A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.
A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.
A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Disease of CARDIAC MUSCLE resulting from chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Myocardial damage can be caused by: (1) a toxic effect of alcohol; (2) malnutrition in alcoholics such as THIAMINE DEFICIENCY; or (3) toxic effect of additives in alcoholic beverages such as COBALT. This disease is usually manifested by DYSPNEA and palpitations with CARDIOMEGALY and congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A class of devices combining electrical and mechanical components that have at least one of the dimensions in the micrometer range (between 1 micron and 1 millimeter). They include sensors, actuators, microducts, and micropumps.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.
The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
Microdevices that combine microfluidics technology with electrical and/or mechanical functions for analyzing very small fluid volumes. They consist of microchannels etched into substrates made of silicon, glass, or polymer using processes similar to photolithography. The test fluids in the channels can then interact with different elements such as electrodes, photodetectors, chemical sensors, pumps, and valves.
Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.
Fleshy and reddish outgrowth of skin tissue found on top of the head, attached to the sides of the head, and hanging from the mandible of birds such as turkeys and chickens.
A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.
A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.
The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.
Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.
Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
The first meal of the day.
Terrorism on September 11, 2001 against targets in New York, the Pentagon in Virginia, and an aborted attack that ended in Pennsylvania.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.
Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Green dyes containing ammonium and aryl sulfonate moieties that facilitate the visualization of tissues, if given intravenously. They have mostly been used in the study of kidney physiology.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.

A new principle for rapid immunoassay of proteins based on in situ precipitate-enhanced ellipsometry. (1/770)

A new technique is presented that allows measurement of protein concentrations in the picomolar range with an assay time of only 10-20 min. The method is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but uses in-situ ellipsometric measurement of a precipitating enzyme product instead of the usual colorimetric detection of accumulating enzyme product in solution. Quantitative validation was obtained by use of annexin V, a protein with high binding affinity for phosphatidylserine-containing phospholipid membranes, resulting in a transport-limited adsorption rate. This property was exploited to obtain a range of low surface concentrations of annexin V by timed exposures of phospholipid bilayers to known concentrations of annexin V. Using polyvinylchloride (PVC)-coated and silanized silicon slides, various versions of this technique were used for the rapid assay of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP), a recently introduced early marker for acute myocardial infarction with a normal plasma concentration below 1 nmol/l, interleukin 6 (IL-6), a cytokine with normal plasma concentrations below 1 pmol/l, and again, annexin V. A possible future application of the method in the development of a one-step ELISA is discussed.  (+info)

Crystalline silica exposure, radiological silicosis, and lung cancer mortality in diatomaceous earth industry workers. (2/770)

BACKGROUND: The role of silicosis as either a necessary or incidental condition in silica associated lung cancer remains unresolved. To address this issue a cohort analysis of dose-response relations for crystalline silica and lung cancer mortality was conducted among diatomaceous earth workers classified according to the presence or absence of radiological silicosis. METHODS: Radiological silicosis was determined by median 1980 International Labour Organisation system readings of a panel of three "B" readers for 1809 of 2342 white male workers in a diatomaceous earth facility in California. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) for lung cancer, based on United States rates for 1942-94, were calculated separately for workers with and without radiological silicosis according to cumulative exposures to respirable crystalline silica (milligrams per cubic meter x years; mg/m3-years) lagged 15 years. RESULTS: Eighty one cases of silicosis were identified, including 77 with small opacities of > or = 1/0 and four with large opacities. A slightly larger excess of lung cancer was found among the subjects with silicosis (SMR 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 4.03) than in workers without silicosis (SMR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.57). An association between silica exposure and lung cancer risk was detected among those without silicosis; a statistically significant (p = 0.02) increasing trend of lung cancer risk was seen with cumulative exposure, with SMR reaching 2.40 (95% CI 1.24 to 4.20) at the highest exposure level (> or = 5.0 mg/m3-years). A similar statistically significant (p = 0.02) dose-response gradient was observed among non-silicotic subjects when follow up was truncated at 15 years after the final negative radiograph (SMR 2.96, 95% CI 1.19 to 6.08 at > or = 5.0 mg/m3-years), indicating that the association among non-silicotic subjects was unlikely to be accounted for by undetected radiological silicosis. CONCLUSIONS: The dose-response relation observed between cumulative exposure to respirable crystalline silica and lung cancer mortality among workers without radiological silicosis suggests that silicosis is not a necessary co-condition for silica related lung carcinogenesis. However, the relatively small number of silicosis cases in the cohort and the absence of radiographic data after employment limit interpretations.  (+info)

Chip-based genotyping by mass spectrometry. (3/770)

Silicon chips with immobilized target DNAs were used for accurate genotyping by mass spectrometry. Genomic DNAs were amplified with PCR, and the amplified products were covalently attached to chip wells via N-succinimidyl (4-iodoacetyl)aminobenzoate (SIAB) chemistry. Primer annealing, extension, and termination were performed on a 1-microl scale directly in the chip wells in parallel. Diagnostic products thus generated were detected in situ by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. This miniaturized method has the potential for accurate, high-throughput, low-cost identification of genetic variations.  (+info)

Thin film biosensor for rapid visual detection of nucleic acid targets. (4/770)

BACKGROUND: We have developed a silicon-based biosensor that generates a visual signal in response to nucleic acid targets. METHODS: In this system, capture oligonucleotide probes are immobilized on the surface of the biosensor. Interaction of the capture probes with a complementary target and a biotinylated detector oligonucleotide allows initiation of formation of an organic thin film on the biosensor. Thin film formation is completed by enzymatic activity of peroxidase conjugated to an anti-biotin antibody. Peroxidase catalyzes deposition of an insoluble product onto the silicon surface, generating a uniform thin film. The increased thickness on the surface alters the perceived color of the biosensor through changes in the interference patterns of reflected light from the surface, causing a color change from gold to purple. RESULTS: The biosensor results may be evaluated by direct visual inspection or quantified by ellipsometry. Results are obtained in 25 min with a detection limit of 5 pmol/L (150 amol/sample). Selectivity of the biosensor is demonstrated by discrimination of single nucleotide mismatches. Multitarget arrays are also analyzed with the thin film biosensor, and the system is capable of detecting targets from human serum and urine. CONCLUSIONS: The biosensor surface is inexpensive to produce, and the assay format is simple and rapid. The thin film biosensor is adaptable to a wide variety of nucleic acid detection applications, including rapid diagnostic testing for infectious disease panels, antibiotic resistance panels, or allelic discrimination of specific genetic markers.  (+info)

Stable five- and six-coordinated silicate anions in aqueous solution. (5/770)

Addition of aliphatic polyols to aqueous silicate solutions is shown to yield high concentrations of stable polyolate complexes containing five- or six-coordinated silicon. Coordinating polyols require at least four hydroxy groups, two of which must be in threo configuration, and coordinate to silicon via hydroxy oxygens at chain positions on either side of the threo pair. The remarkable ease by which these simple sugar-like molecules react to form hypervalent silicon complexes in aqueous solution supports a long-standing supposition that such species play a significant role in the biological uptake and transport of silicon and in mineral diagenesis.  (+info)

Patterned deposition of cells and proteins onto surfaces by using three-dimensional microfluidic systems. (6/770)

Three-dimensional microfluidic systems were fabricated and used to pattern proteins and mammalian cells on a planar substrate. The three-dimensional topology of the microfluidic network in the stamp makes this technique a versatile one with which to pattern multiple types of proteins and cells in complex, discontinuous structures on a surface. The channel structure, formed by the stamp when it is in contact with the surface of the substrate, limits migration and growth of cells in the channels. With the channel structure in contact with the surface, the cells stop dividing once they form a confluent layer. Removal of the stamp permits the cells to spread and divide.  (+info)

In situ self hardening bioactive composite for bone and dental surgery. (7/770)

A new biomaterial is presented which consists of a cellulose derivative--silanised hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC-SIL) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). Rheological properties of the polymer itself and its mixture with BCP are pH-dependent. At pH 10-12 HEC-SIL is liquid and undergoes quick gellation at pH < 9. Similarly, the paste of HEC-SIL and BCP is fluid and injectable at higher pH and solidifies in biological solutions. The rate of this solidification can be easily controlled by the degree of substitution of hydroxyethylcellulose with silicoalkoxy groups.  (+info)

Oligomeric but not monomeric silica prevents aluminum absorption in humans. (8/770)

