs and blood in intravenously inoculated cynomolgus macaques in the chronic stage of infection. Examination of the virus populations present in the male genital tissues of the macaques revealed compartmentalized SIV populations in testis,
Macaque immunization with a mixture of four SIV peptides from conserved hydrophilic envelope regions has been shown to prevent virus persistence following challenge with SIVmne/E11s. Data shown here demonstrate that lymph node cells from all vaccinated monkeys and peripheral blood lymphocytes from one of the vaccinees were positive in a SIV-pol nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification analysis. However, by 37 months after infection, all immunized monkeys were healthy while two of three controls had died and the remaining animal was virus culture-positive and had declining CD4+ lymphocytes. Viable lymph node cells and peripheral lymphoid cells in blood were transferred from the three immunized macaques to individual susceptible macaques. As a control for the transfer, one of the vaccine experiment controls that was actively producing virus in its peripheral blood was used. None of the recipients of cells from the vaccinated macaques seroconverted and all were virus coculture- and ...
A similar situation was noted in lingual tonsil, which consists of many lymphoid nodules, each connected to the pharynx by an invaginating crypt. The number of infected cells varied from one tonsil nodule to another, but most nodules were infected, and infected cells were numerous especially in p55-negative regions of the ELT (Fig. 4D). In the lingual tonsil at day 7, 74% of infected cells were in ELT, 6% in LE, and 20% in GCs.. We expected that productive infection with SIV would begin in stratified squamous epithelium that constitutes the external covering of the tonsil (Fig. 4B), tongue (Fig. 4D), and buccal cavity (21). This epithelium is comparable to the surface of the vagina and anus, and is rich in DCs that can capture and transport immunodeficiency viruses (13-17). When we infected the monkeys, we applied SIV directly to the tonsillar squamous epithelium. Breaks in this epithelium also could have provided a conduit for SIV to access susceptible lymphocytes. However, infected cells were ...
The potential impact of this CD4+ memory proliferative collapse on peripheral tissues was revealed by another series of observations. First, as explained in Results, both the kinetics of BrdU labeling of blood, lymph node, and BAL T cells, and the pattern of Ki-67 expression by these labeled cells, firmly establish that the pulmonary tissue-air interface of SIV-infected normal progressors is constantly being seeded by recently divided CD4+ memory T cells, originating elsewhere (likely organized lymphoid tissues). Thus, SIV infection increases CD4+ memory T cell proliferation in peripheral lymphoid tissues, producing progeny that directly disperse to extralymphoid effector sites. Because there is both a paucity of Ki-67high T cells and minimal immediate BrdU uptake by T cells in BALs, these cells do not appear to further proliferate in these sites, but given the rapid decline in BrdU labeling observed in our BAL samples (Fig. 7), likely die in situ, only to be continuously replaced by subsequent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A panel of IgG1 b12 variants with selectively diminished or enhanced affinity for Fcγ receptors to define the role of effector functions in protection against HIV. AU - Moldt, Brian. AU - Schultz, Niccole. AU - Dunlop, D. Cameron. AU - Alpert, Michael D.. AU - Harvey, Jackson D.. AU - Evans, David T.. AU - Poignard, Pascal. AU - Hessell, Ann J.. AU - Burton, Dennis R.. PY - 2011/10/1. Y1 - 2011/10/1. N2 - Passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies is effective in protecting rhesus macaques against simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. In addition to neutralization, effector functions of the crystallizable fragment (Fc) of antibodies are involved in antibody-mediated protection against a number of viruses. We recently showed that interaction between the Fc fragment of the broadly neutralizing antibody IgG1 b12 and cellular Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) plays an important role in protection against SHIV infection in rhesus macaques. The specific nature of this ...
Examining the differences and similarities between HIV and SIV retroviral replication systems is important in light of the fact that SIV animal models are used in the development and testing of HIV eradicating drugs and vaccines. One such difference may be the efficiency of Gag directed viral assembly. Studies with HIV-1 Gag have shown that during the late phase retroviral replication, 1,500-5,000 copies of Gag are targeted to lipid raft sites on the plasma membrane for new virus production.,super,2; 3; 4,super, The role of MA as a domain of Gag/Gag-Pro-Pol is crucial for viral particle assembly and budding through the synergistic properties of the myristate group and positively charged basic residues of the N-terminus. Work done by Tang ,italic,et al,italic,.,super,5,super, demonstrated myristylated [myr(+)] HIV-1 MA exists in an equilibrium between a monomeric and trimeric state. Concentration dependent assays done with 2D ,super,1,super,H, ,super,15,super,N-HSQC NMR showed the chemical shift ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
An important step in combating infectious diseases like HIV is exploring the origin and evolution of the disease. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is the equivalent of HIV for monkeys and chimpanzees. It is believed that HIV arose from SIV, which was then transmitted to humans by contact with chimpanzees. In a study published in PLoS Pathogens, scientists from the University of Arizona in Tucson have found that SIV may have infected the African green monkey population much later than previously thought.
Using enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP-1), a transient transfection reporter system was established to monitor the transcriptional activity of the long terminal repeats (LTR) of several primary strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239. After transient transfection of HeLa cells with variant HIV-1 LTR-EGFP-1 constructs, we scanned the cell culture using fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS). Using FACS it was possible to simultaneously estimate for transfection efficiency and to quantitatively determine the fluorescence intensity of the transfected population. Data showed that expression of EGFP-1 was DNA dose dependent. FACS enabled the visualization of heterogeneity in the level of reporter gene expression in a transiently transfected population. The distribution of the fluorescent intensity of transfected cells was treated as a frequency distribution, and different statistical estimators were used to quantitate the amount of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship of neurologic status in macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus to cerebrospinal fluid quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid. AU - Heyes, Melvyn P.. AU - Jordan, Elaine K.. AU - Lee, Kristin. AU - Saito, Kuniaki. AU - Frank, Joseph A.. AU - Snoy, Phillip J.. AU - Markey, Sanford P.. AU - Gravell, Maneth. PY - 1992/1/20. Y1 - 1992/1/20. N2 - Increased concentrations of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) have been implicated in the neurologic deficits and brain atrophy that may accompany infection with the human immunodeficiency virus type-1. Key neuropathologic features of the AIDS encephalitis are replicated in some macaques following infection with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). In the present studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) QUIN concentrations increased within 2 weeks following infection of 11 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with a neurotropic sooty mangabey isolate of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm) and were sustained to , ...
Looking for online definition of simian-human immunodeficiency virus in the Medical Dictionary? simian-human immunodeficiency virus explanation free. What is simian-human immunodeficiency virus? Meaning of simian-human immunodeficiency virus medical term. What does simian-human immunodeficiency virus mean?
Infection of macaques with attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) induces potent superinfection resistance that may be applicable to the development of an AIDS vaccine but little information exists concerning the conditions necessary for the induction of this vaccine effect. We report that only a high dose of attenuated SIVmac protected macaques against intravenous challenge with more virulent virus 15 weeks after primary infection. Three of four animals given 2000-20000 TCID50 of SIVmacC8, a molecular clone of SIVmac251(32H) with a 12 bp deletion in the nef gene, essentially resisted superinfection with uncloned SIVmac. In two animals challenge virus was never detected by PCR and in one animal challenge virus was detected on one occasion only. Although animals given 2-200 TCID50 of attenuated virus were superinfected they were spared from the loss of CD4 cells seen in infected naive controls. Protection from superinfection did not correlate with immune responses, including the levels of virus
To gain a better understanding of the assembly process in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), we first established the conditions under which recombinant SIV Gag lacking the C-terminal p6 domain (SIV GagΔp6) assembled in vitro into spherical particles. Based on the full multimerization capacity of SIV GagΔp6, and to identify the Gag sequences involved in homotypic interactions, we next developed a pull-down assay in which a panel of histidine-tagged SIV Gag truncation mutants was tested for its ability to associate in vitro with GST-SIVGagΔp6. Removal of the nucleocapsid (NC) domain from Gag impaired its ability to interact with GST-SIVGagΔp6. However, this Gag mutant consisting of the matrix (MA) and capsid (CA) domains still retained 50% of the wild-type binding activity. Truncation of SIV Gag from its N-terminus yielded markedly different results. The Gag region consisting of the CA and NC was significantly more efficient than wild-type Gag at interacting in vitrowith GST-SIVGagΔp6. ...
