Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Silica Gel: A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Molecular Imprinting: A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.MiningAcrylic ResinsColloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).PolyvinylsPolyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Silicic Acid: A hydrated form of silicon dioxide. It is commonly used in the manufacture of TOOTHPASTES and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)AcrylatesViscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Silicon Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Diatomaceous Earth: A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Fluorocarbon PolymersChromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nanoshells: Nanometer range spherical cores of particular semiconductor compounds surrounded by an ultrathin metal shell that is commonly made of gold or silver. This configuration gives the nanoshells highly tunable optical properties. They have potential in biomedicine for diagnosis and therapy.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Polyvinylpyridine N-Oxide: Inhibits the cytotoxic action of quartz and is reported to have delayed the development of experimental silicosis in rats.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nanowires: Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Nanopores: Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Capillary Electrochromatography: A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.PolysaccharidesGlucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Physicochemical Processes: Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Biodegradable Plastics: Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.PolyaminesEquisetum: The only living genus of the order Equisetales, class Equisetopsida (Sphenopsida), division Equisetophyta (Sphenophyta); distantly related to ferns. It grows in moist places. The hollow, jointed, ridged stems contain SILICATES.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Polydeoxyribonucleotides: A group of 13 or more deoxyribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Nanoconjugates: Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Coal MiningBiomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
They are often enhanced with polymers and/ or latex.[citation needed] Structural grout is often used in reinforced masonry to ... The sanded variety contains finely ground silica sand; unsanded is finer and produces a non-gritty final surface. ... but thermoset polymer matrix grouts based on thermosets such as urethanes and epoxies are also popular. Portland cement-based ...
Polymers like HTPB and PBAN are often used for rocket fuels. Other polymers used are e.g. polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride ... E.g. fumed silica. For powder compositions, e.g. flash powder or gunpowder. Graphite is used in some cases to coat the grains, ... For such purpose, inert materials (e.g. clay, diatomaceous earth, alumina, silica, magnesium oxide, or others) or ... Used to harden the polymer component of composite rocket propellants. They include paraquinone dioxime, toluene-2,4- ...
Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter (November 2013). "Tuning the hydrophobicity of plasma polymer coated silica ... Plasma polymerized 1,7-octadiene films deposited on silica can produce particles with tuned hydrophobicity. "1,7-OCTADIENE". ...
An oil based defoamer also contains a wax and/or hydrophobic silica to boost the performance. Typical waxes are ethylene bis ... Silicone-based defoamers are polymers with silicon backbones. These might be delivered as an oil or a water based emulsion. The ... Powder defoamers are in principle oil based defoamers on a particulate carrier like silica. These are added to powdered ... In 1963 the first antifoams with hydrophobic particles (hydrophobic silica) in light oil were patented. In the early 1970s, ...
... trim and cross-link wall polymers. Secondary walls - especially in grasses - may also contain microscopic silica crystals, ... glucans: glucose polymers that function to cross-link chitin or chitosan polymers. β-glucans are glucose molecules linked via β ... Often, other polymers such as lignin, suberin or cutin are anchored to or embedded in plant cell walls. Algae possess cell ... The major polymers that make up wood (largely secondary cell walls) include: cellulose, 35-50% xylan, 20-35%, a type of ...
The most common materials used in the construction of the rotor are Polymer, Aluminum and Fiberglass. When using rotary energy ... Typical desiccants consist of silica gel, and molecular sieves. Enthalpy wheels are the most effective devices to transfer both ... Polymer fixed-plate countercurrent energy recovery ventilators were introduced in 1998 by Building Performance Equipment (BPE ... Typical media used consists of polymer, aluminum, and synthetic fiber. The enthalpy exchange is accomplished through the use of ...
TEOS is mainly used as a crosslinking agent in silicone polymers and as a precursor to silicon dioxide in the semiconductor ... While tetramethoxysilane is highly damaging to eyes since it deposits silica, TEOS is much less so due to lower hydrolysis rate ... TEOS is also used as the silica source for synthesis of some zeolites. Other applications include coatings for carpets and ... The Stöber process allows the formation of monodisperse and mesoporous silica. At elevated temperatures (>600 °C), TEOS ...