BACKGROUND: Soluble silica, a ubiquitous component of the diet, may be the natural ligand for dietary aluminum and may prevent its accumulation and toxicity in animals. However, previous studies on the inhibition of aluminum absorption and toxicity by soluble silica have produced conflicting results. We recently identified a soluble silica polymer, oligomeric silica, that has a much higher affinity for aluminum than does monomeric silica and that may be involved in the sequestration of aluminum. OBJECTIVE: By using (26)Al as a tracer, we investigated the effects of oligomeric and monomeric silica on the bioavailability of aluminum (study 1) and compared the availability of silicon from oligomeric and monomeric silica in the human gastrointestinal tract (study 2). DESIGN: In study 1, three healthy volunteers each ingested aluminum alone (control), aluminum with oligomeric silica (17 mg), and aluminum with monomeric silica (17 mg). In study 2, five healthy volunteers ingested both the oligomeric and monomeric forms of silica (34 mg). Serum and urine samples were analyzed for aluminum and silicon. RESULTS: Oligomeric silica reduced the availability of aluminum by 67% (P = 0.01) compared with the control, whereas monomeric silica had no effect (P = 0.40). Monomeric silica was readily taken up from the gastrointestinal tract and then excreted in urine (53%), whereas oligomeric silica was not detectably absorbed or excreted. CONCLUSIONS: The oligomeric, high-aluminum-affinity form of soluble silica reduces aluminum availability from the human gastrointestinal tract. Its potential role in the amelioration of aluminum toxicity in other biological systems requires attention.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Maximizing RNA Loading for Gene Silencing Using Porous Silicon Nanoparticles. AU - Tieu, Terence. AU - Dhawan, Sameer. AU - Haridas, V.. AU - Butler, Lisa. AU - Thissen, Helmut. AU - Cifuentes-Rius, Anna. AU - Voelcker, Nicolas H.. PY - 2019/7/3. Y1 - 2019/7/3. N2 - Gene silencing by RNA interference is a powerful technology with broad applications. However, this technology has been hampered by the instability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules in physiological conditions and their inefficient delivery into the cytoplasm of target cells. Porous silicon nanoparticles have emerged as a potential delivery vehicle to overcome these limitations-being able to encapsulate RNA molecules within the porous matrix and protect them from degradation. Here, key variables were investigated that influence siRNA loading into porous silicon nanoparticles. The effect of modifying the surface of porous silicon nanoparticles with various amino-functional molecules as well as the effects of ...
Low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) is polycrystalline silicon that has been synthesized at relatively low temperatures (~650 °C and lower) compared to in traditional methods (above 900 °C). LTPS is important for display industries, since the use of large glass panels prohibits exposure to deformative high temperatures. More specifically, the use of polycrystalline silicon in thin-film transistors (LTPS-TFT) has high potential for large-scale production of electronic devices like flat panel LCD displays or image sensors. Polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) is a pure and conductive form of the element composed of many crystallites, or grains of highly ordered crystal lattice. In 1984, studies showed that amorphous silicon (a-Si) is an excellent precursor for forming p-Si films with stable structures and low surface roughness. Silicon film is synthesized by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) to minimize surface roughness. First, amorphous silicon is deposited at 560-640 °C. ...
A process of fabricating an improved transistor on a polycrystalline silicon layer, wherein N and P type dopants, in approximate equal concentrations, are introduced into the layer, and the layer heated. The resultant modified polycrystalline silicon layer inhibits the migration of dopants, used to form the active regions of the device, during subsequent heating steps. An improved field effect transistor having a source region, a drain region, and channel region in a polycrystalline silicon layer, the improvement being that the polycrystalline silicon layer has approximately equal concentrations of N and P type dopants embodied therein, which serves to restrain movement of P/N junctions.
A method is provided for forming smooth polycrystalline silicon electrodes for molecular electronic devices. The method comprises: depositing a silicon layer in an amorphous form; forming a native oxide on a surface of the amorphous silicon layer at a temperature between room temperature to 500° C.; and converting the amorphous silicon to polycrystalline silicon by heat-treating at a temperature in a range of 600° to 800° C. for a period of time in a range of 1 minute to 24 hrs, with higher temperatures associated with shorter times, in an inert atmosphere. The method converts the amorphous form of silicon to the higher conductivity polycrystalline form, while retaining the smoothness associated with the amorphous form.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intravenous delivery of hydrophobin-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles. T2 - Stability, plasma protein adsorption and biodistribution. AU - Sarparanta, Mirkka. AU - Bimbo, Luis M.. AU - Rytkönen, Jussi. AU - Mäkilä, Ermei. AU - Laaksonen, Timo J.. AU - Laaksonen, Päivi. AU - Nyman, Markus. AU - Salonen, Jarno. AU - Linder, Markus B.. AU - Hirvonen, Jouni. AU - Saltos, Hélder A.. AU - Airaksinen, Anu J.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Rapid immune recognition and subsequent elimination from the circulation hampers the use of many nanomaterials as carriers to targeted drug delivery and controlled release in the intravenous route. Here, we report the effect of a functional self-assembled protein coating on the intravenous biodistribution of 18F-labeled thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles in rats. 18F-Radiolabeling enables the sensitive and easy quantification of nanoparticles in tissues using radiometric methods and allows imaging of the ...
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Porous silicon (abbreviated as PS or pSi) is a form of the chemical element silicon that has introduced nanopores in its microstructure, rendering a large surface to volume ratio in the order of 500 m2/cm3. Porous silicon was discovered by accident in 1956 by Arthur Uhlir Jr. and Ingeborg Uhlir at the Bell Labs in the U.S. At the time, the Ulhirs were in the process of developing a technique for polishing and shaping the surfaces of silicon and germanium. However, it was found that under several conditions a crude product in the form of thick black, red or brown film were formed on the surface of the material. At the time, the findings were not taken further and were only mentioned in Bell Labs technical notes. Despite the discovery of porous silicon in the 1950s, the scientific community was not interested in porous silicon until the late 1980s. At the time, Leigh Canham - while working at the Defence Research Agency in England - reasoned that the porous silicon may display quantum ...
Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of titanium thin films on p-type (100) silicon substrates by KrF excimer laser ablation is investigated by changing the deposition parameters during the thin film deposition. The influence of target-to-substrate distance, laser fluence and substrate temperature is studied for high quality titanium thin films. Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrum analysis of the thin films is also carried out. The surface texture of the titanium target after the laser irradiation is studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. It is found that the most important deposition parameters which affect the thin film quality are target-to- substrate distance and laser fluence. A suitable target-to- substrate distance and laser fluence can minimize the deposition of micro-sized particulates on the thin films. By optimizing the deposition parameters, the less particulate, higher deposition rate and more uniform titanium thin films are grown on the silicon substrates for wafer ...
Page contains details about sorafenib-loaded iRGD-functionalized carbonized porous silicon nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
We demonstrate a method for the fast and simple packaging of silicon sensors into a microfluidic package consisting of the recently introduced {OSTE} polymer. The microfluidic layer is first microstructured and thereafter dry-bonded to a silicon photonic sensor, in a process compatible with wafer-level production, and with the entire packaging process lasting only 10 minutes. The fluidic layer combines molded microchannels and fluidic (Luer) connectors with photopatterned through-holes (vias) for optical fiber probing and fluid connections. All the features are fabricated in a single photocuring step. We report measurements with an integrated silicon photonic {Mach-Zehnder} interferometer refractive index sensor packaged by these means.. ...
Page contains details about aligned Ag nanowires deposited on DNA nanowires array on silicon substrate . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis on the interfacial properties of transparent conducting oxide and hydrogenated p-type amorphous silicon carbide layers in p-i-n amorphous silicon thin film solar cell structure. AU - Lee, Ji Eun. AU - Park, Joo Hyung. AU - Cho, Jun Sik. AU - Chung, Jin Won. AU - Song, Jinsoo. AU - Kim, Donghwan. AU - Lee, Jeong Chul. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (project no. 2009-0090912 ).. PY - 2012/7/1. Y1 - 2012/7/1. N2 - Quantitative estimation of the specific contact resistivity and energy barrier at the interface between transparent conducting oxide (TCO) and hydrogenated p-type amorphous silicon carbide (a-Si 1 - xC x:H(p)) was carried out by inserting an interfacial buffer layer of hydrogenated p-type microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H(p)) or hydrogenated p-type amorphous silicon (a-Si:H(p)). In addition, superstrate configuration p-i-n hydrogenated amorphous ...
A method for fabricating silicon nanowires. The method includes the steps of: depositing a silicon nitride layer on a silicon on insulator (SOI) starting wafer; patterning the silicon nitride to define at least one silicon microbar; etching the SOI starting wafer to expose the at least one silicon microbar, wherein the at least one microbar is surrounded by a raised perimeter; growing a silicon oxide layer on the raised perimeter of the at least one microbar; and etching a portion of the at least one silicon microbar to produce at least one silicon nanowire adjacent the silicon oxide layer.
Read or download book entitled Porous Silicon for Biomedical Applications written by Hélder A. Santos which was release on 01 September 2021, this book published by Woodhead Publishing. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle Format. Book excerpt: Porous Silicon for Biomedical Applications, Second Edition provides an updated guide to the diverse range of biomedical applications of porous silicon, from biosensing and imaging to tissue engineering and cancer therapy. Across biomedical disciplines, there is an ongoing search for biomaterials which are biocompatible, modifiable, structurally sound and versatile. Porous silicon possesses a range of properties which make it ideal for a range of biomedical applications, such as controllable geometry, tunable nanoporous structure, large pore volume/high specific surface area, and versatile surface chemistry. This book provides a fully updated and detailed overview of the range of biomedical applications for porous silicon. Part one offers the reader a ...
A process for creating bipolar and CMOS transistors on a p-type silicon substrate is disclosed. The silicon substrate has typical n+ buried wells and field oxide regions to isolate the individual transistor devices. In accordance with the process, stacks of material are created over the gate elements of the CMOS devices and over the emitter elements of the bipolar transistors. The stacks of material over the gate elements have a silicon dioxide gate layer in contact with the epitaxial layer of the substrate, and the stacks of material over the emitter elements have a polycrystalline silicon layer in contact with the epitaxial layer. Walls of silicon dioxide are created around the stacks in order to insulate the material within the stacks from the material deposited outside of the walls. Polycrystalline silicon in contact with the epitaxial layer is deposited outside the walls surrounding the stacks. All polycrystalline silicon layers in contact with the epitaxial layer are implanted with appropriate
Disclosed is a process for cleaning polycrystalline silicon chunks in an acidic cleaning bath, wherein: (a) the cleaning includes several cleaning cycles, (b) a particular amount of acid is consumed in each cycle, (c) a computer-controlled dosage system integrator adds up those amounts of acid consumed in each cycle to give a current total consumption of acid in the bath, and (d) on attainment of a total consumption of acid in the bath corresponding to an optimal dosage of the dosage system, the dosage system supplies this optimal dosage of unconsumed acid withdrawn from a reservoir vessel to the bath. Another process for cleaning polycrystalline silicon chunks in an acidic cleaning bath includes an acid circuit in which acid is circulated, wherein the ratio of amount of acid circulated in liters to the mass of polysilicon chunks present in the bath in kg is greater than 10 ...
Alkenes are known to react with hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces to produce robust organic monolayers that are attached to the surface via covalent Si-C bonds. In this report we investigate the dependence of the rate of alkylation of porous silicon samples on the reaction time using photochemical initiation. The kinetics of the photochemical alkylation of hydrogen-terminated porous silicon by undec-1-ene in toluene were observed to be pseudo first order, however the apparent rate constant decreased as the concentration of undec-1-ene increased. This behaviour is opposite to what would be expected if the rate-limiting process was an elementary chemical reaction step involving the alkene. Instead, it suggests that transport of the alkene to reactive sites and in the correct orientation is the rate-limiting step. Comparison of the rates of alkylation of porous silicon by undec-1-ene and dimethoxytrityl (DMT)-undecenol is consistent with such an interpretation as the bulky DMT headgroup gives a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystallisation characteristics of primary silicon particles in cast hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. AU - Okayasu, M.. AU - Takeuchi, S.. AU - Shiraishi, T.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - The crystallisation characteristics of primary silicon particles in a cast hypereutectic Al-Si alloy were examined using various casting processes. The size of the primary silicon particles depends on the cooling rate. However, the primary silicon particles cannot be crystallised completely when the cooling rate is,20 K s-1, since uncrystallised Si atoms migrate to the regions at low cooling rates, producing large primary Si particles. Moreover, turbulent metal flow under conditions of high cooling rate leads to the macrosegregation of the primary Si particles, resulting in poor mechanical properties. From the crystallisation characteristics obtained, a suitable solidification criterion can be proposed.. AB - The crystallisation ...
PREPARATION METHOD FOR CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN FILM BASED ON LAYER TRANSFER - Provided is a preparation method of a crystalline silicon film. The method includes: 1) forming a mask for making a periodic silicon rod array on a monocrystalline silicon wafer substrate, and forming the periodic silicon rod array on the monocrystalline silicon substrate by a wet chemical etching or dry etching process; 2) forming barrier layers on the surface of the monocrystalline silicon substrate and the surface of the silicon rod array for next selectively epitaxial growth of silicon; 3) exposing silicon cores on the heads of the rod array by a selective etching process to form a silicon seed array; 4) growing a continuous silicon film at the top of the rod array by a chemical vapor deposition method using the exposed silicon cores as seeds for selectively epitaxial growth of silicon; and 5) lifting off the silicon film and transferring the silicon film to a preset substrate, and the seeded substrate is reusable ...
Meliorum Technologies designs custom nanomaterials for industry and research, including gold nanoparticles, zinc oxide, cerium oxide and silicon nanoparticles
