An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse leukemia viruses (MuLV). The syndrome shows striking similarities with human AIDS and is characterized by lymphadenopathy, profound immunosuppression, enhanced susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and B-cell lymphomas.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Regulatory sequences important for viral replication that are located on each end of the HIV genome. The LTR includes the HIV ENHANCER, promoter, and other sequences. Specific regions in the LTR include the negative regulatory element (NRE), NF-kappa B binding sites , Sp1 binding sites, TATA BOX, and trans-acting responsive element (TAR). The binding of both cellular and viral proteins to these regions regulates HIV transcription.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Contraceptive devices used by males.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
Proteins encoded by the VPR GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Sexual activities of humans.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. Most cases are sporadic. Of the rare familial forms, the dominantly inherited subtype has additional connective tissue, dental and skeletal involvement that the recessive type does not share.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for retroviral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.
Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate retroviral virus replication. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
A disorder of cognition characterized by the tetrad of finger agnosia, dysgraphia, DYSCALCULIA, and right-left disorientation. The syndrome may be developmental or acquired. Acquired Gerstmann syndrome is associated with lesions in the dominant (usually left) PARIETAL LOBE which involve the angular gyrus or subjacent white matter. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p457)
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
Congenital syndrome characterized by a wide spectrum of characteristics including the absence of the THYMUS and PARATHYROID GLANDS resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency, HYPOCALCEMIA, defects in the outflow tract of the heart, and craniofacial anomalies.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.
An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
An X-linked hyper-IgM immunodeficiency subtype resulting from mutation in the gene encoding CD40 LIGAND.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.
Enlargement of the spleen.

Association of simian virus 40 with a central nervous system lesion distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in macaques with AIDS. (1/1851)

The primate polyomavirus SV40 is known to cause interstitial nephritis in primary infections and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) upon reactivation of a latent infection in SIV-infected macaques. We now describe a second central nervous system manifestation of SV40: a meningoencephalitis affecting cerebral gray matter, without demyelination, distinct from PML. Meningoencephalitis appears also to be a primary manifestation of SV40 infection and can be seen in conjunction with SV40-induced interstitial nephritis and pneumonitis. The difference in the lesions of meningoencephalitis and PML does not appear to be due to cellular tropism, as both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are infected in PML and meningoencephalitis, as determined by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry for SV40 coupled with immunohistochemistry for cellular determinants. This is further supported by examination of SV40 nucleic acid sequences from the ori-enhancer and large-T-antigen regions, which reveals no tissue-or lesion-specific variation in SV40 sequences.  (+info)

RANTES, IFN-gamma, CCR1, and CCR5 mRNA expression in peripheral blood, lymph node, and bronchoalveolar lavage mononuclear cells during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques. (2/1851)

Primary infection of macaques with pathogenic isolates of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (as a model of HIV infection in humans) represents a unique opportunity to study early lentivirus/host interactions. We sought to determine whether there is a temporal relationship linking SIV replication and dissemination and the expression of the chemokine RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) and the SIV/HIV coreceptor CCR5 in different tissues during acute SIV infection of macaques. Four cynomolgus macaques were inoculated intravenously with a pathogenic primary isolate of SIVmac251. RT-PCR was used to monitor the expression of RANTES and CCR5 mRNA in fresh isolated mononuclear cells from blood, lymph node, and bronchoalveolar lavages. These expressions were compared to those of IFN-gamma as an indicator of the development of the immune response and to another receptor for RANTES, CCR1, which is not described as a coreceptor for SIV/HIV-1 entry. An enhancement of CCR1/CCR5 mRNA expression was noticed during primary SIVmac251 infection of macaques, mainly in tissue. In the three different compartments investigated, IFN-gamma and RANTES overexpression was noticed by the time of systemic viral replication containment. Our results put CCR5 and RANTES mRNA expression back in the context of inflammatory and immune responses to SIV primary infection.  (+info)

Effect of the attenuating deletion and of sequence alterations evolving in vivo on simian immunodeficiency virus C8-Nef function. (3/1851)

The simian immunodeficiency virus macC8 (SIVmacC8) variant has been used in a European Community Concerted Action project to study the efficacy and safety of live attenuated SIV vaccines in a large number of macaques. The attenuating deletion in the SIVmacC8 nef-long terminal repeat region encompasses only 12 bp and is "repaired" in a subset of infected animals. It is unknown whether C8-Nef retains some activity. Since it seems important to use only well-characterized deletion mutants in live attenuated vaccine studies, we analyzed the relevance of the deletion, and the duplications and point mutations selected in infected macaques for Nef function in vitro. The deletion, affecting amino acids 143 to 146 (DMYL), resulted in a dramatic decrease in Nef stability and function. The initial 12-bp duplication resulted in efficient Nef expression and an intermediate phenotype in infectivity assays, but it did not significantly restore the ability of Nef to stimulate viral replication and to downmodulate CD4 and class I major histocompatibility complex cell surface expression. The additional substitutions however, which subsequently evolved in vivo, gradually restored these Nef functions. It was noteworthy that coinfection experiments in the T-lymphoid 221 cell line revealed that even SIVmac nef variants carrying the original 12-bp deletion readily outgrew an otherwise isogenic virus containing a 182-bp deletion in the nef gene. Thus, although C8-Nef is unstable and severely impaired in in vitro assays, it maintains some residual activity to stimulate viral replication.  (+info)

Early short-term 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine treatment favorably alters the subsequent disease course in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn Rhesus macaques. (4/1851)

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn macaques is a useful animal model of human pediatric AIDS to study disease pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies aimed at delaying disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that very early events of infection greatly determine the ultimate disease course, as short-term antiviral drug administration during the initial viremia stage significantly delayed the onset of AIDS. Fourteen newborn macaques were inoculated orally with uncloned, highly virulent SIVmac251. The four untreated control animals showed persistently high virus levels and poor antiviral immune responses; they developed fatal immunodeficiency within 15 weeks. In contrast, SIV-infected newborn macaques which were started on 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) treatment at 5 days of age and continued for either 14 or 60 days showed reduced virus levels and enhanced antiviral immune responses. This short-term PMPA treatment did not induce detectable emergence of SIV mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to PMPA. Although viremia increased in most animals after PMPA treatment was withdrawn, all animals remained disease-free for at least 6 months. Our data suggest that short-term treatment with a potent antiviral drug regimen during the initial viremia will significantly prolong AIDS-free survival for HIV-infected infants and adults.  (+info)

Protection of macaques against intrarectal infection by a combination immunization regimen with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne gp160 vaccines. (5/1851)

We previously reported that immunization with recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmne envelope (gp160) vaccines protected macaques against intravenous challenge by the cloned homologous virus E11S but that this protection was only partially effective against the uncloned virus, SIVmne. In the present study, we examine the protective efficacy of this immunization regimen against infection by a mucosal route. We found that the same gp160-based vaccines were highly effective against intrarectal infection not only with the E11S clone but also with the uncloned SIVmne. Protection against mucosal infection is therefore achievable by parenteral immunization with recombinant envelope vaccines. Protection appears to correlate with high levels of SIV-specific antibodies and, in animals protected against the uncloned virus, the presence of serum-neutralizing activities. To understand the basis for the differential efficacies against the uncloned virus by the intravenous versus the intrarectal routes, we examined viral sequences recovered from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of animals early after infection by both routes. We previously showed that the majority (85%) of the uncloned SIVmne challenge stock contained V1 sequences homologous to the molecular clone from which the vaccines were made (E11S type), with the remainder (15%) containing multiple conserved changes (the variant types). In contrast to intravenously infected animals, from which either E11S-type or the variant type V1 sequences could be recovered in significant proportions, animals infected intrarectally had predominantly E11S-type sequences. Preferential transmission or amplification of the E11S-type viruses may therefore account in part for the enhanced efficacy of the recombinant gp160 vaccines against the uncloned virus challenge by the intrarectal route compared with the intravenous route.  (+info)

Dramatic rise in plasma viremia after CD8(+) T cell depletion in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques. (6/1851)

To determine the role of CD8(+) T cells in controlling simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in vivo, we examined the effect of depleting this cell population using an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody, OKT8F. There was on average a 99.9% reduction of CD8 cells in peripheral blood in six infected Macaca mulatta treated with OKT8F. The apparent CD8 depletion started 1 h after antibody administration, and low CD8 levels were maintained until day 8. An increase in plasma viremia of one to three orders of magnitude was observed in five of the six macaques. The injection of a control antibody to an infected macaque did not induce a sustained viral load increase, nor did it significantly reduce the number of CD8(+) T cells. These results demonstrate that CD8 cells play a crucial role in suppressing SIV replication in vivo.  (+info)

Viral burden and disease progression in rhesus monkeys infected with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses. (7/1851)

To determine the role of viral burden in simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-induced disease, cellular provirus and plasma viral RNA levels were measured after inoculation of rhesus monkeys with four different SHIVs. These SHIVs included SHIV-HXBc2 and SHIV-89.6, constructed with env, tat, rev, and vpu derived from either cell line-passaged or primary patient isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1; the viral quasispecies SHIV-89.6P derived after in vivo passage of SHIV-89.6; and a molecular clone, SHIV-KB9, derived from SHIV-89.6P. SHIV-HXBc2 and SHIV-89.6 are nonpathogenic in rhesus monkeys; SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KB9 cause rapid CD4(+) T cell depletion and an immunodeficiency syndrome. Relative SHIV provirus levels were highest during primary infection in monkeys infected with SHIV-89.6P, the virus that caused the most rapid and dramatic CD4(+) T cell depletion. However, by 10 weeks postinoculation, provirus levels were similar in monkeys infected with the pathogenic and nonpathogenic chimeric viruses. The virus infections that resulted in the highest peak and chronic viral RNA levels were the pathogenic viruses SHIV-89.6P and SHIV-KB9. SHIV-89. 6P uniformly caused rapid and profound CD4(+) T cell depletion and immunodeficiency. Infection with the SHIV-KB9 resulted in very low CD4(+) T cell counts without seroconversion in some monkeys and a substantial but less profound CD4(+) T cell depletion and rapid seroconversion in others. Surprisingly, the level of plasma viremia did not differ between SHIV-KB9-infected animals exhibiting these contrasting outcomes, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in AIDS virus pathogenesis.  (+info)

Characterization of a neutralization-escape variant of SHIVKU-1, a virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome in pig-tailed macaques. (8/1851)

A chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-4) containing the tat, rev, vpu, and env genes of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) in a genetic background of SIVmac239 was used to develop an animal model in which a primate lentivirus expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein caused acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in macaques. An SHIV-infected pig-tailed macaque that died from AIDS at 24 weeks postinoculation experienced two waves of viremia: one extending from weeks 2-8 and the second extending from week 18 until death. Virus (SHIVKU-1) isolated during the first wave was neutralized by antibodies appearing at the end of the first viremic phase, but the virus (SHIVKU-1b) isolated during the second viremic phase was not neutralized by these antibodies. Inoculation of SHIVKU-1b into 4 pig-tailed macaques resulted in severe CD4(+) T cell loss by 2 weeks postinoculation, and all 4 macaques died from AIDS at 23-34 weeks postinoculation. Because this virus had a neutralization-resistant phenotype, we sequenced the env gene and compared these sequences with those of the env gene of SHIVKU-1 and parental SHIV-4. With reference to SHIV-4, SHIVKU-1b had 18 and 6 consensus amino acid substitutions in the gp120 and gp41 regions of Env, respectively. These compared with 10 and 3 amino acid substitutions in the gp120 and gp41 regions of SHIVKU-1. Our data suggested that SHIVKU-1 and SHIVKU-1b probably evolved from a common ancestor but that SHIVKU-1b did not evolve from SHIVKU-1. A chimeric virus, SHIVKU-1bMC17, constructed with the consensus env from the SHIVKU-1b on a background of SHIV-4, confirmed that amino acid substitutions in Env were responsible for the neutralization-resistant phenotype. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that neutralizing antibodies induced by SHIVKU-1 in pig-tailed macaque resulted in the selection of a neutralization-resistant virus that was responsible for the second wave of viremia.  (+info)

