Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Anabaena: A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Archaeal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of archaeon.Single-Cell Analysis: Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Myxococcales: An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Crenarchaeota: A kingdom in the domain ARCHAEA comprised of thermoacidophilic, sulfur-dependent organisms. The two orders are SULFOLOBALES and THERMOPROTEALES.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.Nostoc: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.Haloferax volcanii: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Methanococcus: A genus of anaerobic coccoid METHANOCOCCACEAE whose organisms are motile by means of polar tufts of flagella. These methanogens are found in salt marshes, marine and estuarine sediments, and the intestinal tract of animals.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Methanobacteriaceae: A family of anaerobic, coccoid to rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIALES. Cell membranes are composed mainly of polyisoprenoid hydrocarbons ether-linked to glycerol. Its organisms are found in anaerobic habitats throughout nature.Gametogenesis: The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).Myxococcus xanthus: A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Methanosarcina: A genus of anaerobic, irregular spheroid-shaped METHANOSARCINALES whose organisms are nonmotile. Endospores are not formed. These archaea derive energy via formation of methane from acetate, methanol, mono-, di-, and trimethylamine, and possibly, carbon monoxide. Organisms are isolated from freshwater and marine environments.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.DNA, Algal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Nitrification: A process facilitated by specialized bacteria involving the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Nitrogenase: An enzyme system that catalyzes the fixing of nitrogen in soil bacteria and blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA). EC The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Methanobacterium: A genus of anaerobic, rod-shaped METHANOBACTERIACEAE. Its organisms are nonmotile and use ammonia as the sole source of nitrogen. These methanogens are found in aquatic sediments, soil, sewage, and the gastrointestinal tract of animals.Desulfurococcaceae: A family of archaea, in the order DESULFUROCOCCALES, consisting of anaerobic cocci which utilize peptides, proteins or carbohydrates facultatively by sulfur respiration or fermentation. There are eight genera: AEROPYRUM, Desulfurococcus, Ignicoccus, Staphylothermus, Stetteria, Sulfophoboccus, Thermodiscus, and Thermosphaera. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2d ed)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Halobacteriales: An order of extremely halophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They occur ubiquitously in nature where the salt concentration is high, and are chemoorganotrophic, using amino acids or carbohydrates as a carbon source.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.RNA, Algal: Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Pyrococcus: A genus of strictly anaerobic ultrathermophilic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated seawaters. They exhibit heterotrophic growth at an optimum temperature of 100 degrees C.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Chlamydomonas: A genus GREEN ALGAE in the order VOLVOCIDA. It consists of solitary biflagellated organisms common in fresh water and damp soil.Methanosarcinales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. There are two families: METHANOSARCINACEAE and Methanosaetaceae.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Haloferax: A genus of extremely halophilic HALOBACTERIACEAE which are chemoheterotropic and strictly aerobic. They are found in neutral saline environments such as salt lakes (especially the Dead Sea) and marine salterns.Sulfolobus acidocaldarius: A species of aerobic, chemolithotrophic ARCHAEA consisting of coccoid cells that utilize sulfur as an energy source. The optimum temperature for growth is 70-75 degrees C. They are isolated from acidic fields.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Pyrococcus abyssi: A species of gram-negative hyperthermophilic ARCHAEA found in deep ocean hydrothermal vents. It is an obligate anaerobe and obligate chemoorganotroph.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Azotobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Micronucleus, Germline: The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.Methanosarcinaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOSARCINALES whose cells are mesophilic or thermophilic and appear as irregular spheroid bodies or sheathed rods. These methanogens are found in any anaerobic environment including aquatic sediments, anaerobic sewage digesters and gastrointestinal tracts. There are four genera: METHANOSARCINA, Methanolobus, Methanothrix, and Methanococcoides.Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Tetrahymena thermophila: A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.AcetyleneGenes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Sulfolobus solfataricus: A species of thermoacidophilic ARCHAEA in the family Sulfolobaceae, found in volcanic areas where the temperature is about 80 degrees C and SULFUR is present.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Pyrococcus furiosus: A species of strictly anaerobic, hyperthermophilic archaea which lives in geothermally-heated marine sediments. It exhibits heterotropic growth by fermentation or sulfur respiration.Methanococcales: An order of anaerobic methanogens in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They are pseudosarcina, coccoid or sheathed rod-shaped and catabolize methyl groups. The cell wall is composed of protein. The order includes one family, METHANOCOCCACEAE. (From Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1989)Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Archaeoglobus fulgidus: A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Thermococcus: A genus of extremely thermophilic heterotrophic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated sea flows. They are anaerobic chemoorganotropic sulfidogens.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Halobacteriaceae: A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Methanosarcina barkeri: A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Picolinic AcidsGene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Thermoplasma: A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Guanosine Tetraphosphate: Guanosine 5'-diphosphate 2'(3')-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing four phosphate groups. Two phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5' position and the other two in the 2' or 3' position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot I.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
... plant cells and fungal cells) also have a cell wall. Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that contains the genome (DNA), ... Cell surface membranes also contain receptor proteins that allow cells to detect external signaling molecules such as hormones ... The bacterial flagellum stretches from cytoplasm through the cell membrane(s) and extrudes through the cell wall. They are long ... archaea) which only possess the cell membrane layer. The envelope gives rigidity to the cell and separates the interior of the ...
