Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Silicon Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Nanowires: Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Transistors, Electronic: Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.Silicic Acid: A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems: A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Silicones: A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Hafnium: Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Poa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Nanopores: Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.Miniaturization: The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.Lab-On-A-Chip Devices: Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.Optical Devices: Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.Comb and Wattles: Fleshy and reddish outgrowth of skin tissue found on top of the head, attached to the sides of the head, and hanging from the mandible of birds such as turkeys and chickens.Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.San FranciscoBombs: A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.Forensic Ballistics: The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.Quantum Theory: The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lissamine Green Dyes: Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Myanmar: A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.

A new principle for rapid immunoassay of proteins based on in situ precipitate-enhanced ellipsometry. (1/770)

A new technique is presented that allows measurement of protein concentrations in the picomolar range with an assay time of only 10-20 min. The method is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but uses in-situ ellipsometric measurement of a precipitating enzyme product instead of the usual colorimetric detection of accumulating enzyme product in solution. Quantitative validation was obtained by use of annexin V, a protein with high binding affinity for phosphatidylserine-containing phospholipid membranes, resulting in a transport-limited adsorption rate. This property was exploited to obtain a range of low surface concentrations of annexin V by timed exposures of phospholipid bilayers to known concentrations of annexin V. Using polyvinylchloride (PVC)-coated and silanized silicon slides, various versions of this technique were used for the rapid assay of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP), a recently introduced early marker for acute myocardial infarction with a normal plasma concentration below 1 nmol/l, interleukin 6 (IL-6), a cytokine with normal plasma concentrations below 1 pmol/l, and again, annexin V. A possible future application of the method in the development of a one-step ELISA is discussed.  (+info)

Crystalline silica exposure, radiological silicosis, and lung cancer mortality in diatomaceous earth industry workers. (2/770)

BACKGROUND: The role of silicosis as either a necessary or incidental condition in silica associated lung cancer remains unresolved. To address this issue a cohort analysis of dose-response relations for crystalline silica and lung cancer mortality was conducted among diatomaceous earth workers classified according to the presence or absence of radiological silicosis. METHODS: Radiological silicosis was determined by median 1980 International Labour Organisation system readings of a panel of three "B" readers for 1809 of 2342 white male workers in a diatomaceous earth facility in California. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) for lung cancer, based on United States rates for 1942-94, were calculated separately for workers with and without radiological silicosis according to cumulative exposures to respirable crystalline silica (milligrams per cubic meter x years; mg/m3-years) lagged 15 years. RESULTS: Eighty one cases of silicosis were identified, including 77 with small opacities of > or = 1/0 and four with large opacities. A slightly larger excess of lung cancer was found among the subjects with silicosis (SMR 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 4.03) than in workers without silicosis (SMR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.57). An association between silica exposure and lung cancer risk was detected among those without silicosis; a statistically significant (p = 0.02) increasing trend of lung cancer risk was seen with cumulative exposure, with SMR reaching 2.40 (95% CI 1.24 to 4.20) at the highest exposure level (> or = 5.0 mg/m3-years). A similar statistically significant (p = 0.02) dose-response gradient was observed among non-silicotic subjects when follow up was truncated at 15 years after the final negative radiograph (SMR 2.96, 95% CI 1.19 to 6.08 at > or = 5.0 mg/m3-years), indicating that the association among non-silicotic subjects was unlikely to be accounted for by undetected radiological silicosis. CONCLUSIONS: The dose-response relation observed between cumulative exposure to respirable crystalline silica and lung cancer mortality among workers without radiological silicosis suggests that silicosis is not a necessary co-condition for silica related lung carcinogenesis. However, the relatively small number of silicosis cases in the cohort and the absence of radiographic data after employment limit interpretations.  (+info)

Chip-based genotyping by mass spectrometry. (3/770)

Silicon chips with immobilized target DNAs were used for accurate genotyping by mass spectrometry. Genomic DNAs were amplified with PCR, and the amplified products were covalently attached to chip wells via N-succinimidyl (4-iodoacetyl)aminobenzoate (SIAB) chemistry. Primer annealing, extension, and termination were performed on a 1-microl scale directly in the chip wells in parallel. Diagnostic products thus generated were detected in situ by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. This miniaturized method has the potential for accurate, high-throughput, low-cost identification of genetic variations.  (+info)

Thin film biosensor for rapid visual detection of nucleic acid targets. (4/770)

