Green Chemistry Technology
Nucleolus Organizer Region
Anti-Infective Agents, Local
Dental Cavity Preparation
Staining and Labeling
Dental Restoration, Permanent
Nitrate Reductase (NADH)
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Nitrate Reductase (NAD(P)H)
Anion Transport Proteins
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
The role of prostaglandins in chemically induced inflammation. (1/222)Dye leakage in rats, produced by intracutaneous injections of irritants into the abdominal skin, was quantitated using the Evans blue technique of Harada et al. (1971). In control rats and in rats pretreated with indomethacin (an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis) concentration-response lines were obtained for 5-hydroxytryptamine, histamine, bradykinin and prostaglandin E1, bradykinin in the presence of prostaglandin E1 (10-6 M), adenosine-5'-triphosphate, compound 48/80, capsaicin and silver nitrate. In rats pretreated with indomethacin the dye leakage responses to histamine, prostaglandin E1, adenosine-5'-triphosphate and silver nitrate were significantly reduced, but no significant changes were observed in the responses to the other irritants. It is suggested that part of the action of histamine, adenosine-5'-triphosphate and prostagland in E1 is produced indirectly by releaseor stimulation of the synthesis of prostaglandins or their precursors. These results might have important implications in the understanding of the inflammatory response. (+info)
Persistent expression of serum amyloid A during experimentally induced chronic inflammatory condition in rabbit involves differential activation of SAF, NF-kappa B, and C/EBP transcription factors. (2/222)The serum amyloid A (SAA) protein has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases. Its induction mechanism in response to a chronic inflammatory condition was investigated in rabbits following multiple s.c. injections of AgNO3 over a period of 35 days. During unremitting exposure to inflammatory stimulus, a persistently higher than normal level of SAA2 expression was seen in multiple tissues. Induction of SAA was correlated with higher levels of several transcription factor activities. Increased SAA-activating factor (SAF) activity was detected in the liver, lung, and brain tissues under both acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. In the heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle tissues, this activity remained virtually constant. In contrast, CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) DNA-binding activity was transiently induced in selective tissues. Higher than normal NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity was detected in the lung and to a lesser extent in the liver and kidney tissues under both acute and chronic conditions. This result suggested that C/EBP, SAF, and NF-kappa B are required for transient acute phase induction of SAA whereas SAF and NF-kappa B activities are necessary for persistent SAA expression during chronic inflammatory conditions. (+info)
An in vitro coculture model of transmigrant monocytes and foam cell formation. (3/222)To analyze in vitro the migration of monocytes to the subendothelial space, their differentiation into macrophages, and the subsequent formation of foam cells in vitro, we have developed a 2-coculture system with rabbit aortic endothelial cells (AECs), aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and a mixture of matrix proteins on polyethylene filters in chemotaxis chambers. AECs were seeded on a mixture of type I and IV collagen with or without various types of serum lipoproteins (method 1) or on matrix proteins secreted by SMCs (method 2). In these coculture systems, rabbit AECs can maintain a well-preserved monolayer for up to 2 weeks. When human CD14-positive monocytes were added to the upper medium of the system, with monocyte chemotactic protein-1 treatment approximately 60% of the monocytes transmigrated within 24 hours and were retained for up to 7 days, whereas without MCP-1 treatment, <30% of monocytes transmigrated. On day 1, transmigrant monocytes were negative for immunostaining of type I and II macrophage scavenger receptors but by day 3, became positive for scavenger receptors as well as other macrophage markers. When oxidized low density lipoprotein was added to the matrix layer of the method I coculture, on day 4 transmigrant cells exhibited lipid deposit droplets, and by day 7, they had the appearance of typical foam cells. Some of the transmigrant cells recovered in the lower medium on day 7 also appeared to be foam cells, indicating foam cell motility and escape from the coculture layer through the filter. In summary, this coculture system is a useful in vitro tool to dissect the cellular and molecular events that make up the process of foam cell formation. (+info)
Nitric oxide synthase-II is expressed in severe corneal alkali burns and inhibits neovascularization. (4/222)PURPOSE: Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-II) is expressed in many inflammatory conditions. The implication of nitric oxide (NO) in angiogenesis remains controversial. The role of NOS-II and its influence on angiogenesis in corneal neovascularization is unknown and was investigated in this study. METHODS: A mouse model of corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization was used. NOS-II mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and NOS-II protein was studied in situ by immunohistochemical analysis of the cornea. The influence of NOS-II on neovascularization was determined by comparison of vessel development in "normal" wild-type mice and mice with a targeted disruption of the NOS-II gene. RESULTS: NOS-II mRNA was induced to very high levels after corneal cauterization and remained upregulated throughout the disease. Migratory cells in the center of the cauterization area expressed NOS-II protein. The neovascular response in mice lacking the NOS-II gene was significantly stronger than in wild-type mice, and the difference increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: These data are the first evidence that NOS-II is expressed in this model of sterile corneal inflammation. NOS-II expression inhibited angiogenesis in severe corneal alkali burns. (+info)