Like most emerging infectious disease viruses, HIV is also of zoonotic origin. To assess the risk for cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) from nonhuman primates to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we collected 330 samples derived from nonhuman primate bushmeat at 3 remote forest sites. SIV prevalences were estimated by using a novel high-throughput assay that included 34 HIV and SIV antigens in a single well. Overall, 19% of nonhuman primate bushmeat was infected with SIVs, and new SIV lineages were identified. Highest SIV prevalences were seen in red-tailed guenons (25%) and Tshuapa red colobus monkeys (24%), representing the most common hunted primate species, thus increasing the likelihood for cross-species transmission. Additional studies are needed to determine whether other SIVs crossed the species barrier. With the newly developed assay, large-scale screening against many antigens is now easier and faster.
Like most emerging infectious disease viruses, HIV is also of zoonotic origin. To assess the risk for cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) from nonhuman primates to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we collected 330 samples derived from nonhuman primate bushmeat at 3 remote forest sites. SIV prevalences were estimated by using a novel high-throughput assay that included 34 HIV and SIV antigens in a single well. Overall, 19% of nonhuman primate bushmeat was infected with SIVs, and new SIV lineages were identified. Highest SIV prevalences were seen in red-tailed guenons (25%) and Tshuapa red colobus monkeys (24%), representing the most common hunted primate species, thus increasing the likelihood for cross-species transmission. Additional studies are needed to determine whether other SIVs crossed the species barrier. With the newly developed assay, large-scale screening against many antigens is now easier and faster ...
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American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual 2013 SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES Animal Group(s) Affected Found in many African nonhuman primates. Macaques susceptible. Transmission Clinical Signs Severity Treatment Prevention and Control Zoonotic Mainly horizontal through sexual contact and bite wounds. Clinical disease occurs in only a minority of infected individuals. Severe and fatal in nonnatural host Test collection and determine risk to benefit of introductions to naïve animals. Vertical transmission reported by virus-infected milk When pathogenic, disease depends on the nature of the organ and opportunistic infections. None specific although same treatment options for HIV could be used Infection should be considered a zoonotic disease since many SIV species can grow in human cell lines in vitro. Fact Sheet compiled by: Sam Rivera; updated by Natalie Mylniczenko Sheet completed on: 1 June 2011; updated 10 September 2013 Fact Sheet Reviewed by: William ...
Gag-Pol polyprotein and Gag polyprotein may regulate their own translation, by the binding genomic RNA in the 5-UTR. At low concentration, Gag-Pol and Gag would promote translation, whereas at high concentration, the polyproteins encapsidate genomic RNA and then shutt off translation (By similarity).
The RV144 vaccine trial in Thailand demonstrated that an HIV vaccine could prevent infection in humans and highlights the importance of understanding protective immunity against HIV. We used a nonhuman primate model to define immune and genetic mechanisms of protection against mucosal infection by the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). A plasmid DNA prime/recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) boost vaccine regimen was evaluated for its ability to protect monkeys from infection by SIVmac251 or SIVsmE660 isolates after repeat intrarectal challenges. Although this prime-boost vaccine regimen failed to protect against SIVmac251 infection, 50% of vaccinated monkeys were protected from infection with SIVsmE660. Among SIVsmE660-infected animals, there was about a one-log reduction in peak plasma virus RNA in monkeys expressing the major histocompatibility complex class I allele Mamu-A*01, implicating cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the control of SIV replication once infection is established. Among ...
Disease-free infection in HIV-infected adults is associated with human leukocyte antigen-mediated suppression of viremia, whereas in the sooty mangabey and other healthy natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), viral replication continues unabated. To better understand factors preventing HIV disease, we investigated pediatric infection, where AIDS typically develops more rapidly than in adults. Among 170 nonprogressing antiretroviral therapy-naïve children aged |5 years maintaining normal-for-age CD4 T cell counts, immune activation levels were low despite high viremia (median, 26,000 copies/ml). Potent, broadly neutralizing antibody responses in most of the subjects and strong virus-specific T cell activity were present but did not drive pediatric nonprogression. However, reduced CCR5 expression and low HIV infection in long-lived central memory CD4 T cells were observed in pediatric nonprogressors. These children therefore express two cardinal immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV
Mitochondrial 12S and cytochrome B sequences were identical in all four animals and confirmed that the monkeys were M. sphinx [9, 10]. In addition, the cytochrome B sequences were indistinguishable from the recently described northern mandrill haplotype (Figure 1B) [10], suggesting that the captive animals descended from founders originating from a locale north of the Ogooué River (see Figure 1A). SIV-pol fragments could be amplified from PBMC of both adult mandrills CAS and REB with the primer set specific for SIVmnd2, but not with SIVmnd1 specific primers. However, analysis of the cloned fragments showed that these were 96-97% identical to SIVdrl-1FAO (GenBank acc. no. AY159321) isolated from a drill monkey (Mandrillus leucophaeus), with a lower sequence identity to SIVmnd2 (± 85% to GenBank acc. no. AF367411), and to SIVmnd1 (,64% to GenBank acc. no. M27470). Although SIVmnd2 and SIVdrl are more closely related to each other than the two SIVmnd strains, SIVdrl has several mismatches with ...
An env- and nef-deleted SHIV DNA, SIVGP1, was constructed from an infectious SHIVMD14YE clone DNA as described previously (13, 22). The DNA is deleted with a gene fragment encoding Env surface protein (SU; nucleotide [nt] 6211 to nt 7726 in HIV-1DH12; these sequence data are available from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ under accession no. AF069140), the 3′ portion of the env gene (nt 8628 to nt 8764 in HIV-1DH12), and the 5′ quarter of the nef gene (nt 9333 to nt 9481 in SIVmac239; GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession no. M33262). From SIVGP1 DNA, the 5′ long terminal repeat region was replaced with a CMV promoter with immediate early enhancer and the 3′ portion containing the remaining nef and the 3′ long terminal repeat was replaced with Simian virus 40 poly A to obtain CMV-SHIVdEN DNA. Therefore, the CMV-SHIVdEN DNA has SIV-derived gag, pol, vif, vpx, and partial vpr sequences and HIV-1-derived partial vpr, tat, rev, and partial env (nt 7726 to nt 8628 containing the second exon of tat, the second exon ...
1. ShortmanK. LiuYJ. 2002. Mouse and human dendritic cell subtypes.. Nat Rev Immunol. 2. 151. 161. 2. AlmeidaM. CorderoM. AlmeidaJ. OrfaoA. 2005. Different subsets of peripheral blood dendritic cells show distinct phenotypic and functional abnormalities in HIV-1 infection.. AIDS. 19. 261. 271. 3. BarronMA. BlyveisN. PalmerBE. MaWhinneyS. WilsonCC. 2003. Influence of plasma viremia on defects in number and immunophenotype of blood dendritic cell subsets in human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected individuals.. J Infect Dis. 187. 26. 37. 4. DonaghyH. PozniakA. GazzardB. QaziN. GilmourJ. 2001. Loss of blood CD11c(+) myeloid and CD11c(−) plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with HIV-1 infection correlates with HIV-1 RNA virus load.. Blood. 98. 2574. 2576. 5. GrassiF. HosmalinA. McIlroyD. CalvezV. DebreP. 1999. Depletion in blood CD11c-positive dendritic cells from HIV-infected patients.. AIDS. 13. 759. 766. 6. PacanowskiJ. KahiS. BailletM. LebonP. DeveauC. 2001. Reduced blood CD123+ (lymphoid) ...
