A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.
Heterodimers of FLAVONOIDS bound to LIGNANS.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
A casein kinase I isoenzyme that plays a role in intracellular signaling pathways including the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY, the CELL CYCLE, membrane trafficking, and RNA processing. Multiple isoforms of casein kinase I alpha exist and are due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is grown mainly as a hay crop.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.

Silibinin decreases prostate-specific antigen with cell growth inhibition via G1 arrest, leading to differentiation of prostate carcinoma cells: implications for prostate cancer intervention. (1/282)

Reduction in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels has been proposed as an endpoint biomarker for hormone-refractory human prostate cancer intervention. We examined whether a flavonoid antioxidant silibinin (an active constituent of milk thistle) decreases PSA levels in hormone-refractory human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells and whether this effect has biological relevance. Silibinin treatment of cells grown in serum resulted in a significant decrease in both intracellular and secreted forms of PSA concomitant with a highly significant to complete inhibition of cell growth via a G1 arrest in cell cycle progression. Treatment of cells grown in charcoal-stripped serum and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone showed that the observed effects of silibinin are those involving androgen-stimulated PSA expression and cell growth. Silibinin-induced G1 arrest was associated with a marked decrease in the kinase activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and associated cyclins because of a highly significant decrease in cyclin D1, CDK4, and CDK6 levels and an induction of Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27 followed by their increased binding with CDK2. Silibinin treatment of cells did not result in apoptosis and changes in p53 and bcl2, suggesting that the observed increase in Cip1/p21 is a p53-independent effect that does not lead to an apoptotic cell death pathway. Conversely, silibinin treatment resulted in a significant neuroendocrine differentiation of LNCaP cells as an alternative pathway after Cip1/p21 induction and G1 arrest. Together, these results suggest that silibinin could be a useful agent for the intervention of hormone-refractory human prostate cancer.  (+info)

Stimulatory effects of silibinin and silicristin from the milk thistle Silybum marianum on kidney cells. (2/282)

The biochemical influence of flavonolignans from the milk thistle Silybum marianum has been tested on kidney cells of African green monkeys. Two nonmalignant cell lines were selected, with the focus of the work on the fibroblast-like Vero line. Proliferation rate, biosynthesis of protein and DNA, and the activity of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (as a measure of the cellular metabolic activity) were chosen as parameters for the effect of the flavonolignans. Silibinin and silicristin show remarkable stimulatory effects on these parameters, mainly in Vero cells; however, isosilibinin and silidianin proved to be inactive. In vitro experiments with kidney cells damaged by paracetamol, cisplatin, and vincristin demonstrated that administration of silibinin before or after the chemical-induced injury can lessen or avoid the nephrotoxic effects. The results warrant in vivo evaluations of the flavonolignan derivatives.  (+info)

Hepatitis C: epidemiology and review of complementary/alternative medicine treatments. (3/282)

Hepatitis C is emerging as a serious worldwide problem. In the United States the current mortality figures may triple in the next ten years, rivaling HIV. The disease has a latency of 10-30 years and symptoms or signs may not appear until cirrhosis is evident. Adequate diagnosis, including liver biopsy, is essential in assessing the current stage of the viral infection and the need for treatment. Hepatitis C may manifest as hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, lichen planus, glomerulonephritis, mixed cryoglobulinemia, or porphyria. The hepatic damage is due both to the cytopathic effect of the virus and the inflammatory changes secondary to immune activation. The use of the botanical components glycyrrhizin, catechin, silymarin and phytosterols, and the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and vitamin E are reviewed for their efficacy in treating chronic hepatitis and affecting liver damage.  (+info)

Tissue distribution of silibinin, the major active constituent of silymarin, in mice and its association with enhancement of phase II enzymes: implications in cancer chemoprevention. (4/282)

Polyphenolic antioxidants are being identified as cancer preventive agents. Recent studies in our laboratory have identified and defined the cancer preventive and anticarcinogenic potential of a polyphenolic flavonoid antioxidant, silymarin (isolated from milk thistle). More recent studies by us found that these effects of silymarin are due to the major active constituent, silibinin, present therein. Here, studies are done in mice to determine the distribution and conjugate formation of systemically administered silibinin in liver, lung, stomach, skin, prostate and pancreas. Additional studies were then performed to assess the effect of orally administered silibinin on phase II enzyme activity in liver, lung, stomach, skin and small bowel. For tissue distribution studies, SENCAR mice were starved for 24 h, orally fed with silibinin (50 mg/kg dose) and killed after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 h. The desired tissues were collected, homogenized and parts of the homogenates were extracted with butanol:methanol followed by HPLC analysis. The column eluates were detected by UV followed by electrochemical detection. The remaining homogenates were digested with sulfatase and beta-glucuronidase followed by analysis and quantification. Peak levels of free silibinin were observed at 0.5 h after administration in liver, lung, stomach and pancreas, accounting for 8.8 +/- 1.6, 4. 3 +/- 0.8, 123 +/- 21 and 5.8 +/- 1.1 (mean +/- SD) microg silibinin/g tissue, respectively. In the case of skin and prostate, the peak levels of silibinin were 1.4 +/- 0.5 and 2.5 +/- 0.4, respectively, and were achieved 1 h after administration. With regard to sulfate and beta-glucuronidate conjugates of silibinin, other than lung and stomach showing peak levels at 0.5 h, all other tissues showed peak levels at 1 h after silibinin administration. The levels of both free and conjugated silibinin declined after 0.5 or 1 h in an exponential fashion with an elimination half-life (t((1/2))) of 57-127 min for free and 45-94 min for conjugated silibinin in different tissues. In the studies examining the effect of silibinin on phase II enzymes, oral feeding of silibinin at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day showed a moderate to highly significant (P < 0.1-0.001, Student's t-test) increase in both glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase activities in liver, lung, stomach, skin and small bowel in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, the results of the present study clearly demonstrate the bioavailability of and phase II enzyme induction by systemically administered silibinin in different tissues, including skin, where silymarin has been shown to be a strong cancer chemopreventive agent, and suggest further studies to assess the cancer preventive and anticarcinogenic effects of silibinin in different cancer models.  (+info)