BACKGROUND: We have developed a silicon-based biosensor that generates a visual signal in response to nucleic acid targets. METHODS: In this system, capture oligonucleotide probes are immobilized on the surface of the biosensor. Interaction of the capture probes with a complementary target and a biotinylated detector oligonucleotide allows initiation of formation of an organic thin film on the biosensor. Thin film formation is completed by enzymatic activity of peroxidase conjugated to an anti-biotin antibody. Peroxidase catalyzes deposition of an insoluble product onto the silicon surface, generating a uniform thin film. The increased thickness on the surface alters the perceived color of the biosensor through changes in the interference patterns of reflected light from the surface, causing a color change from gold to purple. RESULTS: The biosensor results may be evaluated by direct visual inspection or quantified by ellipsometry. Results are obtained in 25 min with a detection limit of 5 pmol/L (150 amol/sample). Selectivity of the biosensor is demonstrated by discrimination of single nucleotide mismatches. Multitarget arrays are also analyzed with the thin film biosensor, and the system is capable of detecting targets from human serum and urine. CONCLUSIONS: The biosensor surface is inexpensive to produce, and the assay format is simple and rapid. The thin film biosensor is adaptable to a wide variety of nucleic acid detection applications, including rapid diagnostic testing for infectious disease panels, antibiotic resistance panels, or allelic discrimination of specific genetic markers.  (+info)

Stable five- and six-coordinated silicate anions in aqueous solution. (5/770)

Addition of aliphatic polyols to aqueous silicate solutions is shown to yield high concentrations of stable polyolate complexes containing five- or six-coordinated silicon. Coordinating polyols require at least four hydroxy groups, two of which must be in threo configuration, and coordinate to silicon via hydroxy oxygens at chain positions on either side of the threo pair. The remarkable ease by which these simple sugar-like molecules react to form hypervalent silicon complexes in aqueous solution supports a long-standing supposition that such species play a significant role in the biological uptake and transport of silicon and in mineral diagenesis.  (+info)

Patterned deposition of cells and proteins onto surfaces by using three-dimensional microfluidic systems. (6/770)

Three-dimensional microfluidic systems were fabricated and used to pattern proteins and mammalian cells on a planar substrate. The three-dimensional topology of the microfluidic network in the stamp makes this technique a versatile one with which to pattern multiple types of proteins and cells in complex, discontinuous structures on a surface. The channel structure, formed by the stamp when it is in contact with the surface of the substrate, limits migration and growth of cells in the channels. With the channel structure in contact with the surface, the cells stop dividing once they form a confluent layer. Removal of the stamp permits the cells to spread and divide.  (+info)

In situ self hardening bioactive composite for bone and dental surgery. (7/770)

A new biomaterial is presented which consists of a cellulose derivative--silanised hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC-SIL) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). Rheological properties of the polymer itself and its mixture with BCP are pH-dependent. At pH 10-12 HEC-SIL is liquid and undergoes quick gellation at pH < 9. Similarly, the paste of HEC-SIL and BCP is fluid and injectable at higher pH and solidifies in biological solutions. The rate of this solidification can be easily controlled by the degree of substitution of hydroxyethylcellulose with silicoalkoxy groups.  (+info)

Oligomeric but not monomeric silica prevents aluminum absorption in humans. (8/770)

BACKGROUND: Soluble silica, a ubiquitous component of the diet, may be the natural ligand for dietary aluminum and may prevent its accumulation and toxicity in animals. However, previous studies on the inhibition of aluminum absorption and toxicity by soluble silica have produced conflicting results. We recently identified a soluble silica polymer, oligomeric silica, that has a much higher affinity for aluminum than does monomeric silica and that may be involved in the sequestration of aluminum. OBJECTIVE: By using (26)Al as a tracer, we investigated the effects of oligomeric and monomeric silica on the bioavailability of aluminum (study 1) and compared the availability of silicon from oligomeric and monomeric silica in the human gastrointestinal tract (study 2). DESIGN: In study 1, three healthy volunteers each ingested aluminum alone (control), aluminum with oligomeric silica (17 mg), and aluminum with monomeric silica (17 mg). In study 2, five healthy volunteers ingested both the oligomeric and monomeric forms of silica (34 mg). Serum and urine samples were analyzed for aluminum and silicon. RESULTS: Oligomeric silica reduced the availability of aluminum by 67% (P = 0.01) compared with the control, whereas monomeric silica had no effect (P = 0.40). Monomeric silica was readily taken up from the gastrointestinal tract and then excreted in urine (53%), whereas oligomeric silica was not detectably absorbed or excreted. CONCLUSIONS: The oligomeric, high-aluminum-affinity form of soluble silica reduces aluminum availability from the human gastrointestinal tract. Its potential role in the amelioration of aluminum toxicity in other biological systems requires attention.  (+info)