Aikeqing (AKQ) has been shown in clinical studies to improve quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients, but anti-HIV activity has not been determined. The SHIV-infected macaque is an important animal model for testing antiviral drugs. This study aimed to determine the anti-HIV activity of AKQ in chronically SHIV89.6-infected Chinese rhesus macaques. Nine Chinese rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with SHIV89.6 virus. At 11 weeks post-infection, the animals were arbitrarily divided into three groups: high-dose (AKQ 1.65 g/kg; n = 3), low-dose (AKQ 0.55 g/kg; n = 3), and control (water 1 mL/kg; n = 3). Treatment was administered by the intragastric gavage route once-daily for 8 weeks. Blood (5 mL) was collected biweekly. Viral loads were analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays, and T cell counts were monitored by FACS analyses throughout the treatment. AKQ induced a persistent decline (P = 0.02) in plasma viral loads during treatment in the high-dose group
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Amrita Datta Chaudhuri, Sowmya V Yelamanchili, Maria Cecilia G Marcondes, Howard S Fox].
CCL3 is a ligand for the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5. There have recently been conflicting reports in the literature concerning whether CCL3-like gene (CCL3L) copy number variation (CNV) is associated with resistance to HIV-1 acquisition and with both viral load and disease progression following infection with HIV-1. An association has also been reported between CCL3L CNV and clinical sequelae of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in vivo in rhesus monkeys. The present study was initiated to explore the possibility of an association of CCL3L CNV with the control of virus replication and AIDS progression in a carefully defined cohort of SIVmac251-infected, Indian-origin rhesus monkeys. Although we demonstrated extensive variation in copy number of CCL3L in this cohort of monkeys, CCL3L CNV was not significantly associated with either peak or set-point plasma SIV RNA levels in these monkeys when MHC class I allele Mamu-A*01 was included in the models or progression to AIDS in these ...
Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were experimentally infected with strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) derived from SIVmac239 lacking vpr, vpx, or both vpr and vpx genes. These auxiliary genes are not required for virus replication in cultured cells but are consistently conserved within the SIVmac/human immunodeficiency virus type 2/SIVsm group of primate lentiviruses. All four rhesus monkeys infected with the vpr deletion mutant showed an early spike in plasma antigenemia, maintained high virus burdens, exhibited declines in CD4+ lymphocyte concentrations, and had significant changes in lymph node morphology, and two have died to date with AIDS. The behavior of the vpr deletion mutant was indistinguishable from that of the parental, wild-type virus. Rhesus monkeys infected with the vpx deletion mutant showed lower levels of plasma antigenemia, lower virus burdens, and delayed declines in CD4+ lymphocyte concentrations but nonetheless progressed with AIDS to a terminal stage. The ...
In this study we immunophenotypically differentiate subpopulations of brain macrophages into perivascular macrophages and parenchymal microglia and demonstrate that perivascular macrophages are the major cell productively infected by SIV in the CNS of macaques. Preferential infection of perivascular macrophages in the CNS may account for several important observations concerning infection of the CNS, viral dynamics in the CNS, and the role of the CNS as a viral sanctuary or reservoir.. Although it has not been directly demonstrated, it is generally assumed that lentiviruses enter the CNS by the traffic of infected monocyte/macrophages (64). Our data showing that perivascular macrophages are the major cell type, infected in the brain, support this hypothesis. Studies in chimeric rodents and humans receiving bone marrow indicate that perivascular macrophages are continuously replaced from the circulation (15)(16)(17)(43). The immunophenotype described for perivascular macrophages, ...
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PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
In contrast to infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques, SIV infection of a natural host, sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), is non-pathogenic despite high viraemia(1). Here we sequenced and assembled the genome of a captive sooty mangabey. We conducted genome-wide comparative analyses of transcript assemblies from C. atys and AIDS-susceptible species, such as humans and macaques, to identify candidates for host genetic factors that influence susceptibility. We identified several immune-related genes in the genome of C. atys that show substantial sequence divergence from macaques or humans. One of these sequence divergences, a C-terminal frameshift in the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) gene of C. atys, is associated with a blunted in vitro response to TLR-4 ligands. In addition, we found a major structural change in exons 3-4 of the immune-regulatory protein intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM-2); expression of this variant ...
In order to test the hypothesis that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes mediate protection against acute superinfection, we depleted |99% of CD8+ lymphocytes in live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus macC8 (SIVmacC8) vaccinees from the onset of vaccination, maintained that depletion for 20 days, and then challenged with pathogenic, wild-type SIVmacJ5. Vaccinees received 5 mg per kg of humanized anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1 h before inoculation, followed by the same dose again on days 3, 7, 10, 13, and 17. On day 13, peripheral CD8+ T lymphocytes were |99% depleted in three out of four anti-CD8 MAb-treated vaccinees. At this time attenuated SIVmacC8 viral RNA loads in anti-CD8 MAb-treated vaccinees were significantly higher than control vaccinees treated contemporaneously with nonspecific human immunoglobulin. Lymphoid tissue CD8+ T lymphocyte depletion was |99% in three out of four anti-CD8 MAb-treated vaccinees on the day of wild-type SIVmacJ5 challenge. All four control vaccinees and three
Human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) normally presents an HLA class Ia signal peptide to the NKG2A/C-CD94 regulatory receptors on natural killer (NK) cells and T cell subsets. Rhesus macaques immunized with a cytomegalovirus-vectored simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine generated Mamu-E (HLA-E homolog)-restricted T cell responses that mediated post-challenge SIV replication arrest in |50% of animals. However, HIV-1-specific, HLA-E-restricted T cells have not been observed in HIV-1-infected individuals. Here, HLA-E-restricted, HIV-1-specific CD8 + T cells were primed in vitro. These T cell clones and allogeneic CD8 + T cells transduced with their T cell receptors suppressed HIV-1 replication in CD4 + T cells in vitro. Vaccine induction of efficacious HLA-E-restricted HIV-1-specific T cells should therefore be possible.
In the past 30 years, HIV vaccine studies on traditional CD8+ T cell-targeted HIV vaccines were frustrated by the ineffectiveness of mediating immediate vaccinal interception upon infection acquisition prior to the explosive viral amplification. As the most important lesson of past HIV vaccine researches, the first hours to days immediately after viral infection might be the only vulnerable time period for immunologic interceptions.[1, 2] With this regard, immunologists started a novel research on employing Cytomegelovirus (CMV) as vaccine vector in early 2000s, to exploit CMV vectors unique ability on eliciting and maintaining abundant functional T cell responses at all potential HIV infection sites.[3-6] Recent CMV-based vaccine research, demonstrated by Louis Picker and colleagues, with statistical support by Dr. Edlefsen, manifests a remarkable infection control and clearance on ~50% of HIV-acquired rhesus macaques (RM) vaccinated by Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) inserted rhesus ...