As an endosymbiont evolves into an organelle, most of their genes are transferred to the host cell genome.[20] The host cell ... On the origin of mitosing cells.[16] In her 1981 work Symbiosis in Cell Evolution she argued that eukaryotic cells originated ... chloroplasts and bacterial cell membranes; that cardiolipin is found only in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial ... New mitochondria and plastids are formed only through binary fission, the form of cell division used by bacteria and archaea.[ ...
... pathway and have their signal peptide removed by signal peptidase. The S. aureus genome encodes two sets of sortase and ... Budzik JM, Marraffini LA, Schneewind O (October 2007). "Assembly of pili on the surface of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells". ... or Archaea (e.g. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum), where cell wall LPXTG-mediated decoration has not been reported. ... Kang HJ, Middleditch M, Proft T, Baker EN (February 2009). "Isopeptide bonds in bacterial pili and their characterization by X- ...
... effector cell Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells ... cells in your pancreas (known as beta cells) are signaled to release insulin into your bloodstream. interferon A group of ... vacuole A membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells ... white blood cell A component of blood that functions in the immune system. Also known as a leukocyte. whole genome sequencing ...
The primary result of mitosis and cytokinesis is the transfer of a parent cell's genome into two daughter cells. The genome is ... While in bacterial cell division, after duplication of DNA, two circular chromosomes are attached to a special region of the ... Nuclear division takes place only in cells of organisms of the eukaryotic domain, as bacteria and archaea have no nucleus. ... The same division happens during asexual reproduction or vegetative propagation in plants.. Variations[edit]. Forms of mitosis[ ...
Pink nodes: cell signaling. Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Brown nodes: ... by early eukaryotic cells to form the first plant cells. Therefore, chloroplasts may be photosynthetic bacteria that adapted to ... Some archea use a simpler method that employs a pigment similar to those used for vision in animals. The bacteriorhodopsin ... "Development of the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 9 (6): 625-31. doi:10.1016/j.mib. ...
Just as in animals, plant cells differentiate and develop into multiple cell types. Totipotent meristematic cells can ... will cause a chain reaction of signals to the entire plant via a type of cell termed a bundle sheath cell. Researchers, from ... Plants have some of the largest genomes among all organisms.[73] The largest plant genome (in terms of gene number) is that of ... Archaea. Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta ...
... plant cells and fungal cells) also have a cell wall.. *Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that contains the genome (DNA ... Cell surface membranes also contain receptor proteins that allow cells to detect external signaling molecules such as hormones ... The bacterial flagellum stretches from cytoplasm through the cell membrane(s) and extrudes through the cell wall. They are long ... archaea) which only possess the cell membrane layer. The envelope gives rigidity to the cell and separates the interior of the ...