Mechanism of branchial apical silver uptake by rainbow trout is via the proton-coupled Na(+) channel. (5/222)The branchial uptake mechanism of the nonessential heavy metal silver from very dilute media by the gills of freshwater rainbow trout was investigated. At concentrations >36 nM AgNO(3), silver rapidly entered the gills, reaching a peak at 1 h, after which time there was a steady decline in gill silver concentration and a resulting increase in body silver accumulation. Below 36 nM AgNO(3), there was only a very gradual increase in gill and body silver concentration over the 48-h exposure period. Increasing water sodium concentration ([Na(+)]; 0.05 to 21 mM) significantly reduced silver uptake, although, in contrast, increasing ambient [Ca(2+)] or [K(+)] up to 10 mM did not reduce silver uptake. Kinetic analysis of silver uptake at varying [Na(+)] showed a significant decrease in maximal silver transport capacity (173 +/- 34 pmol. g(-1). h(-1) at 0.1 mM [Na(+)] compared with 35 +/- 9 at 13 mM [Na(+)]) and only a slight decrease in the affinity for silver transport (K(m); 55 +/- 27 nM at 0.1 mM [Na(+)] compared with 91 +/- 47 nM at 13 mM [Na(+)]). Phenamil (a specific blocker of Na(+) channels), at a concentration of 100 microM, blocked Na(+) uptake by 78% of control values (58% after washout), and bafilomycin A(1) (a specific blocker of V-type ATPase), at a concentration of 2 microM, inhibited Na(+) uptake by 57% of control values, demonstrating the presence of a proton-coupled Na(+) channel in the apical membrane of the gills. Phenamil (after washout) and bafilomycin A(1) also blocked silver uptake by 62 and 79% of control values, respectively, indicating that Ag(+) is able to enter the apical membrane via the proton-coupled Na(+) channel. (+info)
Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated. (6/222)One mechanism of silver resistance in microorganisms is accumulation of the metal ions in the cell. Here, we report on the phenomenon of biosynthesis of silver-based single crystals with well-defined compositions and shapes, such as equilateral triangles and hexagons, in Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259. The crystals were up to 200 nm in size and were often located at the cell poles. Transmission electron microscopy, quantitative energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and electron diffraction established that the crystals comprise at least three different types, found both in whole cells and thin sections. These Ag-containing crystals are embedded in the organic matrix of the bacteria. Their possible potential as organic-metal composites in thin film and surface coating technology is discussed. (+info)
Enhancement of AA-amyloid formation in mice by transthyretin amyloid fragments and polyethylene glycol. (7/222)The mechanism behind amyloid formation is unknown in all types of amyloidosis. Several substances can enhance amyloid formation in animal experiments. To induce secondary systemic amyloid (AA-type amyloid) formation, we injected silver nitrate into mice together with either amyloid fibrils obtained from patients with familial polyneuropathy (FAP) type I or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Mice injected with silver nitrate only served as controls. Amyloid deposits were detectable at day 3 in animals injected with amyloid fibrils and in those injected with PEG, whereas in control mice, deposits were not noted before day 12. Our results indicate that amyloid fibrils from FAP patients and even a non-sulfate containing polysaccharide (PEG) have the potential to act as amyloid-enhancing factors. (+info)
Effectiveness of silver nitrate compared to talc slurry as pleural sclerosing agent in rabbits. Influence of concomitant intrapleural lidocaine. (8/222)The ideal agent for producing pleurodesis has not been identified. Talc, the most commonly used, poses several problems. Another possibility is silver nitrate, which was widely used in the past. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of the intrapleural instillation of lidocaine in producing a pleurodesis with silver nitrate, to define the effect of lidocaine in the maturation of the collagen fibers, and to confirm that the pleurodesis after silver nitrate is stronger than after talc. METHODS: We studied three groups of 8 rabbits. Two groups received 0.5% silver nitrate; in one we had previously injected 0.5 ml of 2% lidocaine. The third group received 400 mg/kg talc (2 ml). The animals were sacrificed 28 days after the injection, and the pleural spaces were assessed grossly for evidence of pleurodesis and microscopically for evidence of inflammation and fibrosis. The total amount of pleural collagen and the distribution of thick and thin collagen fibers were quantified. Collagen was identified using picrosirius red stain. RESULTS: In the two groups that received silver nitrate (without lidocaine: 3.5 + 03 and with lidocaine: 3.2 + 0.3), the macroscopic pleurodesis (scale 0 - 4) was significantly (p = 0.001) better than that resulting from talc (1.6 + 0.2). The mean degree of pleural fibrosis induced by silver nitrate (3.5 + 0.2) was significantly (p = 0.004) higher than that induced by talc (1.9 + 0.1). The previous instillation of lidocaine resulted in a tendency for decreased amounts of fibrosis (3.1 + 0.4). The mean amount (10(3)mm2) of pleural collagen was significantly (p = 0.009) greater in the rabbits that received silver nitrate (116.9 + 22.7) than in those that received talc (10.7 + 3.4). The injection of lidocaine slightly reduced the collagen (80.1 + 30.3). The distribution of collagen fibers did not differ among the groups. CONCLUSION: This rabbit model clearly confirms that intrapleural silver nitrate is more effective than talc for producing pleurodesis. The previous intrapleural instillation of lidocaine results in a decreasing trend in the amount of collagen, but does not change the effectiveness of the pleural fusion or modify the process of collagen maturation. (+info)