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The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1, located at the C terminus of the gp41 ectodomain, is conserved and crucial for viral fusion. Three broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs), 2F5, 4E10, and Z13e1, are directed against linear epitopes mapped to the MPER, making this conserved region an important potential vaccine target. However, no MPER antibodies have been definitively shown to provide protection against HIV challenge. Here, we show that both MAbs 2F5 and 4E10 can provide complete protection against mucosal simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge in macaques. MAb 2F5 or 4E10 was administered intravenously at 50 mg/kg to groups of six male Indian rhesus macaques 1 day prior to and again 1 day following intrarectal challenge with SHIVBa-L. In both groups, five out of six animals showed complete protection and sterilizing immunity, while for one animal in each group a low level of viral replication following challenge could not be ruled out. The study ...
HIV is a major driver of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation. Depletion of CD4+ T cells is assumed to be the basis behind TB reactivation in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) coinfected with HIV. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) coinfected with a mutant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVΔGY) that does not cause depletion of tissue CD4+ T cells during infection failed to reactivate TB. To investigate the contribution of CD4+ T cell depletion relative to other mechanisms of SIV-induced reactivation of LTBI, we used CD4R1 antibody to deplete CD4+ T cells in animals with LTBI without lentiviral infection. The mere depletion of CD4+ T cells during LTBI was insufficient in generating reactivation of LTBI. Instead, direct cytopathic effects of SIV resulting in chronic immune activation, along with the altered effector T cell phenotypes and dysregulated T cell homeostasis, were likely mediators of reactivation of LTBI. These results revealed important implications for TB control in ...
In this paper, the optimization of the conditionally live SIV-rtTA variant through viral evolution is described. We recently constructed this dox-dependent SIVmac239 variant by replacing the natural Tat-TAR mechanism of transcription control by the dox-inducible Tet-On regulatory mechanism. Although the original SIV-rtTA variant replicates in T cell lines and in primary macaque PBMC, it replicates poorly when compared with the parental SIVmac239 [25](Figs. 5 and 6). Upon long-term culturing, the virus acquired several mutations in the TAR and U3 region. These mutations significantly improve viral replication, but do not affect dox control. We thus generated novel SIV-rtTA variants that replicate efficiently and in a dox-dependent manner in both T-cell lines and primary macaque PBMC.. We previously used virus evolution to optimize a similarly constructed dox-dependent HIV-1 variant. Upon long-term culturing, this HIV-rtTA variant acquired several mutations in the rtTA and tetO components of the ...
A protease/anti-protease imbalance is a characteristic feature of inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and COPD. However, alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) enzyme replace- ment therapy (ERT) trials have not shown conclusive evidence of therapeutic benefit. Here, we assessed whether transduction of murine lungs with a pseudotyped SIV vector, rSIV.F/HN-hCEF-AAT, generates therapeutic levels of AAT. Mice were transduced with rSIV.F/HN-hCEF-AAT (1.4e8 TU/mouse) by nasal instillation and culled 10 days post-trans- duction. AAT levels in lung homogenate and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were 3 logs above controls (p | 0.05), and hAAT concentration in ELF was 92-28lg/ml, similar to the thera- peutic AAT level in ELF of 70lg/ml. For comparison trans- fection of mouse lung with cationic lipid GL67A complexed to hCEFI-AAT only led to 0.4-0.1lg/ml AAT in ELF. A neutrophil elastase (NE) activity assay showed that the recombinant AAT successfully neutralised NE activity (p | 0.05). In a separate
Four glycoproteins of apparent molecular weights 300,000, 140,000, 125,000, and 36,000 (gp300, gp140, gp125, and gp36) are detectable in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infected cells. The gp125 and gp36 are the external and transmembrane components, respectively, of the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-2 mature virions. The gp300, which is a dimeric form of gp140, the precursor of HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein, is probably formed by a pH dependent fusion in the endoplasmic reticulum. Such a doublet is also observed in cells infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus closely related to HIV-2. On the other hand, the envelope glycoprotein precursor of HIV-1 does not form a dimer during its processing. Experiments carried out with various inhibitors of oligosaccharide trimming enzymes suggest that transient dimerization of the glycoprotein precursor is required for its efficient transport to the Golgi apparatus and for its processing. The gp300 is useful for detecting antibodies to
Lymphotropic papovavirus (LPV) and simian virus 40 (SV40) are members of the genus Polyomavirus (6). LPV was isolated from a B-lymphoblastic cell line derived from a lymph node of an apparently healthy African green monkey (18). In cell culture, LPV displays a highly restricted host range for continuous lines of B lymphoblasts of monkey or human origin (2, 3). Serological surveys of sera from humans and 11 different species of nonhuman primates, including rhesus monkeys, indicated that, with the exception of baboons, all showed evidence of infection by LPV or an antigenically related virus (14, 19).. Little is known of the natural biology of LPV. Because previous serological data suggested that LPV caused natural infections in different types of primates, we tested whether LPV might be detectable in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys. We examined DNA that had been extracted for a previous study from brain tissue, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), or lymphoid ...
Researchers from the University of Nebraska Medical Center isolated and characterized EVs from the brains of rhesus macaques, both with and without simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) induced central nervous system (CNS) disease. Small RNA sequencing revealed increased miR-21 levels in EVs from SIV encephalitic (SIVE)
A considerable body of evidence suggests that Fc-dependent functions improve the capacity of broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) to protect against and control HIV-1 infection. This phenomenon, however, has not been formally tested in robust cell-associated macaque simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) models with newer-generation BnAbs. We studied both the WT BnAb PGT121 and a LALA mutant of PGT121 (which has impaired Fc-dependent functions) for their ability to protect pigtail macaques from an i.v. high-dose cell-associated SHIVSF162P3 challenge. We found that both WT and LALA PGT121 completely protected all 12 macaques studied. Further, partial depletion of NK cells, key mediators of Fc-dependent functions, did not abrogate the protective efficacy of PGT121 in 6 macaques. Additionally, in animals with established SHIVSF162P3 infection, SHIV viremia levels were equally rapidly reduced by LALA and WT PGT121. Our studies suggest that the potent neutralizing capacity of PGT121 renders ...
Understanding the reasons why SIV-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) remain healthy despite high viremia is a key unanswered question in contemporary AIDS research,...
An experimental drug called PMPA given to 25 macaque monkeys up to a day after they were exposed to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an HIV-like ...
In the wild, infections by primate lentiviruses occur only among African monkeys and chimpanzees. Simian immunodeficiency viruses have been isolated from several species of monkeys. Based on sequence homology, the primate lentiviruses can be divided into several groups, of which only three are important from the perspective of primate models of AIDS: HIV-1/SIVcpz, HIV-2/SIVsmm/SIVmac, and SIVagm. The other primate lentiviruses, e.g., SIVmnd, SIVsyk, SIVwcm, SIVrcm, SIVdrl, etc., have not been used as yet to develop models of AIDS. The primate lentiviruses have little or no pathogenicity in their natural hosts and disease appears to result only after transmission to another species. ...
Attempts have been made earlier to determine structures of HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) PRs complexed with substrate oligopeptides (10, 12). In these attempts, the crystals of the complex were prepared by using the method of cocrystallization, in the hope that crystal formation preceded product release. However, in the crystals obtained, HIV-1 PR was found to be complexed with only the N-terminal (P) product peptide, whereas SIV PR was found to be complexed with a C-terminal (Q) product peptide. No structures with both products bound simultaneously were obtained (12). Through careful superpositions of the two product complexes, these authors have concluded that unacceptably close separations between scissile carbon and nitrogen atoms (1.3-2.2 Å) preclude the presence of both products in the active site during cocrystallization. In contrast, we have attempted to prepare the complex by the soaking method. Because, as has been shown here, soaking does not result in cleavage of the ...