Silymarin suppresses TNF-induced activation of NF-kappa B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and apoptosis. (5/282)

Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) that has anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and anticarcinogenic effects. How silymarin produces these effects is not understood, but it may involve suppression of NF-kappa B, a nuclear transcription factor, which regulates the expression of various genes involved in inflammation, cytoprotection, and carcinogenesis. In this report, we investigated the effect of silymarin on NF-kappa B activation induced by various inflammatory agents. Silymarin blocked TNF-induced activation of NF-kappa B in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was mediated through inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of Iota kappa B alpha, an inhibitor of NF-kappa B. Silymarin blocked the translocation of p65 to the nucleus without affecting its ability to bind to the DNA. NF-kappa B-dependent reporter gene transcription was also suppressed by silymarin. Silymarin also blocked NF-kappa B activation induced by phorbol ester, LPS, okadaic acid, and ceramide, whereas H2O2-induced NF-kappa B activation was not significantly affected. The effects of silymarin on NF-kappa B activation were specific, as AP-1 activation was unaffected. Silymarin also inhibited the TNF-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and abrogated TNF-induced cytotoxicity and caspase activation. Silymarin suppressed the TNF-induced production of reactive oxygen intermediates and lipid peroxidation. Overall, the inhibition of activation of NF-kappa B and the kinases may provide in part the molecular basis for the anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of silymarin, and its effects on caspases may explain its role in cytoprotection.  (+info)

Synergy in a medicinal plant: antimicrobial action of berberine potentiated by 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin, a multidrug pump inhibitor. (6/282)

Multidrug resistance pumps (MDRs) protect microbial cells from both synthetic and natural antimicrobials. Amphipathic cations are preferred substrates of MDRs. Berberine alkaloids, which are cationic antimicrobials produced by a variety of plants, are readily extruded by MDRs. Several Berberis medicinal plants producing berberine were found also to synthesize an inhibitor of the NorA MDR pump of a human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitor was identified as 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin (5'-MHC), previously reported as a minor component of chaulmoogra oil, a traditional therapy for leprosy. 5'-MHC is an amphipathic weak acid and is distinctly different from the cationic substrates of NorA. 5'-MHC had no antimicrobial activity alone but strongly potentiated the action of berberine and other NorA substrates against S. aureus. MDR-dependent efflux of ethidium bromide and berberine from S. aureus cells was completely inhibited by 5'-MHC. The level of accumulation of berberine in the cells was increased strongly in the presence of 5'-MHC, indicating that this plant compound effectively disabled the bacterial resistance mechanism against the berberine antimicrobial.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of a flavonoid antioxidant silymarin on benzoyl peroxide-induced tumor promotion, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in SENCAR mouse skin. (7/282)

In this communication, we investigate the preventive effect of a flavonoid antioxidant, silymarin, on free radical-generating skin tumor promoting agent benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-induced tumor promotion, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in SENCAR mouse skin. Topical application of silymarin at a dose of 6 mg prior to BPO resulted in a highly significant protection against BPO-induced tumor promotion in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated SENCAR mouse skin. The preventive effect of silymarin was evident in terms of a 70% reduction (P < 0.001) in tumor incidence, a 67% reduction (P < 0.001) in tumor multiplicity and a 44% decrease (P < 0.001) in tumor volume/tumor. In oxidative stress studies, topical application of BPO resulted in 75, 87 and 61% depletion in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in mouse epidermis, respectively. These decreases in antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly (P < 0.005-0.001) reversed by pre-application of silymarin in a dose-dependent manner. The observed effects of silymarin were 18-66, 32-72 and 20-67% protection against BPO-induced depletion of SOD, catalase and GPX activity in mouse epidermis, respectively. Silymarin pre-treatment also resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition (35-87%, P < 0.05-0. 001) of BPO-induced lipid peroxidation in mouse epidermis. In inflammatory response studies, silymarin showed a strong inhibition of BPO-induced skin edema (62-85% inhibition, P < 0.001), myeloperoxidase activity (42-100% inhibition, P < 0.001) and interleukin-1alpha protein level in epidermis (36-81% inhibition, P < 0.001). These results, together with our other recent studies, suggest that silymarin could be useful in preventing a wide range of carcinogen and tumor promoter-induced cancers.  (+info)

Hepatotoxicity of tacrine: occurrence of membrane fluidity alterations without involvement of lipid peroxidation. (8/282)