  • Mechanisms of photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals formed by pu" by X. Y. Chen, Yongfeng Lu et al. (
  • We have investigated the different mechanisms of photoluminescence (PL) of silicon nanocrystals due to the quantum confinement effect (QCE) and interface states. (
  • The former refers to the site produced by replacing a parent silicon atom and the latter refers to the existing site between silicon atoms. (
  • Silicon can grow into a number of lifelike structures, but its chemistry makes it unlikely that it could be the basis for alien life-forms. (
  • The crystal defects influence the optical, electrical, and mechanical properties of silicon. (
  • With the help of a catalyst, the reaction takes place at a nominal temperature of 300°C. The reaction creates products like silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) and the chlorides of impurities. (
  • pSi membranes were fabricated by the electrochemical etching of silicon to produce membranes with controlled structure and pore sizes close to molecular dimensions (approximately 12 nm in diameter). (
  • Silicon Valley's biggest companies pay Karen Wickre for her advice - but at the Help Desk , it's free to you. (
  • Lécuyer argues that Silicon Valley's emergence and its growth were made possible by the development of unique competencies in manufacturing, in product engineering, and in management. (
  • News, music, movies & restaurants from the editors of the Silicon Valley's #1 weekly newspaper. (
  • Myers Restaurant Supply LLC, is proud to acknowledge the recent flurry of awarded projects from some of Silicon Valley's largest tech companies. (
  • With Silicon Valley's tech economy extending to San Francisco, it's clear we need to think more broadly about transit, housing, jobs and our long-term economic competitiveness," he said. (
  • Beijing's Zhongguancun district relies instead on a new kind of mimcry-of Silicon Valley's culture itself. (
  • Palantir Chief Executive Officer Alex Karp and Mr. Thiel both attended a recent summit between Trump and Silicon Valley's most powerful leaders. (
  • Silicon Valley's biggest failing is not poor marketing of its products, or follow-through on promises, but, rather, the distinct lack of empathy for those whose lives are disturbed by its technological wizardry. (
  • Not sure I have much to say on the water crisis that is enlightening," said Vinod Khosla, one of Silicon Valley's pre-eminent venture investors who has made significant clean-tech investments, when asked about the drought last week. (
  • To date, technology innovations around water conservation have largely come from Israel, home to an entrepreneurial culture that mirrors Silicon Valley's, plus more flexible policies and market incentives. (
  • Nor is it hard to miss how Silicon Valley's economic model offers few opportunities for mechanical engineers, the people trained to design physical machines and their components. (
  • Can Silicon Valley's Pro-Antitrust Congressman Navigate His Monopoly-Friendly District? (
  • Have Silicon Valley's biggest companies become too powerful? (
  • Still, Silicon Valley's Superfund sites rarely make news. (
  • Silicon Valley startups valuations , which had risen to fantastic figures in recent times, are being brought down to earth. (
  • His neighbors include a handful of other space-related ventures, and together this cluster of startups resembles nothing so much as the early pioneers of the computing industry back in the days when tech companies first began setting up shop among the prune orchards of what would later be called Silicon Valley. (
  • When you add the myriad Silicon Valley startups that would be eager to build business models around the multi-billion dollar automotive industry, you wouldn't believe how futuristics cars can get. (
  • The produced polysilicon is used as wafers in large amounts by the photovoltaic industry for conventional solar cells made of crystalline silicon and also by the semiconductor industry. (
  • To make wafers, silicon is purified, melted, and cooled to form an ingot, which is then sliced into discs called wafers. (
  • It incorporates reactions that have their own 'organic' chemistry (e.g. hydrosilylation) and covers solid materials that can be either metallic (e.g. silicon metal), semiconductors (e.g. silicon carbide wafers), ceramic (e.g. porous silicon) or inert particulate fillers (e.g. precipitated silica). (
  • Aledia SA (Grenoble, France), has developed a method of forming light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on vertical pillars of gallium-nitride grown on silicon wafers. (
  • So, from wafers, I will talk about this upcoming mainstream PV that was actually established very recently and is taking over the silicon PV industry, silicon p-PERC. (
  • Have a look at MEMC's website (, they produce silicon wafers like the ones in the article. (
  • Silicon, the principal ingredient in beach sand, is a natural semiconductor and the most abundant element on Earth except for oxygen. (
  • On this occasion the various aspects of silicon fabrication were reviewed, including irradiation control, radiation induced defects, device optimization, and possible benefits of irradiating other semiconductor compounds. (