To better understand the role of the α4β7 integrin during acute SIV infection, we administered a rhesus recombinant form of an Ab targeting this integrin molecule to a group of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Two administrations maintained plasma levels of ,10 μg/ml of the Ab for the first 8 wk of SIV infection. What is not clear is whether the Ab administered was able to reach all of the target tissues in an effective manner, particularly the GALT, which comprises 70% of all lymphoid cells in the body as compared with peripheral blood, which represents only 2% of the total lymphoid cells (39). The finding of nearly complete blocking of the α4β7 integrin on cells isolated from all of the tissues examined, including the jejunal and colorectal biopsies of the anti-α4β7 mAb-treated animals, suggests that such therapy was quite effective (see Fig. 1B). The mechanisms by which the in vivo administration of anti-α4β7 mAb delayed and decreased plasma and gut tissue viremia and proviral DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mucosal immunity in HIV/SIV infection. T2 - T Cells, B cells and beyond. AU - Shacklett, Barbara. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - As our understanding of mucosal immunity increases, it is becoming clear that the host response to HIV-1 is more complex and nuanced than originally believed. The mucosal landscape is populated with a variety of specialized cell types whose functions include combating infectious agents while preserving commensal microbiota, maintaining barrier integrity, and ensuring immune homeostasis. Advances in multiparameter flow cytometry, gene expression analysis and bioinformatics have allowed more detailed characterization of these cell types and their roles in host defense than was previously possible. This review provides an overview of existing literature on immunity to HIV-1 and SIVmac in mucosal tissues of the female reproductive tract and the gastrointestinal tract, focusing on major effector cell populations and briefly summarizing new information on ...
We examined binding of the PBR ligand PK11195 in a macaque model of HIVE. In vivo ligand binding was assessed using [11C]-labeled (R)-PK11195 with PET in SIV-infected macaques. Out of 11 imaged SIV-infected macaques, six showed higher levels of [11C](R)-PK11195 binding (Figure 1 and Table 2). Increased binding corresponded to the presence of SIVE on postmortem examination (Table 2). Macaques that did not show an increase in [11C](R)-PK11195 binding did not exhibit SIVE (Table 2). In four macaques comparison of MRI before infection and 2 months after infection showed mild brain atrophy and increase in ventricular size only in the moderate to severe SIVE cases (Figure 2 and data not shown). Brain postmortem [3H](R)-PK11195 binding was significantly higher in SIVE macaques from controls due to an increase in the number of binding sites (Bmax) with no significant changes in binding affinity (Kd) (Figure 3) and correlated with in vivo binding measured with PET just before sacrifice (Table 2 and data ...
The addition of CD40 mAb further enhanced cytokine-mediated IgG production in culture supernatants from non-infected and SIV-infected macaques on D21p.i. but not on D14p.i ...
To investigate the dynamics of spread of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the lymphoid organs, we sequentially analyzed the viral burden in lymph nodes
Determination of KP metabolites in plasma were determined using three separate LC/MS/MS methods. A 5-analyte method was used for simultaneous analysis of KYN, KYNA, 3HK, AA, and 3HAA. A second method was used for analysis of QA, and a third method was employed to quantitate TRP in plasma. The stability of KP metabolites in plasma following storage at −20°C up to 3 mo and following the freeze-thaw cycle was established prior to analysis of the samples. For the 5-analyte method, a 200-μl aliquot of plasma was first mixed with 25 μl of 10% ascorbic acid followed by the addition of 50 μl of internal standard solution (acetonitrile/water; 50:50) containing KYN-D6 (100 ng/ml), KYNA-D5 (50 ng/ml), 15N13C2 3HK (100 ng/ml), and 13C6 AA (50 ng/ml). To this mixture, 800 μl of acetonitrile/methanol (90:10; v/v) was added to precipitate the proteins. After mixing and centrifugation, a 700-μl aliquot of supernatant was transferred to a clean tube and evaporated at 40°C for up to 2 h using TurboVap. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structured treatment interruptions with tenofovir monotherapy for simian immunodeficiency virus-infected newborn macaques. AU - Van Rompay, Koen K.A.. AU - Singh, Raman P.. AU - Heneine, Walid. AU - Johnson, Jeffrey A.. AU - Montefiori, David C.. AU - Bischofberger, Norbert. AU - Marthas, Marta. PY - 2006/7/1. Y1 - 2006/7/1. N2 - We demonstrated previously that prolonged tenofovir treatment of infant macaques, starting early during infection with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251), can lead to persistently low or undetectable viremia even after the emergence of mutants with reduced in vitro susceptibility to tenofovir as a result of a K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase; this control of viremia was demonstrated to be mediated by the generation of effective antiviral immune responses. To determine whether structured treatment interruptions (STI) can induce similar immunologic control of viremia, eight newborn macaques were infected with highly virulent SIVmac251 ...
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection models in cynomolgus macaques are important for analysis of the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency virus and for studies on the efficacy of new vaccine candidates. However, very little is known about the pathogenesis of SIV or simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in cynomolgus macaques from different Asian countries. In the present study, we analysed the infectivity and pathogenicity of CCR5-tropic SIVmac and those of dual-tropic SHIV89.6P inoculated into cynomolgus macaques in Indonesian, Malaysian or Philippine origin. The plasma viral loads in macaques infected with either SIVmac239 or SHIV89.6P were maintained at high levels. CD4+ T cell levels in macaques infected with SIVmac239 gradually decreased. All of the macaques infected with SHIV89.6P showed greatly reduced CD4+ T-cell numbers within 6 weeks of infection. Eight of the 11 macaques infected with SIVmac239 were killed due to AIDS symptoms after 2-4.5 years, while four of the five macaques
In vivo blockade of CD28 and CD40 T cell costimulation pathways during acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques was performed to assess the relative contributions of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and Ab responses in modulating SIV replication and disease progression. Transient administration of CTLA4-Ig and anti-CD40L mAb to SIV-infected rhesus macaques resulted in dramatic inhibition of the generation of both SIV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. Acute levels of proliferating CD8+ T cells were associated with early control of SIV viremia but did not predict ensuing set point viremia or survival. The level of in vivo CD4+ T cell proliferation during acute SIV infection correlated with concomitant peak levels of SIV plasma viremia, whereas measures of in vivo CD4+ T cell proliferation that extended into chronic infection correlated with lower SIV viral load and increased survival. These results suggest that proliferating CD4+ T cells function both as ...
Blum, F. C., Hardy, B. L., Bishop-Lilly, K, A., Frey, K. G., Hamilton, T., Whitney, J. B., Lewis, M. G., Merrell, D. S., and Mattapallil, J. 2020. Microbial dysbiosis during Simian immunodeficiency virus infection is partially reverted with combination anti-retroviral therapy. Scientific Reports: 10(1):6387.. George, J., Johnson, R. C., Mattapallil, M. J., Renn, L., Rabin, R., Merrell, D. S and Mattapallil, J. J. 2019. Gender differences in innate responses and gene expression profiles in memory CD4 T cells are apparent very early during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection. PLoS One. 14(9):e0221159. Valiant, W. G., Mattapallil, M. J., Higgs, S., Huang, Y. S., Vanlandingham, D. L., Lewis, M. G and Mattapallil, J. 2019. Simultaneous coinfection of macaques with zika and dengue viruses does not enhance acute viremia but leads to activation of monocyte subsets and biphasic release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Scientific Reports: 9: 7877 (1-11).. Valiant, W. G., Huang, Y., Vanlandingham, ...
Chronic-phase HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication is reduced by as much as 10,000-fold in elite controllers (ECs) compared with typical progressors (TPs), but sufficient viral replication persists in EC tissues to allow viral sequence evolution and induce excess immune activation …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction and characterization of replication-competent simian immunodeficiency virus vectors that express gamma interferon. AU - Giavedoni, Luis D.. AU - Yilma, Tilahun. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - We report the construction and characterization of several replication- competent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vectors with a deletion in the viral nef gene (SIV(Δnef)) that express gamma interferon (IFN-γ). The expression of the cytokine gene was controlled either by the simian virus 40 early promoter or by the SIV 5 long terminal repeat regulatory sequences, utilizing the nef gene splice signals. To enhance the expression of IFN-γ, the two in-frame nef start codons were mutated without altering the Env amino acid sequence (SIV(Hy-IFN)). Plasmids containing full-length proviral genomes were used to obtain high-titer stocks of each recombinant virus in cell cultures. Expression of IFN-γ by SIV(HyIFN) reached levels as high as 106 U/ml after 11 days in culture. The IFN-γ ...
High levels of HIV-1 replication during the chronic phase of infection usually correlate with rapid progression to severe immunodeficiency. However, a minority of highly viremic individuals remains asymptomatic and maintains high CD4? T cell counts. This tolerant profile is poorly understood and reminiscent of the widely studied nonprogressive disease model of SIV infection in natural hosts. Here, we identify transcriptome differences between rapid progressors (RPs) and viremic nonprogressors (VNPs) and highlight several genes relevant for the understanding of HIV-1-induced immunosuppression. RPs were characterized by a specific transcriptome profile of CD4? and CD8? T cells similar to that observed in pathogenic SIV-infected rhesus macaques. In contrast, VNPs exhibited lower expression of interferon-stimulated genes and shared a common gene regulation profile with nonpathogenic SIV-infected sooty mangabeys. A short list of genes associated with VNP, including CASP1, CD38, LAG3, TNFSF13B, SOCS1, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Route of simian immunodeficiency virus inoculation determines the complexity but not the identity of viral variant populations that infect rhesus macaques. AU - Greenier, J. L.. AU - Miller, C. J.. AU - Lu, D.. AU - Dailey, P. J.. AU - Lü, F. X.. AU - Kunstman, K. J.. AU - Wolinsky, S. M.. AU - Marthas, M. L.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - A better understanding of the host and viral factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is essential to developing effective strategies to curb the global HIV epidemic. Here we used the rhesus macaque-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) animal model of HIV infection to study the range of viral genotypes that are transmitted by different routes of inoculation and by different types of viral inocula. Analysis of transmitted variants was undertaken in outbred rhesus macaques inoculated intravenously (IV) or intravaginally (IVAG) with a genetically heterogeneous SIVmac251 stock derived from a well-characterized rhesus ...
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African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM) are well-studied natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that do not progress to AIDS when
At the end of the recovery period after huOKT4 treatment, the CD4+ TN-depleted cohort manifested almost a complete absence of circulating CD4+ TN cells. Importantly, no CD4+ TN regeneration was observed throughout the entire course of SIV infection in the CD4+ TN-depleted cohort, in sharp contrast to the CD4+ TN-repleted RMs (Fig. 2 B). CD4+ TN lack CCR5 expression, and are thus not primary targets of CCR5-tropic SIV (Picker et al., 2004). Therefore, given the essentially equivalent CD4+ TM populations in the CD4+ TN-depleted and -repleted cohorts (Fig. 1), it is not surprising that the absence of CD4+ TN in the former group had no effect on peak pvl (Fig. 2 C). More surprising was the observation that early plateau- and chronic-phase pvl were also not significantly different between the CD4+ TN-depleted and -repleted groups (Fig. 2 C), despite the facts that SIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses were essentially absent in CD4+ TN-depleted RMs during acute infection (Fig. 2 D), and that only 11% of ...
The SIV-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is the most established model of AIDS disease systems, providing insight into pathogenesis and a model system for testing novel vaccines. The understanding of cellular immune responses based on the identification and study of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) molecules, including their MHC:peptide-binding motif, provides valuable information to decipher outcomes of infection and vaccine efficacy. Detailed characterization of Mamu-B*039:01, a common allele expressed in Chinese rhesus macaques, revealed a unique MHC:peptide-binding preference consisting of glycine at the second position. Peptides containing a glycine at the second position were shown to be antigenic from animals positive for Mamu-B*039:01. A similar motif was previously described for the Dd mouse MHC allele, but for none of the human HLA molecules for which a motif is known. Further investigation showed that one additional macaque allele, present in Indian rhesus macaques, Mamu-B*052