Tacrine (THA), used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, is known to induce hepatotoxicity, the mechanisms of which remain to be fully established. We have previously shown that THA reduced intracellular glutathione concentration in rat hepatocytes in primary culture, thus pointing to a possible role for oxidative stress in THA toxicity. To test this, the effects of antioxidant molecules, namely, the flavonoids silibinin, silibinin dihydrogensuccinate, and silymarin, were evaluated on the toxicity of THA in cultured rat hepatocytes. This toxicity was investigated after a 24-h treatment over a concentration range from 0 to 1 mM, in the presence or absence of antioxidant (1 and 10 microM). We found that simultaneous treatment of hepatocytes with any of the antioxidants and THA remained ineffective on the lactate dehydrogenase release induced by THA. Then, the production of lipid-derived radicals (to estimate lipid peroxidation) was measured in THA (0.05-0.50 mM)-treated cells using a spin-trapping technique coupled to electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. No increase of the EPR signal was observed over the period of 30 min to 24 h. In contrast, treatment of cells with the spin label 12-doxyl stearic acid followed by EPR spectroscopy showed that THA (0.05 and 0.25 mM) rapidly increased hepatocyte membrane fluidity. Extracellular application of GM1 ganglioside (60 microM) both reversed this increase in fluidity and partially reduced lactate dehydrogenase release on THA exposure. In conclusion, this work indicates that early alterations of membrane fluidity, not resulting from lipid peroxidation, are likely to play an important role in the development of THA toxicity.  (+info)

Silymarin is not a medical term itself, but it's the active compound found in the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum). Medically, silymarin is often referred to as a standardized extract from the seeds of the milk thistle plant. It is a complex mixture of flavonolignans, mainly consisting of silybin, isosilybin, silychristin, and silydianin.

Silymarin has been reported to have various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects. It is commonly used in complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and toxic liver damage due to alcohol or drug abuse. However, its clinical efficacy remains a subject of ongoing research and debate among medical professionals.

Flavanolignans are a type of biologically active compounds that are found in certain plants. They are formed from the combination of flavonoids and lignans, two classes of plant phenolic compounds. One of the most well-known groups of flavanolignans is the one found in milk thistle (Silybum marianum), which includes silibinin, silidianin, and silicristin. These compounds have been studied for their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and liver-protective effects.

In the context of medicine and toxicology, protective agents are substances that provide protection against harmful or damaging effects of other substances. They can work in several ways, such as:

1. Binding to toxic substances: Protective agents can bind to toxic substances, rendering them inactive or less active, and preventing them from causing harm. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the emergency treatment of certain types of poisoning because it can bind to certain toxins in the stomach and intestines and prevent their absorption into the body.
2. Increasing elimination: Protective agents can increase the elimination of toxic substances from the body, for example by promoting urinary or biliary excretion.
3. Reducing oxidative stress: Antioxidants are a type of protective agent that can reduce oxidative stress caused by free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). These agents can protect cells and tissues from damage caused by oxidation.
4. Supporting organ function: Protective agents can support the function of organs that have been damaged by toxic substances, for example by improving blood flow or reducing inflammation.

Examples of protective agents include chelating agents, antidotes, free radical scavengers, and anti-inflammatory drugs.

SENCAR (skin tumor-prone, cancer-prone) mice are an inbred strain of laboratory mice that were developed through selective breeding for their high susceptibility to developing skin tumors when exposed to certain chemical carcinogens. They are particularly sensitive to two-stage chemical carcinogenesis, making them a valuable tool in cancer research.

The SENCAR mouse strain was developed at the Southern Research Institute (SRI) in Birmingham, Alabama, by crossing various strains of mice and then selectively breeding the offspring for high tumor susceptibility. The resulting SENCAR mice are highly sensitive to both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, displaying rapid tumor development when exposed to tumor-promoting agents.

These mice have been widely used in dermatology and oncology research to study the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, skin tumor development, and potential chemopreventive agents. They are also used to investigate the genetic factors contributing to cancer susceptibility and the role of the immune system in tumor development.

It is important to note that SENCAR mice are specifically bred for research purposes and should not be confused with wild mice or other strains of laboratory mice.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) is a medical term that refers to liver damage or injury caused by the use of medications or drugs. This condition can vary in severity, from mild abnormalities in liver function tests to severe liver failure, which may require a liver transplant.

The exact mechanism of DILI can differ depending on the drug involved, but it generally occurs when the liver metabolizes the drug into toxic compounds that damage liver cells. This can happen through various pathways, including direct toxicity to liver cells, immune-mediated reactions, or metabolic idiosyncrasies.

Symptoms of DILI may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and dark urine. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as ascites, encephalopathy, and bleeding disorders.

The diagnosis of DILI is often challenging because it requires the exclusion of other potential causes of liver injury. Liver function tests, imaging studies, and sometimes liver biopsies may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves discontinuing the offending drug and providing supportive care until the liver recovers. In some cases, medications that protect the liver or promote its healing may be used.

Anticarcinogenic agents are substances that prevent, inhibit or reduce the development of cancer. They can be natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the process of carcinogenesis at various stages, such as initiation, promotion, and progression. Anticarcinogenic agents may work by preventing DNA damage, promoting DNA repair, reducing inflammation, inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death), or modulating immune responses.

Examples of anticarcinogenic agents include chemopreventive agents, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and retinoids; phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods; and medications used to treat cancer, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies.

It is important to note that while some anticarcinogenic agents have been shown to be effective in preventing or reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, they may also have potential side effects and risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any anticarcinogenic agent for cancer prevention or treatment purposes.