In the medical field, "silver" typically refers to silver nitrate, which is a medication used to treat various conditions such as burns, wounds, and eye infections. Silver nitrate works by releasing silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties that can help prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Silver nitrate is often applied topically as a cream, ointment, or powder, and it can also be used as a solution for eye drops or as a douche for vaginal infections. It is important to note that silver nitrate can be toxic if ingested, so it should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Silver nitrate is a medication that is used in the medical field for a variety of purposes. It is a white or yellowish powder that is soluble in water and alcohol. In medical applications, silver nitrate is typically used as an antiseptic, to treat burns and wounds, and to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. It is also used to treat eye infections, such as conjunctivitis, and to treat skin conditions, such as acne and eczema. Silver nitrate is available in various forms, including ointments, creams, and solutions, and is typically applied topically to the affected area. It is important to note that silver nitrate can be toxic if ingested, and should be used with caution.
In the medical field, Nitrate Reductase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of nitrate, a compound that is commonly found in vegetables and some drinking water sources. Nitrate Reductase catalyzes the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is then converted to nitric oxide (NO) by other enzymes in the body. NO is a signaling molecule that plays a vital role in many physiological processes, including vasodilation, blood pressure regulation, and immune function. Nitrate Reductase is therefore important for maintaining proper NO levels in the body, and its activity is regulated by various factors, including dietary intake of nitrate, oxygen levels, and pH. Disruptions in Nitrate Reductase activity can lead to a variety of health problems, including anemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. In some cases, Nitrate Reductase deficiency can be treated with dietary supplements or medications that increase NO production in the body.
Talc is a naturally occurring mineral that is commonly used in a variety of products, including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and medical devices. In the medical field, talc is often used as a powder to absorb moisture and reduce friction between skin and clothing, as well as to reduce the risk of skin irritation and infection. Talc is also used in some surgical procedures as a lubricant to help reduce friction and improve the ease of movement during surgery. However, talc has been associated with certain health risks, including the development of ovarian cancer, and its use in medical products is being closely monitored by regulatory agencies.
Ophthalmia neonatorum is a medical condition that affects newborn babies. It is also known as neonatal conjunctivitis or neonatal ophthalmia. The condition is caused by bacteria that infect the baby's eyes soon after birth. It is a common condition that affects about 1 in every 2,500 newborns in the United States. The symptoms of ophthalmia neonatorum include redness, swelling, and discharge from the baby's eyes. The infection can also cause the eyelids to stick together, making it difficult for the baby to open their eyes. If left untreated, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as blindness. Ophthalmia neonatorum is usually treated with antibiotics, which are applied to the baby's eyes. The treatment is usually very effective, and most babies recover fully within a few days. However, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible if you suspect that your baby may have ophthalmia neonatorum, as early treatment is crucial for preventing complications.
In the medical field, silver compounds refer to substances that contain silver as an active ingredient. Silver has been used in medicine for centuries due to its antimicrobial properties, which means it can kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Silver compounds are used in a variety of medical applications, including wound care, burn treatment, and the prevention of infections. Some common silver compounds used in medicine include silver sulfadiazine, silver nitrate, and silver chloride. Silver sulfadiazine is a cream or ointment that is commonly used to treat burns and other skin injuries. It contains silver ions that help to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms that can cause infections. Silver nitrate is a solution that is used to treat eye infections, such as conjunctivitis. It contains silver ions that help to kill bacteria and other microorganisms that can cause infections in the eye. Silver chloride is a powder that is used to treat wounds and other skin injuries. It contains silver ions that help to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms that can cause infections. Overall, silver compounds are an important tool in the medical field for preventing and treating infections. However, it is important to note that silver compounds can also have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It is always important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any medical treatment.