Court surfaces are made of various materials including rubber, silica, and acrylic resin. Laykold is manufactured by Advanced ... Polymer Technology, based in Harmony, Pennsylvania. Laykold is currently the surface of the Miami Open. sportsbyapt.com/brand/ ...
The basis of textile-grade glass fibers is silica, SiO2. In its pure form it exists as a polymer, (SiO2)n. It has no true ... In the polymer it forms SiO4 groups which are configured as a tetrahedron with the silicon atom at the center, and four oxygen ... Although pure silica is a perfectly viable glass and glass fiber, it must be worked with at very high temperatures, which is a ... Glass fiber is formed when thin strands of silica-based or other formulation glass are extruded into many fibers with small ...
Unlike the inorganic silica columns, the polymer monoliths are made of an organic polymer base. Dionex, traditionally known for ...
There are many types of nanoparticle delivery systems, such as silica, polymers, liposomes and magnetic particles. ...
Again, the slurry can be a molten state or a polymer-based one. There are a few differences between these groups. The SiC group ... Oxides commonly used are alumina, silica, mullite, and rare-earth phosphates. The process for impregnation is quite simple: a ... Nanometric bioceramic can be incorporated into the polymer from which the fabric is manufactured. Bioceramic nanoparticles are ... this step the matrix of the textile is infiltrated by a slurry made up of SiC particles which can either be put in a polymer or ...
Metastable polymorphs of silica are commonly observed. In some cases, such as in the allotropes of solid boron, acquiring a ... The bonds between the building blocks of polymers such as DNA, RNA and proteins are also metastable. Adenosine triphosphate is ...
... since glasses are complex cross-linked polymers. Typically, manufactured glass contains around 15% sodium oxide, 70% silica ( ... Soda glass has a much lower melting temperature than pure silica, and has slightly higher elasticity. These changes arise ... serves as a flux to lower the temperature at which the silica melts. ...
This strategy has been analyzed for polymers, silicas, activated carbons and metal-organic frameworks. Amine impregnated solids ... Solid sorbents for carbon capture include a diverse range of porous, solid-phase materials, including mesoporous silicas, ...
Cheraghian, Goshtasp (2017). "Evaluation of Clay and Fumed Silica Nanoparticles on Adsorption of Surfactant Polymer during ... Polymer adsorption[edit]. Main article: polymer adsorption. Adsorption of molecules onto polymer surfaces is central to a ... Polymer-based compounds - Are polar or non-polar functional groups in a porous polymer matrix. ... Polymers may also be adsorbed to surfaces through polyelectrolyte adsorption. Adsorption in viruses[edit]. Adsorption is the ...
4.1 Silica, SiO2. *4.2 Polymers. *5 Mechanics of vitrification *5.1 Electronic structure ... glass transition (in polymer science): Process in which a polymer melt changes on cooling to a polymer glass or a polymer glass ... Polymers[edit]. In polymers the glass transition temperature, Tg, is often expressed as the temperature at which the Gibbs free ... Silica, SiO2[edit]. Silica (the chemical compound SiO2) has a number of distinct crystalline forms in addition to the quartz ...
The silica core confers rigidity and thermal stability. Silsesquioxanes are known in molecular form with 6, 8, 10, and 12 Si ... This polymer which, unlike its phenyl derivative, gels easily during the course of its synthesis, has found applications in ... Dijkstra, T.W.; Duchateau, R.; Van Santen, R.A.; Meetsma, A.; Yap, G.P.A. (2002). "Silsesquioxane Models for Geminal Silica ... Other notable silsesquioxane polymers include the soluble polymethylsilsesquioxane with high molecular weights described by ...
The influence of the embedding process was studied for silica and polymer fiber Bragg gratings. Temperature, humidity, strain, ... 4. Polymer fiber Bragg gratings - Prior to the commencement of PHOSFOS, gratings in polymer optical fibre (POF) only existed in ... Because the polymer devices are much more flexible they do not distort the material as much and therefore give a much most ... Using a fiber Bragg grating in an eccentric core polymer has been shown to yield a high sensitivity to bend. Other recent ...