Read Hydrothermal synthesis of fluorescent silicon nanoparticles using maleic acid as surface-stabilizing ligands, Journal of Materials Science on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - BV-2 microglial cells sense micro-nanotextured silicon surface topology. AU - Persheyev, Saydulla. AU - Fan, Yongchang. AU - Irving, Andrew. AU - Rose, Mervyn J.. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Artificial biomimetic substrates provide useful models for studying cell adhesion, signaling, and differentiation. This article describes biological interactions with a new type of tunable, micro-nanotextured silicon substrate, generated by irradiation of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film with a large beam, excimer laser (248 nm). In this study, we demonstrate that BV-2 microglial cells can sense differences in laser processed silicon surface topology over the range of 30 nm to 2 mu m, where they undergo marked morphogenic changes with increasing feature size. The cells adopt a more elongated shape in the presence of the modified surface structure and exhibit increased levels of actin-rich microdomains, suggesting enhanced adhesion. The excimer laser modification of hydrogenated ...
Contents Vol.31, No.8; August 2018 SILICON CHIP www.siliconchip.com.au Features & Reviews 14 Introduction to Electroencephelographs (EEG) The brain generates tiny electrical signals which can be detected on the scalp - and you can monitor them (yours or someone elses) to look inside your brain waves - by Jim Rowe 28 Taking an Epic Voyage through your Alimentary Canal! Theres been a breakthrough in medical technology recently with miniature cameras built into tiny capsules. Many of them transmit photos and data to health care professionals as they make their journey! - by Dr David Maddison 36 Review: Altium Designer 18 Its the software we primarily use at SILICON CHIP for both PCB design and circuit development. Recently we upgraded to Altium Designer 18, the new version for 2018 - and there are many worthwhile tweaks - by Nicholas Vinen Constructional Projects 18 Brainwave Monitor - see whats happening in your brain We put the theory into practice: with this Arduino-based project and a ...
Global changes in temperature and nitrogen supply can influence key aspects of the global nutrient cycles, such as leaf litter decomposition and associated nutrient release. The effect of temperature and nitrogen supply on nutrient release during decomposition may be influenced by initial nutrient concentrations of the litter, which for grasses depends partly on silicon availability during plant growth. we conducted a five-month field experiment to test whether Phragmites australis litter silicon concentration alters the effect of climate warming and excess nitrogen supply on nutrient concentrations and litter mass loss during decomposition. Warming enhanced concentration of Ca, Mn and Fe in decomposed leaf litter, whereas excess N-supply increased the concentration of Fe and Ca in leaves. Initial Si concentrations of leaf litter influenced the stoichiometric ratios of the elements (in relation to P), and element:P ratios mostly increased for litter with intermediate and high Si concentrations, ...
Author(s): King, Brian Henry | Abstract: Porous silicon rugate photonic crystals are an attractive optical sensor material due to their high surface area, naked eye response, and controllable optical, morphological, and chemical characteristics. This thesis presents new ways to improve the selectivity, reversibility, and stability against interferents of remotely interrogated porous silicon sensors. After a brief introduction to rugate porous silicon, Chapters 2-5 present methods of directly sensing the interaction of organic vapors with the porous layer by chemical and physical sensor modulation. A 0.3 mm² fiber optic-coupled porous silicon sensor is constructed in Chapter 2 and implanted in a bed of activated carbon, demonstrating carbon bed end-of-service-life sensing. Chapter 3 furthers this concept by incorporating chemically modified sensor surfaces, with selectivity between water vapor, isopropanol, and heptane vapors demonstrated using acetylated and oxidized sensor chemistries. Chapter 4
The photophysics of silicon quantum dots (QDs) is not well understood despite their potential for many optoelectronic applications. One of the barriers to the study and widespread adoption of Si QDs is the difficulty in functionalizing their surface, to make, for example, a solution-processable electronically-activ Luminescent silicon nanostructures
At present silicon wafer technologies dominate the market place with cost driven by the technological requirement for optically thick and electronically pure silicon. A solution to the high cost of wafer based panels is a thin film approach where micron thick layers of silicon replace the ~250 micron thick silicon wafers. Thin film silicon has gone to market in the form of amorphous and microcrystalline Si where performance is an issue as well as stability due to the hydrogenated amorphous Si structure. This project involves the growth of three dimensional wire structures based on crystalline silicon and their integration into solar cell devices. Nanowire solar cells featuring a radial junction have the potential to reduce the required volume and purity of the silicon used in cell fabrication compared to wafer based technologies. The vapour-liquid-solid effect (VLS) has been used to grow Si nanowires using Au and Sn as catalyst metals together with electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapour ...
The researchers examined a variety of raw material samples and found little change in the silicon content of barley during the malting process. The majority of the silicon in barley is in the husk, which is not affected greatly during malting. The malts with the higher silicon contents are pale colored which have less heat stress during the malting process. The darker products, such as the chocolate, roasted barley and black malt, all have substantial roasting and much lower silicon contents than the other malts for reasons that are not yet known. The hop samples analyzed showed surprisingly high levels of silicon with as much as four times more silicon than is found in malt. However, hops are invariably used in a much smaller quantity than is grain. Highly hopped beers, however, would be expected to contain higher silicon levels ...
A fine yellow-brown powder composed of spherical particles of silicon, the optic and electric properties of silicon nanoparticles have made them a favorite among nanoparticle researchers in recent years, revealing a multitude of new applications and improvements on existing ones. Silicon nanoparticles come in a variety of sizes, mostly falling into smaller 5-25nm configurations or larger 80-100 nm configurations. You can find out more about options for silicon nanopowder, including safe handling, dispersion, and storage, by contacting SSNano directly.. Silicon(Si) Nanopowder Applications. ...
A substance containing a catalyst element is formed so as to closely contact with an amorphous silicon film, or a catalyst element is introduced into the amorphous silicon film. The amorphous silicon film is annealed at a temperature which is lower than a crystallization temperature of usual amorphous silicon, thereby selectively crystallizing the amorphous silicon film. The crystallized region is used as a crystalline silicon TFT which can be used in a peripheral driver circuit of an active matrix circuit. The region which remains amorphous is used as an amorphous silicon TFT which can be used in a pixel circuit. A relatively small amount of a catalyst element for promoting crystallization is added to an amorphous silicon film, and an annealing process is conducted at a temperature which is lower than the distortion temperature of a substrate, thereby crystallizing the amorphous silicon film. A gate insulating film, and a gate electrode are then formed, and an impurity is implanted in a self-alignment
According to an exemplary embodiment, a method includes providing a silicon-on-insulator substrate including a buried oxide layer situated over a bulk silicon substrate and a silicon layer situated over the buried oxide layer. A trench is formed in the silicon layer and the buried oxide layer, where the trench exposes a portion of the bulk silicon substrate, and where the trench is situated adjacent to an optical region of said silicon-on-insulator substrate. According to this exemplary embodiment, an epitaxial layer is formed on the exposed portion of the bulk silicon substrate in the trench. The epitaxial layer and the bulk silicon substrate form a bulk silicon electronic region of the silicon-on-insulator substrate.
A method of manufacturing a semiconductor device, comprises the steps of: forming a first insulating film on a first substrate; forming a second insulating film on the first insulating film; forming an amorphous silicon film on the second insulating film; holding a metal element that promotes the crystallization of silicon in contact with a surface of the amorphous silicon film; crystallizing the amorphous silicon film through a heat treatment to obtain a crystalline silicon film; forming a thin-film transistor using the crystalline silicon film; forming a sealing layer that seals the thin-film transistor; bonding a second substrate having a translucent property to the sealing layer; and removing the first insulating film to peel off the first substrate.
Stable luminescence, size-tunability, and biocompatibility encourage the deployment of Cd-free NPs into diverse biological applications. Here we report one-pot synthesis of blue-emitting and polymerizable silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) from which water-soluble Si QDs embedded polystyrene nanoparticles ([email protected] NPs) were prepared using a miniemulsion polymerization approach. The hydrodynamic size of NPs was controlled by KOH to oleic acid molar ratio. Studies on the photoluminescence properties of [email protected] NPs in different conditions reveal that they exhibit two-photon luminescence property and high stability against pH and UV exposure. These NPs add new size regime to the Si QDs based luminescent makers for bioimaging and therapy applications.
Abstract: Quantum computers have the potential to efficiently solve problems in logistics, drug and material design, finance, and cybersecurity. However, millions of qubits will be necessary for correcting inevitable errors in quantum operations. In this scenario, electron spins in gate-defined silicon quantum dots are strong contenders for encoding qubits, leveraging the microelectronics industry know-how for fabricating densely populated chips with nanoscale electrodes. The sophisticated material combinations used in commercially manufactured transistors, however, will have a very different impact on the fragile qubits. We review here some key properties of the materials that have a direct impact on qubit performance and variability ...
摘要. A new method of preparing water-dispersible silicon quantum dots (QDs, blue spheres) has been developed by using an organic peroxide as a highly effective precursor (the lower left quarter, red and grey-green ball-and-stick model). The obtained water-dispersible carboxylic acid terminated Si QDs displayed strong and stable photoluminescence in the visible spectrum, which can be widely used in boimedical imaging. For more detail, see the Communication by S.-T. Lee, P.-F. Wang et al. on page 12872 ff.. ...
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Silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) have great potential for biomedical applications, including their use as biological fluorescent markers and carriers for drug delivery systems. Biologically inert Si-QDs are less toxic than conventional cadmium-based QDs, and can modify the surface of the Si-QD with covalent bond. We synthesized water-soluble alminoprofen-conjugated Si-QDs (Ap-Si). Alminoprofen is a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used as an analgesic for rheumatism. Our results showed that the
Maximizing the utilization of the ultraviolet portion in the solar radiation spectrum has always been a goal for plant growth in order to minimize the harm and harvest the benefits. For this reason, fluorescent, amine-functionalized, and water-soluble silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) were fabricated with a mono-dispers
In this work, we study the changes in the optical properties of 300-nm-thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide layers after an annealing process. Both intrinsic and phosphorus-doped amorphous silicon carbide layers (a-SiCx:H) were deposited on silicon wafers by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) at 400 °C and annealed in a quartz furnace at 800 °C. ...
Among the range of materials used in bioengineering, parylene-C has been used in combination with silicon oxide and in presence of the serum proteins, in cell patterning. However, the structural properties of adsorbed serum proteins on these substrates still remain elusive. In this study, we use an optical biosensing technique to decipher the properties of fibronectin (Fn) and serum albumin adsorbed on parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates. Our results show the formation of layers with distinct structural and adhesive properties. Thin, dense layers are formed on parylene-C, whereas thicker, more diffuse layers are formed on silicon oxide. These results suggest that Fn acquires a compact structure on parylene-C and a more extended structure on silicon oxide. Nonetheless, parylene-C and silicon oxide substrates coated with Fn host cell populations that exhibit focal adhesion complexes and good cell attachment. Albumin adopts a deformed structure on parylene-C and a globular structure on silicon ...
Silicon Laboratories Inc.. Silicon Laboratories is an industry leader in the innovation of high-performance, analog-intensive, mixed-signal ICs. Developed by a world-class engineering team with unsurpassed expertise in mixed-signal design, Silicon Labs diverse portfolio of highly-integrated, easy-to-use products offers customers significant advantages in performance, size and power consumption. These patented solutions serve a broad set of markets and applications including consumer, communications, computing, industrial and automotive.. Headquartered in Austin, TX, Silicon Labs is a global enterprise with operations, sales and design activities worldwide. The company is committed to contributing to our customers success by recruiting the highest quality talent to create industry-changing innovations. For more information about Silicon Labs, please visit www.silabs.com.. Note to editors: Silicon Laboratories and the Silicon Laboratories logo are trademarks of Silicon Laboratories Inc. All ...
To investigate the effects of silicon on the growth characteristics and the reduction of the powdery mildew damage to Zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jacq. ʻMagellanʼ), an experiment was carried out as a factorial experiment in the form of a randomized complete block design with two factors including eight treatments and three replications. The first factor included silicon concentrations at four levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mg L-1 Si) and the second factor consisted of the Si application methods (foliar spray and medium drenching). Depending on the concentration and method of silicon supplied, several horticultural traits were improved as a result of Si supplementation. Silicon content of Si-treated plants (100 and 150 mg L-1 Si foliar spray) significantly increased as compared with untreated controls. Disease severity of powdery mildew was reduced by sodium silicate. The results of our study demonstrated that foliar spray treatments were more effective in managing disease than drenches treatments.
Read Influence of the temperature-time conditions on the textural and structural properties of mesoporous silicon dioxide synthesized in an ammonia-alcohol medium, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Abstract. This study is focused on the optical emission spectroscopy of silicon, porous silicon (PS) and their oxides. It allows us to understand the effect of the angle and porosity on optical radiations emitted when substrates of silicon, PS and their oxides are bombarded at low-pressure less than 10-7 torr by Kr+ ions at 5 keV. The comparison of the spectra shows that the spectral lines attributed to Si(I) have a similar behavior and the maximum of the signal is obtained for θ=70°. These lines show a significant exaltation when the density of porosity of similar samples is larger. This exaltation depends on the desactivation of the excited states and it may reach a quite important factor with intensity saturation for maximum silicon surface porosity. The intensity in a reverse behavior for the line Si(III) at λ=254.4nm and associated to Si++ matched for the first time in our results. However, the signal amplification is caused by an enrichment of oxygen on the porous surfaces, which become ...