  • The largest Silicon Valley firms-including Eitel-McCullough (Eimac), Litton Industries, Varian Associates, Fairchild Semiconductor, and Intel-dominated the American markets for advanced tubes and semiconductors and, because of their innovations in manufacturing, design, and management, served as models and incubators for other electronics ventures in the area. (
  • Silicon, which forms the basis of most semiconductor and solar-cell technology, normally lets most infrared light pass right through. (
  • Additionally, it has the advantage of using silicon, a common semiconductor that is relatively low-cost, easy to process, and abundant. (
  • The city-owned utility does 85 percent of its business with some of the world's largest high-tech manufacturers: Intel, Sun Microsystems, 3Com and National Semiconductor all buy electricity from Silicon Valley Power. (
  • Researchers with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and UC Berkeley have successfully integrated ultra-thin layers of the semiconductor indium arsenide onto a silicon substrate to create a nanoscale transistor with excellent electronic properties ( abstract ). (
  • Gallium arsenide (another III-IV semiconductor) also has some superior properties to silicon-based implementations (for example, its hole mobility). (
  • From a story in The Palo Alto Weekly, Ms. Armstrong learned that the Environmental Protection Agency had officially declared trichloroethylene (TCE), a solvent commonly found in degreasing agents, spot cleaners and old Silicon Valley semiconductor plants, a carcinogen. (
  • One of the keys to this progress: advances in silicon circuit technologies that enable silicon based circuits to operate at millimeter and microwave frequencies. (
  • As editor of this volume I am very glad to have succeeded in persuading two scien- tists, W. Zulehner and D. Huber, of Wacker-Chemitronic GmbH - the world's largest producer of silicon-crystals - to write a comprehensive article about the practical and scientific aspects of growing silicon-crystals by the Czochralski method and about silicon- wafer manufacture. (
  • But the 2013 Silicon Valley Index also finds that Hispanics and African-Americans in the world's high-tech center became increasingly marginalized. (
  • Menlo Park, Calif. - Silicon Valley has a richly deserved reputation as the world's engine of technology innovation, with a track record that includes developing integrated circuits, microprocessors, personal computers and smartphones. (
  • A 15-nanometer-thick porous silicon membrane could lead to microfluidics filters and make protein purification and blood dialysis more efficient. (
  • A porous silicon membrane that is a few nanometers thick can quickly filter liquids and separate molecules that are very close in size, researchers at the University of Rochester report in this week's Nature . (
  • 5 Fifty women with sun-damaged skin were give either 10 mg silicon daily (as "choline stabilized orthosilicic acid") or placebo for 20 weeks. (
  • The Germans are really good at cars, but since America is awesome at computers, BMW moved some of its top research and development duties to Silicon Valley way back in 1998, when the company opened its first Bay Area technology office near Stanford's campus. (
  • AFTER studying projectile dynamics at a baseball match last week, Netropolitan took a train from San Francisco down into Silicon Valley (schedules at ), and was struck by the station signs. (
  • I n Making Silicon Valley , Christophe Lécuyer shows that the explosive growth of the personal computer industry in Silicon Valley was the culmination of decades of growth and innovation in the San Francisco-area electronics industry. (
  • The ISSCC (International Solid State Circuit Conference) has started in San Francisco with keynote speaker James Meindl, professor of microelectronics at the Georgia Institute of Technology, making precise predictions about the future of silicon electronics and what will most likely follow in the post-silicon world. (
  • Chai has been growing in popularity in San Francisco and nearby Silicon Valley, with coffee shops large and small adding it to menus. (
  • Kothari earned a masters degree in business from the INSEAD business school in France and spent more than a decade working with technology firms in Silicon Valley before turning a hobby started in 2009 into a startup that sells chai from carts on San Francisco streets. (
  • MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif. (AP) -- The Silicon Valley is leading the rest of the country out of the recession with increased jobs, income and initial public offerings last year, according to a new regional report. (
  • Silicon Valley has been talking about water technology since they started talking about clean tech, but there are no new big ideas," said Joel Makower, the chairman and executive editor of the GreenBiz Group, based in Oakland, Calif. "It all comes down to the price of water. (