Katti (Horng) Crakes, doctoral student in the schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis, served as first author on a UC Davis research study that found that the damaged gut lining (known as leaky gut) in monkeys infected with chronic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an HIV-like virus, was rapidly repaired within five hours of receiving Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria. The outcome lends hope that leaky gut, a common condition among HIV patients, could be effectively treated in the future ...
A series of cationic metalloporphyrin-ellipticine complexes were found to inhibit the cytopathicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus in MT-4 cells at concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 17 micrograms/mL, i.e. at a concentration that was 2.5-30-fold below the cytotoxicity threshold. These compounds were also found to inhibit syncytium formation between persistently HIV-1-infected HUT-78 and uninfected Molt/4 cells, to interfere with HIV-1 binding to the cells, and to suppress HIV-1-associated reverse transcriptase activity ...
USE OF INTEGRASE INHIBITOR TO ASSESS THE CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTE RESPONSE DURING SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN RHESUS MACAQUES Abstract: The host immune response against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is multi-faceted, with the c...
The mechanisms underlying the AIDS resistance of natural hosts for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) remain unknown. Recently ... The mechanisms underlying the AIDS resistance of natural hosts for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) remain unknown. Recently ... Downregulation of robust acute type I interferon responses distinguishes nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) ...
immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. We used pyrosequencing to examine variation within ... Conditional CD8+ T cell escape during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Virology 86 (1) , pp. 605-609. ...
Isolation Isolation and characterization of a new chimpanzee lentivirus (simian immunodeficiency virus isolate cpz-ant) from a ...
Sui, Y, Li, S, Pinson, D, Adany, I, Li, Z, Villinger, F, Narayan, O & Buch, S 2005, Simian human immunodeficiency virus- ... Simian human immunodeficiency virus-associated pneumonia correlates with increased expression of MCP-1, CXCL10, and viral RNA ... Simian human immunodeficiency virus-associated pneumonia correlates with increased expression of MCP-1, CXCL10, and viral RNA ... Simian human immunodeficiency virus-associated pneumonia correlates with increased expression of MCP-1, CXCL10, and viral RNA ...
... simian immunodefiency virus; NA, none available.. Novel multiplexed HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus antibody detection assay ... and apparently a mandrill have passed along an SIV virus to a person in Africa in recent years.. HIV-related viruses still ...
In Gilead's preclinical study, 44 rhesus monkeys infected with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) were divided ... But the biotech's experience with its hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs shows that the long-term impact might not be so great ... The other six animals in the combo group initially experienced a viral rebound, but then began resuppressing the virus without ...
First Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) chimera based on HIV-1C of African origin. ...
... that the polio researchers grew the vaccine in cells taken from chimpanzees infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus ( ... Most hold that it arose when a simian version of HIV jumped to a human, probably in West Africa in the early- to mid-20th ... "The new data may not convince the hardened conspiracy theorist who thinks that contamination of OPV by chimpanzee virus was ...
Scott McGraw! They recently received two grants to study simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV). ... Scott McGraw! They recently received two grants to study simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV). ...
2013) Genetic imprint of vaccination on simian/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmitted viral genomes in Rhesus Macaques ... independent strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is associated with disease progression in naturally infected cats. ... An investigation of the breadth of neutralising antibody response in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus ...
This process is thought to have led to spillover of zoonotic viruses such as simian immunodeficiency viruses and the emergence ... The World Health Organization said Ebola virus disease has a fatality rate of up to 90% and that the virus is transmitted to ... Sadly, the article touches on the transmission of ebola, just as the aids virus HIV was traced back to the handling of ... The first reported outbreaks of the Ebola virus emerged in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Sudan in June and ...
... to monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV, the primate form of HIV. ... the levels of bacteria that escape the gut and reduces health complications in non-human primates infected with the simian form ...
HIV-1, which is responsible for the AIDS pandemic, is a retrovirus closely related to a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) ... And it was easy for me to be sure about this because I realized that the whole group of viruses to which HIV is said to belong ... And it was easy for me to be sure about this because I realized that the whole group of viruses to which HIV is said to belong ... In the past years, however, he stumbled over a breathtaking fact: Not even ONE of the (medically relevant) viruses has ever ...
... and subsequently discovered the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which causes the monkey version of AIDS. It was there, as ...
Foci of endemic simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). ML ...
... therapy given 24 h after oral exposure cleared simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in a macaque model of perinatal ... therapy given 24 h after oral exposure cleared simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in a macaque model of perinatal ... therapy given 24 h after oral exposure cleared simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in a macaque model of perinatal ... therapy given 24 h after oral exposure cleared simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in a macaque model of perinatal ...
... simian immunodeficiency virus), a virus similar to HIV, out of the genomes of non-human primates. Specifically, the scientists ... CRISPR/Cas9 used successfully to edit SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus, which is similar to HIV) out of monkey genome Leave a ... simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), Summer Siddiqui, Temple University, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, Tiffany A. ... has been been used to edit simian immunodeficiency virus from infected monkeys cells according to a December 2, 2020 article ...
Monitoring Immune Activation with Whole-Body Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron-Emission Tomography in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus- ... Genome-Wide Transcriptional Analysis Reveals Novel AhR Targets That Regulate Dendritic Cell Function during Influenza A Virus ...
LGALS4 - Chronic simian immunodeficiency virus infection: colon, jejunum and lung. Annotation: LGALS4, lectin, galactoside- ...
... protected more than half of the vaccinated animals from simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection. ... research team used a more-is-better approach in monkeys that appeared to improve vaccine protection from an HIV-like virus. ... protected more than half of the vaccinated animals from simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection. ... Investigational Vaccine Protected Monkeys from HIV-Like Virus The vaccine adds three more targets to a human vaccine candidate ...
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (isolate F236) envelope glycoprotein gp120 Protein (His Tag)_40415-V08H. ... Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (isolate SIVmac251v31523ru28) envelope glycoprotein gp120 Protein (His Tag)_40410-V08H. ... Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (isolate F236) envelope glycoprotein gp120 Protein (His Tag)_40415-V08H ... Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (isolate SIVmac251v31523ru28) envelope glycoprotein gp120 Protein (His Tag)_40410-V08H ...
The macaque simian or simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SIV/SHIV) challenge model has been widely used to inform and guide ...
Characterization of the Drug Resistance Profiles of Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus ... In contrast, resistance against EVG appeared earlier than in wild-type virus in viruses containing the R263K and E138K/R263K ... DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed tissue culture selection experiments using DTG-resistant viruses containing integrase ...
HIV is a variation of a virus that infects African chimpanzees. Scientists suspect the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) ... The persons immune system reacts to the antigens (parts of the virus) by producing antibodies (cells that fight the virus). ... Eventually, the virus migrated to other parts of the world. Scientists first discovered HIV in a human blood sample in 1959. ... Once inside the human population, the virus mutated into what we now know as HIV. This likely occurred as long ago as the 1920s ...
... may destabilize viral reservoirs in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, the monkey equivalent of HIV.. ... ART with an immune-enhancing treatment may destabilize viral reservoirs in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus ... India isolated new strain of SARS-COV-2 Corona virus Strain found in UK Hace 6 meses ... INFO ON HIV SYMTOMS HIV TESTING AIDS SYMPTOMS AIDS TREATMENT PREVENT HIV VIRUS TRANSMISSION VACCINE ...
The chimpanzee version (simian immunodeficiency virus) was most likely passed to humans when they hunted the chimpanzees for ... Human immunodeficiency virus comes in 2 types that infect humans. Overtime, they lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ... The virus is not airborne like cold and flu viruses. HIV lives in the blood and in body fluids. ... Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by a virus. It does not always show symptoms but possible ones are a high ...