Indeed, carbon and silicon share many characteristics. Each has a so-called valence of four--meaning that individual atoms make four bonds with other elements in forming chemical compounds. Each element bonds to oxygen. Each forms long chains, called polymers, in which it alternates with oxygen. In the simplest case, carbon yields a polymer called poly-acetal, a plastic used in synthetic fibers and equipment. Silicon yields polymeric silicones, which we use to waterproof cloth or lubricate metal and plastic parts. But when carbon oxidizes--or unites with oxygen say, during burning--it becomes the gas carbon dioxide; silicon oxidizes to the solid silicon dioxide, called silica. The fact that silicon oxidizes to a solid is one basic reason as to why it cannot support life. Silica, or sand is a solid because silicon likes oxygen all too well, and the silicon dioxide forms a lattice in which one silicon atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms. Silicate compounds that have SiO4-4 units also exist in ...
In this work, we pro … A detailed overview of the industry with respect to the market size in terms of the volume and remuneration aspects, alongside the current Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cell market scenario has been provided in the report. The efficiency is … In its simplest form, the cell structure has a single layers. That is an efficient and production-friendly cell with screen-printed electrodes and thin wires. Crystalline cells are formed out of blocks of solid silicon. Presentation The recent demonstration of high efficiency (exceeding 24%) HIT solar cells developed by Sanyo, Japan 1 1. amorphous silicon is the non-crystalline form of silicon and it can be deposited in thin films at low temperature on to variety of substrates for manufacturing amorphous silicon thin film solar panels. In the hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H]-thin film solar cell, large amounts of traps reduce the carriers lifetime that limit the photovoltaic performance, especially the power conversion ...
Russia] For the past four years, a team of scientists from the Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), Russian Academic Excellence Project participant, and an international group of toxicologists have been studying the effects of carbon and silicon nanoparticles on marine organisms (Environmental Research, Effects of carbon and silicon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers on marine microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo).. We already have data on the impact that these elements-which are used in plastic composites and products-have on terrestrial flora and fauna, but there has been no systematic study of the potential damage that nanoparticles can cause to marine life, said FEFUs Provost for Research, professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Doctor of Biology Kirill Golokhvast. Meanwhile, up to 80% of the plastic and composites on the planet end up in the World Ocean, where they decompose over a period of several hundred years.. Using carbon and silicate nanocomponents significantly improves ...
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Nanowires (NWs) are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW) is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW), is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method for producing nanowires of the same substrate material. The process conditions are adjusted to find the best quality of Si NWs. Morphology of Si NWs is studied using a field emission scanning electron microscopic technique. An energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer is also used to provide elemental identification and quantitative compositional information. Subsequently, Schottky type solar cell samples are fabricated on Si and Si NWs using ITO and Ag contacts. The junction properties are calculated using I-V curves in dark
The use of intrinsic silicon oxide as a buffer layer at the p-i interface of thin-film silicon solar cells is shown to provide significant advantages. For microcrystalline silicon solar cells, when associated with highly crystalline i-layers deposited at high rates, all electrical parameters are improved. Larger efficiency gains are achieved with substrates of increased roughness. For cells with an improved i-layer material quality, there is mainly a gain in short-circuit current density. An improvement in carrier collection in the blue region of the spectrum is systematically observed on all the cells. The presence of a silicon oxide buffer layer also promotes the nucleation of the subsequent intrinsic microcrystalline silicon layer. In amorphous silicon solar cells, the silicon oxide buffer layer is proven to act as an efficient barrier to boron cross-contamination, eliminating the need for additional processing steps (e.g. water vapor flush), while providing a wide bandgap material at the ...
Porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) have been prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching method on the n-Si substrate. The presence of nano-pores with pore size ranging between 10-50nm in SiNWs was confirmed by electron tomography (ET) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). The PSiNWs give strong photoluminescence peak at red wavelength. Ultra-low reflectance of ,5% span over wavelength 250 nm to 1050 nm has been measured. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been employed to model the optical reflectance for both Si wafer and PSiNWs. Our calculation results are in agreement with the measured reflectance from nanowires length of 6 µm and 60% porosity. The low reflectance is attributed to the effective graded index of PSiNWs and enhancement of multiple optical scattering from the pores and nanowires. PSiNW structures with low surface reflectance can potentially serve as an antireflection layer for Si-based photovoltaic devices ...
We created different TiO2-based coatings on silicon nanowires (SiNWs) by using either thermal metallization or atomic layer deposition (ALD). The fabricated surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and reflectivity measurements. Surfaces with different TiO2 based coating thicknesses were then used for phosphopeptide enrichment and subsequent detection by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). Results showed that the best enrichment and LDI-MS detection were obtained using the silicon nanowires covered with 10 nm of oxidized Ti deposited by means of thermal evaporation. This sample was also able to perform phosphopeptide enrichment and MS detection from serum.
Pentagon-shaped silicon wires with linewidth around 300 nm are successfully fabricated by using the Si/SiGe epitaxy technique, reactive ion etching, and subsequent selective chemical etching. The nanowires are oxidized in wet O2 at 750 ◦C and 850 ◦C. The oxide and interface morphology are characterized by cross-sectional scanning electron microscope images. It is found that the oxidized nanowire following oxidation at 750 ◦C still keeps its pentagon shape even if it has been oxidized for 19 h. However, the oxidized samples at 850 ◦C become circular in shape. The oxidation-temperature dependence of the sample shapes is discussed. Our results should be useful in generating silicon nanowires coated with SiO2 in microelectronic technology with careful selection of the SiO2 growth temperatures. PACS: 85.42; 81.15; 81.60 Field-effect devices having SiO2-coated silicon nanowires acting as trenches have recently received great attention, since new physical phenomena with applications in future verylarge
Silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride are materials used extensively in mechanical and electronic devices due to their outstanding properties. Thin films of silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride can be deposited on a silicon surface. In this study, nitridation of silicon wafers by a rapid thermal heating process with both nitrogen and ammonia as precursors was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ellipsometry analyses. It was found that, under ammonia gas, the growth of nitride film was limited to 0.5 nm, whilst under the nitrogen atmosphere, a nitride film of 5-10 nm could be formed at 1200î The limited growth in ammonia suggests formation of high-quality passivating layer ...
Press Release issued Mar 7, 2017: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a silicon-based organic polymer, which is commonly known as silicon oil. Silicon oil is a group of polymeric and monomeric compounds that constitutes of silicon-oxygen bonds named organosiloxane. Because of the viscous nature and water repellant characteristic, it is termed as silicon oil. Silicon oil is transparent, odorless, and thermally stable in nature. It also exhibits properties such as hydrophobicity, non-flammability, and physiological inertness. Silicon oil is used as a release agent, anti-foam agent, mechanical fluid, and lubricant among others. It is widely used in personal care applications, beauty care products, mechanical applications, and in a lot more. High molecular PDMS with amino alkyl copolymers are used to make hair conditioning products. Silicon oil is also used to make skin care products such as sunscreen creams, facial cleansers, and lip glosses & lipsticks due to its glossy, smooth, and hydrophobic nature. Owing
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We describe a method of detecting nanometer-level gap and tip/tilt alignment between a focusing zone plate mask and a silicon substrate using interferometric-spatial-phase-imaging (ISPI). The zone plate mask is used to generate submicrometer focused light spot to induce silicon nanowire growth in a CVD process. ISPI makes use of diffracting fringes from gratings and checkerboards fabricated on the mask to determine the correct gapping distance for the focusing zone plates. The method is capable of detecting alignment inside a gas-flow chamber with variable pressure ...
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There is significant interest in utilizing microalgae as a source for biofuels. Diatoms are a class of single-celled microalgae which make silica cell walls and require dissolved silicon as a substrate for cell division. Manipulation of soluble silicon delivery to the culture offers a route to control cell cycle and lipid production. A two-stage, semi-continuous photobioreactor cultivation process was developed to induce the production of lipid-rich algal biomass from the centric diatom Cyclotella sp. In Stage I of the process, algal cells were grown up to high density until all of the dissolved silicon in the feed medium was consumed. The cells were in the silicon-starved state when the cell density was constant for 24 hours and the dissolved silicon concentration was near-zero and ceased to change. In Stage II, fresh medium containing dissolved silicon was perfused into the reactor for a 48, 72 or 96 hours. The silicon was rapidly consumed by the silicon-starved cells under a surge uptake ...
Results: Extruding silicon oil as well as F6H8 through polycarbonate membranes with pore sizes of 100 nm into water resulted in the production of stable vesicles. Whereas F6H8-vesicles disappeared after 24h, silicon oil vesicles remained stable after that time. The mean vesicle diameter was similar (F6H8: 6.54±1.47 µm, silicon oil 1000s: 6.03±2.8 µm, silicon oil 5000s: 5.03±2.3 µm). The size distribution of the produced vesicles was different in F6H8-vesicles or silicon oil vesicles. Extruding F6H8 through a 100 nm membrane resulted in vesicle diameter from 1.25 to 7.25 µm. Silicon oil extrusion resulted in 1.75 to 16.76 µm or 1 to 12.79 µm diameter vesicles when using 1000s or 5000s oil, respectively. After incubation of isolated human mononuclear lymphocytes with F6H8-vesicles or silicon oil vesicles for 18 hours in different concentrations we detected only in a small number of F6H8-vesicle treated cells phagocytized vesicles and an even lower percentage of phagocytized vesicles in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaporation of phosphorus in molten silicon by an electron beam irradiation method. AU - Hanazawa, Kazuhiro. AU - Yuge, Noriyoshi. AU - Kato, Yoshiei. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - The evaporation behavior of phosphorus in molten silicon during electron beam irradiation was investigated with the aim of producing solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) from metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) by a sequential metallurgical process. Batch experiments showed that the evaporation rate of phosphorus increased in proportion to the power of the electron beam and phosphorus content. The phosphorus removal rate was controlled by free evaporation from the molten silicon surface. Electron beam irradiation makes it possible to secure a higher temperature at the free liquid surface, which results in more efficient dephosphorization. A continuous flow experiment indicated that the phosphorus concentration at the outlet increased when the silicon feed rate was raised, which was attributed to the fact that ...
The conventional, brittle, silicon nitride barrier layer and gate insulator in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors (a-Si:H TFTs) on 50 μm thick polyimide foil was replaced by a resilient, homogeneous, hybrid of silicon dioxide and silicone polymer. The transistor structures can be bent down to 0.5 mm radius (5% strain) in tension and down to 1 mm radius (2.5% strain) in compression. This pronounced flexibility shifts the criterion for reversible bending away from a-Si:H TFT backplanes and toward the materials for substrate and encapsulation. It qualifies a-Si:H TFTs for pull-out display screens in handheld devices ...
Nanorobot-Based Handling and Transfer of Individual Silicon Nanowires: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5125-8.ch041: Presented is a new experimental implementation for well-directed handling of silicon nanowires with diameters of less than 100 nm and length of up to 10 µm.
in Plant and Soil (2010), 336(1-2), 99-106. Abstract : Silicon uptake by terrestrial plants impacts the Si land-ocean fluxes, therefore inducing significant modifications for biogeochemical cycle of Si. Understanding the mechanisms that control Si ... [more ▼]. Abstract : Silicon uptake by terrestrial plants impacts the Si land-ocean fluxes, therefore inducing significant modifications for biogeochemical cycle of Si. Understanding the mechanisms that control Si uptakes by forest vegetation is of great interest for the study of the global Si cycle as the worlds total forest area corresponds to about 30% of the land area. Our study compares Si uptake in controlled conditions by two coniferous species (Pseudotsuga menziensii and Pinus nigra) exhibiting contrasting Si uptake in the field. For this purpose, seedlings were grown for 11 weeks under controlled conditions in hydroponics with different Si concentrations (0.2 to 1.6 mM) in nutrient solutions. The Si concentrations were greater in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mie Scattering with Silicon Oil Droplets in Combustion Field. AU - Ueda, Toshihisa. AU - Yahagi, Yuji. AU - Mizomoto, Masahiko. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Mie scattering technique with silicon oil droplets (MSOD) has been applied in a laminar premixed flame in a stagnation point flow. A 1.2W laser beam of 514.5 nm wavelength has been used as a light source, and fine silicon oil droplets (diameter ,2 µm, boiling point =300°C) are added in the combustible mixture of propane with air. High-intensity Mie scattering from silicon oil droplets is observed in the upstream region of the flame zone. In the downstream region of the flame zone, very low-intensity Mie scattering is observed, though droplets are vaporized at the flame zone. It is confirmed that the low-intensity Mie scattering comes from solid particles (silicon dioxide, ⋯) made from vapor of the silicon oil droplets at the flame zone. The results also show that no difference of the flame location and the ...
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In this thesis properties and influence of modification techniques of porous silicon were studied by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). This device permits to visualize the surface topography and to study properties of the samples on atomic scale, which was necessary for recent investigation. Samples of porous silicon were obtained by electrochemical etching. Nickel particles were deposited by two methods: electrochemical deposition and extracting from NiCl2 ethanol solution. Sample growth was conducted in Saint-Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, LETI ...