  • Using the tools of science and technology studies, he explores the formation of Silicon Valley as an industrial district, from its beginnings as the home of a few radio enterprises that operated in the shadow of RCA and other East Coast firms through its establishment as a center of the electronics industry and a leading producer of power grid tubes, microwave tubes, and semiconductors. (
  • Specifically, a case of silicon and gallium arsenide is that like a namesake maybe name plate direct and indirect semiconductors. (
  • A member of the III-V family of semiconductors, indium arsenide offers several advantages as an alternative to silicon, including superior electron mobility and velocity, which makes it an outstanding candidate for future high-speed, low-power electronic devices. (
  • During his doctoral studies in Oxford and subsequently, John Murphy and his colleagues (particularly Peter Wilshaw, Robert Falster and Semih Senkader) used a novel dislocation locking technique to investigate the transport of oxygen in silicon. (
  • The more recent work focussed on oxygen transport in silicon containing high concentrations of dopants (boron, arsenic, germanium) to understand the effect of lattice strain and Fermi level position. (
  • Now, Prado and many of his fellow Silicon Valley denizens worry that Palantir's close ties to the incoming Trump administration could become the building blocks for a Big Brother-like firm that deploys its technology to track and surveil American citizens. (
  • Now, as Trump is set to take office after an election in which Russian hackers , internet trolls , and fake news all played a role, Silicon Valley is reassessing its place in the national political conversation and pockets of tech workers are beginning to speak out with a more forceful - and unified - voice. (
  • This series presents reviews of the present and future trends in silicon science and will benefit those in chemistry, physics, biomedical engineering, and materials science. (
  • Although elemental silicon is inert and not inherently dangerous, certain processed forms of the element can cause negative health effects. (
  • This is the first book of its kind to solely focus on silicon containing dendritic polymers. (
  • Mechanically rigid and stiff polymers (e.g. alginate and carboxymethyl cellulose) were considered as the good choices of binders for silicon because they grab silicon particles in a tight and rigid way so that pulverization and then break-away of the active mass from electric pathways are suppressed. (
  • Assessing Radiation Hardness of Silicon Photonic Sensors. (
  • In recent years silicon photonic platforms have undergone rapid maturation enabling not only optical communication but complex scientific experiments ranging from sensors applications to fundamental physics inquiries. (
  • The occupancy sensor reference design is a precertified ZigBee HA 1.2 solution featuring a wirelessly connected passive IR sensor along with ambient light and temperature/relative humidity sensors from Silicon Labs. (
  • Binders conventionally used for LIBs such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) cannot effectively keep integrity of composite electrodes containing silicon as an active material and conducting agents during repeated lithiation-delithiation cycles. (
  • Even the tiniest particle of it can destroy the usefulness of a silicon microchip - so much so that in many chip-manufacturing facilities, the wearing of gold jewelry is strictly prohibited. (
  • Beyond silicon microchip technology, revolutionary developments in nanoelectronics, perhaps centering on graphene, may evolve. (
  • Given the size of present-day silicon-crystals, this number is equivalent to 100000 silicon-crystals grown every year by either the Czochralski (80%) or the floating-zone (20%) technique. (
  • But, to the best of my knowledge, no coherent and comprehensive article has been written that deals with "the art and science", as well as the practical and technical aspects of growing silicon- crystals by the Czochralski technique. (
  • On some websites promoting silicon supplements, it is said that increased dietary silicon decreases aluminum absorption. (
  • I am sure that many scientists or engineers who work with silicon- crystals -be it in the laboratory or in a production environment - will profit from the first article in this volume. (
  • Fromherz, in fact, read to the assemble engineers a worried comment from one observer from that time: Now that "a functioning neuro-net can be physically attached to a silicon chip," the observer said, we should explore the "philosophical and spiritual consequences. (
  • Talend's co-founder Bertrand Diard recently told French newspaper LeMonde that engineers in France cost a third of their counterparts in Silicon Valley, where fierce competition for talent has driven up salaries. (
  • The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion. (
  • The engineers from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) at the University of California, San Diego who are at the forefront of the latest "silicon revolution" will, for another year, dominate two of the most influential annual academic conferences focused on advanced wireless communications technologies - IMS 2010 and RFIC 2010. (