Casein Kinase 1 Alpha (CK1α) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including the regulation of circadian rhythms, DNA damage response, and Wnt signaling pathway. It phosphorylates specific serine and threonine residues on its target proteins, thereby modulating their activity, stability, or localization. CK1α is widely expressed in different tissues and has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Inhibition of CK1α has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating these conditions.

Liquid crystals (LCs) are not exclusive to the medical field, but they do have important applications in medicine, particularly in the development of display technologies for medical devices. Here is a general definition:

Liquid crystals are a state of matter that possess properties between those of conventional liquids and solid crystals. They can flow like liquids but have molecules oriented in a way that they can reflect light, creating birefringence. This unique property makes them useful in various applications, such as LCDs (liquid crystal displays) found in many electronic devices, including medical equipment.

In the context of medicine, liquid crystals are primarily used in LCD screens for medical devices like monitors, imaging systems, and diagnostic equipment. They enable high-resolution, clear, and adjustable visualization of medical images, which is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless, heavy, and nonflammable liquid with a mild ether-like odor. Its chemical formula is CCl4. It was previously used as a solvent and refrigerant, but its use has been largely phased out due to its toxicity and ozone-depleting properties.

Inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact with carbon tetrachloride can cause harmful health effects. Short-term exposure can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Long-term exposure has been linked to liver and kidney damage, as well as an increased risk of cancer.

Carbon tetrachloride is also a potent greenhouse gas and contributes to climate change. Its production and use are regulated by international agreements aimed at protecting human health and the environment.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Benzoyl peroxide is a medication used in the treatment of acne. It is available in various forms, including creams, gels, and washes. Benzoyl peroxide works by reducing the amount of bacteria on the skin and helping to unclog pores. It is typically applied to the affected area once or twice a day.

Benzoyl peroxide can cause side effects such as dryness, redness, and irritation of the skin. It is important to follow the directions for use carefully and start with a lower concentration if you are new to using this medication. If you experience severe or persistent side effects, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider.

It is also important to note that benzoyl peroxide can bleach clothing and hair, so it is best to apply it carefully and allow it to fully absorb into the skin before dressing or coming into contact with fabrics.

'Echinochloa' is not a medical term, but rather a taxonomic genus name in the plant kingdom. It belongs to the family Poaceae and includes several species of annual grasses commonly known as barnyard grass or jointed grass. These plants are often considered weeds in agricultural settings. They have distinctively jointed stems and spike-like inflorescences, and some species can produce both sexual and asexual seeds.

While Echinochloa species may not have direct medical relevance, they can sometimes serve as hosts for crop pests or pathogens that might impact human health indirectly. For instance, certain grassy weeds like Echinochloa spp. can harbor and spread plant viruses, bacteria, or fungi that could potentially affect crops of agricultural importance. However, the medical definition of 'Echinochloa' is not applicable since it does not refer to a human disease, condition, or treatment.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

A Health Benefit Plan for Employees refers to a type of insurance policy that an employer provides to their employees as part of their benefits package. These plans are designed to help cover the costs of medical care and services for the employees and sometimes also for their dependents. The specific coverage and details of the plan can vary depending on the terms of the policy, but they typically include a range of benefits such as doctor visits, hospital stays, prescription medications, and preventative care. Employers may pay all or part of the premiums for these plans, and employees may also have the option to contribute to the cost of coverage. The goal of health benefit plans for employees is to help protect the financial well-being of workers by helping them manage the costs of medical care.