Dental leakage refers to the passage of bacteria or other microorganisms from the oral cavity into the surrounding tissues or the bloodstream through gaps or spaces in dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, or bridges. This can lead to the development of dental caries (cavities) or other infections, and can also increase the risk of systemic infections, such as endocarditis or meningitis. Dental leakage can occur due to a variety of factors, including poor fit of the restoration, inadequate cleaning and maintenance, or the presence of cracks or defects in the restoration material. It is important to detect and treat dental leakage promptly to prevent further complications.
Sulfadiazine is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, skin infections, and respiratory infections. It works by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of bacteria in the body. Sulfadiazine is typically administered orally in the form of tablets or capsules. It may also be available as a liquid or as a cream or ointment for topical use. It is important to note that sulfadiazine is not effective against viral infections, such as the flu or common cold. It is also not recommended for use in pregnant women or children under the age of 12, as it may cause harm to these populations. Side effects of sulfadiazine may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and skin rash. In rare cases, it may cause more serious side effects, such as liver damage or blood disorders. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider and to report any side effects to them immediately.
Cautery is a medical procedure that involves the use of heat or electricity to destroy or remove tissue. It is typically used to treat or remove abnormal tissue, such as warts, skin tags, or certain types of cancerous growths. The heat or electricity is applied to the tissue using a special tool, such as a cautery pencil or an electrocautery device. The tissue is destroyed by the heat or electricity, which causes it to dry out and die. Cautery is a relatively quick and painless procedure, and it can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions. However, it is important to note that cautery can sometimes cause scarring or other complications, and it may not be suitable for everyone.
'Anti-Infective Agents, Local' refers to medications that are applied directly to a specific area of the body to treat or prevent infections. These agents are typically used to treat skin infections, ear infections, eye infections, and other localized infections. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other microorganisms that cause infections. Examples of local anti-infective agents include antibiotics such as neomycin, polymyxin B, and bacitracin, which are commonly used to treat skin infections. Other examples include antifungal agents such as clotrimazole and miconazole, which are used to treat fungal infections of the skin, nails, and scalp. Local anti-infective agents are often available in the form of creams, ointments, gels, or solutions that can be applied directly to the affected area.
Pleural diseases refer to any disorders that affect the pleura, which is the thin, double-layered membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest cavity. The pleura helps to lubricate the lungs and reduce friction as they move during breathing. Pleural diseases can be classified into two main categories: pleural effusions and pleural thickening. Pleural effusions are the accumulation of fluid in the space between the two layers of the pleura. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, cancer, heart failure, and lung diseases such as pneumonia or tuberculosis. Pleural effusions can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing. Pleural thickening, also known as pleural plaques, is the thickening of the pleura itself. This can be caused by exposure to asbestos, which is a known carcinogen that can cause mesothelioma, a rare and aggressive form of cancer that affects the lining of the lungs and chest cavity. Pleural thickening can also be caused by other factors such as radiation therapy, infections, and autoimmune diseases. Other pleural diseases include pleural fibrosis, which is the scarring of the pleura, and pleural calcification, which is the formation of calcium deposits in the pleura. These conditions can also be caused by exposure to asbestos or other irritants, as well as by certain medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
Hypoaldosteronism is a medical condition characterized by a deficiency or insufficiency of aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. Aldosterone plays a crucial role in regulating the balance of sodium and potassium in the body, which in turn helps to maintain blood pressure and fluid balance. In hypoaldosteronism, the body produces too little aldosterone, leading to an imbalance in sodium and potassium levels. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including low blood pressure, dehydration, muscle cramps, weakness, fatigue, and an increased risk of heart problems. There are several types of hypoaldosteronism, including primary and secondary forms. Primary hypoaldosteronism is caused by damage to the adrenal gland, while secondary hypoaldosteronism is caused by a problem with the pituitary gland or the kidneys. Treatment for hypoaldosteronism typically involves replacing the missing aldosterone with medication, such as fludrocortisone. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue from the adrenal gland.
Silver sulfadiazine is a topical medication that is used to treat burns and other skin infections. It is a combination of silver and the antibiotic sulfadiazine, which works by killing bacteria and preventing the growth of new ones. Silver sulfadiazine is usually applied to the affected area as a cream or ointment, and it is often used in conjunction with other treatments for burns, such as dressings and pain medication. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare professional when using this medication, as it can cause side effects such as skin irritation and allergic reactions.