Unlike the inorganic silica columns, the polymer monoliths are made of an organic polymer base. Dionex, traditionally known for ... there is currently a trend in developing nanoscale capillary and prep scale silica monoliths. Silica monoliths have only been ... Silica monoliths, on the other hand, are created in a mold, undergo a significant amount of shrinkage, and are then clad in a ... Silica monoliths, especially, have a tendency to pull away from the sides of their column encasing. When this happens, the flow ...
Silica is used in ceramic brick. Silicate goes into Portland cement for mortar and stucco, and when combined with silica sand ... Silicon is the basis of the ubiquitous synthetic silicon-based polymers called silicones. Elemental silicon also has a large ... It is much more important to the metabolism of plants, particularly many grasses, and silicic acid (a type of silica) forms the ... It is most widely distributed in dusts, sands, planetoids, and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or ...
CNN) 21 January - Iranian researchers develop a silica-based nano-absorbent to filter harmful heavy metals from waste water. 28 ... 3 January - British scientists report that they have made artificial arteries out of flexible polymer. (PressTV) (Royal Free ...
... such as steel or silica. Low rolling resistance tires typically incorporate silica in place of carbon black in their tread ... Material - different fillers and polymers in tire composition can improve traction while reducing hysteresis. The replacement ... Tyres-Online: The Benefits of Silica in Tyre Design Астахов, p.85 Деев, p. 79. Hay, p.68 Астахов, Chapt. IV, p. 73+; Деев, Sect ... of some carbon black with higher-priced silica-silane is one common way of reducing rolling resistance. The use of exotic ...
... silica gel, and organic porous polymers such as Tenax and Amberlite XAD resins. Solid sorbents are selected for sampling ...
On a porous polymers and silica gel, CO elutes with air just before CH4, and CO2 elutes between CH4 and C2H6 except on ... It also elutes just after ethane from silica gel and the retention time is considerably longer than on porous polymers. For ...
Silica gel - SiO2·nH2O. *Silicic acid - [SiOx(OH)4-2x]n ... Polymer chemistry. Inorganic. *Bioinorganic chemistry. * ...
"Proton Conductivity through Polybenzimidazole Composite Membranes Containing Silica Nanofiber Mats." Polymers 11, no. 7: 1182. ... Keywords: fuel cells; proton exchange membrane; polymer; polybenzimidazole; silica; nanofibers; electrospinning; proton ... Proton Conductivity through Polybenzimidazole Composite Membranes Containing Silica Nanofiber Mats. Polymers 2019, 11, 1182. ... Proton Conductivity through Polybenzimidazole Composite Membranes Containing Silica Nanofiber Mats. Polymers. 2019; 11(7):1182 ...
Staff publications is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research. Staff publications contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.. Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.. Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.. We have a manual that explains all the features ...
We intend to design single-ion conducting silica nanoparticles which provide CPEs with high Li+ transference numbers. We also ... Our approach is to use nanoparticulate silica fillers to formulate novel composite electrolytes consisting of surface-modified ... fumed silica nano-particles in polyethylene oxides (PEO) in the presence of lithium salts. ... The ultimate objectives of this research are to understand the principles underpinning nano-composite polymer electrolytes ( ...
In this aqueous solution, silica particles form due to a polymerization reaction and agglomeration and, finally, build a gel. ... Silica in industrial production processes is precipitated by mixing an acid and an inorganic precursor. ... Wilhelm, S.; Kind, M. On the Relation between Natural and Enforced Syneresis of Acidic Precipitated Silica. Polymers 2014, 6, ... Wilhelm S, Kind M. On the Relation between Natural and Enforced Syneresis of Acidic Precipitated Silica. Polymers. 2014; 6(12): ...