... rescuing their genomes [51]. Hence, mixing cells had just to combine pre-existing mechanisms of Archaea, i.e. cell fusion and ... 2016 Stress-triggered redox signalling: whats in prospect? Plant Cell Environ. 39, 951-964. (doi:10.1111/pce.12621). ... The large amount of ROS coming from a bacterial endosymbiont gave rise to DNA damage and vast increases in host genome mutation ... one vegetative macronucleus for protein-transcription and cell functions and one generative micronucleus for meiosis and ...
Bacterial flagella and movement. *Cell cycle: growth, division, and regulation (including signal transduction) ... Major topics in cellular structure and function include prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, metabolic pathways and their ... Whole genome expression (e.g., microarrays). *Regulation of gene expression by RNAi (e.g., siRNA) ... Distinctive features of major phyla (vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction). *Generalized life cycles ...
... xanthus vegetative cells, and to stimulate germination of myxospores, increasing the proportion of predatory vegetative cells ... archaea and fungi. Many potential prey of M. xanthus communicate amongst themselves using acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as ... xanthus vegetative cells, and to stimulate germination of myxospores, increasing the proportion of predatory vegetative cells ... and stimulate the motility and predatory activity of vegetative cells. We therefore propose that in the wild, M. xanthus uses ...
... plant cells and fungal cells) also have a cell wall. Inside the cell is the cytoplasmic region that contains the genome (DNA), ... Cell surface membranes also contain receptor proteins that allow cells to detect external signaling molecules such as hormones ... The bacterial flagellum stretches from cytoplasm through the cell membrane(s) and extrudes through the cell wall. They are long ... archaea) which only possess the cell membrane layer. The envelope gives rigidity to the cell and separates the interior of the ...
... signaling, and cell adhesion to cell-cell recognition. The cell wall of dinoflagellates is a subcellular component of ... Proteins related to cell defense were also identified in cell wall of A. catenella. PMP is a bacterial outer membrane protein ... The cell wall is an important subcellular component of dinoflagellate cells with regard to various aspects of cell surface- ... and probably Archaea and cooperates with MinC to form a division inhibitor at the cell division site that is topologically ...
The actin homologue MreB organizes the bacterial cell membrane. Nat. Commun. 5:3442. doi:10.1038/ncomms4442. ... and vegetative cells (whole cells). We separated and extracted total lipids from cells, analyzed the mixtures by LC-MS, and ... the signal of each of the PE species was divided by the signal of the PE standard DMPE (Table 1). The corrected signal from ... E. coli genome manipulation by P1 transduction. Curr. Protoc. Mol. Biol. Chapter 1:Unit 1.17. doi:10.1002/0471142727.mb0117s79. ...
... archaea and eukaryotes. Bacterial ChrA homologues confer chromate resistance by exporting chromate ions from the cells ... Our data suggest that BEM46 plays a role in a signal transduction pathway involved in determining or maintaining cell type- ... This work also has implications for higher eukaryotic cells with polarized growth, such as pollen tubes or neuronal cells. ... Vegetative hyphae, perithecia, and ascospores developed normally, but hyphae germinating from ascospores exhibited a loss-of- ...
Section 4- Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Structure and Function- Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes, mechanisms ... Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli; RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses; Microbial genomics. ... Section 4- Cell structure and organelles; Biological membranes; Transport across membranes; Signal transduction; Hormones and ... spores and vegetative cells, gram-staining. Microbial growth: growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique. Food ...
Cell Signaling in primary cells.Practical: Adhesion assay, Cell death and cell cycle in primary brain cells, immunofluorescence ... Virus replication and genome expression. Process of infection- animal, plant and bacterial cells. Molecular mechanisms of viral ... Bergeys manual - classification of bacteria, fungi, algae and archea. The study of microbial structure by use of light, phase ... patterning in vegetative and flower meristems; growth and tissue differentiation in plants; evolution of developmental ...
Innovative Technology Improves Our Understanding of Bacterial Cell Signaling. Cyclic di-GMP (Guanine Monophosphate) is found in ... 2008) A korarchaeal genome reveals insights into the evolution of the Archaea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(23), 8102-7. ... In Nature Microbiology, a team led by JGI researchers has developed a pipeline to generate genomes from single cells of ... expressed sequence tags from the maize foliar pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis identify novel genes expressed during vegetative ...