A wound infection is an infection that occurs in a cut, scrape, or surgical incision. It can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other microorganisms that enter the body through the wound. Symptoms of a wound infection may include redness, swelling, warmth, pain, pus, and a foul odor. If left untreated, a wound infection can lead to serious complications, such as sepsis, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause organ failure and even death. Treatment for a wound infection typically involves antibiotics, wound cleaning and dressing changes, and in some cases, surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a wound infection to prevent further complications.
Pleurisy is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pleura, which is the thin layer of tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inside of the chest cavity. This inflammation can cause the pleura to become thickened, sticky, and inflamed, leading to pain and difficulty breathing. There are two types of pleurisy: viral and bacterial. Viral pleurisy is usually caused by a respiratory virus, such as the flu or COVID-19, and is usually self-limiting. Bacterial pleurisy, on the other hand, is caused by bacteria and requires antibiotics to treat. Symptoms of pleurisy may include chest pain that worsens with deep breathing or coughing, difficulty breathing, fever, and a dry cough. Treatment for pleurisy typically involves pain management, antibiotics if the cause is bacterial, and rest. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Dental cavity preparation is a dental procedure that involves removing decayed or damaged tooth structure from a tooth in order to create a smooth, clean surface for a filling or other restoration. This procedure is typically performed by a dentist or dental hygienist using specialized dental tools, such as dental drills and hand instruments. During a dental cavity preparation, the dentist will first numb the affected area of the tooth using a local anesthetic. They will then use a dental drill to remove the decayed or damaged tooth structure, carefully shaping the cavity to create a smooth, clean surface. The dentist may also use hand instruments to further refine the shape of the cavity and remove any remaining decay. Once the cavity has been prepared, the dentist will fill it with a dental filling or other restoration, such as a crown or a dental bridge. The restoration will be shaped to match the natural contours of the tooth and will be bonded in place using a special dental cement. Dental cavity preparation is an important procedure for maintaining good oral health and preventing further tooth decay. It is typically performed as an outpatient procedure and can be completed in a single visit to the dentist.
In the medical field, composite resins are a type of dental filling material that is used to restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or trauma. They are made up of a mixture of glass particles and a resin binder, and are often used to fill small to medium-sized cavities. Composite resins are popular among dentists because they are tooth-colored, which means they can be matched to the natural color of the patient's teeth. This makes them an attractive option for patients who want to restore their teeth without the use of metal fillings. In addition, composite resins are relatively easy to use and can be shaped and polished to blend in with the surrounding teeth. While composite resins are generally considered safe and effective, they may not be suitable for all patients. For example, they may not be a good choice for patients who grind their teeth or who have a high risk of developing cavities. In these cases, other types of dental fillings, such as amalgam or gold, may be a better option.
Chromatography, Thin Layer (TLC) is a technique used in the medical field to separate and identify different compounds in a mixture. It involves the use of a thin layer of a stationary phase, such as silica gel or aluminum oxide, which is coated onto a glass plate or plastic sheet. A sample mixture is then applied to the stationary phase, and a mobile phase, such as a solvent or a gas, is allowed to flow over the stationary phase. As the mobile phase flows over the stationary phase, the different compounds in the sample mixture are separated based on their ability to interact with the stationary and mobile phases. Compounds that interact more strongly with the stationary phase will be retained longer, while those that interact more strongly with the mobile phase will move more quickly through the system. TLC is a simple and inexpensive technique that can be used to separate and identify a wide range of compounds, including drugs, hormones, and other biological molecules. It is often used as a preliminary step in the analysis of complex mixtures, before more advanced techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gas chromatography (GC) are used to further separate and identify the individual compounds.
Argyria is a condition characterized by the accumulation of silver in the skin, eyes, and internal organs. It is caused by prolonged exposure to silver compounds, such as silver nitrate or silver sulfadiazine, which are commonly used in medical treatments, cosmetics, and industrial applications. The symptoms of argyria include a blue-gray discoloration of the skin, particularly on the face, neck, and hands, as well as changes in the color of the eyes, such as a yellowish or greenish tinge. In severe cases, argyria can also cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and other organs. There is currently no known cure for argyria, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and preventing further exposure to silver compounds.
Chlorates are a class of inorganic salts that contain the chlorate ion (ClO3-). They are typically white or colorless solids that are soluble in water. Chlorates are used in a variety of applications, including as oxidizing agents, water treatment chemicals, and as ingredients in some medications. In the medical field, chlorates are sometimes used as a treatment for certain types of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation. They work by slowing down the electrical activity in the heart, which can help to regulate the heart's rhythm. Chlorates are also used as a source of chlorine in the production of certain medications, such as chloramphenicol. However, it is important to note that chlorates can also have toxic effects on the body, particularly on the thyroid gland. High levels of chlorate exposure can lead to hypothyroidism, which is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. As a result, chlorates are typically used with caution in medical settings, and their use is closely monitored by healthcare professionals.