TY - JOUR. T1 - A single amino acid change and truncated TM are sufficient for simian immunodeficiency virus to enter cells using CCR5 in a CD4-independent pathway. AU - Bonavia, A.. AU - Bullock, B. T.. AU - Gisselman, K. M.. AU - Margulies, B. J.. AU - Clements, Janice E. PY - 2005/10/10. Y1 - 2005/10/10. N2 - Entry of HIV and SIV into susceptible cells is mediated by CD4 and chemokine receptors, which act as coreceptors. To study cell entry of SIV, we constructed a cell line, xKLuSIV, derived from non-susceptible human K562 cells, that express the firefly luciferase reporter gene under control of a minimal SIV long terminal repeat (LTR). Using these susceptible cells, we studied the entry of a well-characterized molecularly cloned macrophage-tropic SIV. xKLuSIV cells that express rhesus macaque CD4 and/or the rhesus chemokine receptor CCR5 are susceptible to infection with the macrophage-tropic, neurovirulent strain SIV/17E-Fr, but only xKLuSIV cells expressing both CCR5 and CD4 were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A panel of IgG1 b12 variants with selectively diminished or enhanced affinity for Fcγ receptors to define the role of effector functions in protection against HIV. AU - Moldt, Brian. AU - Schultz, Niccole. AU - Dunlop, D. Cameron. AU - Alpert, Michael D.. AU - Harvey, Jackson D.. AU - Evans, David T.. AU - Poignard, Pascal. AU - Hessell, Ann J.. AU - Burton, Dennis R.. PY - 2011/10/1. Y1 - 2011/10/1. N2 - Passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies is effective in protecting rhesus macaques against simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. In addition to neutralization, effector functions of the crystallizable fragment (Fc) of antibodies are involved in antibody-mediated protection against a number of viruses. We recently showed that interaction between the Fc fragment of the broadly neutralizing antibody IgG1 b12 and cellular Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) plays an important role in protection against SHIV infection in rhesus macaques. The specific nature of this ...
This chapter summarizes advances in the following areas: (1) dendritic cell (DC)-mediated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission, (2) role of DCs in innate and adaptive immunity against...
Genetic and antigenic variation may be one means by which lentiviruses that cause AIDS avoid elimination by host immune responses. Genetic variation in the envelope gene (env) was studied by comparing the nucleotide sequences of 27 clones obtained from two rhesus monkeys infected with molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus. All 27 clones differed from each other and differed from the input clone in the gp120 (SU) portion of the envelope gene. Nucleotide substitutions were shown to accumulate with time at an average rate of 8.5 per 1,000 per year in SU. Surprisingly, the majority of nucleotide substitutions (81%) resulted in amino acid changes. Variation in SU was not random but occurred predominantly in five discrete regions. Within these variable regions, a remarkable 98% of the nucleotide substitutions changed the amino acid. These results demonstrate that extensive sequence variability accumulates in vivo after infection with molecularly cloned virus and that selection occurs in vivo for
Immunosuppressive CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, which play a pivotal role in peripheral tolerance [1], have also been found to play a role in the immunopathogenesis of disease caused by certain persistent infections [2,3]. The overall impact of Treg cells on HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) disease progression remains controversial and has proven difficult to assess due to lack of specific inhibitors of Treg-cell activity and the complex role of immune activation in HIV/SIV disease. Treg cells potentially exert contrasting effects: slowing progression by suppressing generalized immune hyperactivation and HIV replication in non-Treg cells, or accelerating progression by suppressing virus-specific immune responses, and/or contributing to the loss of T helper-17 cells, thereby increasing immune activation mediated by microbial translocation from the gut [3-7]. Although there is conflicting data regarding the frequency of Treg cells in the blood during the course of infection, it ...
The RAPAd® method of Adenovirus construction, developed by ViraQuest Inc. scientists, has been used by other scientists around the world.. Request Quote ...
T cell activation levels in HIV infection are predictive of AIDS progression. We searched for the immunological correlates of protection against disease progression by studying the early stages of nonpathogenic SIV infection in African green monkeys (SIVagm). The African green monkeys (AGMs) displayed high peak viremias and a transient decline in levels of blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells between days 5 and 17 after infection. A concomitant increase in levels of CD4+DR+, CD8+DR+, and CD8+CD28- cells was detected. After the third week, T cell activation returned to baseline levels, which suggested a protective downregulation of T cell activation. A very early (24 hours after infection) and strong induction of TGF-β1 and FoxP3 expression was detected and correlated with increases in levels of CD4+CD25+ and CD8+CD25+ T cells. This was followed by a significant increase in levels of IL-10, whereas IFN-γ gene upregulation was more transient, and levels of TNF-α and MIP-1α/β transcripts did not ...
Since there is still no protective HIV vaccine available, better insights into immune mechanism of persons effectively controlling HIV replication in the absence of any therapy should contribute to improve further vaccine designs. However, little is known about the mucosal immune response of this small unique group of patients. Using the SIV-macaque-model for AIDS, we had the rare opportunity to analyze 14 SIV-infected rhesus macaques durably controlling viral replication (controllers). We investigated the virological and immunological profile of blood and three different mucosal tissues and compared their data to those of uninfected and animals progressing to AIDS-like disease (progressors). Lymphocytes from blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and duodenal and colonic biopsies were phenotypically characterized by polychromatic flow cytometry. In controllers, we observed higher levels of CD4+, CD4+CCR5+ and Gag-specific CD8+ T-cells as well as lower immune activation in blood and all mucosal sites
HIV-I can be transmitted by intravenous inoculation of contaminated blood or blood product or sexually through mucosal surfaces. Here we performed a pilot study in the SIVmac251 macaque model to address whether the route of viral entry influences the kinetics of the appearance and the size of virus-specific immune in different tissue compartments. For this purpose, of 2 genetically defined Mamu-A*01-positive macaques, 1 was exposed intravenously and the other intrarectally to the same SIVmac251 viral stock and virus-specific CD8+ T-cells were measured within the first 12 days of infection in the blood and at day 12 in several tissues following euthanasia. Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag, Env, and particularly Tat appeared earlier in the blood of the animal exposed by the mucosal route than in the animal exposed intravenously. The magnitude of these virus-specific responses was consistently higher in the systemic tissues and GALT of the macaque exposed by the intravenous route, suggesting a
Macaque immunization with a mixture of four SIV peptides from conserved hydrophilic envelope regions has been shown to prevent virus persistence following challenge with SIVmne/E11s. Data shown here demonstrate that lymph node cells from all vaccinated monkeys and peripheral blood lymphocytes from one of the vaccinees were positive in a SIV-pol nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification analysis. However, by 37 months after infection, all immunized monkeys were healthy while two of three controls had died and the remaining animal was virus culture-positive and had declining CD4+ lymphocytes. Viable lymph node cells and peripheral lymphoid cells in blood were transferred from the three immunized macaques to individual susceptible macaques. As a control for the transfer, one of the vaccine experiment controls that was actively producing virus in its peripheral blood was used. None of the recipients of cells from the vaccinated macaques seroconverted and all were virus coculture- and ...
By Maximilian Muenchhoff, Emily Adland, Owen Karimanzira, Carol Crowther, Matthew Pace, Anna Csala, Ellen Leitman, Angeline Moonsamy, Callum McGregor, Jacob Hurst, Andreas Groll, Masahiko Mori, Smruti Sinmyee, Christina Thobakgale, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Andrew J. Prendergast, Henrik Kloverpris, Julia Roider, Alasdair Leslie, Delane Shingadia, Thea Brits, Samantha Daniels, John Frater, Christian B. Willberg, Bruce D. Walker, Thumbi Ndungu, Pieter Jooste, Penny L. Moore, Lynn Morris, Philip Goulder. Science Translational Medicine ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Interest in the lentivirus subfamily of retroviruses has greatly intensified due to the realization that HIV-1 and HIV-2 are members of this previously obscure group. Related lentiviruses have now bee
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
T cell response is functioning efficiently or not. Here we have quantified T cell turnover in vivo in HTLV -I infected patients6, estimated the impact on HIV viral load of viral escape from the CTL response7 and quantified the relative importance of CD8 + T cells, B cells and NK cells in determining the course of acute viremia in primary SIV infection. We also work extensively on models to assess the relationship between lymphocyte dynamics and disease, such as the disregulation of B cell kinetics in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia6, 8-11. This included development and application of models of deuterated glucose, BrdU and CFSE labelling.. This talk is part of the Immunology in Pathology series.. ...
Dyavar Shetty R, Velu V, Titanji K, Bosinger SE, Freeman GJ, Silvestri G, Amara R R. 2012. PD-1 blockade during chronic SIV infection reduces hyperimmune activation and microbial translocation in rhesus macaques.. J Clin Invest. 122(5):1712-6. ...
The time elapsed between successful cell infection and the start of virus production is called the eclipse phase. Its duration is specific to each virus strain and, along with an effective virus production rate, plays a key role in infection kinetics. How the eclipse phase varies amongst cells infected with the same virus strain and therefore how best to mathematically represent its duration is not clear. Most mathematical models either neglect this phase or assume it is exponentially distributed, such that at least some if not all cells can produce virus immediately upon infection. Biologically, this is unrealistic (one must allow for the translation, transcription, export, etc. to take place), but could be appropriate if the duration of the eclipse phase is negligible on the time-scale of the infection. If it is not, however, ignoring this delay affects the accuracy of the mathematical model, its parameter estimates, and predictions. Here, we introduce a new approach, consisting in a carefully
New research suggests that the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) lineage was already circulating in monkeys and apes at least 32,000 years ago. During ...
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In the 60 degrees reclining with 60 degrees chin-tuck position, duration of swallowing apnea (0.89 s.d. Thus far, three SIV/HIV gene products (vpu, nef and env) are known to have the potential to counteract primate tetherin proteins, often in a species-specific ...
Bremnes, Ann-Merete; Martinussen, Monica; Laholt, Hilde; Bania, Elisabeth Valmyr; Kvernmo, Siv. (2011) Positiv sammenheng mellom psykisk helse og fysisk aktivitet blant ungdom i videregående skole. Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening. vol. 48 (4). ...
Looking for online definition of simian-human immunodeficiency virus in the Medical Dictionary? simian-human immunodeficiency virus explanation free. What is simian-human immunodeficiency virus? Meaning of simian-human immunodeficiency virus medical term. What does simian-human immunodeficiency virus mean?
TY - CHAP. T1 - Isolation and Detection of Zika Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques Lymph Node Cells and Splenocytes. AU - Haese, Nicole. AU - Hirsch, Alec J.. AU - Streblow, Daniel N.. N1 - Funding Information: The work presented in this manuscript was supported by the Pilot Program support from the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC) P51-ODO11092 and R21-HD091032 awarded by the National Institutes of Health. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Veterinarian and husbandry staff provide excellent care for the animals used in this study. Publisher Copyright: © 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is shed in biological fluids promoting vertical and sexual transmission. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV have been ...
Infection of macaques with attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) induces potent superinfection resistance that may be applicable to the development of an AIDS vaccine but little information exists concerning the conditions necessary for the induction of this vaccine effect. We report that only a high dose of attenuated SIVmac protected macaques against intravenous challenge with more virulent virus 15 weeks after primary infection. Three of four animals given 2000-20000 TCID50 of SIVmacC8, a molecular clone of SIVmac251(32H) with a 12 bp deletion in the nef gene, essentially resisted superinfection with uncloned SIVmac. In two animals challenge virus was never detected by PCR and in one animal challenge virus was detected on one occasion only. Although animals given 2-200 TCID50 of attenuated virus were superinfected they were spared from the loss of CD4 cells seen in infected naive controls. Protection from superinfection did not correlate with immune responses, including the levels of virus
Aikeqing (AKQ) has been shown in clinical studies to improve quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients, but anti-HIV activity has not been determined. The SHIV-infected macaque is an important animal model for testing antiviral drugs. This study aimed to determine the anti-HIV activity of AKQ in chronically SHIV89.6-infected Chinese rhesus macaques. Nine Chinese rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with SHIV89.6 virus. At 11 weeks post-infection, the animals were arbitrarily divided into three groups: high-dose (AKQ 1.65 g/kg; n = 3), low-dose (AKQ 0.55 g/kg; n = 3), and control (water 1 mL/kg; n = 3). Treatment was administered by the intragastric gavage route once-daily for 8 weeks. Blood (5 mL) was collected biweekly. Viral loads were analyzed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays, and T cell counts were monitored by FACS analyses throughout the treatment. AKQ induced a persistent decline (P = 0.02) in plasma viral loads during treatment in the high-dose group
Opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have been shown to increase the rate of HIV replication. In populations where prophylaxis against Pneumocystis pneumonia is utilized, bacterial pneumonia is now the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in HIV+ patients. Our prior studies have shown that chronic alcohol consumption in demarcated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques increases plasma viral load set point and accelerates progression to end-stage acquired immune deficiency syndrome. While chronic alcohol abuse is well known to increase the incidence and severity of bacterial pneumonia, the impact of alcohol consumption on local and systemic SIV/HIV burden during lung infection is unknown. Therefore, we utilized the macaque SIV infection model to examine the effect of chronic ethanol (EtOH) feeding on SIV burden during the course of pulmonary infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most commonly identified ...