Cell shape and structure: Long filaments of vegetative cells where 1 in 10 cells differentiates into a heterocyst.. , ... It also has the smallest genome(580 kbp) and it is parasitic. f. This bacterial species ferments complex carbohydrates and ... For each species of bacteria or archaea, state:. , Broad category or phylum. , Cell shape and structure. , Metabolism and ... They are competent for transformation, receivint an external cell signal to make the translocasome.. ,Disease/Habitat: They ...
In contrast, AtNHX1-4 subtype evolved in ancestral plants to handle ion homeostasis of vacuoles in all cell types. The strong ... would infer a role of ion and pH homeostasis at dynamic endomembranes to support vegetative and reproductive success of ... Homologs from spirogyra or moss share high similarity with guard cell-specific AtCHX20, suggesting that AtCHX20 and its ... Homologs from spirogyra or moss share high similarity with guard cell-specific AtCHX20, suggesting that AtCHX20 and its ...
As an endosymbiont evolves into an organelle, most of their genes are transferred to the host cell genome.[20] The host cell ... On the origin of mitosing cells.[16] In her 1981 work Symbiosis in Cell Evolution she argued that eukaryotic cells originated ... chloroplasts and bacterial cell membranes; that cardiolipin is found only in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial ... New mitochondria and plastids are formed only through binary fission, the form of cell division used by bacteria and archaea.[ ...
... and bacterial vegetative whole cells (both Gram positive and Gram negative). Each sample was categorized into ten distinct ... using the single-cell assembly tool SPAdes. Single-cell genomics is becoming an accepted method to capture novel genomes, ... In contrast, there was low diversity of Archaea, nearly all of which were related to methanogenic Archaea, with the majority ... Most of this heat signal likely stems from the germination of thermophilic endospores (6.66 × 10(4) cells ml(-1) FLUID) and ...
... pathway and have their signal peptide removed by signal peptidase. The S. aureus genome encodes two sets of sortase and ... Budzik JM, Marraffini LA, Schneewind O (October 2007). "Assembly of pili on the surface of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells". ... or Archaea (e.g. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum), where cell wall LPXTG-mediated decoration has not been reported. ... Kang HJ, Middleditch M, Proft T, Baker EN (February 2009). "Isopeptide bonds in bacterial pili and their characterization by X- ...
Mol Cell 13 549 559. 3. BergeratAde MassyBGadelleDVaroutasPCNicolasA 1997 An atypical topoisomerase II from Archaea with ... NishantKTWeiWManceraEArguesoJLSchlattlA 2010 The bakers yeast diploid genome is remarkably stable in vegetative growth and ... Článek Cholesterol Metabolism Is Required for Intracellular Hedgehog Signal Transduction Článek Produces a Long Noncoding RNA ... Článek Bacterial Communities of Diverse Species: Ecological Context of a Host-Microbe Model System ...
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Structure and Function:. Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes, mechanisms of solute ... Bacterial genome with special reference to E.coli; Phage ? and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses; Basic ... Cell structure and organelles; Biological membranes; Transport across membranes; Signal transduction; Hormones and ... morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gram-staining. ...
... a number of cytoplasmic proteins without predicable or known signal sequences or secretory motifs have been found in... ... Antelmann H, Tjalsma H, Voigt B, Ohlmeier S, Bron S, van Dijl JM, Hecker M (2001) A proteomic view on genome-based signal ... Group B streptococcus GAPDH is released upon cell lysis, associates with bacterial surface, and induces apoptosis in murine ... Naclerio G, Baccigalupi L, Caruso C, De Felice M, Ricca E (1995) Bacillus subtilis vegetative catalase is an extracellular ...
A mixture of vegetative cells and asci is then treated with the enzyme zymolyase to digest away the membrane sac surrounding ... Indeed, ROS play important roles in many cellular signaling pathways (proliferation, cell activation 5, 6, migration 7 etc..). ... in cotyledons inoculated with DC3000 indicates a role of ROS in modulating necrotic cell death during bacterial speck disease ... Genome sequencing projects have ciphered millions of protein sequence, which require knowledge of their structure and function ...