Silymarin artichokes, milk thistle. Phytoestrogens seeds (flax, sesame, pumpkin, sunflower, poppy), whole grains (rye, oats, ...
Dorjay K, Arif T, Adil M (2018). "Silymarin: An interesting modality in dermatological therapeutics". Indian Journal of ... silymarin, spirulina extract, chamomile extract and possibly others) to sunscreens efficaciously aids in reducing damage from ...
Morazzoni P, Montalbetti A, Malandrino S, Pifferi G (1993). "Comparative pharmacokinetics of silipide and silymarin in rats". ...
Wu W; Wang Y; Que L (July 2006). "Enhanced bioavailability of silymarin by self-microemulsifying drug delivery system". Eur J ... Woo JS; Kim TS; Park JH; Chi SC (January 2007). "Formulation and biopharmaceutical evaluation of silymarin using SMEDDS". Arch ... silymarin, alpha-asarone, enilconazole, puerarin (an isoflavone found in Pueraria lobata), atorvastatin, heparin, carvedilol, ...
Milk thistle is believed to give some remedy for liver diseases (e.g. viral hepatitis) and the extract, silymarin, is used in ... Gazák R, Walterová D, Kren V (2007). "Silybin and silymarin-new and emerging applications in medicine". Curr. Med. Chem. 14 (3 ... Reviews of the literature covering clinical studies of silymarin vary in their conclusions. Cnicus (Blessed thistle) Silybum ... called silymarin, contained only in the seed shell has liver-protective and regenerative properties, as well as antioxidant ...
"Flavonolignans from silymarin modulate antibiotic resistance and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus". Biomedicine & ...
Silymarin has been investigated as a possible treatment, with ambiguous results. One review claimed benefit for S-adenosyl ... 1989). "Randomized controlled trial of silymarin treatment in patients with cirrhosis of the liver". J Hepatol. 9 (1): 105-113 ...
It is estimated that up to 65-80% of silymarin extract is made up of flavonolignans, like silychristin, which give silymarin ... All of the flavonolignan compounds found in the silymarin mixture seem to block the uptake of thyroid hormones into the cells ... It is the second most abundant constituent in silymarin, after silybin. Silychristin is a flavonolignan, along with many other ... Silychristin (also known as silichristin) is a natural product and one of the constituents of silymarin, the standardized, ...
Fehér J, Lengyel G (December 2008). "Silymarin in the treatment of chronic liver diseases: past and future". Orv Hetil (in ... Certain complementary medications, e.g., milk thistle and silymarin, appear to offer some benefit. Alcohol is a leading cause ...
Flavonolignans - e.g. silymarin - a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from milk thistle. Capsaicin, the active component of ...
It is also found in the silymarin extract from the milk thistle seeds. Taxifolin is present in vinegars aged in cherry wood. ...
"An updated systematic review with meta-analysis for the clinical evidence of silymarin" (PDF). Forsch Komplementärmed. 15 (1): ...
Silymarin is extracted from the milk thistle seeds and available as a standardized extract. In 2019, Cancer Research UK stated ... In Poland, average yields are 1230 kg per ha with an average silymarin content of 26.5 kg per ha. Traditional milk thistle ... Silymarin is a complex mixture of polyphenolic molecules, including seven closely related flavonolignans (silybin A, silybin B ... The extract consists of about 65-80% silymarin (a flavonolignan complex) and 20-35% fatty acids, including linoleic acid. ...
Some examples of phenolics used for defense in plants are: lignin, silymarin and cannabinoids. Condensed tannins, polymers ...
In France, its indications and use have been described as "identical to those of silymarin". Laure P, Bislinger C (2003). "Les ...
All of the flavonolignan compounds found in the silymarin mixture seem to block the uptake of thyroid hormones into the cells ... The authors of several studies noted that especially silychristin, one of the compounds of the silymarin mixture seems to be ... Several studies have documented the potentially dangerous effects of the silymarin mixture on the MCT8 transporter. ... the administration of silymarin during pregnancy is especially thought to be dangerous, potentially leading to the Allan- ...
... silymarin and N-acetylcysteine on antitubercular drug-induced hepatotoxicity assessed in an in vitro model". Human & ...
... a complex of silymarin and phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), is about 10 times more bioavailable than silymarin. An earlier study ... It has been also reported that silymarin inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin is much more soluble than silymarin itself. ... Silymarin is also devoid of embryotoxic potential in animal models. A phase I clinical trial in humans with prostate cancer ... Silymarin at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short ...
Herbal compounds such as silymarin (a milk thistle seed extract), curcumin, a turmeric extract, and green tea appear to improve ... "The therapeutic effect of silymarin in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty disease: A meta-analysis (PRISMA) of randomized ...
Pigments azaphilones hydroxyanthraquinones naphthoquinones Flavonoids curcumin silymarin daidzein Protein engineering has ...
A crude extract of flavolignans from S. marianum seeds, called silymarin (trade name Legalon) has proven useful in amatoxin ...
Silymarin is given intravenously to treat poisoning from Amanita mushrooms according to the Santa Cruz protocol devised by Dr ...
... s identified in Silybum marianum (milk thistle) silymarin complex include silibinin, silychristin, silydianin, ...
... silymarin MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.284 - flavonols MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.284.388 - kaempferols MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.284. ... silymarin MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.284 - flavonols MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.284.388 - kaempferols MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.284. ...
Silymarin) (225 mg) Bacopa (Bacopa monnieri) extract (45% bacosides) (150 mg) Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) powder (150 mg) ...
"Silymarin" - 1:56 "Red Clover" - 6:29 "Chlorophyll Enemas" - 14:17 "The Black Radish" - 1:53 "Essence of Primrose" - 3:31 "Dong ...
One recent study of the effect of a drug, silymarin, on kidney tissue of rats with cadmium toxicity found that rats in the ...