Disease-free infection in HIV-infected adults is associated with human leukocyte antigen-mediated suppression of viremia, whereas in the sooty mangabey and other healthy natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), viral replication continues unabated. To better understand factors preventing HIV disease, we investigated pediatric infection, where AIDS typically develops more rapidly than in adults. Among 170 nonprogressing antiretroviral therapy-naïve children aged |5 years maintaining normal-for-age CD4 T cell counts, immune activation levels were low despite high viremia (median, 26,000 copies/ml). Potent, broadly neutralizing antibody responses in most of the subjects and strong virus-specific T cell activity were present but did not drive pediatric nonprogression. However, reduced CCR5 expression and low HIV infection in long-lived central memory CD4 T cells were observed in pediatric nonprogressors. These children therefore express two cardinal immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptors(pIgR) are key participants in the formation and secretion of secretory IgA(S-IgA), which is critical for the prevention of microbial infection and colonization in the respiratory system. Although increased respiratory colonization and infections are common in HIV/AIDS, little is known about the expression of pIgR in the airway mucosa of these patients. To address this, the expression levels of pIgR in the tracheal mucosa and lungs of SHIV/SIV-infected rhesus macaques were examined by real-time RTPCR and confocal microscopy. We found that the levels of both PIGR mRNA and pIgR immunoreactivity were lower in the tracheal mucosa of SHIV/SIV-infected rhesus macaques than that in non-infected rhesus macaques, and the difference in pIgR immunoreactivity was statistically significant. IL-17A, which enhances pIgR expression, was also changed in the same direction as that of pIgR. In contrast to changes in the tracheal mucosa, pIgR and IL-17A levels were higher in the ...
We have investigated the molecular basis of biological differences observed among cell line-adapted isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in response to receptor binding by using a soluble form of CD4 (sCD4) as a receptor mimic. We find that sCD4 binds to the envelope glycoproteins of all of the HIV-1 isolates tested with affinities within a threefold range, whereas those of the HIV-2 and SIV isolates have relative affinities for sCD4 two- to eightfold lower than those of HIV-1. Treatment of infected cells with sCD4 induced the dissociation of gp120 from gp41 and increased the exposure of a cryptic gp41 epitope on all of the HIV-1 isolates. By contrast, neither dissociation of the outer envelope glycoprotein nor increased exposure of the transmembrane glycoprotein was observed when sCD4 bound to HIV-2- or SIV-infected cells. Moreover, immunoprecipitation with sCD4 resulted in the coprecipitation of the surface and
J Immunol. 2009 Apr 1;182(7):4313-20. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0803314. Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Amrita Datta Chaudhuri, Sowmya V Yelamanchili, Maria Cecilia G Marcondes, Howard S Fox].
Like most emerging infectious disease viruses, HIV is also of zoonotic origin. To assess the risk for cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) from nonhuman primates to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we collected 330 samples derived from nonhuman primate bushmeat at 3 remote forest sites. SIV prevalences were estimated by using a novel high-throughput assay that included 34 HIV and SIV antigens in a single well. Overall, 19% of nonhuman primate bushmeat was infected with SIVs, and new SIV lineages were identified. Highest SIV prevalences were seen in red-tailed guenons (25%) and Tshuapa red colobus monkeys (24%), representing the most common hunted primate species, thus increasing the likelihood for cross-species transmission. Additional studies are needed to determine whether other SIVs crossed the species barrier. With the newly developed assay, large-scale screening against many antigens is now easier and faster.
Like most emerging infectious disease viruses, HIV is also of zoonotic origin. To assess the risk for cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) from nonhuman primates to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we collected 330 samples derived from nonhuman primate bushmeat at 3 remote forest sites. SIV prevalences were estimated by using a novel high-throughput assay that included 34 HIV and SIV antigens in a single well. Overall, 19% of nonhuman primate bushmeat was infected with SIVs, and new SIV lineages were identified. Highest SIV prevalences were seen in red-tailed guenons (25%) and Tshuapa red colobus monkeys (24%), representing the most common hunted primate species, thus increasing the likelihood for cross-species transmission. Additional studies are needed to determine whether other SIVs crossed the species barrier. With the newly developed assay, large-scale screening against many antigens is now easier and faster ...
To gain a better understanding of the assembly process in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), we first established the conditions under which recombinant SIV Gag lacking the C-terminal p6 domain (SIV GagΔp6) assembled in vitro into spherical particles. Based on the full multimerization capacity of SIV GagΔp6, and to identify the Gag sequences involved in homotypic interactions, we next developed a pull-down assay in which a panel of histidine-tagged SIV Gag truncation mutants was tested for its ability to associate in vitro with GST-SIVGagΔp6. Removal of the nucleocapsid (NC) domain from Gag impaired its ability to interact with GST-SIVGagΔp6. However, this Gag mutant consisting of the matrix (MA) and capsid (CA) domains still retained 50% of the wild-type binding activity. Truncation of SIV Gag from its N-terminus yielded markedly different results. The Gag region consisting of the CA and NC was significantly more efficient than wild-type Gag at interacting in vitrowith GST-SIVGagΔp6. ...
Immunization of rhesus macaques with strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that are limited to a single cycle of infection elicits T-cell responses to multiple viral gene products and antibodies capable of neutralizing lab-adapted SIV, but not neutralization-resistant primary isolates of SIV. In an effort to improve upon the antibody responses, we immunized rhesus macaques with three strains of single-cycle SIV (scSIV) that express envelope glycoproteins modified to lack structural features thought to interfere with the development of neutralizing antibodies. These envelope-modified strains of scSIV lacked either five potential N-linked glycosylation sites in gp120, three potential N-linked glycosylation sites in gp41, or 100 amino acids in the V1V2 region of gp120. Three doses consisting of a mixture of the three envelope-modified strains of scSIV were administered on weeks 0, 6, and 12, followed by two booster inoculations with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G trans-complemented scSIV on
1. ShortmanK. LiuYJ. 2002. Mouse and human dendritic cell subtypes.. Nat Rev Immunol. 2. 151. 161. 2. AlmeidaM. CorderoM. AlmeidaJ. OrfaoA. 2005. Different subsets of peripheral blood dendritic cells show distinct phenotypic and functional abnormalities in HIV-1 infection.. AIDS. 19. 261. 271. 3. BarronMA. BlyveisN. PalmerBE. MaWhinneyS. WilsonCC. 2003. Influence of plasma viremia on defects in number and immunophenotype of blood dendritic cell subsets in human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected individuals.. J Infect Dis. 187. 26. 37. 4. DonaghyH. PozniakA. GazzardB. QaziN. GilmourJ. 2001. Loss of blood CD11c(+) myeloid and CD11c(−) plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with HIV-1 infection correlates with HIV-1 RNA virus load.. Blood. 98. 2574. 2576. 5. GrassiF. HosmalinA. McIlroyD. CalvezV. DebreP. 1999. Depletion in blood CD11c-positive dendritic cells from HIV-infected patients.. AIDS. 13. 759. 766. 6. PacanowskiJ. KahiS. BailletM. LebonP. DeveauC. 2001. Reduced blood CD123+ (lymphoid) ...
Understanding the reasons why SIV-infected sooty mangabeys (SMs) remain healthy despite high viremia is a key unanswered question in contemporary AIDS research,...
Breadth and magnitude of antigen-specific antibody responses in the control of plasma viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus infected macaques. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules expressed on the surface of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are potential targets for neutralizing antibodies. Since MHC molecules are polymorphic, nonself MHC can also be immunogenic. We have used combinations of novel recombinant HLA class I and II and HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antigens, all linked to dextran, to investigate whether they can elicit protective immunity against heterologous simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge in rhesus macaques. Three groups of animals were immunized with HLA (group 1, n = 8), trimeric YU2 HIV type 1 (HIV-1) gp140 and SIV p27 (HIV/SIV antigens; group 2, n = 8), or HLA plus HIV/SIV antigens (group 3, n = 8), all with Hsp70 and TiterMax Gold adjuvant. Another group (group 4, n = 6) received the same vaccine as group 3 without TiterMax Gold. Two of eight macaques in group 3 were completely protected against intravenous challenge with 18 50% animal infective doses (AID(50)) of ...
An env- and nef-deleted SHIV DNA, SIVGP1, was constructed from an infectious SHIVMD14YE clone DNA as described previously (13, 22). The DNA is deleted with a gene fragment encoding Env surface protein (SU; nucleotide [nt] 6211 to nt 7726 in HIV-1DH12; these sequence data are available from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ under accession no. AF069140), the 3′ portion of the env gene (nt 8628 to nt 8764 in HIV-1DH12), and the 5′ quarter of the nef gene (nt 9333 to nt 9481 in SIVmac239; GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession no. M33262). From SIVGP1 DNA, the 5′ long terminal repeat region was replaced with a CMV promoter with immediate early enhancer and the 3′ portion containing the remaining nef and the 3′ long terminal repeat was replaced with Simian virus 40 poly A to obtain CMV-SHIVdEN DNA. Therefore, the CMV-SHIVdEN DNA has SIV-derived gag, pol, vif, vpx, and partial vpr sequences and HIV-1-derived partial vpr, tat, rev, and partial env (nt 7726 to nt 8628 containing the second exon of tat, the second exon ...
The identification of plasma viral RNA (35) and CD4+ T cell counts (37) as surrogate markers of HIV disease progression was instrumental in the development of ART for attaining improved clinical care in HIV-infected patients. As the HIV field rapidly turns toward achieving functional cure, there has been renewed interest in identifying biomarkers of viral rebound. Monitoring biomarkers will guide clinical trials with effective therapeutic candidates, minimizing the investment in those that are unlikely to result in a delay of viral rebound. However, ATI trials for the identification of biomarkers remain logistically challenging, particularly in children, necessitating the development of tractable pediatric animal models. While models of ATI in SIV-infected pediatric RMs are not new to the HIV field (38), clinically translatable RM models of ATI using SHIVs have been advancing (39). Thus, we sought to establish an oral SHIV-infected infant model of ATI with a previously validated ART regimen ...
Increasing evidence suggests an unexpected potential for non-neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV infection. Consequently, identification of functional linear B-cell epitopes for HIV are important for developing preventative and therapeutic strategies. We therefore explored the role of antigen-specific immune responses in controlling plasma viremia in SIV infected rhesus macaques. Thirteen rhesus macaques were inoculated either intravaginally or intrarectally with SIVMAC251. Peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells were quantified. Plasma was examined for viremia, antigen specific IgG, IgA and IgM binding responses and neutralizing antibodies. Regions containing binding epitopes for antigen-specific IgG, IgM and IgA responses were determined, and the minimum size of linear Envelope epitope responsible for binding antibodies was identified. The presence of neutralizing antibodies did not correlate the outcome of the disease. In a few SIV-infected macaques, antigen-specific IgG and IgM responses in plasma
Passive transfer studies using other neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies have generally conformed to our observations with b12 (1, 24, 26,38). Mascola et al. (26), however, did report that the antibody 2G12 and combinations of this antibody with the antibody 2F5 and polyclonal immune IgG (HIVIG) were somewhat more effective in sterile protection against mucosal challenge with the chimeric virus SHIV89.6PD than against intravenous challenge. In particular, those studies showed a surprising efficacy of the antibody 2G12 in mucosal protection. The reasons for this efficacy are unclear, but understanding it is clearly important.. Generally, examination of the literature on passive transfer to naive animals for a wide variety of different viruses and model systems shows that titers of neutralizing antibody in serum around or greater than 1:100 are required for sterile protection (28). For instance, serum neutralizing antibody titers of 1:380 are required to sterilely protect cotton rats against ...
A post we made last week suggested a new vaccine can protect macaques against the monkey equivalent of HIV, however the vaccine using the common virus cytomegalovirus (CMV) as the vector or container of proteins from the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) protected none of a group of 24 rhesus macaques from infection. But in 13…