Sulfonated silica particles are admixed with sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK)/sulfonated poly (vinylidene fluoride- ... Nanosulfonated silica incorporated SPEEK/SPVdF-HFP polymer blend membrane for PEM fuel cell application. *P. Martina1. , ... Martina, P., Gayathri, R., Pugalenthi, M.R. et al. Nanosulfonated silica incorporated SPEEK/SPVdF-HFP polymer blend membrane ... Lufrano F, Baglio V, Di Blasi O (2012) Solid polymer electrolyte based on sulfonated polysulfone membranes and acidic silica ...
Specifically, the internal storage and release of siRNA from mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) with orthogonal core-shell ... A new general route for siRNA delivery is presented combining porous core-shell silica nanocarriers with a modularly designed ... Highly efficient siRNA delivery from core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles with multifunctional polymer caps ... Highly efficient siRNA delivery from core-shell mesoporous silica nanoparticles with multifunctional polymer caps K. Möller, K ...
... Pettersson, Torbjörn KTH, School of Chemical Science and ... Fibre and Polymer Technology On the subject. Chemical Sciences Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle Scholar. ... 11th International Biorelated Polymer Symposium / 243rd National Spring Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), MAR 25- ... Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5444-7276 ...
Fibre and Polymer Technology On the subject. Polymer Chemistry Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle Scholar. ... Honeycomb Patterned Membranes from Polymer Modified Silica Nanoparticles. Nyström, Daniel KTH, School of Chemical Science and ... AFM, SEM, ATRP, honeycomb membranes, self-assembly, silica nanoparticles National Category Polymer Chemistry Identifiers. URN: ... Isoporous membranes, Silica nanoparticles, ATRP, Functional surfaces, cellulose National Category Polymer Chemistry Identifiers ...
The materials are synthesized by trapping mesoporous silica nanoparticles within a hyperbr ... The materials are synthesized by trapping mesoporous silica nanoparticles within a hyperbranched polymer network made from poly ... Multifunctional hybrid aerogels: hyperbranched polymer-trapped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for sustained and prolonged drug ... Multifunctional hybrid aerogels: hyperbranched polymer-trapped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for sustained and prolonged drug ...
The International Journal of Polymer Science is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles ... and molar mass of the polymer. The addition of polymer to the system increased the zeta potential due to adsorption of polymer ... The impact of molar mass of the polymer, pH, and pretreatment temperature of silica particles have been evaluated by means of ... The zeta potential of the aqueous silica suspension was decreased with the increase in pH. The amount of polymer adsorbed was ...
Methods for Dispersing Silica Nanoparticles in Polymer Matrix. The techniques commonly used for the silica-polymer ... Thus, focus is given to synthetic silica (colloidal silica, silica gels, pyrogenic silica, and precipitated silica), which is ... 4. Silica-Filled Polymer Nanocomposites. One of the prominent applications of silica nanoparticles is as fillers or ... Silica nanoparticles are widely applied as fillers in silica-polymer nanocomposites. The most commonly used route for ...
... the manufacturing and the commercialization of high value silica-based and specialty products for chromatography, analytical ... Therefore the polymer has an organic backbone whereas the silica gel has an inorganic one. The polymer is more susceptible to ... What is the difference between silica and polymer?. Both are made from the linkage of repetitive units. In the case of polymers ... SiliaSphere - Spherical Silica Gels * SiliaSphere - Bulk Analytical Spherical Silica Gels * SiliaSphere 60 Å - Bare Spherical ...
Heterogeneous copper catalysts were prepared by the deposition of CuI on a hybrid material consisting of silica and a polymer ... Heterogeneous azide-alkyne cycloaddition in the presence of a copper catalyst supported on an ionic liquid polymer/silica ...
... ... A new method using compressed CO2 for the in situ functionalization of mesoporous silica with hyperbranched polymers Written by ... Bottom-up approach for the preparation of hybrid nanosheets based on coordination polymers made of metal-diethyloxaloacetate ... for the in situ polymerization of ethyleneimine inside mesoporous silica. ...
Polymer Engineering & Science" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic ... "Polymerization compounding of polyurethane‐fumed silica composites." Polymer Engineering & Science 46.3 (2006): 360-371.. ... Dubois, C., Rajabian, M., & Rodrigue, D. (2006). Polymerization compounding of polyurethane‐fumed silica composites. Polymer ... Soxhlet extractions were conducted to confirm grafting of the polymer on the solid surface. The amount of grafted polymer was ...