... silymarin - simple mastectomy - simple nephrectomy - single blind study - single-photon emission computed tomography - ...
Cyclobutyrol A05AX04 Maralixibat chloride A05AX05 Odevixibat QA05AX90 Menbutone A05BA01 Arginine glutamate A05BA03 Silymarin ...
... of liver disease patients used the antioxidant silymarin, more than 6% used vitamins, and that "in all, 74% of patients ...
Silymarin) drug information. Find its price or cost, dose, when to use, how to use, side effects, adverse effects, substitutes ... Silymarin (Silicon) is a herb, prescribed for liver disease. The information provided on this page is intended to serve as a ...
Silymarin, a flavonolignan from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant is used almost exclusively for hepatoprotection and ... Silymarin is orally absorbed and is excreted mainly through bile as sulphates and conjugates. Silymarin offers good protection ... Hepatoprotective herbal drug, silymarin from experimental pharmacology to clinical medicine Indian J Med Res. 2006 Nov;124(5): ... Silymarin may prove to be a useful drug for hepatoprotection in hepatobiliary diseases and in hepatotoxicity due to drugs. The ...
Silymarin) - What is Milk Thistle? Benefits for liver health and cancer treatment, safety and side effects, doses, supplements ... Milk Thistle (Silymarin). What is Milk Thistle?. Milk thistle (or St Marys thistle) is arguably one of the most intensively ... Something that may be of interest to know for a lot of people, is that there is evidence that regular use of silymarin slows ... The extract of milk thistle (silymarin) now has a place in modern medicine for treating diseases of the liver, and it may even ...
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Silymarin is the main component of S. marianum and derived from fruits and seeds of S. marianum (milk thistle). S. marianum has ... Silybum marianum (milk thistle) and its main constituent, silymarin, as a potential therapeutic plant in metabolic syndrome: A ... Keywords: Silybum marianum; diabetes; dyslipidemia; hypertension; metabolic syndrome; milk thistle; obesity; silibyn; silymarin ...
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  • Silymarin, a flavonolignan from 'milk thistle' (Silybum marianum) plant is used almost exclusively for hepatoprotection and amounts to 180 million US dollars business in Germany alone. (nih.gov)
  • Silymarin is the major active compound from milk thistle extract (Silybum marianum) and offers powerful antioxidant support for the liver. (dralexrinehart.com)
  • The silymarin compound comes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum). (dralexrinehart.com)
  • Our Silymarin capsule provides 300 mg of silymarin from 360 mg of standardized milk thistle ( Silybum marianum ) extract. (naturalapothecaryshoppe.com)
  • Silymarin complex, particularly the silybum component, helps to support the liver through antioxidant activity and stabilization of the cell membranes. (naturalapothecaryshoppe.com)
  • AIWO Silymarin contains 300mg of silymarin derived from the milk thistle plant, also known as Silybum marianum. (aiwo.com)
  • Silymarin ( Silybum marianum ), also known as Milk Thistle, has been used by traditional herbalists for centuries. (superhealthcenter.com)
  • Milk thistle (Silybum marianum), or rather the contained silymarin, the active ingredient of milk thistle, is of particular interest here. (myfairtrade.com)
  • The aim of this work is to compare new and traditional extraction methods to obtain silymarin from Silybum marianum, a biennial herbaceous plant of the Asteraceae family, present throughout the Mediterranean basin and used to treat several diseases. (unina.it)
  • The extract of milk thistle (silymarin) now has a place in modern medicine for treating diseases of the liver, and it may even have a role in the treatment of cancer. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • The milk thistle extract used in traditional herbal medicine comes from the seeds and typically contains four to six percent silymarin. (xtend-life.com)
  • Modern milk thistle extract is more highly refined and is usually standardized to about 80 percent silymarin, with various fatty acids comprising the remaining portion. (xtend-life.com)
  • Silymarin 80 features milk thistle seed extract providing 56 mg of silymarin by HPLC analysis. (naturescountrystore.com)
  • Source Naturals EUROPURE™ SILYMARIN contains a unique high quality European milk thistle seed extract. (ayurvedicherbsdirect.com)
  • The milk thistle used for this silymarin extract is grown and processed according to strict European Union guidelines to meet our high standards of quality. (ayurvedicherbsdirect.com)
  • NOW Extra Strength Silymarin has three times the Milk Thistle Extract (450 mg per softgel) as in our regular strength product (150 mg per capsule). (nourishingfoods.com)
  • This special, concentrated extract contains about 70 to 80% of flavanolignans that are collectively known as silymarin. (anthrobotanica.com)
  • Silymarin CF is our breakthrough vitamin C serum for oily and blemish-prone skin that combines 0.5% silymarin (milk thistle extract), 15% l-ascorbic acid, 0.5% ferulic acid and 0.5% salicylic acid to help prevent oil oxidation that can lead to breakouts, and visible signs of ageing. (saylahskin.com)
  • This silymarin is a highly concentrated milk thistle extract to nutritionally support healthy liver functioning and free radicals. (citizenspharmacy.com)
  • Milk Thistle Extract 80% Silymarin (standardized 80% Silymarin) pure powder 113 grams (4.0 oz). (herbstoreusa.com)
  • This milk thistle extract was made from the seeds, which contains 80% silymarin (a flavonolignan complex) including 30% silybin and isosilybin. (herbstoreusa.com)
  • LIVERAIDE contains Silymarin, an active natural extract from Milk Thistle plant, it is a powerful substance composed of three flavanoid molecules (silybin, silydianin and silycristin) which have been shown to have positive effects in treating different kinds of liver diseases including Hepatitis, Psiorasis and Cirrhosis (chronic scarring of the liver, often caused by alcoholism). (watsons.com.ph)
  • Milk thistle is certainly one of the most traditional useful and medicinal plants in the world, which is nowadays mainly used as an extract rich in the active ingredient silymarin. (myfairtrade.com)