The potential impact of this CD4+ memory proliferative collapse on peripheral tissues was revealed by another series of observations. First, as explained in Results, both the kinetics of BrdU labeling of blood, lymph node, and BAL T cells, and the pattern of Ki-67 expression by these labeled cells, firmly establish that the pulmonary tissue-air interface of SIV-infected normal progressors is constantly being seeded by recently divided CD4+ memory T cells, originating elsewhere (likely organized lymphoid tissues). Thus, SIV infection increases CD4+ memory T cell proliferation in peripheral lymphoid tissues, producing progeny that directly disperse to extralymphoid effector sites. Because there is both a paucity of Ki-67high T cells and minimal immediate BrdU uptake by T cells in BALs, these cells do not appear to further proliferate in these sites, but given the rapid decline in BrdU labeling observed in our BAL samples (Fig. 7), likely die in situ, only to be continuously replaced by subsequent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rare Control of SIVmac239 Infection in a Vaccinated Rhesus Macaque. AU - Martins, Mauricio A.. AU - Tully, Damien C.. AU - Shin, Young C.. AU - Gonzalez-Nieto, Lucas. AU - Weisgrau, Kim L.. AU - Bean, David J.. AU - Gadgil, Rujuta. AU - Gutman, Martin J.. AU - Domingues, Aline. AU - Maxwell, Helen S.. AU - Magnani, Diogo M.. AU - Ricciardi, Michael. AU - Pedreño-Lopez, Nuria. AU - Bailey, Varian. AU - Cruz, Michael A.. AU - Lima, Noemia S.. AU - Bonaldo, Myrna C.. AU - Altman, John D.. AU - Rakasz, Eva. AU - Capuano, Saverio. AU - Reimann, Keith A.. AU - Piatak, Michael. AU - Lifson, Jeffrey D.. AU - Desrosiers, Ronald C.. AU - Allen, Todd M.. AU - Watkins, David I.. PY - 2017/8. Y1 - 2017/8. N2 - Effector memory T cell (TEM) responses display potent antiviral propertis and have been linked to stringent control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Since recurrent antigen stimulation drives the differentiation of CD8+ T cells toward the TEM phenotype, in this study ...
Using enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP-1), a transient transfection reporter system was established to monitor the transcriptional activity of the long terminal repeats (LTR) of several primary strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239. After transient transfection of HeLa cells with variant HIV-1 LTR-EGFP-1 constructs, we scanned the cell culture using fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS). Using FACS it was possible to simultaneously estimate for transfection efficiency and to quantitatively determine the fluorescence intensity of the transfected population. Data showed that expression of EGFP-1 was DNA dose dependent. FACS enabled the visualization of heterogeneity in the level of reporter gene expression in a transiently transfected population. The distribution of the fluorescent intensity of transfected cells was treated as a frequency distribution, and different statistical estimators were used to quantitate the amount of ...
In this paper, the optimization of the conditionally live SIV-rtTA variant through viral evolution is described. We recently constructed this dox-dependent SIVmac239 variant by replacing the natural Tat-TAR mechanism of transcription control by the dox-inducible Tet-On regulatory mechanism. Although the original SIV-rtTA variant replicates in T cell lines and in primary macaque PBMC, it replicates poorly when compared with the parental SIVmac239 [25](Figs. 5 and 6). Upon long-term culturing, the virus acquired several mutations in the TAR and U3 region. These mutations significantly improve viral replication, but do not affect dox control. We thus generated novel SIV-rtTA variants that replicate efficiently and in a dox-dependent manner in both T-cell lines and primary macaque PBMC.. We previously used virus evolution to optimize a similarly constructed dox-dependent HIV-1 variant. Upon long-term culturing, this HIV-rtTA variant acquired several mutations in the rtTA and tetO components of the ...
In response to the recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in North and South America, there is an urgent need for animal models to test vaccines and therapeutics against this zoonotic pathogen. Non-human primates models are often needed for vaccine and immunomodulatory therapeutic evaluation due to their close evolutionary proximity to humans and the similarity of their physiology and immunology. IITRI has developed a Rhesus macaque Zika infection model for the preclinical testing of vaccines and antiviral therapeutics. ###Experimental Summary###
British Publication, The Daily Mirror is reporting that a vaccine which could completely clear the body of all traces of the Aids virus has been developed.. Scientists have successfully controlled the disease in monkeys, raising hopes they may finally conquer the human form, the report goes on to say.. This large experimental study was in 67 male rhesus macaque monkeys that were given the monkey form of HIV, called Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV). The vaccine was tested in 24 monkeys, 13 of which showed complete control over the SIV virus. Further analysis showed that 12 of these were still protected after a year. In contrast, macaques that did not get the vaccine continued to show high levels of the virus.. This research has re-ignited debate within the research community that a HIV vaccine for humans may be possible. Experts have called this early research exciting and described it as a breakthrough. The technique will now need to be adapted to see if it can be used in treating ...
by Tim Horn, Senior Writer & Editor, HIVs ability to damage the human immune system might amount to an accident of evolution, notably the loss of the protective function of a viral protein called Nef. Like HIV in humans, related strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) are rampant among many species of monkeys. Unlike HIV in humans, many primates infected with SIV dont experience immune suppression or suffer the symptoms associated with AIDS. The evidence, published by an international team of researchers in the June 2006 issue of Cell, is the first to offer an explanation for this striking difference. The group found that a viral protein known to help the virus evade the immune system, thereby allowing the SIVs that infect monkeys to persist and multiply with high efficiency, also has a protective role in the host immune system. The SIV Nef protein ratchets down the activation of T-cells following infection in primates, thereby limiting the harmful effects that can be ...
Well, Ill try. Yes, it would be ideal to have an animal model, but the problem is that HIV behaves differently in monkeys than it does in men. SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus) is the monkey...
Kent, S. J., C. J. Dale, C. RANASINGHE, I. Stratov, R. De Rose, S. Chea, D. C. Montefiori, S. Thomson, I. A. Ramshaw, B. E. Coupar, D. B. Boyle, M. Law, K. M. Wilson, and A. J. Ramsay. 2005. Mucosally-administered human-simian immunodeficiency virus DNA and fowlpoxvirus-based recombinant vaccines reduce acute phase viral replication in macaques following vaginal challenge with CCR5-tropic SHIVSF162P3. Vaccine 23:5009-5021. ...
Tissue in monkeys infected with a close relative of HIV can ramp up production of a type of T cell that actually weakens the bodys attack against the invading virus. The discovery, in lymph nodes draining the intestinal tract, could help explain how the HIV virus evades the bodys immune defenses. [en español]
Innate immune responses, including natural killer (NK) cell responses, are the principal defense against viral infections prior to the development of adaptive i...
Flt3 Ligand Rhesus Macaque Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 159 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 18.0kDa.
We will explore the hypothesis that our bnMAbs, therapeutic vaccines, and LRAs will eliminate a subset of reservoir cells in ART-suppressed, SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys and that these mechanistic data will facilitate the development of improved HIV-1 cure strategies.. ...
... simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.735.750 - monkeypox MeSH C22.795.239 - ectromelia, infectious MeSH C22.795. ... murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.836.120 - bluetongue MeSH C22.836.160 - border disease MeSH C22.836.259 - ... feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.180.440 - feline infectious peritonitis MeSH C22.180.460 - feline ... poult enteritis mortality syndrome MeSH C22.131.800 - sarcoma, avian MeSH C22.131.921 - tuberculosis, avian MeSH C22.180.350 - ...
May 1983). "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... simian-T-lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus type D, gibbon-ape leukemia virus, simian foamy virus, simian sarcoma virus ... King NW, Hunt RD, Letvin NL (December 1983). "Histopathologic changes in macaques with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ... The simian (monkey-hosted) immunodeficiency viruses are a species of retrovirus in the Primate group of genus Lentivirus along ...
OI Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Simian Vaccine Evaluation Units Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on ... The Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (DAIDS) is a division of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious ...
... a precursor of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. There are several distinct strains of HIV, indicating ... Simian immunodeficiency virus present in chimpanzees is reportedly derived from older strains of the virus present in the ... Results of research on wild chimpanzees in Cameroon indicate that they are naturally infected with the simian foamy virus and ... and syphilis acquired by early agrarians. The emergence of HIV-1, AIDS, Ebola virus disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are ...
... a precursor of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in humans. The body parts of many animals, such as tigers and ... Results of research on wild central chimpanzees in Cameroon indicate that they are naturally infected with the simian foamy ...
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... 猴免疫缺陷病毒(英语:Simian immunodeficiency virus,简称SIV),也称为非洲绿猴病毒(英语:African Green Monkey virus),是一种可影响至少33种非洲灵长目的逆转录病毒。[1][2]在对比奥科岛(于大 ... Histopathologic changes in macaques with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The American Journal of Pathology. 1983- ... That means humans have presumably
1983) "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... 1990) "Induction of AIDS in rhesus monkeys by molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus". Science 248 (4959): 1109-1112 ... 1983) "Histopathologic changes in macaques with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)". The American journal of ... the simian immunodeficiency virus, because people have been hunting monkeys for millenniums, risking infection every time they ...
Over time, they cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which progressive failure of the immune system ... The closely related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has evolved into many strains, classified by the natural host species. ... "Infection by the retrovirus associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Annals of Internal Medicine. 103 (5): 694- ... Marx PA, Alcabes PG, Drucker E (2001). "Serial human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the ...
... that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).[1][2] AIDS is a condition in humans in which ... HIV-1 appears to have originated in southern Cameroon through the evolution of SIVcpz, a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) ... "Infection by the retrovirus associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Annals of Internal Medicine. 103 (5): 694- ... The closely related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has evolved into many strains, classified by the natural host species. ...
... simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.900 - visna MeSH C02.782.815.622 - leukemia, feline MeSH C02.782 ... feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.400 - hiv infections MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.040 - acquired ... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.800.801.400.048 - aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C02.800.801.400.050 ... murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.725 - pulmonary adenomatosis, ovine MeSH C02.782.815.800 - sarcoma, ...
When HIV sufficiently diminishes the immune system, it causes a condition known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS ... July 2009). "Nef proteins from simian immunodeficiency viruses are tetherin antagonists". Cell Host & Microbe. 6 (1): 54-67. ... For example, the human immunodeficiency virus used to infect and circulate in non-human primates in West-central Africa, but ... A pathogen undergoing a host switch is driven by selection pressures to acquire the necessary changes allowing for survival and ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to the best known of the transfusion transmitted diseases, acquired immune deficiency ... The term is usually limited to known pathogens, but also sometimes includes agents such as Simian foamy virus which are not ... syndrome (AIDS). Blood that is processed into medications by fractionation is treated in a multi-step process called pathogen ... Another person who died of medically acquired HIV/AIDS was Damon Courtenay, who died in 1991 due to a bad batch of factor VIII ...
... that the transfer of SIVs had generated HIV led Hahn to conclude that presence of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was ... Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are a type of retroviruses that are capable of infecting a myriad of non-human primate ... They went on to discover that HIV originated from chimpanzees, gorillas, and sooty mangabey strains of simian immunodeficiency ... "The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: where and when?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ...
1985) The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a cohort of homosexual men. A six-year follow-up study. Ann Intern Med. 103, ... 1994) Pathogenic diversity of simian immunodeficiency viruses. Virus Res. 32, 183-203 PMID 8067053 ... 1986) Production of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus in human and nonhuman cells transfected with an ... AIDS huwa l-akronimu ta' Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome jew, aħjar bil-Malti, Sindrome ta' immunodefiċjenza akkwiżita u ...
"Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among drug users: a ... human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic human immunodeficiency ... Guss DA (1994). "The acquired immune deficiency syndrome: an overview for the emergency physician, Part 1". J Emerg Med 12 (3 ... Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (1982). "Update on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-United States". MMWR Morb ...
European Network for In Utero Transmission of HIV-1". Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 24 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1097 ... "cis Expression of DC-SIGN allows for more efficient entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses via CD4 and a coreceptor ... "Dualtropic CXCR6/CCR5 Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Infection of Sooty Mangabey Primary Lymphocytes: Distinct Coreceptor ... "Expression cloning of new receptors used by simian and human immunodeficiency viruses". Nature. 388 (6639): 296-300. Bibcode: ...
Jina la Kiingereza ni AIDS = Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. *acquired - maana mtu hawezi kuwa na hali hii kiasili, ... 2005). "Central African hunters exposed to simian immunodeficiency virus". Emerg Infect Dis 11 (12): 1928-30. doi:10.3201/ ... "Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among drug users: a ... Guss DA (1994). "The acquired immune deficiency syndrome: an overview for the emergency physician, Part 1". J Emerg Med 12 (3 ...