Moreover, the silica type has a clear influence on catalyst activity and polymer morphology. The smallest silica particles ... The Effects of Silica Support on Kinetic Behavior and Polymer Properties of Heterogonous Metallocene Catalyst. ... The silica types showed no effect on the MWD, but had a slight effect on the CCD. Silica with a high pore volume had a stronger ... However, all alkylaluminums used in this work had no effect on the CCD of the produced polymer regardless of silica type. ...
POLYMER ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE, 48 (2). pp. 216-222. Text Processability studies of silica hermoset polymer merged Watts.doc ... Processability studies of silica hermoset polymer merged W….pdf Available under License : See the attached licence file. ... The aim of this study is to investigate the processability of silica-thermoset polymer matrix nanocomposites in terms of ... Two thermosetting resins were considered, an epoxy and a polyester resin, with 5 % silica, although 1% silica was also used in ...
Infrared, spectral, directional-hemispherical reflectance of fused silica, Teflon polytetrafluoroethylene polymer, chrome oxide ... Indices of Refraction for Fused Silica. Wavelength. n. k. (. μm. ). Refractive Index (dimensionless). Extinction Coefficient ( ... Temperature sensitivity of chromatic dispersion in nonlinear silica and heavy metal oxide glass photonic crystal fibers ... Fresnel-based predictions for fused silica parallel and perpendicular polarized reflections are compared to measurements. It is ...
Polymer, and Carbon), Form (Blanket, Panel, Particle, and Monolith), Processing (Virgin, Composites, and Additives), ... Heavy Industry»Materials & Chemicals»Plastics»Polymers Aerogel Market by Type (Silica, Polymer, and Carbon), Form (Blanket, ... Aerogel Market by Type (Silica, Polymer, and Carbon), Form (Blanket, Panel, Particle, and Monolith), Processing (Virgin, ... Higher demand for polymer aerogels is due to their higher mechanical strength than silica aerogels. Additionally, the strong ...
... and then the Silica-polymer composites were treated with an aqueous NH4HF2 solution to dissolve the Silica matrix. FT-IR ... The Silica template conjugate was co-polymerized with a functional monomer (methacrylic acid) and cross-linker (ethylene glycol ... The resulting polymer was found as specific affinity toward naphthalene and phenanthrene. The reason for the higher sensitivity ... were adopted for the characterization of the surface and structure of the molecularly imprinted polymer,also,the specific ...
Gundogdu, O, Jenneson, PM, Tuzun, U, Gray, GM and Hay, JN (2007) Monitoring intermediate processing of polymer-silica hybrid ... Monitoring intermediate processing of polymer-silica hybrid nanoparticle clusters by X-ray microtomography ...
Hybrid particles comprising aggregated fumed silica nanoparticles as the core and hydrophobic polymers existing around the ... Fumed silica/polymer hybrid nanoparticles prepared by redox-initiated graft polymerization in emulsions. Zeitschrift:. Journal ... Fumed silica/polymer hybrid nanoparticles prepared by redox-initiated graft polymerization in emulsions ... Hybrid particles comprising aggregated fumed silica nanoparticles as the core and hydrophobic polymers existing around the ...
Silica-polymer nanocomposites were also produced by mixing commercial silica colloid/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) fine ... Phosphorus-Containing Polymers, Their Blends, and Hybrid Nanocomposites with Poly(Hydroxy Ether), Metal Chlorides, and Silica ... The dry films produced by solution casting are transparent and silica colloids are evenly dispersed (~ 12 nm) into the polymer ... In comparison, the silica/polysulfone hybrid films prepared by the same methods were opaque and the char yield was not improved ...
... thermoresponsive polymers; ATRP; grafting; HPLC; Title: PEGylated Chromatography: Efficient Bioseparation on Silica Monoliths ... PEGylated Chromatography: Efficient Bioseparation on Silica Monoliths Grafted with Smart Biocompatible Polymers Tan, I., ... Efficient Bioseparation on Silica Monoliths Grafted with Smart Biocompatible Polymers. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 1( ...