Substantial downscaling of the feature size in current CMOS technology has confronted digital designers with serious challenges including short channel effect and high amount of leakage power. To address these problems, emerging nano-devices, e.g., Silicon NanoWire FET (SiNWFET), is being introduced by the research community. These devices keep on pursuing Mooreâ s Law by improving channel electrostatic controllability, thereby reducing the Off â state leakage current. In addition to these improvements, recent developments introduced devices with enhanced capabilities, such as Controllable-Polarity (CP) SiNWFETs, which make them very interesting for compact logic cell and arithmetic circuits. At advanced technology nodes, the amount of physical controls, during the fabrication process of nanometer devices, cannot be precisely determined because of technology fluctuations. Consequently, the structural parameters of fabricated circuits can be significantly different from their nominal values. Moreover
A method for enhancing the equilibrium solubility of boron and indium in silicon. The method involves first-principles quantum mechanical calculations to determine the temperature dependence of the equilibrium solubility of two important p-type dopants in silicon, namely boron and indium, under various strain conditions. The equilibrium thermodynamic solubility of size-mismatched impurities, such as boron and indium in silicon, can be raised significantly if the silicon substrate is strained appropriately. For example, for boron, a 1% compressive strain raises the equilibrium solubility by 100% at 1100.degree. C.; and for indium, a 1% tensile strain at 1100.degree. C., corresponds to an enhancement of the solubility by 200%.
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In this study, we explore characteristic fluctuation of gate-all-around silicon nanowire MOSFETs induced by random discrete dopants (RDDs) resulting from source/drain extensions. Compared with the results of source extension, asymmetric variations of characteristics induced by RDDs in the drain extension are suppressed owing to the different extent of screening effect on the surface of channel; in particular, the fluctuations of voltage gain and cut-off frequency are reduced from 24% and 21% to 7% and 10%, respectively, because of the effective fluctuation reduction of maximum transconductance near the drain extension.
A study by Triton Market Research with the title Global Silicon Photonics Market, covers the Global Analysis and Forecast for 2019-2028 by Components (Interconnects, Optical Modulators, LED, Waveguides, Wavelength Division Multiplexer Filters, Photodetector), by Product Type (Optical Transceiver, Sensors, Photovoltaic Cells/Solar Cells, Integrated Circuits, Optical Switches), by Application (Telecommunication, Information Processing, Other Application), and by Geographical Region (North America, Middle East and Africa, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific).. Silicon photonics is a novel technology used to manufacture optical devices from silicon. It makes use of photons to transfer huge amounts of data at high speed, using extremely low power.. Request Free Sample of the Global Silicon Photonics Market Report @ https://www.tritonmarketresearch.com/reports/silicon-photonics-market#request-free-sample. As per the report, the global silicon photonics market will account for revenue worth $3294.55 ...
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To thoroughly understand the role that estrogen receptors partake in regulation of gene expression, characterization of estrogen receptors (ERs) and estrogen-response elements (EREs) interactions is essential. In the work, we present a highly sensitive and reusable silicon nanowire (SiNW) biosensor to study the interactions between human ER proteins (ER, alpha and beta subtypes) and EREs (dsDNA). The proteins were covalently immobilized on the SiNW surface. Various EREs including wild-type, mutant and scrambled DNA sequences were then applied to the protein-functionalized SiNW surface. Due to negatively charged dsDNA, binding of the EREs to the ERs on the n-type SiNW biosensor leads to the accumulation of negative charges on the surface, thereby inducing increase in resistance. The results show that the specificity of the ERE-ERalpha binding is higher than that of the ERE-ERbeta binding, what is more, the mutant ERE reduces the binding affinity for both ERalpha and ERbeta. By applying
Hong, I.-H., Liao, Y.-C. and Yen, S.-C. (2009), Self-Organization of a Highly Integrated Silicon Nanowire Network on a Si(110)-16 × 2 Surface by Controlling Domain Growth. Adv. Funct. Mater., 19: 3389-3395. doi: 10.1002/adfm.200900974 ...
In the present study, we attempted to quantify the absorption of silica particles by using ICP-OES to measure the silicon content in the liver and blood after 28-day oral exposure. However, we did not detect the silicon content in the biological tissue with this analytical protocol (data not shown; detection limit of the protocol, 0.1 μg). ICP-OES protocols are regarded to be suitable for measuring silica; however, our attempt to measure ultratrace levels of the silicon content derived from silica particles may have been hindered by interference from nitrogen present in the air. Other groups have also been unable to determine the level of the silicon content derived from with ICP-OES after oral exposure because of interference [11]. We therefore tried to measure the absorption of silica particles through the intestine by means of a combination of the everted gut sac method and ICP-OES. The advantages of this model are that there is a relatively large surface area available for absorption and ...
This is the first demonstration of high performance thermoelectric capability in silicon, an abundant semiconductor for which there already exists a multibillion dollar infrastructure for low-cost and high-yield processing and packaging, said Arun Majumdar, a mechanical engineer and materials scientist with joint appointments at Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley, who was one of the principal investigators behind this research.. Weve shown that its possible to achieve a large enhancement of thermoelectric energy efficiency at room temperature in rough silicon nanowires that have been processed by wafer-scale electrochemical synthesis, said chemist Peidong Yang, the other principal investigator behind this research, who also holds a joint Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley appointment. Majumdar, who was recently appointed director of Berkeley Labs Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD) and is a member of the Materials Sciences Division, is an expert on energy conversion and nanoscale science ...
Worldwide silicon wafer revenues declined by 13 percent in 2013 compared to 2012 according to the SEMI Silicon Manufacturers Group (SMG) in its year-end analysis of the silicon wafer industry. Worldwide silicon wafer area shipments increased 0.4 percent in 2013 when compared to 2012 area shipments.. Silicon wafer area shipments in 2013 totaled 9,067 million square inches (MSI), slightly up from the 9,031 million square inches shipped during 2012. Revenues totaled $7.5 billion down from $8.7 billion posted in 2012. Annual semiconductor silicon shipment levels have remained essentially flat for the past three years, said Hiroshi Sumiya, chairman of SEMI SMG and general manager of the Corporate Planning Department of Shin-Etsu Handotai Co., Ltd. However, industry revenues have declined significantly for the past two years.. Rudolph Technologies, Inc. announced this week the sale of its first NSX 320 TSV Metrology System to CEA-Leti, a research organization based in Grenoble, France, which, in ...
A semiconductor pressure transducer assembly comprising a silicon diaphragm assembly and a glass covering member. The silicon diaphragm assembly has a circular diaphragm portion of thin silicon which is formed using etching, and a thick supporting portion therearound. Piezoresistive elements of a piezoresistive bridge circuit and conducting paths for electrically connection thereof are formed on the silicon diaphragm assembly. On a surface of the silicon diaphragm assembly, a passivating layer of silicon dioxide are formed in uniform thickness, and further on a surface of the passivating layer is formed a layer of polysilicon on the supporting portion of the silicon diaphragm assembly. In the passivating layer, a contacting window is formed, through which the polysilicon layer is electrically connected to the silicon diaphragm assembly. The covering member of borosilicate glass having a circular well is mounted and bonded onto the silicon diaphragm assembly in contact with the polysilicon layer using
Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin film solar cells have potential for low cost photovoltaic (PV) applications. Poly-Si can be formed via the solid phase crystallisation (SPC) process, where a precursor layer of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) undergoes a phase transformation to the crystalline form during prolonged annealing at temperatures ,550 oC. The SPC process is not well understood, resulting in high dislocation densities in poly-Si resulting in electrical losses in PV devices. With focus on the materials properties, we gain an enhanced understanding of the correlation between the a-Si:H structure and the SPC dynamics on the final grain morphology and the nature of defects in the resulting poly-Si. This improved understanding of the SPC process will allow fabrication of more efficient poly-Si thin film PV devices ...
Define chemical element. chemical element synonyms, chemical element pronunciation, chemical element translation, English dictionary definition of chemical element. Noun 1. chemical element - any of the more than 100 known substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination...
N-type porous silicon can be used to realize electroosmotic pumps with high flow rates per applied potential difference. The porosity and pore size of poro
Polycrystalline silicon[edit]. Main article: Polycrystalline silicon. Polycrystalline silicon, or multicrystalline silicon ( ... Ribbon silicon[edit]. Ribbon silicon is a type of polycrystalline silicon-it is formed by drawing flat thin films from molten ... Epitaxial silicon development[edit]. Epitaxial wafers of crystalline silicon can be grown on a monocrystalline silicon "seed" ... An amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cell is made of non-crystalline or microcrystalline silicon. Amorphous silicon has a higher ...
Silicon carbide fiber. Silicon carbide fibers, where the basic polymers are not hydrocarbons but polymers, where about 50% of ... The pyrolysis yields an amorphous silicon carbide, including mostly other elements like oxygen, titanium, or aluminium, but ... the carbon atoms are replaced by silicon atoms, so-called poly-carbo-silanes. ...
4) etches silicon and aluminium, and trifluoromethane etches silicon dioxide and silicon nitride. A plasma containing oxygen is ... Silicon[edit]. Silicon is the material used to create most integrated circuits used in consumer electronics in the modern ... Silicon nanowires, fabricated through the thermal oxidation of silicon, are of further interest in electrochemical conversion ... 2, silicon nitride, and various metals for masking. Its reaction to silicon is "plasmaless", is purely chemical and spontaneous ...
Challenge to Silicon Valley[edit]. In November 2002 Kofi Annan issued a Challenge to Silicon Valley to create suitable systems ...
Silicon[edit]. Early work in TPVs focused on the use of Si PVs. Silicon's commercial availability, extremely low cost, ... Polycrystalline silicon carbide[edit]. Polycrystalline silicon carbide (SiC) is the most commonly used emitter for burner TPVs ... Currently, 13% efficiency has been achieved with Yb2O3 and silicon PV cells. In general selective emitters have had limited ... PbSnSe/PbSrSe quantum well materials, which can be grown by MBE on silicon substrates, have been proposed for low cost TPV ...
Silicon carbide[edit]. Main article: Carbide-derived Carbon. Heating silicon carbide (SiC) to high temperatures (,1100 °C) ... Silicon/germanium/hydrogen[edit]. A normal silicon wafer coated with a layer of germanium (Ge) dipped in dilute hydrofluoric ... CVD processes are also widely used for growing epitaxial layers such as a silicon epitaxial layer on a single-crystal silicon ... 4.2 Silicon/germanium/hydrogen. *4.3 Metal single crystal substrates *4.3.1 Preparation methods of metal single crystal ...
Silicon Diode Detector[edit]. In elastic recoil detection analysis, a silicon diode is the most common detector.[1] This type ... This method does not present the same issues, as those for the silicon detector. However, the throughput of TOF detectors is ... It is used to detect recoiled target atoms and scattered beam ions using several detectors namely silicon diode detector, time- ... The energy resolution obtained from this detector is better than a silicon detector when using ion beams heavier than helium ...
Silicon[edit]. Silica (SiO. 2) is almost always present in iron ore. Most of it is slagged off during the smelting process. At ... The hotter the furnace, the more silicon will be present in the iron. It is not uncommon to find up to 1.5% Si in European cast ... The major effect of silicon is to promote the formation of grey iron. Grey iron is less brittle and easier to finish than white ... As little as 0.5% can counteract the effects of slow cooling and a high silicon content (Rostoker & Bronson 1990, p. 21). White ...
Silicon carbide. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed ... Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, silicic acid or silicic acid anydride is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula ... Dimeric silicon dioxide, (SiO2)2 has been prepared by reacting O2 with matrix isolated dimeric silicon monoxide, (Si2O2). In ... Silicon dioxide is used to produce elemental silicon. The process involves carbothermic reduction in an electric arc furnace:[ ...
Silicon wafer ATE with probers[edit]. Wafer-based ATEs typically use a device called a Prober that moves across a silicon wafer ... ATE can be used on packaged parts (typical IC 'chip') or directly on the Silicon Wafer. Packaged parts use a handler to place ... the device on a customized interface board, whereas silicon wafers are tested directly with high precision probes. The ATE ...
Silicon Valley[edit]. Some tech innovators and Silicon Valley entrepreneurs have invested heavily into anti-aging research. ... The treatment appeared in HBO's Silicon Valley fiction series.[104] ... https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/04/03/silicon-valleys-quest-to-live-forever ...
This led anyone who wished to create a startup company to do so in Silicon Valley. The surge in the number of Silicon Valley ... The Silicon Valley case[edit]. In the mid- to late 1990s several successful computer technology related companies emerged in ... In the case of Silicon Valley as stated above for example, increased crowding in the valley led to severe shortage of office ... As an increasing number of companies started up in Silicon Valley, programmers, engineers etc. realized that they would find ...
Silicon biomineralization[edit]. The Acanthoecid choanoflagellates produce an extracellular basket structure known as a lorica ... Analysis of choanoflagellate SITs shows that they are similar to the SIT-type silicon transporters of diatoms and other silica- ... Analysis of these genes found that the choanoflagellate SITs show homology to the SIT-type silicon transporters of diatoms and ... The first transcriptome of a loricate choanoflagellate[30] led to the discovery of choanoflagellate silicon transporters. ...
The late 1990s were a boom time for the venture capital, as firms on Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park and Silicon Valley benefited ... Early venture capital and the growth of Silicon Valley (1959-1981)[edit]. Main article: Early history of private equity ... In 1971, a series of articles entitled "Silicon Valley USA" were published in the Electronic News, a weekly trade publication, ... 3 Early venture capital and the growth of Silicon Valley (1959-1981) ...
"14 Silicon". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. *^ "Silicon". The Environmental Literacy Council. Retrieved 2016- ... Silicon 1823 J. Berzelius 1823 J. Berzelius Humphry Davy thought in 1800 that silica was a compound, not an element, and in ... In 1811 Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure silicon,[83] but Berzelius is credited with ... In February 1886 Winkler found in argyrodite the eka-silicon that Mendeleev had predicted in 1871.[110] ...