  • The milk thistle extract capsules from effective nature also contain an extract rich in silymarin - this way you can easily supply yourself with highly concentrated silymarin. (myfairtrade.com)
  • Many supplements are manufactured as milk thistle seed extract, but the key to the supplement's effectiveness is the percentage of silymarin in each dose. (wlns.com)
  • ABSTRACT To investigate the effects of silymarin on follicular development, we enrolled 40 healthy women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) due to male factor infertility in this trial. (who.int)
  • Additionally, the antioxidant effects of silymarin in milk thistle have been shown to help decrease blood sugar levels in insulin-resistant patients. (strongwater.com)
  • suchasfolliculogenesis,oocytematura- the effects of silymarin on folliculo- 34-36hafterHCGinjection,eggrecov- tion,steroidogenesis,corpuslutealfunc- genesisandgranolusacellapoptosis.To erywasperformedundertransvaginal tionandluteolysis[ 3 ].TheroleofROS studytheactualeffectofsilymarinand ultrasonographicguidance. (who.int)
  • Merely millimeters in size, these tiny fruits contain silymarin, a complex mixture of plant-based nutrients called flavonoids. (puritan.com)
  • The complex group of flavonoids found in milk thistle is collectively known as silymarin. (puritan.com)
  • Silymarin is a complex of flavonoids that have antioxidant properties. (effective-treatments.com)
  • Silymarin primarily contains flavonolignans and flavonoids and is used in some pharmaceutical preparations to improve of liver function and as a protective against some hepatotoxins. (unina.it)
  • Silymarin can be further divided into 3 primary flavonoids: silybin, silydianin, and silychristin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Silymarin consists of four flavonolignan isomers namely--silybin, isosilybin, silydianin and silychristin. (nih.gov)
  • The majority of the molecules present in silymarin are called silybin. (strongwater.com)
  • Silibin, a semipurified fraction of silymarin, is primarily a mixture of 2 diastereoisomers, silybin A and silybin B, in a roughly 1:1 ratio. (herbstoreusa.com)
  • The key bioactive ingredients of Milk Thistle seeds include Silibinin (silybin), Isosilybin, Silychristin and Silydianin which is collectively known as Silymarin. (addon.life)
  • Silymarin is a flavonoid complex composed of several active compounds, including silybin, silydianin, and silychristin. (effective-treatments.com)
  • Silymarin is the main component of S. marianum and derived from fruits and seeds of S. marianum (milk thistle). (nih.gov)
  • Silymarin is the main and active ingredient in milk thistle (the names are actually used interchangeably) and can be found mostly in the seeds of the plant. (strongwater.com)
  • As milk thistle seeds are a high source of the antioxidant silymarin, the plant is associated with decreasing the risk for cancer development by boosting the immune system, fighting DNA damage and reversing cancerous tumor growth. (strongwater.com)
  • Silymarin, an active ingredient in milk thistle, is extracted from the plant seeds for its antioxidant properties. (wlns.com)
  • Studies have shown that silymarin acts as a free radical scavenger to support the body's own antioxidant defense system. (ayurvedicherbsdirect.com)
  • Research has shown that silymarin along with conventional treatments can help control symptoms of diabetes by helping with glycemic control. (strongwater.com)
  • Silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from the milk thistle, helps inhibit oxidative stress, which supports healthy liver function. (dralexrinehart.com)
  • The botanical milk thistle contains silymarin, a complex mixture of flavonolignans, that protects the liver from free radical damage and helps maintain concentrations of glutathione, an antioxidant produced in the body. (citizenspharmacy.com)
  • In six extracts obtained by new and traditional extraction methods, the total contents of silymarin and its main flavonolignans, total phenols and condensed tannins were evaluated in addition to their respective antioxidant capacities. (unina.it)
  • Extracts of milk thistle should be standardized to 80 percent silymarin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The active ingredients in milk thistle are a group of compounds collectively known as silymarin. (aiwo.com)
  • We'll also discuss how to take silymarin, its potential side effects, and compare it to other liver support supplements. (effective-treatments.com)
  • The use of silymarin may replace the polyherbal formulations and will avoid the major problems of standardization, quality control and contamination with heavy metals or bacterial toxins. (nih.gov)
  • Though silymarin does not have antiviral properties against hepatitis virus, it promotes protein synthesis, helps in regenerating liver tissue, controls inflammation, enhances glucuronidation and protects against glutathione depletion. (nih.gov)
  • Silymarin CF is an oil-free vitamin C serum formulated specifically for oily and blemish-prone skin types that delivers advanced environmental protection and reduces oiliness, refines skin texture, and visibly improves skin clarity and fine lines. (skinceuticals.com)
  • SkinCeuticals Silymarin CF is a powerful vitamin C triple antioxidant serum formulated specifically for oily and blemish-prone skin. (joyviva.ca)
  • Silymarin CF is an oil-reducing vitamin C serum which improves skin texture, skin clarity and fine lines while minimizing the look of pores and other visible aging signs. (hushbeauty.ca)
  • Silymarin, L-Ornithine and L-Aspartate with Multivitamin Capsules - Hepaset Capsule is a combination medication used to treat liver illnesses including acute and chronic hepatitis, chronic alcoholic liver damage, fatty liver, jaundice, liver cirrhosis, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). (biosyncpharma.in)
  • Please let your doctor know if you are allergic to Silymarin, L-ornithine, or L-aspartate with multivitamin capsules or any other medications. (biosyncpharma.in)
  • Before administering children Silymarin, L-Ornithine, and L-Aspartate with Multivitamin Capsules, please see a physician. (biosyncpharma.in)
  • You can take Silymarin, L-Ornithine and L-Aspartate with Multivitamin Capsules with or without food or as prescribed by your doctor. (biosyncpharma.in)
  • if you want a great supplement that has Silymarin and does a great job at liver function, then LivPure is the one to go for. (effective-treatments.com)