Polymer Coated Silica Nanoparticles. Various coating materials are possible - PEG, PVAc, Polyimide, Polystyrene. Polishing, CMP ... Polymer Coated Silica Nanoparticles. Polymer coated silica nanoparticles are made with various forms of polymer coating to ... The polymer coating thickness varies depending on the polymer type and the solution pH. Bulk pricing is also available. ... GE&R silica nanoparticles are synthesized using a Stober method to provide high purity spherical particles with narrow size ...
  • Thus, focus is given to synthetic silica (colloidal silica, silica gels, pyrogenic silica, and precipitated silica), which is pure and produced mostly in amorphous powder forms compared to natural mineral silica (quartz, tridymite, cristobalite) which are in crystalline forms [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Aggregation of Colloidal Silica. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Polyvinyl chloride development Polyethylene terephthalate development Neoprene, the world's first synthetic rubbers Dacron polyester Polyethylene terephthalate fibers Teflon Polytetrafluoroethylene dispersions 2,4-d 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides Sulfonylurea herbicides and preemergent herbicides Ludox colloidal silica Vazo free radical initiators The Bunker (building number not recorded) Though it is not shown on the map, there was an underground bunker between buildings 228 and 262. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicon metal and alloys are produced in electric furnaces.The raw materials are quartz,coal and woodchips.The smoke that results from furnace operation is collected and sold as silica fume, silica fume consists primarily of amorphous(non-crystalline) silicon dioxide(SiO2),its average granule diameter is 0.15~0.20um,specific surface area is 15000~20000m 2 /kg,and it has extremely strong surface active. (alibaba.com)
  • In addition to its application in the automotive industry for low rolling resistance tires, silica is also used in the food and animal feed industries, and in the paint and coatings industry. (coatingsworld.com)
  • General-purpose affinity-ligand coated microspheres, including streptavidin, protein A/G, lectins (WGA, ConA), biotin, and secondary antibody coatings on polymer, silica or magnetic microsphere matrices are assigned an expiration date that is 12 months from shipment. (bangslabs.com)
  • Compañ, V. Proton Conductivity through Polybenzimidazole Composite Membranes Containing Silica Nanofiber Mats. (mdpi.com)
  • The ultimate objectives of this research are to understand the principles underpinning nano-composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) and facilitate development of novel CPEs that are low-cost, have high conductivities, large Li+ transference numbers, improved electrolyte-electrode interfacial stability, yield long cycle life, exhibit mechanical stability and are easily processable. (unt.edu)
  • Advancement in nanotechnology has led to the production of nanosized silica, SiO 2 , which has been widely used as filler in engineering composite. (hindawi.com)
  • The most prevalent of which is silica aerogel with the key property being very high thermal insulation (λ = 15-25 mW/m.K), the commercial applications to date centre almost exclusively around silica composite panels and blankets for their use in thermal management. (idtechex.com)
  • The transparent polymer-nanoparticle composite will be applied to glass, and will improve the thermal insulation and the soundproofing of a window. (energy.gov)
  • The structure of porous silica spheres on nanofibres was produced in the presence of the polymer or composite fibres. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The operation of non-humidified condition of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using composite sPEEK-silica membrane is reported. (portalgaruda.org)
  • Here we reported the effect of silica in hydrocarbon sPEEK membrane that contributes for a better water management system inside the cell, and showed 0.16 W/cm2 of power density which is 78% higher than that of non-silica modified [Keywords: composite membrane, polyether-ether ketone, silica, proton exchange membrane fuel cell]. (portalgaruda.org)
  • The composite siding blends natural wood ingredients with structural polymers to give new homes and remodeling projects a durable finish that stands above the rest. (prweb.com)
  • Roelofs KS, Hirth T, Schiestel T (2011) Dihydrogenimidazole modified silica-sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) hybrid materials as electrolyte membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells. (springer.com)
  • Rangasamy VS, Thayumanasundaram S, Seo JW (2015) Vibrational spectroscopic study of pure and silica-doped sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) membranes. (springer.com)