AIDS in Africa HIV-1 and HIV-2 are the types of viruses that cause the AIDS disease in humans. ... The theory of the origin of HIV was that the virus was extracted from the Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses that was transmitted ... The HIV viruses are related to Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses also known as SIV that is found in monkey and other apes. In ... The HIV virus is contact through direct exchange of specific body fluids like semen, blood and vaginal fluid. The virus can ...
  • Downregulation of robust acute type I interferon responses distinguishes nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of natural hosts from pathogenic SIV infection of rhesus macaques. (pasteur.fr)
  • immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Vertical transmission accounts for most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children, and treatments for newborns are needed to abrogate infection or limit disease progression. (elsevier.com)
  • We showed previously that short-term broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) therapy given 24 h after oral exposure cleared simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in a macaque model of perinatal infection. (elsevier.com)
  • Adding three more targets to the investigational vaccine, for a total of five, protected more than half of the vaccinated animals from simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection. (dukehealth.org)
  • Vaccine protection using this model of virus infection in primates is possible," said lead author Todd Bradley , Ph.D., a member of the Duke Human Vaccine Institute. (dukehealth.org)
  • Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by a virus. (iplaysafe.app)
  • The YXXL signalling motifs of the bovine leukemia virus transmembrane protein are required for in vivo infection and maintenance of high viral loads. (expasy.org)
  • Genome-wide patterns of gene expression in a wild primate indicate species-specific mechanisms associated with tolerance to natural simian immunodeficiency virus infection. (uoregon.edu)
  • Infection with the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses are unique in that the infections give rise to prolonged, continuous viral replication in the infected host. (scholarres.org)
  • Severe depletion of B cells and T cells in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) and virus persistence in lymphoid tissues is thought to be the most important characteristics of CSFV infection that leads to the acquired immunosuppressive state. (scholarres.org)
  • Immature B lymphocytes can themselves be the cellular targets of the virus in any stage of maturation within follicles or they may lack critical cytokines because of an infection of the supporting follicular dendritic cell network. (scholarres.org)
  • Autocrine and paracrine interferon signalling as 'ring vaccination'and 'contact tracing'strategies to suppress virus infection in a host. (ke-lab.org)
  • Wound healing events in mucous tissues during early infection by Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, or SIV, guard some primate species against developing AIDS, a recent study has learned. (tajlifesciences.com)
  • however, AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a condition that might develop at a later stage of HIV infection. (healtharchives.org)
  • The posited infection could have originated with laboratory contamination of the monkey kidneys used to grow polio virus (as from a dirty scalpel previously used to dissect a chimp with an HIV-1-like virus) or from using a monkey with the atypical HIV-1-like virus. (aidsorigins.com)
  • The infection became known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) left untreated. (anotheroneforthefire.com)
  • Over time, the virus mutated into HIV and became the source of HIV infection in humans. (demystifyingyourhealth.com)
  • So, when there are enough of the drug molecules in the cells, they can stop the virus from replicating and stop the infection before it can gain hold. (demystifyingyourhealth.com)
  • CD4+ T cells are critical in enhancing both cellular and humoral immune responses that can effectively suppress virus replication, yet their activation makes these cells more susceptible to infection by HIV, thus creating more targets for virus replication (2, 3). (membranemeeting2018.com)
  • The activity was also detected in CD8+ cells of uninfected macaques, which indicates that CNAR is not necessarily a computer virus specific response but increases after SIV-infection. (stemedics.com)
  • Overtime, they lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome which damages the cells in your immune system. (iplaysafe.app)
  • In 1982, the term "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome," or AIDS, was used for the first time to describe the occurrence of opportunistic infections and formal tracking of AIDS cases began in the United States. (demystifyingyourhealth.com)
  • Although human behaviours often increase the risk of acquiring an infectious disease, the systematic investigation of human risk behaviours is seldom included in disease surveillance strategies.7 However, behavioural surveillance to improve the understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has been ongoing for decades. (datexis.com)
  • The mechanisms underlying the AIDS resistance of natural hosts for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) remain unknown. (pasteur.fr)
  • Sadly, the article touches on the transmission of ebola, just as the aids virus HIV was traced back to the handling of chimpanzees, gorilla and bats. (prospectbooks.co.uk)
  • Researchers working there generated some of the earliest evidence that AIDS is a viral disease, and subsequently discovered the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which causes the monkey version of AIDS. (ghtcoalition.org)
  • NIAID-funded research findings presented at the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) in Durban, South Africa, suggest that combining antiretroviral therapy with PD-1 blockade, an immune-enhancing treatment, may destabilize viral reservoirs in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, the monkey equivalent of HIV. (blogspot.com)
  • If untreated, it can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency virus). (iplaysafe.app)
  • HIV-1 and HIV-2 are the types of viruses that cause the AIDS disease in humans. (essay-samples.com)
  • Researchers have learned a tremendous amount about how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, infects immune cells. (nih.gov)
  • Monkeys carry viruses called simian immunodeficiency viruses or SIVs, which are generally thought to be the source of the human viruses, HIVs, responsible for AIDS. (aidsorigins.com)
  • Some time into his quest, Hooper decided that the theory most worthy of further investigation was that HIV-1 - the virus responsible for most AIDS around the world - originated in contaminated polio vaccines used in Africa in the 1950s. (aidsorigins.com)
  • A 1990 survey found that 34% believed the AIDS virus was produced in a germ warfare lab. (swallowingthecamel.me)
  • At stage 3, HIV develops to AIDS, and by then, the virus had caused the severe disease to the immune system. (healtharchives.org)
  • Because the HIV acquired immunodeficiency syndrom (AIDS) is death, non-reproductive sterile `anal sex` is what the serpent was tempting Eve with, rather than human sexual reproduction. (thefactandfiction.com)
  • As a journalist, I'm glad to be a catalyst for scientific discussion of the theory that the AIDS epidemic was spawned by a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that may have contaminated early live oral polio vaccines tested on about a quarter million Central Africans more than 30 years ago. (aidsorigins.com)
  • Koprowski asks: If the AIDS virus were in a vaccine administered to rural children in 1958, wouldn't one see a much higher percentage of infected adults today in these rural areas, rather than in the cities, where rates are higher? (aidsorigins.com)
  • One of the most impactful pieces of news came in 1982 when the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention recognized the issue of the AIDS virus. (anotheroneforthefire.com)
  • In April 1984, Dr. Robert Gallo filed a United States patent application for his invention, the HIV/AIDS Virus . (wordpress.com)
  • The scientific evidence is complete and compelling, the AIDS Virus is a designer bi-product of the U.S. Special Virus program . (wordpress.com)
  • According to the Proceedings of the United States of America, AIDS is an evolutionary, laboratory development of the peculiar Visna Virus , first detected in Icelandic sheep. (wordpress.com)
  • Dr. Gallo's 1971 Special Virus paper is identical to his 1984 announcement of AIDS. (wordpress.com)
  • By 1983, scientists realized that the HTLV-III/LAV (human T-cell lymphotropic virus-type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus) was the cause AIDS. (demystifyingyourhealth.com)
  • As described in the June 2011, issue of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, Patricia Molina and colleagues from Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center examined the impact of ongoing administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in macaque monkeys exposed to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). (drmarijuananj.com)
  • 31) Born uncontaminated by male semen from his mother, the Virgin Mary, Jesus represented a prophylactic against the HIV/AIDS virus` `incurable killer disease` spread by men`s mixing of blood, shit and semen in each others` anuses which became a global plague after it was diagnosed in the 1980s as a virus originating in the African Congo derived from the simian immuno-deficiency virus (SIV). (thefactandfiction.com)