Anion transport proteins are membrane proteins that facilitate the movement of negatively charged ions across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions in the body, which is essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the regulation of fluid balance. There are several types of anion transport proteins, including chloride channels, bicarbonate transporters, and anion exchangers. Chloride channels allow chloride ions to move down their electrochemical gradient, while bicarbonate transporters facilitate the movement of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes. Anion exchangers, on the other hand, exchange one anion for another across the membrane. Anion transport proteins can be found in various tissues throughout the body, including the lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Mutations in these proteins can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel.
In the medical field, silver proteins refer to proteins that have been chemically bonded with silver ions. These proteins are often used as antimicrobial agents due to their ability to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Silver proteins have been used in a variety of medical applications, including wound dressings, antiseptic creams, and dental fillings. They are also used in some dietary supplements and cosmetics. The mechanism of action of silver proteins is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve the disruption of the cell membrane of microorganisms, leading to cell death.
In the medical field, nitrogen is a chemical element that is commonly used in various medical applications. Nitrogen is a non-metallic gas that is essential for life and is found in the air we breathe. It is also used in the production of various medical gases, such as nitrous oxide, which is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures. Nitrogen is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as nitrogen narcosis, which is a condition that occurs when a person breathes compressed air that contains high levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen narcosis can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and disorientation, and it is typically treated by reducing the amount of nitrogen in the air that the person is breathing. In addition, nitrogen is used in the production of various medical devices and equipment, such as medical imaging equipment and surgical instruments. It is also used in the production of certain medications, such as nitroglycerin, which is used to treat heart conditions. Overall, nitrogen plays an important role in the medical field and is used in a variety of medical applications.
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are a class of cationic compounds that consist of a central nitrogen atom bonded to four alkyl or aryl groups, with one of the alkyl groups replaced by a positively charged ammonium ion. In the medical field, QACs are commonly used as disinfectants, antiseptics, and preservatives due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae. QACs work by disrupting the cell membrane of microorganisms, leading to cell lysis and death. They are particularly effective against Gram-positive bacteria, which have a thick peptidoglycan layer that can be penetrated by the positively charged ammonium ion. QACs are also effective against enveloped viruses, such as influenza and herpes, by disrupting the viral envelope. QACs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as disinfectants for surfaces and equipment, antiseptics for skin and wound care, and preservatives for pharmaceuticals and medical devices. However, QACs can also be toxic to humans and other animals if ingested or inhaled in high concentrations. Therefore, proper handling and use of QACs are essential to minimize the risk of adverse effects.
Molybdenum is a chemical element that is not essential for human health, but it is used in some medical applications. In the medical field, molybdenum is primarily used as a trace element in dietary supplements and as a component of certain medical devices. Molybdenum is a transition metal that is found in small amounts in many foods, including leafy green vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. It is also used in some dietary supplements to support bone health, cardiovascular health, and immune function. In addition to its use in dietary supplements, molybdenum is also used in some medical devices, such as orthopedic implants and dental restorations. Molybdenum is used in these devices because of its high strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion. Overall, while molybdenum is not essential for human health, it has some important medical applications and is used in a variety of medical devices and dietary supplements.
Gallium is a chemical element with the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is used in a variety of medical applications, including: 1. Radiopharmaceuticals: Gallium-67 is a radioactive isotope of gallium that is used in nuclear medicine to diagnose and treat various types of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and breast cancer. 2. Imaging agents: Gallium compounds are used as imaging agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans to detect and diagnose various medical conditions, including infections, tumors, and inflammatory diseases. 3. Cancer treatment: Gallium nitrate is a medication that is used to treat certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. 4. Wound healing: Gallium nitrate has been shown to promote wound healing by reducing inflammation and increasing blood flow to the affected area. Overall, gallium has a variety of medical applications, and its unique properties make it a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions.
Isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) is a medication that is used to treat chest pain (angina) caused by a lack of blood flow to the heart. It works by relaxing the blood vessels, which allows more blood to flow to the heart and reduces the workload on the heart. ISDN is also used to treat high blood pressure and to prevent blood clots in people who are at risk of developing them. It is usually taken by mouth as a tablet or as a spray under the tongue. Side effects of ISDN may include headache, dizziness, and flushing.