  • Ren S, Sun G, Li C (2006) Sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)/polyvinylidene fluoride polymer blends for DMFCs. (springer.com)
  • Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that both poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) were successfully grafted onto the fumed silica surface. (springerprofessional.de)
  • This dissertation has focused on the nature of the phosphonyl group interactions with hydroxyl containing polymers, such as the poly(hydroxy ether)s. (vt.edu)
  • Miscible polymer blends with PHE were also made by blending poly(arylene thioether phosphine oxide), and fully cyclized phosphine oxide containing polyimides based on (prepared from 2,2'-bis[4-(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy)phenyl]propane dianhydride (BPADA) and bis(m-aminophenyl) methyl phosphine oxide (DAMPO)) or bis(m-aminophenyl) phenyl phosphine oxide). (vt.edu)
  • 11. A process as in claim 3 wherein the polymer is poly(vinyl chloride). (google.co.uk)
  • A novel adjustable porous polymer monolith layer open tubular silica capillary microextraction (PLOT-ME) device was fabricated by thermal polymerization of a poly(glycidylmethacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (GMA-co-EDMA) polymer film (∼20 µm) within a 250 µm internal diameter silica capillary initiated with 4,4′-azobis(4-cyanopentanoyl chloride). (macewan.ca)
  • The incorporation of HG-silica into a sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPAEK) membrane increases the proton conductivity at a low RH by an order of magnitude. (kaist.ac.kr)
  • In the simplest case, carbon yields a polymer called poly-acetal, a plastic used in synthetic fibers and equipment. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The present work focuses on the development of a new eco-efficient method, based on the use of compressed CO 2 as a solvent, reaction medium and catalyst, for the in situ polymerization of ethyleneimine inside mesoporous silica. (icmab.es)
  • On the other hand, the polymer monoliths were prepared via the copolymerization of β-CD methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in different ratios in situ in fused silica capillary. (edu.au)
  • with different types of polymers and complete study polymer network formed in situ during curing of the on workability, flexural strength and Water retentivity has concrete. (scribd.com)
  • Carbon-supported Pd catalysts (Pd/CBs) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) were modified with transition metals to enhance their catalytic activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Park, K, Matsune, H , Kishida, M & Takenaka, S 2017, ' Carbon-supported Pd-Ag catalysts with silica-coating layers as active and durable cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells ', International Journal of Hydrogen Energy , 巻. (elsevier.com)
  • Polymers, titanium dioxide, silica polymorphs, zinc oxide and carbon nanotube s were the most frequently reported ENMs. (cdc.gov)
  • Surfaces of hydrophobic polymers are treated to reduce their friction resistance characteristics when in contact with an aqueous environment by exposing the surfaces to an oxidation treatment, preferably by use of radio frequency glow discharge. (google.co.uk)
  • 14. The method of claim 13 which further comprises providing a polymer resin consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). (google.co.uk)
  • 15. The method of claim 13 which further comprises reinforcing the thread with a separate sheath surrounding the polymer resin. (google.co.uk)
  • 16. The method of claim 13 which further comprises forming the polymer resin around a separate interior core. (google.co.uk)
  • 10 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the reactant scavenger comprises an acid adsorbent and physical properties of the polymer component are stabilized in a range of 25% over a period of thirty days. (google.es)
  • 2. A method according to claim 1 wherein the binder comprises a semicrystalline fluorinated organic polymer. (google.ca)
  • To investigate this process, pyrogenic silica blended into a molten polymer (polydimethyl siloxane) of low molecular weight was investigated at the CRG beamline BM2 using coherent X-ray spectroscopy. (esrf.eu)
  • The Kirk products are liquid when first prepared, but are subject to the danger of gelling through continued polymerization of the silicaPa danger inherent in any silica product of low molecular weight. (google.com)
  • The silica monoliths were prepared via the sol-gel technique in fused silica capillary followed by modification of the bare silica monoliths with an anchor group prior to polymerization with β-CD methacrylate using either 2,2′-azobis(isobutyronitrile) or benzoylperoxide as radical initiators. (edu.au)