  • These electrical engineers from UC San Diego are at the leading edge of efforts to merge silicon chip technologies with sophisticated wireless communications tools in the millimeter and microwave range - technologies that traditionally have been too expensive for all but defense and satellite applications. (
  • Now here we are in 2017, with a serious stew of a problem brewing as allegations of sexual harassment spread throughout Silicon Valley, taking down some of the biggest tech unicorns and their funders . (
  • A news release, this one from Spain (and my thanks to the reader who forwarded this to me) reports on the effect of higher silicon intake from dietary sources on aluminum absorption. (
  • This is a text version of the video Silicon PV, a lecture given as part of the Hands-On Photovoltaic Experience Workshop . (
  • Silicon tetrachloride is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of polysilicon , a hyper pure form of silicon, since it has a boiling point convenient for purification by repeated fractional distillation . (
  • A modified form of silicon, silicate, is sometimes added to processed foods. (
  • The average intake of silicon is approximately 10-40 mg daily. (
  • 7-11 Furthermore, in a major observational study , higher intake of silicon was associated with stronger bones. (
  • By reducing the intake of aluminum and increasing the intake of silicon, it may be possible to reverse this. (
  • It explores how silicon structures convey substance to many silicon materials with a molecular precision that defines silicon science and technology. (
  • I read occasionally about attempts to set up " technology parks " in other places, as if the active ingredient of Silicon Valley were the office space. (
  • Christophe Lécuyer is Professor of the History of Science and Technology at Université Pierre et Marie Curie and the author of Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930-1970 (MIT Press, 2005). (
  • Suddenly headlines plastered across the internet are announcing that Silicon Valley has a problem with women in technology, but this is nothing new. (
  • What we forget is that underlying all this revolutionary technology is software -- the 0's and 1's that make Silicon Valley thrive. (
  • I will basically make a case that silicon PV has established its dominating power in the PV industry because of abundance, knowledge base, and technology, and, actually, indirect gap, as strangely as it might seem. (
  • Then, I will talk about how silicon PV is done as a technology. (
  • And then how recent or some of my colleagues also think how silicon PV will evolve beyond this p-PERC technology into the future. (
  • Silicon Valley has been talking about water technology since they started talking about clean tech, but there are no new big ideas," said Joel Makower, the chairman and executive editor of the GreenBiz Group. (
  • Meindl is quoted as giving six reasons why he thinks graphene will be the post-silicon technology of choice for electronics. (
  • He says that Silicon Valley was lucky to develop Information Technology (IT), a technology that is becoming cloud computing, a new platform. (
  • Silicon Valley also leads in green technology, a large and growing market. (
  • Like many regions that have taken on Silicon-themed names, the Silicon Shire is home to a thriving technology sector. (
  • A Combustion Pressure Sensor Utilizing Silicon Piezoresistive Effect," SAE Technical Paper 930351, 1993, . (
  • The researchers believe that because of a narrower range of pore diameters, the silicon membranes could separate proteins that are much closer in size than is possible with current sponge-like filters. (
  • Measurements of skin roughness and elasticity showed improvement in the silicon group as compared to the placebo group. (
  • In this work, a binder solution is proposed to overcome the problems of silicon anode materials by providing strong adhesion to silicon as well as elasticity appropriate for composite electrodes. (
  • What will this mean for Silicon Valley innovation? (
  • While the Kremlin has begun to pump large sums of money into the project, it has also recognized that private investment from abroad, along with the expertise and innovation that brings, is needed to build the Russian equivalent of Silicon Valley. (
  • As always, make sure to consult with a licensed health care provider before taking silicon or any other dietary supplement or herbal remedy. (
  • This book series represents the journeys of many eminent silicon scientists into the unique world of silicon materials and molecules. (
  • Scientists have found it difficult to determine whether silicon is an essential nutrient in humans, and if it is, to identify the necessary daily intake. (
  • Because silicon is considered a nonessential element, scientists haven't established a recommended daily allowance or optimal intake. (
  • This should make the filters easy to integrate into silicon-based microfluidic devices that are used for protein research, where they would be useful if scientists wanted to separate a particular protein of interest from a biological fluid sample. (