For example, aluminium-silicon braze wets silicon nitride, dissociates the surface so it can react with silicon, and liberates ... forming titanium nitride and liberating silicon; silicon then forms brittle nickel silicides and eutectic gold-silicon phase; ... Silicon. melting, wetting Ni Lowers melting point. Can form silicides. Improves wetting of copper-based brazes. Promotes flow. ... Aluminium-silicon. For brazing aluminium.. *Active alloys. Containing active metals, e.g., titanium or vanadium. Used for ...
silicon 14 Si phosphorus 15 P sulfur 16 S chlorine 17 Cl ...
Silicon Silinane Siline Sulfur Thiane Thiopyran (2H-Thiine is not used) Thiopyrylium cation ...
Silicon Si no limit listed Silver Ag 0.050 mg/L Sodium Na 200 mg/L ...
Basel Action Network; Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition (25 February 2002). "Exporting Harm: The High-Tech Trashing of Asia" (PDF ... The grassroots Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition focuses on promoting human health and addresses environmental justice problems ... "Silicon Valley of India" and has a growing informal e-waste recycling sector.[49][50] Hair samples were collected from workers ... silicon, beryllium, carbon, iron, and aluminium. Elements found in small amounts include cadmium, mercury, and thallium.[88] ...
"Basic Parameters of Silicon Carbide (SiC)". Ioffe Institute.. *^ Becker, P.; Seyfried, P.; Siegert, H. (1982). "The lattice ... Also, fairly pure silicon has a negative coefficient of thermal expansion for temperatures between about 18 and 120 kelvins.[2] ... Handbook of semiconductor silicon technology. Park Ridge, New Jersey: Noyes Publications. p. 431. ISBN 0-8155-1237-6. Retrieved ... parameter of highly pure silicon single crystals". Zeitschrift für Physik B. 48: 17. Bibcode:1982ZPhyB..48...17B. doi:10.1007/ ...
Sili-con14Si​28.085 Phos-phorus15P​30.974 Sulfur16S​32.06 Chlor-ine17Cl​35.45 Argon18Ar​39.95 ... The calculation is exemplified for silicon, whose relative atomic mass is especially important in metrology. Silicon exists in ... The thirteen elements are: hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, argon, ... and the value for silicon is 28.0855(3). The relative standard uncertainty in this value is 1×10-5 or 10 ppm. To further ...
Some elements (silicon, boron, nickel, vanadium) are probably needed by mammals also, but in far smaller doses. Bromine is used ... Aluminium, the third most common element in the Earth's crust (after oxygen and silicon), serves no function in living cells, ... Silicon. 6995199999999999999♠20×10−6. 0.0010. 0.0058. Possibly[8]. 14 37. Rubidium. 6994459999999999999♠4.6×10−6. 0.00068. ...
Silicon. 11.68 Silicon nitride. 7-8 (polycrystalline, 1 MHz)[6][7] Ammonia. 26, 22, 20, 17 (−80, −40, 0, +20 °C) ...
Silicon. Hidden categories: *CS1: long volume value. *Articles needing additional references from July 2007 ...
Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel ... 2). The Earth's crustal rock is composed in large part of oxides of silicon (silica SiO. 2, as found in granite and quartz), ... Analysis of a silicon wafer exposed to the solar wind in space and returned by the crashed Genesis spacecraft has shown that ... as part of oxide compounds such as silicon dioxide and is the most abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust. It is also ...
silicon nitride 0.38 to 1.63 silicon carbide 0.47 to 1.31 highest amorphous metal 1.27 ...
Silicon is also very soluble and usually forms the compound SiO2•MxOy. Manganese mostly dissolves in ferrite forming the ... Common alloyants include manganese (the most common one), nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, and boron. Less ... Manganese, silicon, nickel, and copper are added to increase strength by forming solid solutions in ferrite. Chromium, vanadium ... silicon, or aluminium are added during the steelmaking process to remove dissolved oxygen, sulfur and phosphorus from the melt ...
Silicon carbide Solid SiC -74.4 [7], -71.5[8] Silicon tetrachloride Liquid SiCl4 −640.1 ...
Silicon carbide. SiC. Polymorphic. -. Various. -. 3.21. 2545. 4613 Vanadium carbide. VC. Cubic. -. -. -. 5.77. 2810 unstable. ... It has been shown that diboride ceramics synthesized as a composite with silicon carbide (SiC) exhibit increased fracture ... Current research targets increasing their toughness and oxidation resistance by exploring composites with silicon carbide, the ... 2010). "Microstructure, mechanical properties and thermal shock resistance of zirconium diboride containing silicon carbide ...
Silicon tetrachloride is prepared by the chlorination of various silicon compounds such as ferrosilicon, silicon carbide, or ... Silicon tetrachloride is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of polysilicon, a hyper pure form of silicon,[3] since it ... Silicon tetrachloride can also be hydrolysed to fumed silica. High purity silicon tetrachloride is used in the manufacture of ... Silicon tetrachloride (data page). References[edit]. *^ a b c P. W. Schenk (1963). "Phosphorus(V) fluoride". In G. Brauer. ...
... how Intel drives digital innovation with the worlds most advanced manufacturing and learn about what goes into making silicon ... Silicon Silicon, the principal ingredient in beach sand, is a natural semiconductor and the most abundant element on Earth ... Today silicon chips are everywhere. Intel creates industry-leading and world-first silicon products. These Intel® chips are ... To make wafers, silicon is purified, melted, and cooled to form an ingot, which is then sliced into discs called wafers. Chips ...
Silicon carbide. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed ... Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, silicic acid or silicic acid anydride is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula ... Dimeric silicon dioxide, (SiO2)2 has been prepared by reacting O2 with matrix isolated dimeric silicon monoxide, (Si2O2). In ... Silicon dioxide is used to produce elemental silicon. The process involves carbothermic reduction in an electric arc furnace:[ ...
Netropolitan took a train from San Francisco down into Silicon Valley (schedules at http: ... Silicon dreams. AFTER studying projectile dynamics at a baseball match last week,. Netropolitan took a train from San Francisco ... down into Silicon Valley (schedules. at http://www.caltrain.com), and was struck by the station signs. Mountain View,. ...
http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2009-10/22/help-us-map-london%27s-silicon-roundabout.aspx ... "The term "Silicon Roundabout" is attributed to Dopplrs Matt Biddulph, who defined it last year as "the ever-growing community ... Londons Silicon Roundabout. *Well, if it wasnt an establishment before, it sure is now. ... Women Engineers On the Rampant Sexism of Silicon Valley ...
That is -- he spends 20% of his time on Axcients culture and venture capitalists in Silicon Valley call him in to help their ... I also learned that Moore is a kind of Silicon Valley culture doctor. ...
This series presents reviews of the present and future trends in silicon science and will benefit those in chemistry, physics, ... It explores how silicon structures convey substance to many silicon materials with a molecular precision that defines silicon ... silicon metal), semiconductors (e.g. silicon carbide wafers), ceramic (e.g. porous silicon) or inert particulate fillers (e.g. ... It, like most other silicon materials, is unique.. This book series represents the journeys of many eminent silicon scientists ...
Custom Silicon Solutions (CSS) provides a true Turn-Key Solution to meet your Mixed Signal ASIC needs - from Development ... Custom Silicon Solutions is now engaged in several ASIC development/production programs with three major military/aerospace ...
‎With Richard (Thomas Middleditch) unexpectedly ousted as CEO, Season 3 picks up with him offered a diminished role of CTO and the rest of his team--Erlich (T.J. Miller), Jared (Zach Woods), Dinesh (Kumail Nanjiani) and Gilfoyle (Martin Starr)--facing the question of just how far their loyalty extend…
... nominated comedy series that probes the ripe-for-comedy world of Silicon Valley. Change is in the air in Season 4 as the Pied ... nominated comedy series that probes the ripe-for-comedy world of Silicon Valley. Change is in the air in Season 4 as the Pied ... nominated comedy series that probes the ripe-for-comedy world of Silicon Valley. Change is in the air in Season 4 as the Pied ...
In the high-tech gold rush of modern Silicon Valley, the people most qualified to succeed are the least capable of handling ... In the high-tech gold rush of modern Silicon Valley, the people most qualified to succeed are the least capable of handling ... In the high-tech gold rush of modern Silicon Valley, the people most qualified to succeed are the least capable of handling ...
Leading the Business and Economic Conversation in Silicon Valley with Daily Local Business News, Resources & more in Silicon ... Subscribe now to search our database of 6855 Silicon Valley Business Journal People on the Move submissions and download their ...
... tells CNBC Berlin has the potential to develop into a European Silicon Valley. ... Berlin as Europes Silicon Valley? 1:35 AM ET Mon, 3 June 2013 ... Berlin has the potential to develop into a European Silicon ...
Beijings Zhongguancun Science Park, China;s Silicon Valley, has been blazing a new trail in combining science and technology ... The Zhongguancun Management Committee has set up 10 overseas liaison offices in Silicon Valley and other places, and ...
Listen to Silicon Teens tracks for free online and get recommendations on similar music. ... See the latest images of Silicon Teens, including photoshoots, and artist pictures. ... See the latest images for Silicon Teens. ...
... represents more than 400 of Silicon Valleys most respected employers on issues, programs and campaigns that a ... The Silicon Valley Leadership Group, founded in 1978 by David Packard of Hewlett-Packard, ... The Silicon Valley Leadership Group, founded in 1978 by David Packard of Hewlett-Packard, represents more than 400 of Silicon ... The Silicon Valley Leadership Group, founded in 1978 by David Packard of Hewlett-Packard, represents more than 400 of Silicon ...
... theoretical work shows the advantages of bismuth qubits in silicon: M. H. Mohammady, G. W. Morley, and T. S. Monteiro. Phys. ... A bismuth atom in one slice of a silicon crystal. The large light green cloud shows the bound electron wavefunction, and the ... A bismuth atom in one slice of a silicon crystal. The large light green cloud shows the bound electron wavefunction, and the ... theoretical work shows the advantages of bismuth qubits in silicon: M. H. Mohammady, G. W. Morley, and T. S. Monteiro. Phys. ...
Media in category "Silicon dioxide". The following 47 files are in this category, out of 47 total. ... Footsteps In The Snow - Silicon dioxide nanoparticles.jpg 1,920 × 1,343; 1.56 MB. ... Look At The Sky - Silicon dioxide nanoparticles.jpg 1,920 × 1,343; 1.32 MB. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Silicon_dioxide&oldid=305758743" ...
If you could get the right ten thousand people to move from Silicon Valley to Buffalo, Buffalo would become Silicon Valley. [1] ... If you go to see Silicon Valley, what youll see are buildings. But its the people that make it Silicon Valley, not the ... Is that all it takes? That was all it took to make the original Silicon Valley. Silicon Valley traces its origins to William ... Of course, a would-be silicon valley faces an obstacle the original one didnt: it has to compete with Silicon Valley. Can that ...
... this volume in the Materials Characterization series focuses on the process flow of silicon wafer manufacture where ... - ... With a focus on the use of materials characterization techniques for silicon-based semiconductors, ... Application of Materials Characterization Techniques to Silicon Epitaxial Growth * 1.1 Introduction * 1.2 Silicon Epitaxial ... With a focus on the use of materials characterization techniques for silicon-based semiconductors, this volume in the Materials ...
Silicon Valley used to be a hotbed of high-tech manufacturing. Many companies moved their manufacturing to Asia but are now ... Silicon Valley used to be a big manufacturing center for all types of technology. When I first moved to the Santa Clara Valley ... I am also a Fellow of the IEEE and a member of the Consultants Network of Silicon Valley (CNSV). For more information about me ... Silicon Valley used to be a hotbed of high-tech manufacturing, that included digital storage, semiconductors, networking and ...
Dec 1st 2018Chip wars: China, America and silicon supremacy. ...
Silicon Valleys biggest companies pay Karen Wickre for her advice - but at the Help Desk, its free to you. ... The very people who might be affected by age discrimination often dont want to bring it up-especially in Silicon Valley. Lets ... Karen Wickre is Backchannels worklife columnist whos enjoyed a long run in Silicon Valley, including at Google and Twitter. ...
In view of the now wide spread acceptance of neutron doped silicon in the power device industry the present conference was ... On this occasion the various aspects of silicon fabrication were reviewed, including irradiation control, radiation induced ... largely directed towards the current status of transmutation doping of silicon. Accordingly, the scope of the three day confe ... that several types of power devices in the electronic industry would benefit from employing neutron transmutation doped silicon ...
Silicon Carbide - A Review of Fundamental Questions and Applications to Current Device Technology edited by Choyke, et al., ... Silicon Carbide: Recent Major Advances. Advanced Texts in Physics. Editors. Wolfgang J. Choyke, Hiroyuki Matsunami, Gerhard ... Silicon Carbide: Recent Major Advances. Wolfgang J. Choyke,Hiroyuki Matsunami,Gerhard Pensl. No preview available - 2012. ... Silicon Carbide: Recent Major Advances. Wolfgang J. Choyke,Hiroyuki Matsunami,Gerhard Pensl. Limited preview - 2003. ...
Silicon Valley, Season 6: Trailer. Season 6, Episode 101 TV-MA CC HD CC SD ... See where Richard and the Pied Piper gang are headed in the sixth and final season of the hit comedy series Silicon Valley. ... After years of false starts, Pied Piper is now a legitimate presence in Silicon Valley, thanks to their commitment to not mine ... that changes everything and sends the entire Pied Piper team racing to pull off the biggest bait-and-switch that Silicon Valley ...
... mostly as silicon dioxide. Silicon is hypothesized to play an essential role in the body, but this is uncertain. Silicon ... higher intake of silicon was associated with stronger bones. 12. Based on these findings, silicon has been proposed as a bone- ... Silicon is found whole grains, some root vegetables, and beer. Silicon-containing chemicals are also added to prevent caking in ... On some websites promoting silicon supplements, it is said that increased dietary silicon decreases aluminum absorption. ...
Most silicon supplements provide between 1 and 2 milligrams of silicon. What forms of silicon are available?. Silicon can be ... Silicon. What is silicon? Why do we need it?. Silicon is a non-metallic element, a mineral present in the earths soil. ... Many plants absorb silicon into their fibers, which are consumed by people as part of a regular diet. Silicon is believed to ... How much silicon should I take?. Because silicon is considered a nonessential element, scientists havent established a ...
... silicon tetrachloride, silicon chloride, perchlorosilane, silane, tetrachloro, silicon iv chloride, tetrachlorosilicon, chlorid ... silicon ethoxide, silicon tetraethoxide, silane, tetraethoxy, dynasil a, tetraethoxysilicon, ethyl orthosilicate PubChem CID: ... silicon carbide, carborundum, silicon monocarbide, carborundeum, tokawhisker, betarundum, carbolon, nicalon, silundum, carbon ... Silicon(IV) oxide, Amorphous fumed, S.A. 85 to 115m2/g, Alfa Aesar™. CAS: 7631-86-9 Molecular Formula: O2Si Molecular Weight (g ...
Startup Outlook 2012 is Silicon Valley Banks annual survey of perceptions by startup CEOs in software, hardware, life science ... Associate Development Program Flyer by Silicon Valley Bank 1539 views * Silicon Valley Bank 2017 State of t... by Silicon ... Trends in Healthcare Investments an... by Silicon Valley Bank 9173 views * Strengthening the U.S. Innovation E... by Silicon ... SVB Cybersecurity Impact on Innovat... by Silicon Valley Bank 4706 views * SVB M&A Healthcare Report 2013 by Silicon Valley ...
  • In 2018, Supermicro opened Building 21, Silicon Valley's first clean fuel-cell energy, automated 60-rack burn-in facility with robots to expedite the processing, delivery and deployment of large-scale datacenter investments. (forbes.com)
  • Silicon Valley's biggest companies pay Karen Wickre for her advice - but at the Help Desk , it's free to you. (wired.com)
  • Lécuyer argues that Silicon Valley's emergence and its growth were made possible by the development of unique competencies in manufacturing, in product engineering, and in management. (mit.edu)
  • News, music, movies & restaurants from the editors of the Silicon Valley's #1 weekly newspaper. (metroactive.com)