  • INTRODUCTION The precise factors determining the rate of CD4+ T cell decline, and ultimately the rate of progression to AIDS, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected humans remain poorly defined. (membranemeeting2018.com)
  • In marked contrast to HIV-infected humans, and despite similar viral loads, natural simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) hosts, such as sooty mangabeys (SMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs), generally maintain healthy CD4+ T cell levels and avoid chronic immune activation, thus remaining AIDS free (4,C10). (membranemeeting2018.com)
  • Macaques infected with Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) develop pulmonary disease and concurrent opportunistic infections similar to those observed in HIV-infected individuals, thereby providing an excellent working model to elucidate the pathogenesis of the human lung disease. (nebraska.edu)
  • In Gilead's preclinical study, 44 rhesus monkeys infected with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) were divided into four groups after taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 96 weeks. (foxbusiness.com)
  • First Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) chimera based on HIV-1C of African origin. (harvard.edu)
  • 2556 competed with the endogenous anti-gp41 antibodies present in simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infected macaque serum, and 213Bi-2556 preferentially bound to and killed SHIV infected PBMCs in numbers twice as high as PBMCs from control monkeys. (yu.edu)
  • The other six animals in the combo group initially experienced a viral rebound, but then began resuppressing the virus without ART. (foxbusiness.com)
  • By adding the three additional regions of the viral envelope to the investigational vaccine, the researchers improved the level of protection afforded to animals exposed to a difficult-to-neutralize strain of the simian virus, which is comparable to HIV. (dukehealth.org)
  • Furthermore, in viruses, ITAMs may play key roles in viral pathogenesis by regulating viral clearance, immune cell activation, immune cell recruitment through binding of cellular kinases and thereby down regulate their function [ 3 ]. (expasy.org)
  • Moreover, the virus encoded protein Nef prevents the viral antigen presentation. (scholarres.org)
  • Dr. Leonard Horowitz of Harvard theorizes HIV resulted from viological viral research concealed by the Special Virus Cancer Program. (swallowingthecamel.me)
  • Anktiva is capable of triggering both of these mechanisms, as it can both activate viral transcription in CD4+ T cells-i.e., remove the virus from latency-and activate CD8+ memory cells and natural killer cells that recognize and kill HIV-infected host cells. (immunitybio.com)
  • The risk from the main bloodstream transmissible viral attacks, including hepatitis C and B infections and human being immunodeficiency pathogen, continues to decrease because of particular analyses completed in examples from bloodstream donors. (cambio-red.net)
  • Simian Pathogen 40 (SV40) can be a viral agent from the Asian macaque ( Macacus rhesus ), which can be its natural sponsor. (cambio-red.net)
  • Origins' depicts the emergence of HIV from SIV (simian immuno-deficiency virus) in the Congo basin and its identification in the Pasteur Institut (Paris) laboratory of Luc Montagnier. (history.ac.uk)
  • The chimpanzee version (simian immunodeficiency virus) was most likely passed to humans when they hunted the chimpanzees for their meat. (iplaysafe.app)
  • While it is unclear how he became infected, in 1999, scientists discovered a subspecies of chimpanzee in West Africa that have the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus, known as the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). (demystifyingyourhealth.com)
  • He argued that the polio researchers grew the vaccine in cells taken from chimpanzees infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) variant most closely related to HIV, which, when introduced into humans, was able to establish a lethal foothold in the new host. (scientificamerican.com)
  • 2000). Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) virus outbreaks in humans have repeatedly been linked to the handling of infected great apes (Leroy et al. (prospectbooks.co.uk)
  • DURHAM, N.C. -- Building on insights from an HIV vaccine regimen in humans that had partial success during a phase 3 clinical trial in Thailand, a Duke-led research team used a more-is-better approach in monkeys that appeared to improve vaccine protection from an HIV-like virus. (dukehealth.org)
  • Scientists suspect the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) jumped from chimps to humans when people consumed infected chimpanzee meat. (healtopedia.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus comes in 2 types that infect humans. (iplaysafe.app)
  • Researchers estimate that some time in the early 1900s a form of simian immunodeficiency virus, SIV, was transmitted to humans in Central Africa. (jecampus.it)
  • Once infected, the hunter could pass the virus - now adapted for survival in humans - to others. (aidsorigins.com)
  • Viruses mainly affect humans to reproduce. (healtharchives.org)
  • HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system of humans and leads to a deterioration of the natural defense system in the body. (healtharchives.org)
  • HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and it affects humans through exchange or contact of body fluids or blood. (healtharchives.org)
  • The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus originating from the chimpanzee Simian Immunodeficiency Virus ( SIV) that initially passed to humans who were exposed to infected chimpanzee blood, while hunting them in central Africa, as early as in late 1800's. (researchlab.gr)
  • BSE is the bovine form of the virus known as Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease for humans. (wa-pedia.com)
  • The University of Pittsburgh researchers gave the drug Sevelamer, which is used to treat elevated levels of phosphate in the blood of patients with chronic kidney disease, to monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV, the primate form of HIV. (pennywarren.co.uk)
  • Using Indian rhesus macaques with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), the equivalent of HIV in monkeys, researchers will be able to study whether changes in DNA methylation levels of genes have an impact on the inflammation in the brain, which is the underlying cause of HAND . (housseniawriting.com)
  • HIV is a strain from a virus that was know to infect monkeys in africa. (wordpress.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Assessment of the immunologic ramifications of simian immunodeficiency pathogen (SIV) disease on rhesus macaques (RMs), a varieties seen as a progression to Helps, and organic sponsor sooty mangabeys (Text message), a varieties which remains Helps free, has turned into a useful device for identifying systems of human being immunodeficiency pathogen (HIV) disease development. (membranemeeting2018.com)
  • The person's immune system reacts to the antigens (parts of the virus) by producing antibodies (cells that fight the virus). (healtopedia.com)
  • Antibodies Elicited by Multiple Envelope Glycoprotein Immunogens in Primates Neutralize Primary Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1) Sensitized by CD4-Mimetic Compounds. (childrensmercy.org)
  • In addition, in foundational preclinical studies, ImmunityBio observed that Anktiva plus one or two anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies, or bNAbs, suppressed simian/human immunodeficiency virus replication in 9 of 13 animals evaluated. (immunitybio.com)
  • In 1959, Central Africa recorded the first human to test positive for HIV virus. (essay-samples.com)
  • Nevertheless, to exist as a species, virus replication and transfer to a new host are essential. (scholarres.org)
  • We do not accept test materials containing replication competent retroviruses including Human and Simian Immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), herpesviruses, in addition to BSL 3 or BSL 4 agents , and reserve the right to determine the acceptance of certain test materials. (bionique.com)
  • ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) consists of the replication-deficient simian adenovirus vector ChAdOx1, containing the full-length structural surface glycoprotein (spike protein) of SARS-CoV-2, with a tissue plasminogen activator leader sequence. (immunopaedia.org.za)
  • Fruit bats and other wildlife, especially non-human primates, are considered to be the natural host of the virus. (prospectbooks.co.uk)
  • Scientists at the University of Pittsburgh Center for Vaccine Research (CVR) found that a drug often administered to patients undergoing kidney dialysis significantly reduces the levels of bacteria that escape the gut and reduces health complications in non-human primates infected with the simian form of HIV. (pennywarren.co.uk)
  • Immunogenicity of NYVAC Prime-Protein Boost Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Vaccination and Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge of Nonhuman Primates. (childrensmercy.org)
  • This process is thought to have led to spillover of zoonotic viruses such as simian immunodeficiency viruses and the emergence of HIV-1 and -2 (Hahn et al. (prospectbooks.co.uk)