Nitroglycerin is a powerful vasodilator medication that is used to treat angina pectoris (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle) and to prevent heart attacks. It works by relaxing the smooth muscles in the blood vessels, particularly those that supply blood to the heart, which increases blood flow and reduces the workload on the heart. Nitroglycerin is usually administered as a sublingual tablet or spray, which is placed under the tongue or sprayed into the mouth. It is absorbed quickly into the bloodstream and begins to work within a few minutes. The effects of nitroglycerin are short-lived, lasting only a few minutes to an hour, and the medication must be taken as needed to relieve symptoms. While nitroglycerin is a highly effective medication for treating angina, it can cause side effects such as headache, dizziness, and low blood pressure. It is also contraindicated in patients with certain medical conditions, such as uncontrolled high blood pressure or severe heart failure.
Potassium compounds are chemical compounds that contain potassium, which is an essential mineral for the proper functioning of the human body. In the medical field, potassium compounds are often used to treat potassium deficiencies or imbalances, which can occur due to a variety of factors such as malnutrition, diarrhea, or certain medications. Potassium compounds are available in various forms, including potassium chloride, potassium citrate, and potassium gluconate. These compounds can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific condition being treated and the severity of the potassium deficiency. In addition to treating potassium deficiencies, potassium compounds may also be used to manage certain medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and kidney disease. However, it is important to note that potassium compounds can have side effects and may interact with other medications, so they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN) is a colorless, odorless, and crystalline solid that is used as a high explosive in the military and industrial sectors. It is a powerful oxidizer and is used in the production of other explosives, as well as in the manufacturing of rocket propellants and pyrotechnics. In the medical field, PETN is not used as a treatment or diagnostic tool. However, it has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of certain types of cancer. PETN has been shown to selectively kill cancer cells in laboratory studies, and it is currently being investigated as a potential treatment for certain types of solid tumors. It is important to note that PETN is a highly toxic substance and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled environment. Exposure to PETN can cause serious health problems, including respiratory distress, skin irritation, and eye damage.
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- Moreno-Garcia imbues the tangible qualities of physical books with a palpable, talismanic power, just as she does with the vinyl records and silver nitrate film within those novels. (wwfm.org)
- The EU and US time weighted average (TWA) exposure limit for silver nitrate is 0.01mg/m3 over an 8 hour period. (peroxsil.com)
- 3 Ag + 4 HNO3 (cold and diluted) → 3 AgNO3 + 2 H2O + NO Ag + 2 HNO3 (hot and concentrated) → AgNO3 + H2O + NO2 The structure of silver nitrate has been examined by X-ray crystallography several times. (wikipedia.org)
- The nitrate can be easily replaced by other ligands, rendering AgNO3 versatile. (wikipedia.org)
- Treatment of silver nitrate with base gives dark grey silver oxide: 2 AgNO3 + 2 NaOH → Ag2O + 2 NaNO3 + H2O The silver cation, Ag+ , reacts quickly with halide sources to produce the insoluble silver halide, which is a cream precipitate if Br− is used, a white precipitate if Cl− is used and a yellow precipitate if I− is used. (wikipedia.org)
- Silver Nitrate is a laboratory chemical that has a molecular formula AgNO3 and molecular weight 169.87. (alpha-chemika.com)
- Argyria: clinical implications of exposure to silver nitrate and silver oxide. (cdc.gov)
- Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound with chemical formula AgNO 3. (wikipedia.org)
Exposure to silver1
- The information is important for you because silver may cause harmful health effects and because these sites are potential or actual sources of human exposure to silver. (cdc.gov)
- Treatment with solutions of halide ions gives a precipitate of AgX (X = Cl, Br, I). When making photographic film, silver nitrate is treated with halide salts of sodium or potassium to form insoluble silver halide in situ in photographic gelatin, which is then applied to strips of tri-acetate or polyester. (wikipedia.org)
- A typical reaction with silver nitrate is to suspend a rod of copper in a solution of silver nitrate and leave it for a few hours. (wikipedia.org)
- Aim: This study evaluated the surface roughness, topography and permeability of bovine enamel by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with and without silver nitrate solution, after exposure to different bleaching agents. (bvsalud.org)
- For permeability evaluation, the samples were immersed in a 50% silver nitrate solution and analyzed using a backscattered electron and secondary electron mode. (bvsalud.org)
- Her latest novel likewise plumbs the mystery of an obsolete physical format popularized in the early 1900s: silver nitrate, the chemical basis of film stock that was phased out in the 1950s due to its volatility. (wwfm.org)