  • Singura situatie in care informatiile prezentate despre Silymarin Milk Thistle, 1000mg, 60 capsule, Nature's Bounty pot fi diferite fata de cele prezentate pe site este aceea in care producatorul/importatorul aduce modificari specificatiilor acestuia, fara a ne informa in prealabil. (farmaciatei.ro)
  • It is a combination of three medications: L-ornithine, L-aspartate, Silymarin, and other multivitamins. (biosyncpharma.in)
  • Discover PCHPL Wellness LIVDIX Syrup, a 200ml elixir fortified with Silymarin, Multivitamins, and Niacinamide, specially designed to safeguard and rejuvenate your liver. (sehatokart.com)
  • Silymarin is given by mouth in the form of a capsule or tablet. (springhillvet.com)
  • Silymarin, L-Ornithine, and L-Aspartate with Multivitamin Capsule is a combination medication that improves the general health of the liver by defending it against dangerous molecules known as free radicals. (biosyncpharma.in)
  • 0.5% SILYMARIN: Powerful plant-based antioxidant derived from milk thistle that helps prevent oil oxidation and provides antioxidant protection against free radicals. (skinceuticals.com)
  • One such plant derived active Silymarin from the plant Milk thistle has been tested in many experimental studies and has shown protective effects on the heart. (addon.life)
  • Our Silymarin is formulated with the same ingredients as clinical studies to help support healthy liver function. (dralexrinehart.com)
  • Scientific studies have indicated that constituents in Silymarin may help to support healthy liver function. (superhealthcenter.com)
  • The bioactive Silymarin from the herb- Milk Thistle, is an antioxidant and has been shown to have certain benefits in cancer patients such as cardio-protective effects through reducing oxidative stress. (addon.life)
  • Silymarin is able to reduce oxidative stress, the root cause of cardiotoxicity. (addon.life)
  • Limited studies in animals have been performed but there is anecdotal evidence that silymarin works to treat liver disease by inhibiting cell-damaging enzymes and by providing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. (springhillvet.com)
  • Hepato-protective compounds such as silymarin are beneficial not only for the liver but also for the overall health and vitality of the body. (dralexrinehart.com)
  • Is Silymarin the only beneficial component of milk thistle? (puritan.com)
  • It is true that silymarin has been identified as the active component in milk thistle responsible for promoting liver health. (puritan.com)
  • Yet silymarin only makes up about 1.5-3% of the dry weight of the small, seed-like milk thistle fruits. (puritan.com)
  • The primary active constituent in milk thistle is silymarin. (xtend-life.com)
  • As an antioxidant, the benefits of milk thistle and silymarin are equally powerful as other important nutrients such as vitamin E or C, which help fight free radical damage. (strongwater.com)
  • Use of Milk Thistle active Silymarin along with Doxorubicin benefits children with leukemia by reducing the Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity as demonstrated in a clinical study with children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (addon.life)
  • Silymarin is the active ingredient in milk thistle that provides health benefits. (wlns.com)
  • If you've ever heard of milk thistle , then you're already familiar with Silymarin . (effective-treatments.com)
  • Silymarin is also a strong anti-oxidant more powerful than vitamin E that may help abet the ageing process. (watsons.com.ph)
  • Silymarin has clinical applications in alcoholic liver diseases, liver cirrhosis, Amanita mushroom poisoning, viral hepatitis, toxic and drug induced liver diseases and in diabetic patients. (nih.gov)
  • Pre-clinical evidence suggests that silymarin can also promote a healthy inflammatory response at the cellular level. (dralexrinehart.com)
  • This article is part of the Current clinical use of silymarin in the treatment of toxic liver diseases a case series Special Issue https//www.drugsincontext.com/special_issues/current-clinical-use-of- silymarin -in-the- treatment -of-toxic- liver - diseases -a-case-series. (bvsalud.org)
  • Silymarin has been shown experimentally to have cardioprotective effects when given along with Doxorubicin (reducing Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity). (addon.life)
  • Silymarin also has important antioxidant properties. (puritan.com)
  • Preliminary research indicates that silymarin also stimulates RNA and DNA transcription in liver cells, which supports protein synthesis and cellular regeneration. (ayurvedicherbsdirect.com)
  • Silymarin may prove to be a useful drug for hepatoprotection in hepatobiliary diseases and in hepatotoxicity due to drugs. (nih.gov)
  • With 400 mg per daily dose, this silymarin is contained in concentrated form. (myfairtrade.com)
  • Check the manufacturer's label for the amount of bioavailable silymarin in each tablet or liquid dose. (wlns.com)
  • They underwent ovulation induction and on a random and blind basis, patients were assigned to receive silymarin (70 mg × 3/day) or placebo from the beginning of the induction cycle. (who.int)
  • Ces patientes ont été soumises à une induction d'ovulation et ont reçu, sur la base d'une répartition aléatoire et en aveugle, de la silymarine (70 mg × 3 fois par jour) ou un placebo, dès le début du cycle d'induction. (who.int)
  • In this study on 80 children with ALL, 40 of them were treated with Doxorubicin along with Silymarin at 420 mg/day (Group I - experimental) and the remaining 40 were only treated with Doxorubicin without the Silymarin (Group 2 - placebo). (addon.life)
  • They found that in the Silymarin group, there was 'decreased early Doxorubicin-induced left ventricular systolic function disturbances (cardiotoxicity)' over the placebo group. (addon.life)
  • This kit features a full-size Silymarin CF and a full-size Physical Fusion UV Defense SPF 50, and is the ideal homecare set for clear, more balanced skin this summer. (skinceuticals.com)
  • In the morning after cleansing and toning, apply 4-5 drops of Silymarin CF to a dry face, neck, and chest before other anti-aging skincare products. (skinceuticals.com)
  • Silymarin appears to play a crucial role to prevent bone loss and might regulate osteogenesis and may be beneficial for fracture healing. (gdmnutra.com)
  • Silymarin in the management of liver enzyme activity in steatohepatitis: a case report. (bvsalud.org)