... a virus similar to the one that can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS." The court found that McClain failed ... Jackson DA, Symons RH, Berg P (October 1972). "Biochemical method for inserting new genetic information into DNA of Simian ... Cavazzana-Calvo M, Fischer A (June 2007). "Gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency: are we there yet?". The Journal ... It has been used to treat inherited genetic disorders such as severe combined immunodeficiency rising from adenosine deaminase ...
... acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Purlytin has been used successfully to treat the non-malignant conditions psoriasis and ... Another metallo-porphyrin complex, the iron chelate, is more photoactive (towards HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus in MT-4 ...
... are both believed to have originated in West or Central Africa from strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), often referred to as a severe form of pneumonia, is a highly contagious zoonotic ... Wild tigers, rhinos, elephants, pangolins, and certain reptile species are acquired through legal and illegal trade operations ... "WHO , SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)". WHO. Retrieved 2019-04-18. "Monkeypox". Retrieved 2019-04-22. " ...
Follow up trials with gene therapy on another six children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome were also reported as promising. In ... Blood was removed from his mother's placenta and umbilical cord immediately after birth, to acquire stem cells. The allele that ... This has occurred in clinical trials for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) patients, in which hematopoietic ... In March researchers delivered a recombinant gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into monkeys infected with simian ...
Berkhout B (January 1992). "Structural features in TAR RNA of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses: a phylogenetic ... "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science. 220 ( ... "Isolation of human T-cell leukemia virus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". Science. 220 (4599): 865-7. Bibcode: ... The third variable loop or V3 loop is a part or region of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The V3 loop of the viron's envelope ...
Ang Human immunodeficiency virus infection / Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) ay isang sakit ng sistemang immuno ... Ang malapit na kaugnay na simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) ay nag-ebolve sa maraming mga strain na inuri sa mga natural na ... "Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among drug users: a ... "Development of vivo of genetic variability of simian immunodeficiency virus". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (18): 8126-30. ...
... simian immunodeficiency virus). The simian immunodeficiency virus infected various African primates such as gorillas and ... "The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: where and when?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B ... The SIV or Simian immunodeficiency virus that infects them is similar to a certain strain of HIV-1. The HIV-1 virus exhibits ... "A new human immunodeficiency virus derived from gorillas". Nature Medicine. 15 (8): 871-72. doi:10.1038/nm.2016. PMID 19648927 ...
The SIVgor Simian immunodeficiency virus that infects them is similar to a certain strain of HIV-1. The gorilla became the next ... "The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: where and when?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B ... "A new human immunodeficiency virus derived from gorillas". Nature Medicine. 15 (8): 871-72. doi:10.1038/nm.2016. PMID 19648927 ... "Human immunodeficiency viruses: SIV infection in wild gorillas". Nature. 444 (7116): 164. Bibcode:2006Natur.444..164V. doi: ...
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 73 (5): 540-546. doi:10.1097/QAI.0000000000001129. PMC 5424697. PMID 27851714 ... "Updated US Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus and ... in non-human primates showed a reduced risk of infection among animals that receive ARVs prior to exposure to a simian form of ... Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 82 Suppl 2 (2): S113-S117. doi:10.1097/QAI.0000000000002169. PMC 6830954. PMID ...
HIV-1 merupakan hasil evolusi dari simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) yang ditemukan dalam subspesies simpanse, Pan ... Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Science 220, 868 ... a b c d Reeves, J. D. and Doms, R. W. (2002) Human immunodeficiency virus type 2. J. Gen. Virol. 83, 1253-1265 PMID 12029140 ... Virus imunodifisiensi manusia[1] (bahasa Inggris: human immunodeficiency virus; HIV ) adalah suatu virus yang dapat menyebabkan ...
AACTG - acquired immunity - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) - ACT UP/Golden Gate - active immunity - acupuncture - ... simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) - sinusitis - social integration SIT - SIV - Special Projects of National Significance ( ... division of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (DAIDS) - DNA - Domain (biology) - dose-ranging study - dose-response ... human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) - human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - ...
HIV-1 merupakan hasil evolusi dari simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) yang ditemukan dalam subspesies simpanse, Pan ... Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Science 220, 868 ... a b c d Reeves, J. D. and Doms, R. W. (2002) Human immunodeficiency virus type 2. J. Gen. Virol. 83, 1253-1265 PMID 12029140 ... Virus imunodefisiensi manusia[1] (bahasa Inggris: human immunodeficiency virus; sering disingkat HIV) adalah dua spesies ...
We have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration (13-14 g EtOH/kg/wk) prior to and during simian immunodeficiency ... exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+) patients. ... Chronic alcohol accentuates simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated wasting. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res. 2008, 32, 138 ... in persons living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) (PLWHA) is 55%, compared to ...
Simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting western lowland gorillas (SIVgor) are closely related to HIV-1 and are most likely ... Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology, transmission, virology*. Simian immunodeficiency virus / classification ... Simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting western lowland gorillas (SIVgor) are closely related to HIV-1 and are most likely ... Noninvasive follow-up of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living nonhabituated western lowland gorillas in ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology* * Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology* * Simian ... Results: Simian HIV-infected female rhesus macaques progressed faster to AIDS than male macaques, recapitulating the sex bias ... Fast disease progression in simian HIV-infected female macaque is accompanied by a robust local inflammatory innate immune and ... rate of disease progression were evaluated in rhesus macaques infected intrarectally with lineage-related subtype C R5 simian ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology * Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / prevention & control* * ... Mucosally-administered human-simian immunodeficiency virus DNA and fowlpoxvirus-based recombinant vaccines reduce acute phase ... Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / genetics* * Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / immunology * Vaccines, DNA / administration & ...
Gardner, M.B., and P. Marx (1985) Simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Adv. Viral Onc. 5:57-81.Google Scholar ... in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of man (1,5) and HTLV-I in certain human lymphomas (14). Experience with ... Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syn-drome (AIDS). Science 220: ...
Silver-Russell syndrome + Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Simosa Cranio Facial Syndrome Simpson-Golabi-Behmel ... Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Myelodysplasia, Immunodeficiency, Facial Dysmorphism, Short Stature, and Psychomotor ... severe acute respiratory syndrome Severe Combined Immunodeficiency with Microcephaly, Growth Retardation, and Sensitivity to ... complex regional pain syndrome + CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT SYNDROME WITH OR WITHOUT HEARING LOSS, ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. 1. 2017. 574. 0.120. Why? Neovascularization, Physiologic. 2. 2010. 1520. 0.120. Why ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Simosa Cranio Facial Syndrome Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 ... CACP ; CACP syndrome ; CAP syndrome ; Jacobs syndrome ; PAC syndrome ; arthropathy camptodactyly syndrome ; camptodactyly ... severe combined immunodeficiency with sensitivity to ionizing radiation severe combined immunodeficiency, autosomal recessive, ... camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome A syndrome that is characterized by congenital or early-onset ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Academic Article Structure-specific glial response in a macaque model of neuroAIDS: ... Simian immunodeficiency virus transiently increases brain temperature in rhesus monkeys: detection with magnetic resonance ... Impact of short-term combined antiretroviral therapy on brain virus burden in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected and CD8+ ... Global gray and white matter metabolic changes after simian immunodeficiency virus infection in CD8-depleted rhesus macaques: ...
... o Prevent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in ... Simian models of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): a review. Vet Pathol 1986;23:345-53. *Ringler DJ, Hunt RD, ... Induction of simian acquired immunedeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) with a molecular cone of a type D SAlDS retrovirue. J Virol 1987 ... Sequence of simian immunodeficiency virus from macaque and its relationship to other human and simian retroviruses. Nature 1987 ...
Categories: Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. dc.subject. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. dc.subject. Surface Plasmon Resonance. ... of a high-dose simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-BaL) in rhesus macaques. 7B2 IgG1 or A32 IgG1, each containing ...
Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Cleft Palate Thymic Carcinoma Deletion Syndrome These keywords ... Kobrynski LJ, Sullivan KE (2007) Velocardiofacial syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome: The chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndromes. ... Sopper S, Nierwetberg D, Halbach A et al (2003) Impact of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection on lymphocyte numbers ... McLean-Tooke G, Spickett P, Gennery AR (2007) Immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Scand J Immunol ...
1987) Sequence relationships of type D retroviruses which cause simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Virology 157:317-329 ... namely simian retrovirus type 1 (SRV-1), simian retrovirus type 2 (SRV-2), and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV, also known as ... 1994) The simian retroviruses SIV and SRV. in The Retroviridae, ed Levy J. A. (Plenum Press, New York, N.Y), 3:133-276. ... 2) encoded an amino acid sequence with homology to the TM domains of Env proteins of the simian type D retroviruses and related ...
Clinical features of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in rhesus monkeys. Lab Animal Sci 1984;34:140-145 22. ... Induction of simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) with a molecular clone of a type D retrovirus. J Virol 1987;61: ... Prevention of simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome with a formalininactivated type D retrovirus vaccine. J Virol 1986;60: ... Isolation of a new serotype of simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome type D retrovirus from Celebes black macaques (Mucacu ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome AIDS Vaccines Mucosal Immunity HIV Antibodies Innate Immunity ...
HIV evolved from the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), which can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in monkeys ...
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Evades Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Responses to V2 Region. Guo, Jia; Zuo, Teng; Cheng, ... JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 68(5):e69-e76, April 15th, 2015. ... JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 68(5):e77-e83, April 15th, 2015. ... JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 68(5):e84-e87, April 15th, 2015. ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology*. *Simian Immunodeficiency Virus*. Minor. *Acquired Immunodeficiency ... Evasion of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses by nef-dependent induction of Fas ligand (CD95L) expression on simian ... Evasion of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses by nef-dependent induction of Fas ligand (CD95L) expression on simian ... immunodeficiency virus-infected cells. Xu XN, Screaton GR, Gotch FM, Dong T, Tan R, Almond N, Walker B, Stebbings R, Kent K, ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with ... Murine Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in mice infected with mouse ... Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is an advanced stage of a human immunodeficiency virus infection. The antiretroviral therapy ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control*. *Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics/immunology*/physiology ... Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control*. *Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics/immunology*/physiology ... To address this issue in macaques, we administered a live-attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine and challenged ... To address this issue in macaques, we administered a live-attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine and challenged ...
JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes is the trusted, interdisciplinary resource for HIV- and AIDS-related ... Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes​ seeks to end the HIV epidemic by presenting important new science across all ... Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses from Multiple Lineages Infect Human Macrophages: Implications for Cross-Species Transmission. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.. ...