- Unlike vinyl records, which can last forever if cared for properly, silver nitrate film stock is combustible: The substance was actually used to make explosives at the same time moviemakers relied on it to help film their classics during the golden age of cinema. (wwfm.org)
- If you are exposed to a hazardous substance such as silver, several factors will determine whether harmful health effects will occur and what the type and severity of those health effects will be. (cdc.gov)
- La haute teneur en sel du pain blanc pourrait être un facteur qui contribue à la forte consommation de sodium au Maroc, surtout quand nous savons que le pain est un aliment de base dans le pays. (who.int)
- Toutes les politiques et initiatives visant à réduire la consommation de sodium devraient cibler le pain comme outil stratégique pour réduire l'apport en sel. (who.int)
- This reaction is commonly used in inorganic chemistry to abstract halides: Ag+ (aq) + X− (aq) → AgX(s) where X− = Cl− , Br− , or I− . Other silver salts with non-coordinating anions, namely silver tetrafluoroborate and silver hexafluorophosphate are used for more demanding applications. (wikipedia.org)
- SILVERIN® Silver Nitrate Sticks? (janusinfo.se)
- This step avoids confusion of silver sulfide or silver carbonate precipitates with that of silver halides. (wikipedia.org)
- It is a versatile precursor to many other silver compounds, such as those used in photography. (wikipedia.org)
- Silver could be found at hazardous waste sites in the form of these compounds mixed with soil and/or water. (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, these silver compounds will be the main topic of this profile. (cdc.gov)
- Throughout the profile, the various silver compounds will at times be referred to simply as silver. (cdc.gov)
- Photographers use silver compounds to make photographs. (cdc.gov)
- Rain washes silver compounds out of many soils so that it eventually moves into the groundwater. (cdc.gov)
- Over time it may change from the form first released, to metallic silver, and then back to the same or other compounds. (cdc.gov)
- Skin contact and breathing in air containing silver compounds also occurs in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
- Silver nitrate is highly soluble in water but is poorly soluble in most organic solvents, except acetonitrile (111.8 g/100 g, 25 °C). In histology, silver nitrate is used for silver staining, for demonstrating reticular fibers, proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike hydrogen peroxide, silver nitrate does not autonomously break down, it remains in the environment, ultimately depositing onto surfaces as a grey powder. (peroxsil.com)
- Silver nitrate stains on clothing can almost always be removed by the use of Spray N' Wash, which is obtainable in the laundry products section of your local grocery store. (flinnsci.com)
- Then Tristán discovers his new neighbor is the cult horror director Abel Urueta, and the legendary auteur claims he can change their lives-even if his tale of a Nazi occultist imbuing magic into highly volatile silver nitrate stock sounds like sheer fantasy. (femmefirebooks.com)
- Silver that is released into the environment may be carried long distances in air and water. (cdc.gov)
- An expert told GNS: "The silver nitrate can be used as an oxidizing agent and it is very costly," adding it can also be used in photography as well as medicine. (kashmirlife.net)
- Other sources of exposure include the use of silver in medicines, and in activities such as jewelry-making, soldering, and photography. (cdc.gov)
- Silver is rare but occurs naturally in the environment as a soft, "silver" colored metal Because silver is an element, there are no manmade sources of silver People make jewelry, silverware, electronic equipment, and dental fillings with silver in its metallic form. (cdc.gov)
- Photographic materials are the major source of the silver that is released into the environment. (cdc.gov)
- amount of added salt in commercial silver chromate. (who.int)
- The silver in these sources is at least partially due to naturally occurring silver in water and soil. (cdc.gov)
- As a customer centric organization of this domain, we are involved in manufacturing, supplying and exporting a quality proven collection of Silver Nitrate for our valued patrons. (alpha-chemika.com)
- To remove silver nitrate stains on skin, glassware, or lab equipment use the gentle, but effective, Erada-Stain cream (Catalog No. AP7330). (flinnsci.com)
- When using silver peroxide vapour to disinfect rooms with electronic equipment, it is important to note that aqueous silver nitrate takes part in a displacement reaction when added to copper. (peroxsil.com)
- Because silver is an element, it does not break down, but it can change its form by combining with other substances. (cdc.gov)
- Nano-Silver is more effective than Silver Nitrate on account of the expansive surface area to volume ratio, increasing the number of particles discharged per unit mass of silver, thereby a greater amount of ions are involved in the cell destruction process. (peroxsil.com)
- Official sources told GNS that during security check, police recovered 25 grams of Silver nitrate from Shazia Akhar, wife of Showkat Ahmad, who hail from Chattabal in outskirts of Old City here. (kashmirlife.net)
- Considering that most electronic circuit boards have copper tracks, it is also important for users to understand how the silver nitrate affects electrical equipment present in an enclosure during a decontamination cycle. (peroxsil.com)
- Another source is mines that produce silver and other metals. (cdc.gov)