  • Myers Restaurant Supply LLC, is proud to acknowledge the recent flurry of awarded projects from some of Silicon Valley's largest tech companies. (prweb.com)
  • With Silicon Valley's tech economy extending to San Francisco, it's clear we need to think more broadly about transit, housing, jobs and our long-term economic competitiveness," he said. (yahoo.com)
  • Beijing's Zhongguancun district relies instead on a new kind of mimcry-of Silicon Valley's culture itself. (wsj.com)
  • Palantir Chief Executive Officer Alex Karp and Mr. Thiel both attended a recent summit between Trump and Silicon Valley's most powerful leaders. (csmonitor.com)
  • Silicon Valley's biggest failing is not poor marketing of its products, or follow-through on promises, but, rather, the distinct lack of empathy for those whose lives are disturbed by its technological wizardry. (newyorker.com)
  • Not sure I have much to say on the water crisis that is enlightening," said Vinod Khosla, one of Silicon Valley's pre-eminent venture investors who has made significant clean-tech investments, when asked about the drought last week. (nytimes.com)
  • To date, technology innovations around water conservation have largely come from Israel, home to an entrepreneurial culture that mirrors Silicon Valley's, plus more flexible policies and market incentives. (nytimes.com)
  • Nor is it hard to miss how Silicon Valley's economic model offers few opportunities for mechanical engineers, the people trained to design physical machines and their components. (asme.org)
  • Silicon Valley's entrepreneurs, venture capitalists, and big thinkers assume a shared definition of 'mathematics. (fastcompany.com)
  • In a 2003 speech, Kofi Annan, then U.N. secretary-general, challenged Silicon Valley's tycoons to look abroad, daring the valley to "bring more of its remarkable dynamism and innovation to the developing world. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Can Silicon Valley's Pro-Antitrust Congressman Navigate His Monopoly-Friendly District? (nymag.com)
  • Have Silicon Valley's biggest companies become too powerful? (nymag.com)
  • Recently, Facebook announced that it was building a housing community in Menlo Park to offset Silicon Valley's bone-dry supply of housing. (thenextweb.com)
  • Silicon tetrachloride can also be hydrolysed to fumed silica . (wikipedia.org)
  • Free silicon is also used in the steel refining, aluminium-casting, and fine chemical industries (often to make fumed silica). (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicon tetrachloride is prepared by the chlorination of various silicon compounds such as ferrosilicon , silicon carbide , or mixtures of silicon dioxide and carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rare occurrences, the silicon dioxide in silica is converted to silicon tetrachloride when the contaminated brine is electrolyzed . (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicon dioxide , also known as silica , silicic acid or silicic acid anydride is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula Si O 2 , most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uptake of amorphous silicon dioxide, in high doses, leads to non-permanent short-term inflammation, where all effects heal. (wikipedia.org)
  • it makes up more than a quarter of the earth's crust, mostly as silicon dioxide. (empowher.com)
  • Is Silicon Dioxide Safe? (healthline.com)
  • Silicon dioxide is one such ingredient. (healthline.com)
  • Silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), also known as silica, is a natural compound made of two of the earth's most abundant materials: silicon (Si) and oxygen (O 2 ). (healthline.com)
  • Silicon dioxide is most often recognized in the form of quartz. (healthline.com)
  • When you sit on a beach, it's silicon dioxide in the form of sand that gets between your toes. (healthline.com)
  • Silicon dioxide is also added to many foods and supplements. (healthline.com)
  • As with many food additives, consumers often have concerns about silicon dioxide as an additive. (healthline.com)
  • The fact that silicon dioxide is found in plants and drinking water suggests it's safe. (healthline.com)
  • While many of the studies on silica have been done on animals, researchers have found no link between the food additive silicon dioxide and increased risk of cancer , organ damage, or death. (healthline.com)
  • In addition, studies have found no evidence that silicon dioxide as an additive in food can affect reproductive health, birth weight, or bodyweight. (healthline.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also recognized silicon dioxide as a safe food additive. (healthline.com)
  • In 2018, the European Food Safety Authority urged the European Union to impose stricter guidelines on silicon dioxide until further research could be done. (healthline.com)
  • This paper found the only negative health effects related to silicon dioxide have been caused by silicon deficiency. (healthline.com)
  • Though the research so far suggests there aren't many risks associated with silicon dioxide ingestion, the FDA has set upper limits on its consumption: Silicon dioxide shouldn't exceed 2 percent of a food's total weight. (healthline.com)
  • Silicon dioxide exists naturally within the earth and our bodies. (healthline.com)
  • A good approach is to eat whole foods and get healthy levels of silicon dioxide. (healthline.com)
  • Elemental silicon [Note: Does not occur freely in nature, but is found in silicon dioxide (silica) and in various silicates. (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers made the membranes by first depositing a stack of three thin layers-an amorphous silicon layer sandwiched between two silicon-dioxide layers-on a silicon wafer. (technologyreview.com)
  • Then the researchers etch the wafer and silicon-dioxide layers to expose small squares of the nanoporous membrane that are 200 micrometers on each side. (technologyreview.com)
  • Compounds of silicon and hydrogen, known as silanes, react explosively with oxygen and react with water, forming silicon dioxide and water and silicon diox. (reference.com)
  • According to Chemicool, flint, or silicus, was likely the first use of the element silicon dioxide. (reference.com)
  • It is most widely distributed in space in cosmic dusts, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicon is in the same group of the periodic table as carbon, yet silicon carbide is not another form of diamond or graphite or even amorphous carbon black. (springer.com)
  • Exposing the wafer to temperatures higher than 700 ºC crystallizes the amorphous silicon, and it forms pores. (technologyreview.com)
  • Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius produced a sample of amorphous silicon and purified the substance, naming it silicium, from "silicis," which means "flint. (reference.com)
  • Gay-Lussac and Thénard are thought to have prepared impure amorphous silicon in 1811, through the heating of recently isolated potassium metal with silicon tetrafluoride, but they did not purify and characterize the product, nor identify it as a new element. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1823, Jöns Jacob Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon using approximately the same method as Gay-Lussac (reducing potassium fluorosilicate with molten potassium metal), but purifying the product to a brown powder by repeatedly washing it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicon Valley startups valuations , which had risen to fantastic figures in recent times, are being brought down to earth. (investopedia.com)
  • His neighbors include a handful of other space-related ventures, and together this cluster of startups resembles nothing so much as the early pioneers of the computing industry back in the days when tech companies first began setting up shop among the prune orchards of what would later be called Silicon Valley. (cnn.com)
  • When you add the myriad Silicon Valley startups that would be eager to build business models around the multi-billion dollar automotive industry, you wouldn't believe how futuristics cars can get. (theatlantic.com)
  • The produced polysilicon is used as wafers in large amounts by the photovoltaic industry for conventional solar cells made of crystalline silicon and also by the semiconductor industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • To make wafers, silicon is purified, melted, and cooled to form an ingot, which is then sliced into discs called wafers. (intel.com)
  • It incorporates reactions that have their own 'organic' chemistry (e.g. hydrosilylation) and covers solid materials that can be either metallic (e.g. silicon metal), semiconductors (e.g. silicon carbide wafers), ceramic (e.g. porous silicon) or inert particulate fillers (e.g. precipitated silica). (springer.com)
  • Aledia SA (Grenoble, France), has developed a method of forming light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on vertical pillars of gallium-nitride grown on silicon wafers. (eetimes.com)
  • So, from wafers, I will talk about this upcoming mainstream PV that was actually established very recently and is taking over the silicon PV industry, silicon p-PERC. (nrel.gov)
  • Have a look at MEMC's website (www.memc.com), they produce silicon wafers like the ones in the article. (slashdot.org)
  • Since the 1997 publication of "Silicon Carbide - A Review of Fundamental Questions and Applications to Current Device Technology" edited by Choyke, et al. (google.com)
  • Silicon compounds such as silicon carbide are used as abrasives and components of high-strength ceramics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystalline silicon irritates the eyes and causes skin inflammation on contact, while inhalation of the substance aggravates the mucous membranes of the respiratory system. (reference.com)
  • Studies suggest that regular occupational exposure to crystalline silicon and silica leads to lung cancer, bronchitis, chronic pulmonary obstructive disorder and emphysema. (reference.com)
  • Henri Deville produced what was known as crystalline silicon in 1854. (reference.com)
  • Hundreds of identical processors are created in batches on a single silicon wafer. (intel.com)
  • A series of compounds containing up to six silicon atoms in the chain can be separated from the mixture using fractional distillation . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the majority of silicates , the silicon atom shows tetrahedral coordination , with four oxygen atoms surrounding a central Si atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • The silicon atoms recrystallize into a near-perfect lattice, and the gold atoms don't have time to escape before getting trapped in the lattice. (technologyreview.com)
  • In this case, the new processing method produces a layer of silicon supersaturated with gold atoms. (technologyreview.com)
  • John Morton of the University of Oxford and colleagues succeeded by using a half-millimetre-wide crystal of silicon studded with phosphorus atoms. (newscientist.com)
  • Polycarbosilanes Based on Silicon-Carbon Cyclic Monomers, by E.Sh. (springer.com)
  • IBM recently demonstrated a 100GHz graphene transistor fabricated on a two-inch carbon wafer, which is faster than mainstream silicon transistors - although experimental silicon devices already run at over 60GHz. (zdnet.com)
  • Cast iron is mainly composed of iron, carbon and silicon, with a carbon content of 2 to 5 percent. (reference.com)
  • He retained part of Davy's name but added "-on" because he believed that silicon was a nonmetal similar to boron and carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicon, the principal ingredient in beach sand, is a natural semiconductor and the most abundant element on Earth except for oxygen. (intel.com)
  • On this occasion the various aspects of silicon fabrication were reviewed, including irradiation control, radiation induced defects, device optimization, and possible benefits of irradiating other semiconductor compounds. (google.com)
  • The largest Silicon Valley firms-including Eitel-McCullough (Eimac), Litton Industries, Varian Associates, Fairchild Semiconductor, and Intel-dominated the American markets for advanced tubes and semiconductors and, because of their innovations in manufacturing, design, and management, served as models and incubators for other electronics ventures in the area. (mit.edu)
  • Silicon, which forms the basis of most semiconductor and solar-cell technology, normally lets most infrared light pass right through. (technologyreview.com)
  • Additionally, it has the advantage of using silicon, a common semiconductor that is relatively low-cost, easy to process, and abundant. (technologyreview.com)
  • Researchers with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and UC Berkeley have successfully integrated ultra-thin layers of the semiconductor indium arsenide onto a silicon substrate to create a nanoscale transistor with excellent electronic properties ( abstract ). (slashdot.org)
  • Gallium arsenide (another III-IV semiconductor) also has some superior properties to silicon-based implementations (for example, its hole mobility). (slashdot.org)
  • The relatively small portion of very highly purified elemental silicon used in semiconductor electronics ( (wikipedia.org)
  • The most widely used silicon device is the MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor), which has been manufactured in larger numbers than any other device in history. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicon is one of the most-used elements in the world, as both its primary form and silicon compounds can be found in an almost endless number of different. (reference.com)
  • As editor of this volume I am very glad to have succeeded in persuading two scien- tists, W. Zulehner and D. Huber, of Wacker-Chemitronic GmbH - the world's largest producer of silicon-crystals - to write a comprehensive article about the practical and scientific aspects of growing silicon-crystals by the Czochralski method and about silicon- wafer manufacture. (springer.com)
  • But the 2013 Silicon Valley Index also finds that Hispanics and African-Americans in the world's high-tech center became increasingly marginalized. (yahoo.com)
  • Menlo Park, Calif. - Silicon Valley has a richly deserved reputation as the world's engine of technology innovation, with a track record that includes developing integrated circuits, microprocessors, personal computers and smartphones. (nytimes.com)
  • Silicon is a natural element, and when not previously present has a residence time of about 400 years in the world's oceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 15-nanometer-thick porous silicon membrane could lead to microfluidics filters and make protein purification and blood dialysis more efficient. (technologyreview.com)
  • A porous silicon membrane that is a few nanometers thick can quickly filter liquids and separate molecules that are very close in size, researchers at the University of Rochester report in this week's Nature . (technologyreview.com)
  • 5 Fifty women with sun-damaged skin were give either 10 mg silicon daily (as "choline stabilized orthosilicic acid") or placebo for 20 weeks. (empowher.com)
  • Silicon is a non-metallic element, a mineral present in the earth's soil. (acupuncturetoday.com)
  • Silicon is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals, making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust (about 28% by mass), after oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the abundance of silicon in the Earth's crust, natural silicon-based materials had been used for thousands of years. (wikipedia.org)
  • During his doctoral studies in Oxford and subsequently, John Murphy and his colleagues (particularly Peter Wilshaw, Robert Falster and Semih Senkader) used a novel dislocation locking technique to investigate the transport of oxygen in silicon. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The more recent work focussed on oxygen transport in silicon containing high concentrations of dopants (boron, arsenic, germanium) to understand the effect of lattice strain and Fermi level position. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • In 1787, Antoine Lavoisier suspected that silica might be an oxide of a fundamental chemical element, but the chemical affinity of silicon for oxygen is high enough that he had no means to reduce the oxide and isolate the element. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Germans are really good at cars, but since America is awesome at computers, BMW moved some of its top research and development duties to Silicon Valley way back in 1998, when the company opened its first Bay Area technology office near Stanford's campus. (theatlantic.com)
  • Subscribe now to search our database of 6855 Silicon Valley Business Journal People on the Move submissions and download their contact information. (bizjournals.com)