... "simian immunodeficiency virus" OR simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome OR saids [tw] OR mason-pfizer monkey virus OR saids ... OR murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome OR murine aids [tw] OR (maids [tw] AND immunologic deficiency syndromes) OR bovine ... OR acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [mh] OR aids-related OR aids-related opportunistic infections[mh] OR htlv OR htlv-blv ... simian OR srv-1 [tw] OR srv-2[tw] OR srv-3 [tw] OR immunodeficiency viruses, primate OR simian retroviruses OR siv-1 [tw] OR ...
... the causative agent of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV); or a non- ... and/or a feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) or a bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Animal Models Tenofovir Viral Load ... Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) to raltegravir: A basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an ... Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) to raltegravir: A basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an ... Response of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) to raltegravir : A basis for a new treatment for simian AIDS and an ...
May 1983). "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a colony of macaque monkeys". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... simian-T-lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus type D, gibbon-ape leukemia virus, simian foamy virus, simian sarcoma virus ... King NW, Hunt RD, Letvin NL (December 1983). "Histopathologic changes in macaques with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ... The simian (monkey-hosted) immunodeficiency viruses are a species of retrovirus in the Primate group of genus Lentivirus along ...
... simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.735.750 - monkeypox MeSH C22.795.239 - ectromelia, infectious MeSH C22.795. ... murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.836.120 - bluetongue MeSH C22.836.160 - border disease MeSH C22.836.259 - ... feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.180.440 - feline infectious peritonitis MeSH C22.180.460 - feline ... poult enteritis mortality syndrome MeSH C22.131.800 - sarcoma, avian MeSH C22.131.921 - tuberculosis, avian MeSH C22.180.350 - ...
Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Medicine & Life Sciences * Cytomegalovirus infections Agriculture & Biology View full ... Experimental coinfection of rhesus macaques with rhesus cytomegalovirus and simian immunodeficiency virus: Pathogenesis. ... Experimental coinfection of rhesus macaques with rhesus cytomegalovirus and simian immunodeficiency virus : Pathogenesis. In: ... Experimental coinfection of rhesus macaques with rhesus cytomegalovirus and simian immunodeficiency virus : Pathogenesis. / ...
Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are lentiviruses that cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AlDS)-like illnesses in ... Simian immunodeficiency virus needlestick accident in a laboratory worker. Lancet 1992;340:271-3. 4. Villinger F, Powell JD, ... Guidelines to prevent simian immunodeficiency virus infection in laboratory workers and animal handlers. MMWR 1988;37:693-4,699 ... Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques: end-stage disease is characterized by widespread distribution of proviral ...
... and lymph nodes of rhesus macaques during simian immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J. ... simian immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T cells reduce virus replication but do not protect from simian immunodeficiency ... with lack of protection from intravaginal simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 challenge in simian-human immunodeficiency ... oligoadenylate synthetase in generalized persistent lymphadenopathy and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. ...
  • Simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting western lowland gorillas (SIVgor) are closely related to HIV-1 and are most likely the ancestors of HIV-1 groups O and P. At present, limited data are available on genetic diversity, transmission, viral evolution, and pathogenicity of SIVgor in its natural host. (
  • Virus strains from two of these primate species, SIVsmm in sooty mangabeys and SIVcpz in chimpanzees, are believed to have crossed the species barrier into humans, resulting in HIV-2 and HIV-1 respectively, the two human immunodeficiency viruses. (
  • The simian (monkey-hosted) immunodeficiency viruses are a species of retrovirus in the Primate group of genus Lentivirus along with the human viruses HIV-1 and HIV-2 that cause AIDS, and a few other viruses that infect other primates. (
  • Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are lentiviruses that cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AlDS)-like illnesses in susceptible macaque monkeys and are used in the study of AIDS (1). (
  • The entry of primate immunodeficiency viruses into target cells is mediated by viral envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41, which are organized into trimeric spikes on the virion surface ( 8 , 75 ). (
  • Although most HIV-1 isolates depend on CD4 for entry, certain primate immunodeficiency viruses are able to infect cells independently of CD4. (
  • The phenomenon of CD4-independent entry suggests at least partial exposure of the coreceptor binding site on some immunodeficiency viruses, so that CD4 is not necessary to induce the relevant conformational changes in gp120. (
  • Several lineages of closely related human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) are found in primates, which can both result in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual 2013 SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES Animal Group(s) Affected Found in many African nonhuman primates. (
  • It should be noted that American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual 2013 SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES highly divergent SIVs may not react completely with HIV and SIVmac antigens used in commercial assays. (
  • The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-causing lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) effectively evade host immunity and, once established, infections with these viruses are only rarely controlled by immunological mechanisms. (
  • My laboratory has had a long-standing interest in elucidating the origins and evolution of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses, and in studying HIV/SIV gene function and disease mechanisms from an evolutionary perspective. (
  • Characterizing the evolutionary relationships of simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting different non-human primate species in sub-Saharan Africa, we found that Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) - one of the most devastating infectious diseases to have emerged in recent history - was the result of cross-species infections of humans by lentiviruses of primate origin. (
  • Lentiviruses are known for their cytolytic and immunosuppressive properties and include viruses such as simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). (
  • To assess the risk for cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) from nonhuman primates to humans in the Democratic Republic of Congo, we collected 330 samples derived from nonhuman primate bushmeat at 3 remote forest sites. (
  • CCR5 represents the co-receptor for macrophage (M) and dual (T cell and M)-tropic immunodeficiency viruses. (
  • Cellular proteins bound to immunodeficiency viruses: implications for pathogenesis and vaccines. (
  • Simian immunodeficiency viruses ( SIVs ) are retroviruses able to infect at least 45 species of African non-human primates . (
  • Risk to Human Health from a Plethora of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses in Primate Bushmeat", Emerging Infectious Diseases , Vol 8, No 5, May 2002. (
  • HIV: human immunodeficiency virus HIV is the virus that causes AIDS AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Part of group called Lentiviruses Origins O rigins Controversy regarding origin of HIV Other Lentiviruses collectively known as simian Other (monkey) viruses (SIV) (monkey) Generally accepted that HIV is descendent of Generally simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) simian How could HIV have crossed species? (
  • Envelope residue 375 substitutions in simian-human immunodeficiency viruses enhance CD4 binding and replication in rhesus macaques. (
  • Most simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) bearing envelope (Env) glycoproteins from primary HIV-1 strains fail to infect rhesus macaques (RMs). (
  • DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Indian rhesus macaque develops a disease that closely mimics human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) when infected by simian Immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV), and represents the best animal model for HIV Infection. (
  • The human AIDS viruses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) represent cross-species (zoonotic) infections. (
  • Live attenuated, multiply deleted simian immunodeficiency virus causes AIDS in infant and adult macaques. (
  • Retrovirus vaccines are in the limelight now more than ever before due to the etiologic involvement of retroviruses, human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-III/LAV) in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of man (1,5) and HTLV-I in certain human lymphomas (14). (
  • The genomes of all Cercopithecine Old World monkeys contain endogenous type D retroviruses (simian endogenous retroviruses, SERVs) ( 31 ). (
  • Exogenous type D retroviruses, namely simian retrovirus type 1 (SRV-1), simian retrovirus type 2 (SRV-2), and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV, also known as SRV-3), which appear to have evolved from the endogenous SERVs ( 31 ), have been detected in captive macaques worldwide ( 9 ). (
  • Although SIV sequences were not identified in either case, the findings suggest that humans are probably exposed to different simian retroviruses that can establish new infections in humans ( 3 ). (
  • and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens. (
  • Simian type D retroviruses (SRVs) are one of the causative agents of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Asian macaques. (
  • Envelopes of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), contain host cell proteins that potentially represent novel targets for vaccine development. (
  • Simian immunodeficiency virus transiently increases brain temperature in rhesus monkeys: detection with magnetic resonance spectroscopy thermometry. (
  • Limited studies of wild-caught African green monkeys from Central Africa indicate a seroprevalence of approximately 30%-50%, apparently without associated immunodeficiency disease. (
  • In rhesus monkeys and other susceptible nonhuman primate species (e.g. pig-tailed macaque, crab-eating macaque), SIV infection leads to a chronic wasting disease syndrome with depletion of CD4 (T4) lymphocytes and lymphadenopathy. (
  • A zoonotic disease, HIV evolved from the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), which can cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in monkeys. (
  • In peripheral blood, increased OAS and CXCL10 expression were elevated in SIV + monkeys that progress the fastest to simian AIDS. (
  • Two of four monkeys inoculated with SIV at 2 weeks after inoculation with RhCMV died within 11 weeks with simian AIDS (SAIDS), including activated RhCMV infection. (
  • An animal model of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkey, was used to show that virus replication is not controlled in monkeys depleted of CD8 + lymphocytes during primary SIV infection. (
  • Similarly, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) can induce an AIDS-like illness in Old World monkeys ( 19 , 43 ). (
  • Because previous serological data suggested that LPV caused natural infections in different types of primates, we tested whether LPV might be detectable in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys. (
  • To study the relationship between simian acquired immunodeficiency syndromn ( SAIDS ) and autoimmunity in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected monkeys . (
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines have shown remarkable efficacy in the rhesus macaque model of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, enabling 50% of vaccinated monkeys to clear a subsequent virulent simian immunodeficiency virus challenge. (
  • In encephalitic brains of SIV-infected monkeys with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), we found a significant accumulation of CD8+ T lymphocytes but little-to-no accumulation of CD4+ T lymphocytes. (
  • Protection of simian immunodeficiency virus-vaccinated monkeys correlates with anti-HLA class I antibody response. (
  • Immunodeficiency resembling human AIDS was reported in captive monkeys in the United States beginning in 1983. (
  • We used precise methods of enumeration and in vivo labeling with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine to track recently divided pDC in blood and tissue compartments of monkeys with acute pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. (
  • A seroprevalence survey was conducted for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antibody in household pet monkeys in Gabon. (
  • We explored the changes that some elements of this system exhibit in a macaque model of encephalitis induced by simian immunodeficiency virus. (
  • Previous studies from our laboratory using rhesus macaques infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration in the absence of antiretroviral therapy exacerbates skeletal muscle (SKM) wasting at end-stage SIV disease. (
  • Human cells infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus from sooty mangabeys (SIVsm), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). (
  • Direct measurement of CD8+ T cell responses in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus. (
  • In addition, because it can be infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, a close cousin to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the rhesus is widely recognized as the best animal model for research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS. (
  • 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals neuronal injury in a simian immunodeficiency virus macaque model. (
  • Originally reported in 1985, the first isolate from a rhesus macaque was called simian T-lymphotropic virus III (STLV-III) (1). (
  • However, if the virus infects an Asian or Indian rhesus macaque, these non-African simian primates will also develop simian AIDS (SAIDS), as they, like humans (despite being an African-origin simian primate species), have not had a prolonged history with the virus. (
  • Plasma viral loads, cytokine expression levels and anti-SIV antibody levels were also assayed to acquire certain basic indexes to evaluate disease progression in the rhesus macaque SAIDS model. (