  • The Middle East & Africa is the largest market for silica fume, due to its growing demand in the UAE and Saudi Arabia. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • These investigations include studying the influence of the pore volume, surface area, particle size distribution, and the surface chemical characteristics of silica support on the catalyst performance. (queensu.ca)
  • We have formulations to make any silica particle size between 20nm and 1000nm - with available bulk pricing. (geandr.com)
  • The micro properties of the produced polymers, such as MWD and chemical composition distribution (CCD), were studied to understand the effects of the type and size of silica support and co-catalyst on these properties. (queensu.ca)
  • The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for the controlled placement of a shear-thinnable polymer composition into a moving web. (google.ca)
  • The controlled placement is preferably performed by applying the polymer composition onto a surface of a moving web, shear thinning the composition and placing. (google.ca)
  • The controlled placement is preferably performed by applying the polymer composition onto a surface of a moving web, shear thinning the composition and placing it into the web, and curing the polymer composition. (google.ca)
  • or has both encapsulated structural elements and an internal layer of polymer composition. (google.ca)
  • 6. Apparatus as set forth in claim 1 including means for measuring an amount of the polymer composition applied to the moving web. (google.ca)
  • the composition has a film forming binder solids content of about 30-70% by weight contains about (A) 50-80% by weight, based on the weight of the binder, of a hydroxy functional acrylic polymer of polymerized. (google.com.au)
  • 3. The coating composition of claim 2 in which the acrylic polymer consists essentially of about 10-50% by weight styrene, 5-20% by weight of methyl methacrylate, 10-40% by weight of hydroxy alkyl methacrylate, 2-10% weight of acrylic acid or methacrylic acid that has been reacted with the glycidyl ester. (google.com.au)
  • 4. The coating composition of claim 3 in which the acrylic polymer consists essentially of styrene, methyl methacrylate, hydroxy ethyl methacrylate, acrylic acid and glycidyl ester. (google.com.au)
  • A new general route for siRNA delivery is presented combining porous core-shell silica nanocarriers with a modularly designed multifunctional block copolymer. (rsc.org)
  • X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) were employed for characterizing the polymer electrolytes. (springer.com)
  • From the XRD and FTIR confirms the phase analysis and complex formation of the prepared polymer electrolytes. (springer.com)
  • Hercules Chemical Company, Inc. has been granted a patent for a refractory furnace cement that can be formulated to be air settling and substantially free of silica. (coatingsworld.com)
  • Two thermosetting resins were considered, an epoxy and a polyester resin, with 5 % silica, although 1% silica was also used in preliminary studies in the polyester system. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In the case of polymers it is the repetition of monomer units (Styrene, ethylene, glycol, etc.) and for silica, it is the repetition of SiO4. (silicycle.com)
  • Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) are the major sub-segments of polymer materials in the global 3D printing market. (marketwatch.com)
  • Physicochemical and electrochemical characterizations such as ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, lambda values, temperature-dependent proton conductivity, and performance for prepared polymer composites are also analyzed. (springer.com)
  • The highest proton conductivity value obtained for the 6 wt% S-SiO 2 incorporated polymer membrane of 80 wt% SPEEK-20 wt% SPVdF-HFP is 7.9 × 10 −2 S cm −1 . (springer.com)
  • The heterogeneous metallocene catalyst is becoming a very competitive industrially due to its ability to produce tailor-made polymers. (queensu.ca)
  • The aim of this thesis is to investigate the effects of the silica support on the reaction kinetics and micro properties of the heterogeneous metallocene catalyst system. (queensu.ca)
  • Each catalyst in terms of silica type behaved similarly regardless of type of alkylaluminum used in the formulation. (queensu.ca)
  • Silica gel is not affected in any way by any organic solvent since the pore structure is rigid, permanent, and consequently is mechanically and thermally stable. (silicycle.com)
  • On changing the solvent to octane the profiles indicate collapse of the polymer layer and there is a dramatic decrease in the pressure required to hold the quartz plates at the same sepn. (bris.ac.uk)