  • Advanced lithography supports the fabrication of both control electronics and qubits in silicon using technology compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) 2 . (nature.com)
  • 3M™ Silicon Nitride Telemetry Tooling is used in downhole logging operations where lightweight, high-strength, electrical resistance and nonmagnetic properties are required. (3m.com)
  • In the oil and gas industry, 3M™ Silicon Nitride Telemetry Tooling allows measurements while drilling (MWD) and meets the needs for equipment that goes deep into the earth. (3m.com)
  • Made from 3M™ Silicon Nitride, it provides the electrical resistance and nonmagnetic properties required for downhole telemetry tooling, and offers both reduced component weight and high strength. (3m.com)
  • That's what makes 3M silicon nitride an ideal choice to extend the life of components in oil exploration and recovery operations. (3m.com)
  • Our 3M silicon nitride telemetry tooling is made from 3M silicon nitride, which is a lightweight, high-strength ceramic material with excellent resistance to abrasion and corrosion. (3m.com)
  • 3M silicon nitride is also nonmagnetic, has high dielectric strength and offers microwave transparency. (3m.com)
  • 3M silicon nitride materials and components are produced at 3M manufacturing plants in the U.S., using unique compositions and processing techniques. (3m.com)
  • This microstructure toughens the silicon nitride by a crack-deflection process similar to that found in composite materials. (3m.com)
  • The result is a monolithic silicon nitride with extremely high hardness and increased fracture toughness. (3m.com)
  • 3M silicon nitride can be produced in cost effective, complex net shapes, thereby reducing or eliminating the need for expensive diamond grinding. (3m.com)
  • To take just one example, Palo Alto-based Nuru International , though funded with a modest $3 million a year by "angel investors from Silicon Valley," boasts on its website that its model of training and equipping local leaders "is designed to be the first self-sustaining, self-scaling, integrated development model to end extreme poverty in remote, rural areas, in our lifetime. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Although elemental silicon is inert and not inherently dangerous, certain processed forms of the element can cause negative health effects. (reference.com)
  • The late 20th century to early 21st century has been described as the Silicon Age (also known as the Digital Age or Information Age) due to elemental silicon having a large impact on the modern world economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is -- he spends 20% of his time on Axcient's culture and venture capitalists in Silicon Valley call him in to help their start-ups that are having trouble with turnover and productivity. (forbes.com)
  • Still, the rebound hasn't been a cure-all for everyone," said Russell Hancock, president of Joint Venture Silicon Valley, in releasing the report Tuesday. (yahoo.com)
  • Silicon Valley has long been an apolitical bastion of brainy engineers, entrepreneurs, and venture capitalists more concerned about the next hot social media startup than what's happening in Washington. (csmonitor.com)
  • A coalition of Silicon Valley entrepreneurs, venture capitalists and social media experts will on Monday launch a campaign for comprehensive immigration reform, which will culminate in a "virtual march" on Washington in April. (cnn.com)
  • In an interview, Bill Gurley, a venture capitalist at Benchmark Partners, said that Silicon Valley and venture-backed businesses have moved into a world that is both "speculative and unsustainable. (investopedia.com)
  • Liam Boogar, a Silicon Valley native who three years ago set up Rude Baguette, a start-up blog based in Paris, says French tech entrepreneurs have been going to California since the 1980s. (cnbc.com)
  • Ani's comments triggered an outpouring of reactions from mathematics teachers around the U.S. A couple of days later, Dan Meyer, a former math teacher now working on his Ph.D. at Stanford, weighed in with his own attack -this less about Khan Academy per se and more about Silicon Valley entrepreneurs' approach to capturing math in a computer program. (fastcompany.com)
  • Not content with dominating IPOs on Wall Street, Silicon Valley entrepreneurs are taking their can-do, failure-conquering, technology-enabled tactics to the challenge of global poverty. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Now, Prado and many of his fellow Silicon Valley denizens worry that Palantir's close ties to the incoming Trump administration could become the building blocks for a Big Brother-like firm that deploys its technology to track and surveil American citizens. (csmonitor.com)
  • Now, as Trump is set to take office after an election in which Russian hackers , internet trolls , and fake news all played a role, Silicon Valley is reassessing its place in the national political conversation and pockets of tech workers are beginning to speak out with a more forceful - and unified - voice. (csmonitor.com)
  • This series presents reviews of the present and future trends in silicon science and will benefit those in chemistry, physics, biomedical engineering, and materials science. (springer.com)
  • This is the first book of its kind to solely focus on silicon containing dendritic polymers. (springer.com)
  • Silicon is the basis of the widely used synthetic polymers called silicones. (wikipedia.org)
  • That's still a lot less abundant than silicon. (slashdot.org)
  • Building office buildings for technology companies won't get you a silicon valley, because the key stage in the life of a startup happens before they want that kind of space. (paulgraham.com)
  • Startup Outlook 2012 is Silicon Valley Bank's annual survey of perceptions by startup CEOs in software, hardware, life science and cleantech sectors nationwide. (slideshare.net)
  • 3. Message from Silicon Valley Bank The 2012 Startup Outlook Survey captures a U.S.economy in transition. (slideshare.net)
  • Just last month, their company was accepted into the Y Combinator Fellowship Program, which is run by a powerful Silicon Valley startup accelerator that distributed seed money to future giants like Airbnb and Reddit. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Why Did Startup Valuations Rise In Silicon Valley? (investopedia.com)
  • There are two main reasons why startup valuations rose in Silicon Valley. (investopedia.com)
  • In addition to Friday's news that the company would take to Silicon Valley to tap into the startup culture, the company's expansion will span the West Coast. (theatlantic.com)
  • Given the size of present-day silicon-crystals, this number is equivalent to 100000 silicon-crystals grown every year by either the Czochralski (80%) or the floating-zone (20%) technique. (springer.com)
  • But, to the best of my knowledge, no coherent and comprehensive article has been written that deals with "the art and science", as well as the practical and technical aspects of growing silicon- crystals by the Czochralski technique. (springer.com)
  • I am sure that many scientists or engineers who work with silicon- crystals -be it in the laboratory or in a production environment - will profit from the first article in this volume. (springer.com)
  • Silicon is a trace mineral and in found in the form of white crystals in bamboo stalks. (bellaonline.com)
  • Silicon rock crystals were familiar to various ancient civilizations, such as the predynastic Egyptians who used it for beads and small vases, as well as the ancient Chinese. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even the tiniest particle of it can destroy the usefulness of a silicon microchip - so much so that in many chip-manufacturing facilities, the wearing of gold jewelry is strictly prohibited. (technologyreview.com)
  • Beyond silicon microchip technology, revolutionary developments in nanoelectronics, perhaps centering on graphene, may evolve. (zdnet.com)
  • Silicon Valley Leadership Group is, according to their website, "a public policy business trade organization. (sourcewatch.org)
  • On some websites promoting silicon supplements, it is said that increased dietary silicon decreases aluminum absorption. (empowher.com)
  • SHAPIRO: That opposition pitted Northern California against Southern California, Internet platforms providers against content providers, Silicon Valley against Hollywood. (npr.org)
  • During his California trip, Medvedev will not meet Google co-founder Sergey Brin, a prominent émigré entrepreneur and one of the many tech experts of Russian background in Silicon Valley. (rferl.org)
  • The engineers from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) at the University of California, San Diego who are at the forefront of the latest "silicon revolution" will, for another year, dominate two of the most influential annual academic conferences focused on advanced wireless communications technologies - IMS 2010 and RFIC 2010. (scienceblog.com)
  • SiliCon with Adam Savage (formally Silicon Valley Comic Con) is an annual pop culture and technology convention, at the San Jose Convention Center in San Jose, California. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemicool states that silicon was named by Scottish chemist Thomas Thomson in 1831. (reference.com)
  • Silicon was given its present name in 1817 by Scottish chemist Thomas Thomson. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fromherz, in fact, read to the assemble engineers a worried comment from one observer from that time: Now that "a functioning neuro-net can be physically attached to a silicon chip," the observer said, we should explore the "philosophical and spiritual consequences. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Talend's co-founder Bertrand Diard recently told French newspaper LeMonde that engineers in France cost a third of their counterparts in Silicon Valley, where fierce competition for talent has driven up salaries. (cnbc.com)
  • The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion. (oreilly.com)
  • These electrical engineers from UC San Diego are at the leading edge of efforts to merge silicon chip technologies with sophisticated wireless communications tools in the millimeter and microwave range - technologies that traditionally have been too expensive for all but defense and satellite applications. (scienceblog.com)
  • A news release, this one from Spain (and my thanks to the reader who forwarded this to me) reports on the effect of higher silicon intake from dietary sources on aluminum absorption. (bellaonline.com)
  • Silicon tetrachloride is used as an intermediate in the manufacture of polysilicon , a hyper pure form of silicon, [3] since it has a boiling point convenient for purification by repeated fractional distillation . (wikipedia.org)
  • The average intake of silicon is approximately 10-40 mg daily. (empowher.com)
  • 7-11 Furthermore, in a major observational study , higher intake of silicon was associated with stronger bones. (empowher.com)
  • By reducing the intake of aluminum and increasing the intake of silicon, it may be possible to reverse this. (bellaonline.com)
  • The substance silicone, once used in breast implants, also contains silicon, but in an unusual synthetic form. (empowher.com)
  • A Combustion Pressure Sensor Utilizing Silicon Piezoresistive Effect," SAE Technical Paper 930351, 1993, https://doi.org/10.4271/930351 . (sae.org)
  • The chemical element silicon has four valence electrons. (reference.com)
  • Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason why silicon always finds use is the end cost (ease of fabrication, really). (slashdot.org)
  • It explores how silicon structures convey substance to many silicon materials with a molecular precision that defines silicon science and technology. (springer.com)
  • Beijing's Zhongguancun Science Park, China;s Silicon Valley, has been blazing a new trail in combining science and technology with economic development. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • I read occasionally about attempts to set up " technology parks " in other places, as if the active ingredient of Silicon Valley were the office space. (paulgraham.com)
  • Silicon Valley used to be a big manufacturing center for all types of technology. (forbes.com)
  • Using the tools of science and technology studies, he explores the formation of Silicon Valley as an industrial district, from its beginnings as the home of a few radio enterprises that operated in the shadow of RCA and other East Coast firms through its establishment as a center of the electronics industry and a leading producer of power grid tubes, microwave tubes, and semiconductors. (mit.edu)
  • Christophe Lécuyer is Professor of the History of Science and Technology at Université Pierre et Marie Curie and the author of Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930-1970 (MIT Press, 2005). (mit.edu)
  • What we forget is that underlying all this revolutionary technology is software -- the 0's and 1's that make Silicon Valley thrive. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • I will basically make a case that silicon PV has established its dominating power in the PV industry because of abundance, knowledge base, and technology, and, actually, indirect gap, as strangely as it might seem. (nrel.gov)
  • Then, I will talk about how silicon PV is done as a technology. (nrel.gov)
  • And then how recent or some of my colleagues also think how silicon PV will evolve beyond this p-PERC technology into the future. (nrel.gov)
  • Silicon Valley has been talking about water technology since they started talking about clean tech, but there are no new big ideas," said Joel Makower, the chairman and executive editor of the GreenBiz Group. (nytimes.com)
  • Silicon Valley has been talking about water technology since they started talking about clean tech, but there are no new big ideas," said Joel Makower, the chairman and executive editor of the GreenBiz Group, based in Oakland, Calif. "It all comes down to the price of water. (nytimes.com)
  • The ISSCC (International Solid State Circuit Conference) has started in San Francisco with keynote speaker James Meindl, professor of microelectronics at the Georgia Institute of Technology, making precise predictions about the future of silicon electronics and what will most likely follow in the post-silicon world. (zdnet.com)
  • Meindl is quoted as giving six reasons why he thinks graphene will be the post-silicon technology of choice for electronics. (zdnet.com)
  • He says that Silicon Valley was lucky to develop Information Technology (IT), a technology that is becoming cloud computing, a new platform. (zdnet.com)
  • Silicon Valley also leads in green technology, a large and growing market. (zdnet.com)
  • The convention aims to include both popular culture and technology in what Wozniak hopes will be a uniquely Silicon Valley flavor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers believe that because of a narrower range of pore diameters, the silicon membranes could separate proteins that are much closer in size than is possible with current sponge-like filters. (technologyreview.com)
  • After an attempt to isolate silicon in 1808, Sir Humphry Davy proposed the name "silicium" for silicon, from the Latin silex, silicis for flint, and adding the "-ium" ending because he believed it to be a metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The approach works by implanting gold into the top hundred nanometers of silicon and then using a laser to melt the surface for a few nanoseconds. (technologyreview.com)
  • One of the keys to this progress: advances in silicon circuit technologies that enable silicon based circuits to operate at millimeter and microwave frequencies. (scienceblog.com)
  • Raw silicon is grown into crystal ingots, which look like giant silver bolognas. (slashdot.org)
  • AFTER studying projectile dynamics at a baseball match last week, Netropolitan took a train from San Francisco down into Silicon Valley (schedules at http://www.caltrain.com ), and was struck by the station signs. (newscientist.com)
  • I n Making Silicon Valley , Christophe Lécuyer shows that the explosive growth of the personal computer industry in Silicon Valley was the culmination of decades of growth and innovation in the San Francisco-area electronics industry. (mit.edu)
  • Silicon Valley Comic Con will be the San Francisco Bay Area's first large multi-genre convention since the departure of WonderCon after that convention's 2011 show. (wikipedia.org)
  • MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif. (AP) -- The Silicon Valley is leading the rest of the country out of the recession with increased jobs, income and initial public offerings last year, according to a new regional report. (yahoo.com)
  • Most silicon supplements are derived from sugar cane, alfalfa, and the herb horsetail. (acupuncturetoday.com)