  • Destruction of virus-specific T helper cells, the emergence of antigenic escape variants and the expression of an envelope complex that structurally minimizes antibody escape to conserved epitopes contribute to persistence. (scholarres.org)
  • If the virus is caught in a person during this early stage, they would be prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) and it would effectively keep the virus at bay. (anotheroneforthefire.com)
  • Another monkey virus, SV40, is know to have contaminated polio vaccine given to millions of people around the world before it was discovered in 1960. (aidsorigins.com)
  • Albert Sabin found an unidentified, non-polio virus in Koprowski's vaccine. (aidsorigins.com)
  • The U.S. Special Virus was then added as 'compliment' to vaccine inoculations in Africa and Manhattan. (wordpress.com)
  • Viruses have coevolved with their hosts and thus have limited pathogenicity in any immunocompromised natural host. (scholarres.org)
  • An antigen, on the other hand, is the part of the virus that activates the immune system. (healtopedia.com)
  • The first reported outbreaks of the Ebola virus emerged in 1976 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Sudan in June and September respectively. (prospectbooks.co.uk)
  • Background Simian disease 40 (SV40) is a little DNA tumour disease. (cambio-red.net)
  • The research looked at why certain species can carry the virus throughout their lives, and still avoid disease progression. (tajlifesciences.com)
  • It could slow down the progression of the virus or completely stop it from progressing. (anotheroneforthefire.com)
  • Our immune system has a robust and effective mechanism to fight bacteria and viruses, but HIV drastically affects the immune response. (healtharchives.org)
  • Once the body is infected with HIV, the virus begins to attack the immune system. (hivmanagement.net)
  • This short and educational primer offers relevant background information on viruses and the immune system, and goes into much more detail on vaccines than other recent introductory books. (inquisitivebiologist.com)
  • In this brief book, physics and chemistry professor Arup K. Chakraborty and immunologist Andrey S. Shaw offer a general introduction to how our immune system reacts to viruses, and how our medical inventions help out. (inquisitivebiologist.com)
  • HIV is a variation of a virus that infects African chimpanzees. (healtopedia.com)
  • Here, we report that all infants given either a single dose of bNAbs at 30 h, or a 21-day triple-drug ART regimen at 48 h, are aviremic with almost no virus in tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • Intriguingly, scientists recently reported finding a single African monkey among 500 sampled that tests positive for such a virus (6,7). (aidsorigins.com)
  • In 2005, scientists were able to trace the disease back to the late 1800s, when it was a disease that infected chimpanzees in Africa and became known as simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), specifically in Cameroon. (anotheroneforthefire.com)
  • Even today, scientists are still trying to figure out and understand exactly how the virus works in order to combat its effects on the body. (hivmanagement.net)
  • The aim of this work is to assess the ability of RIT to bind and kill infected cells using latent cell line models, simian lymphocytes, and primary human lymphocytes co-treated with ART. (yu.edu)
  • The virus can access the body through the mucous membranes during sexual intercourse, or direct injection of viruses into the blood vessels. (essay-samples.com)
  • One of those potential factors is prior immunity to other, closely related viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Different viruses affect different cells, and various infections have different capabilities. (healtharchives.org)
  • She and others have now documented mine instances in which chimps, sooty mangabeys, and apparently a mandrill have passed along an SIV virus to a person in Africa in recent years. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most hold that it arose when a simian version of HIV jumped to a human, probably in West Africa in the early- to mid-20th century, and a number of theories have emerged to explain just how it made that jump. (scientificamerican.com)
  • HIV-2 virus is commonly found in West Africa while HIV-1 virus dominates the entire world (All Life, 1). (essay-samples.com)
  • Iliffe shows, for the first time, the causes and consequences of the virus' genotype differentiations as it progressed East, South and West in Africa (and then around the world). (history.ac.uk)
  • Once the virus had made the transition from chimpanzees, there were an estimated 2,000 people in Africa who were infected by 1960. (anotheroneforthefire.com)
  • The virus continued to spread throughout Africa in the 1980s, mostly through soldiers, truck drivers, labor migration between the western and eastern ends of the continent, and sex workers. (anotheroneforthefire.com)
  • As time passed, the virus slowly expanded across Africa and into other parts of the world. (demystifyingyourhealth.com)
  • No other modern epidemic or pandemic mobilized the global health community to action like the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in western Africa. (datexis.com)
  • Early detection of the virus improves the quality of life and increases the chances of treatment and survival, so it is essential to identify signs and symptoms of HIV at an initial stage. (healtharchives.org)
  • Bertoletti's team and others are pursuing this intriguing lead to see where it will lead-not only in explaining our varied responses to the virus, but also in designing new treatments and optimized vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • They identified T cells that respond to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid, which is a structural protein inside the virus. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, resistance against EVG appeared earlier than in wild-type virus in viruses containing the R263K and E138K/R263K DTG-associated resistance substitutions. (qxmd.com)
  • A new investigation into "pig virus" contamination in human vaccines has revealed that both circovirus type 1 (PCV1) and 2 (PCV2) DNA are still present in vaccines developed against infant and childhood rotaviral gastroenteritis (RG), and which since 5 June, 2009, the World Health Organization has recommended be included in all national immunization programs. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Focusing on the biology and immunology of the virus, Iliffe does his readers a great service in succinctly explaining the evolution of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and their global migration. (history.ac.uk)
  • This outbreak was caused by a different species of Ebola virus which was named Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus (Le Guenno et al. (prospectbooks.co.uk)
  • The theory of the origin of HIV was that the virus was extracted from the Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses that was transmitted from animal species to the human population in between the year 1930-1940 (All Life, 1). (essay-samples.com)
  • Could this virus jump into a new species, the tick? (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Although the chances of the BSE virus mutating to the human form are low (maybe 1%), there is always a risk. (wa-pedia.com)
  • Superinfection and cure of infected cells as mechanisms for hepatitis C virus adaptation and persistence. (ke-lab.org)
  • CSF virus (CSFV) has high affinity for vascular endothelial cells and lymphoreticular cells including T cells, B cells and monocytes. (scholarres.org)
  • But the biotech's experience with its hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs shows that the long-term impact might not be so great for Gilead. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Bertoletti's team recognized that many factors could help to explain how a single virus can cause respiratory, circulatory, and other symptoms that vary widely in their nature and severity-as we've witnessed in this pandemic. (nih.gov)
  • This particular virus, group M of HIV-1, went on to become the pandemic strain of HIV, though others have been identified. (jecampus.it)
  • Nicholas A. Christakis, a physician and sociologist directing the Human Nature Lab in Yale, got drafted into working on the pandemic from the start, tracking the spread of the virus, and sat at the bedside of many dying patients while working as a hospice doctor in New York. (inquisitivebiologist.com)
  • In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, many publishers have seen an opportunity to reissue previously published books on viruses and pandemics. (inquisitivebiologist.com)
  • We identified community-based serological surveys of viruses with pandemic potential as a possible source of useful biological outcome data. (datexis.com)
  • His narrative approach of choice is to tell the story of viruses, immunology, and vaccines through the history of scientific discovery. (inquisitivebiologist.com)
  • Second, such a historical account 'highlights the evolution and role of the virus' allowing Iliffe to put epidemiology into context (p. 1). (history.ac.uk)
  • However, some people might not display early symptoms, but it is vital to detect the virus. (healtharchives.org)
  • When looking at the genetic analysis of the human blood sample, it has shown that HIV-1 most likely stemmed from this single virus in the late 1940s or early 1950s. (demystifyingyourhealth.com)
  • Characterization of the Drug Resistance Profiles of Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac239. (qxmd.com)

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