  • The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque is an excellent animal model for HIV infection, but neuronal loss has not been demonstrated. (
  • We have utilized the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms of long-term protection against simian AIDS. (
  • The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model system has been used extensively to study AIDS pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines for their ability to protect against homologous or heterologous challenge with pathogenic SIV or SHIV. (
  • However, if this virus infects an Asian or Indian rhesus macaque , the animal will develop simian AIDS (SAIDS). (
  • The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/macaque model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pathogenesis is critical for furthering our understanding of the role of antibody responses in the prevention of HIV infection, and will only increase in importance as macaque immunoglobulin (IG) gene databases are expanded. (
  • The lifetime history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in persons living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) (PLWHA) is 55%, compared to 12%-29% in the general population [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Chronic-phase HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication is reduced by as much as 10,000-fold in elite controllers (ECs) compared with typical progressors (TPs), but sufficient viral replication persists in EC tissues to allow viral sequence evolution and induce excess immune activation. (
  • Increased concentrations of excitotoxin quinolinic acid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are associated with infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex. (
  • A strikmg example of an infection with concurrent neurological deficits is the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. (
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. (
  • These results resemble previous data obtained in Alzheimer's disease human tissue samples and suggest that the endocannabinoid system may participate in the development of human immunodeficiency virus-induced encephalitis, because activation of CB 2 receptors expressed by immune cells is likely to reduce their antiviral response and thus could favor the CNS entry of infected monocytes. (
  • Cytokines and chemokines are critical for establishing tissue-specific immune responses and play key roles in modulating disease progression in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected humans. (
  • The goal here was to characterize the innate immune response at different tissue sites and to correlate these responses to clinical outcome, initially focusing on rhesus macaques orally inoculated with SIV and monitored until onset of simian AIDS. (
  • In some cases of Simian retrovirus type D (SRV/D) infection, resulting immune suppression facilitates infection with a wide range of opportunistic pathogens. (
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a deadly disease caused by a virus, which attacks the immune system. (
  • The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been intensely investigated since its discovery in 1983 as the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • These patients were later found to be suffering from severe immune deficiency and their syndrome was dubbed acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • The Babushok laboratory conducts basic and translational research to understand the fundamental mechanisms of how bone marrow can fail, how the failure of bone marrow can lead to pre-malignant genetic changes, myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia, and what is the relationship between our immune system and the development of clonal hematopoiesis. (
  • SIVsm is a distant cousin of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) the cause of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) in humans. (
  • After a long asymptomatic period of variable duration, HIV infection results in lowered immunity with increased susceptibility to new and/or normally latent infections and opportunistic tumors characteristic for the late stage called acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are essential innate immune system cells that are lost from the circulation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals associated with CD4+ T cell decline and disease progression. (
  • Impact of MHC class I diversity on immune control of immunodeficiency virus replication. (
  • G. M. Wingood and R. J. DiClemente, "The ADAPT-ITT model: a novel method of adapting evidence-based HIV interventions," Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes , vol. 47, supplement 1, pp. (
  • Animal lentiviruses are bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), puma lentivirus (PLV), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and visna/maedi virus (VMV). (
  • We hypothesized that inefficient Env binding to rhesus CD4 (rhCD4) limits virus entry and replication and could be enhanced by substituting naturally occurring simian immunodeficiency virus Env residues at position 375, which resides at a critical location in the CD4-binding pocket and is under strong positive evolutionary pressure across the broad spectrum of primate lentiviruses. (
  • To address this issue in macaques, we administered a live-attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine and challenged with a highly pathogenic heterologous isolate. (
  • CD8+ lymphocytes do not mediate protection against acute superinfection 20 days after vaccination with a live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus. (
  • 99% of CD8+ lymphocytes in live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus macC8 (SIVmacC8) vaccinees from the onset of vaccination, maintained that depletion for 20 days, and then challenged with pathogenic, wild-type SIVmacJ5. (
  • T lymphocytes are found within brains infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) where they are a minor, but consistently identified, population. (
  • 1995). Fas antigen stimulation induces marked apoptosis of T lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. (
  • Vaccine-Induced Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Responses Focused on a Single Nef Epitope Select for Escape Variants Shortly aft. (
  • Studies on the specificity of the vaccine effect elicited by inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus. (
  • It also serves as a valuable model for studying ot her human infectious diseases and for vaccine research, most recently for the virus causing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex class I-associated vaccine protection from simian immunodeficiency virus-infected peripheral blood cells. (
  • Also, SIV is distinct from simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (STLY-I) which shares extensive genomic sequences with human T-lymphotropic virus type I and is associated with T-cell lymphomas in nonhuman primates (12). (
  • Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a species of retrovirus that cause persistent infections in at least 45 species of African non-human primates. (
  • While human immunodeficiency virus has a limited number of subtypes, SIV is now known to infect a few dozen species of non-human primates, and distinct strains are often associated with each species, or with a set of closely related species. (
  • Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was first isolated from captive rhesus macaques in 1984 and many strains have since been isolated from an assortment of nonhuman primates that inhabit sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Clinical evidence suggests that cellular immunity is involved in controlling human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication. (
  • Likewise, Mamu-B*08 expression also predisposes rhesus macaques to control simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. (
  • Here, we have studied the capacity of anti-Env monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against either the immunodominant region of gp41 (7B2 IgG1), the first constant region of gp120 (A32 IgG1), or the third variable loop (V3) of gp120 (CH22 IgG1) to modulate in vivo rectal mucosal transmission of a high-dose simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-BaL) in rhesus macaques. (
  • Simian-human immunodeficiency virus encoding both reverse transcriptase (RT) and envelope genes of HIV-1 (RT Env SHIV) is important for evaluating biomedical prevention modalities for HIV/AIDS. (
  • In our passive mucosal immunizations of rhesus macaques (RMs), the anti-HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nmAb) HGN194, given either as dimeric IgA1 (dIgA1) or dIgA2 intrarectally (i.r.), protected 83% or 17% of the RMs against i.r. simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge, respectively. (
  • Unlike HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in humans, SIV infections in their natural African simian non-human hosts appear in many cases to be non-pathogenic due to evolutionary adaptation of the hosts to the virus. (
  • Naive rhesus macaques were inoculated with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) followed 2 or 11 weeks later by inoculation with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239. (
  • Viral load and rate of disease progression were evaluated in rhesus macaques infected intrarectally with lineage-related subtype C R5 simian HIVs. (
  • SIV isolates are clearly distinct from Type D primate retrovirus (i.e., simian retrovirus 1)that also causes a form of chronic wasting immunodeficiency disease in several primate species (ll). (
  • 2003). Expression of IFN-gamma induced CXCR3 agonist chemokines and compartmentalization of CXCR3+ cells in the periphery and lymph nodes of rhesus macaques during simian immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (
  • We have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration (13-14 g EtOH/kg/wk) prior to and during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques unmasks learning deficits in operant learning and memory tasks. (
  • HIV-1 and HIV-2 are believed to be the result of cross-species transmission from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys, respectively, which represent 2 (SIVcpz and SIVsm) of the 6 major lentiviral phylogenetic lineages ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of AIDS, originated from simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the precursor of the human virus, approximately 100 years ago. (
  • Simian HIV-infected female rhesus macaques progressed faster to AIDS than male macaques, recapitulating the sex bias in HIV-1 disease in humans. (
  • In the present study, inoculation of macaques with D/ l/California, an immunosuppressive serotype 1 type D retrovirus, was associated with acute and chronic increases in CSF and serum quinolinic acid concentrations in macaques that had developed SAIDS, a simian disease analogous to AIDS in humans-particularly macaques with demonstrable opportunistic infections. (
  • This finding may help to develop effective ART regimens for the simian AIDS model entirely based on drugs adopted for treatment in humans. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 are the etiologic agents of AIDS in humans ( 5 , 30 ). (
  • SIVsm has transmitted to humans on several occasions where it evolved into Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 2 (HIV-2). (
  • SIV was isolated in 1985 from some of these animals, captive rhesus macaques suffering from simian AIDS (SAIDS). (
  • 2008). Chronic CD4+ T-cell activation and depletion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: type I interferon-mediated disruption of T-cell dynamics. (
  • Human species are well-known human immunodeficinecy virus 1 (HIV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV-2). (
  • McLean-Tooke G, Spickett P, Gennery AR (2007) Immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. (
  • Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) belongs to the family Retroviridae (subfamily Lentivirinae) and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the etiologic agents of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • SIV belongs to the Lentivirus genus of the Retroviridae family and is the closest related retrovirus to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), the etiologic agent of AIDS. (
  • HIV-2 was more similar to the then-known SIV strains than to HIV-1, suggesting for the first time the simian origin of HIV. (
  • Recent HIV infection or divergent HIV or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains may be responsible for Western blot-indeterminate results on 70 serum samples from Zairian hospital employees that were reactive in an enzyme immunoassay. (
  • Immunization of rhesus macaques with strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that are limited to a single cycle of infection elicits T-cell responses to multiple viral gene products and antibodies capable of neutralizing lab-adapted SIV, but not neutralization-resistant primary isolates of SIV. (
  • Although the majority of drug-naïve HIV-infected patients develop acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a small percentage remains asymptomatic without therapeutic intervention. (
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is an advanced stage of a human immunodeficiency virus infection. (
  • Involvement of human leukocyte antigen class I molecules in human immunodeficiency virus infection of CD4-positive cells. (
  • 2001). Early and persistent bone marrow hematopoiesis defect in simian/human immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques despite efficient reduction of viremia by highly active antiretroviral therapy during primary infection. (
  • Most worldwide human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission events occur after the translocation of the virus across a mucosal epithelial surface such as the genital, rectal, or oral mucosa. (
  • In vitro characterization of a simian immunodeficiency virus-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) chimera expressing HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase to study antiviral resistance in pigtail macaques. (
  • The presence of host-derived HLA-DR1 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 increases viral infectivity. (
  • A novel virus capture assay reveals a differential acquisition of host HLA-DR by clinical isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expanded in primary human cells depending on the nature of producing cells and the donor source. (
  • 2005). Differential susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. (
  • By using human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)/SIVsm, SIVmnd, and SIVagm antigens, one red-capped mangabey (RCM) (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) was identified as harboring SIV-cross-reactive antibodies. (
  • In this study, five rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with SIVmac251 to establish a model of simian autoimmune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS). (