Targeting of two signal transduction pathways to different regions of the bacterial cell. Mol. Microbiol. 50:763-770. doi: ... Left) Abundances of cytoplasmic chemoreceptors in Archaea and Bacteria. Chemoreceptors were identified from complete genomes in ... FrzCD in one cell transiently aligns with that in another as cells make side-to-side contacts. An intact Frz signaling pathway ... It possesses two soluble chemoreceptors, FrzCD and Mcp7 (Table 2). FrzCD controls vegetative swarming and starvation-induced ...
Panels a, f, l and s show vegetative cells (note that one vegetative cell is also present in the middle of panel b and on the ... Článek A Year of Infection in the Intensive Care Unit: Prospective Whole Genome Sequencing of Bacterial Clinical Isolates ... of cells with fragmented MAC; 5 to 20: 5 to 20 hours after "0" time point. Y-axis shows mean signals. ... TFIIS is conserved in most eukaryotes and functional homologs are also found in Archaea (GreA and GreB proteins) and in some ...
The N1pC/P60 proteins define a family of cell-wall peptidases that are widely represented in various bacterial lineages. ... and certain archaea. The eukaryotic members include lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), nematode developmental regulator ... this superfamily includes the AcmB/LytN and YaeF/YiiX families of bacterial proteins, the amidase domain of bacterial and ... These eukaryotic proteins, along with the bacterial YaeF/poxviral G6R family, show a circular permutation of the catalytic ...
Indeed, genome size estimations using flow cytometry indicated similar haploid genome sizes in S. salmonicida and G. ... intestinalis (~12 Mb), whereas the S. barkhanus genome is larger (~18 Mb). This study indicates extensive divergent genome ... Conversely, no allelic variation was found in a previous genome survey of S. salmonicida. This difference was confirmed by ... Genomic traits such as codon usage, frequency of allelic sequence variation, and genome size have changed considerably between ...
Changes in either genome can result in variations that can be selected for or against. The host genome is highly conserved, and ... We argue that rapid changes in the microbiome genome could allow holobionts to adapt and survive under changing environmental ... genetic changes within it occur slowly, whereas the microbiome genome is dynamic and can change rapidly in response to the ... conditions thus providing the time necessary for the host genome to adapt and evolve. As Darwin wrote, ...
... many archaea, and eukaryotic organelles. The first recognizable step of bacterial cell division is the assembly of FtsZ into a ... Thus, while nucleoid occlusion affects the formation of Z rings and division septa in E. coli and vegetative cells of B. ... In the hyphae of class 2, the intensity of the fluorescence was higher and the signal was mainly diffuse except for one or two ... End-to-end fusion of linear deleted chromosomes initiates a cycle of genome instability in Streptomyces ambofaciens. Mol. ...
  • The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. (
  • Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, that all cells come from preexisting cells, and that all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells. (
  • Symbiogenesis , or endosymbiotic theory , is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski , and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967. (
  • It is not yet clear how these and other factors interplay in order to bring about the correct placement of the Z ring in space and time, and the underlying molecular mechanisms are only partially understood for the main model organisms and remain largely unknown for many bacterial lineages. (
  • Escherichia coli was one of the best-studied organisms and was revealed to have more than 271 TFs in its whole genome. (
  • Here, we present version 5.0, featuring a major update of the underlying genome sets, which have been expanded to 4445 representative bacteria and 168 archaea derived from 25 038 genomes, as well as 477 eukaryotic organisms and 2502 viral proteomes that were selected for diversity and filtered by genome quality. (
  • CRISPR/Cas9-induced genome editing is being used in numerous organisms including microalgae. (
  • Genome editing has many applications that have been shown in other organisms, and the possibility of these applications in microalgae will also be evaluated. (
  • The combination of the genome sequence, the functional diversity encoded therein, and the presence of some pathways missing from other model organisms makes T. thermophila an ideal model for functional genomic studies to address biological, biomedical, and biotechnological questions of fundamental importance. (
  • Although the worm C. elegans may not much resemble humans, the molecules that regulate signal transduction in these two organisms prove to be quite similar. (
  • Given that 24 genomes sequences have been completed and many more projects are currently underway, the point has been reached where there is an urgent need to summarise and review the current molecular biology, genomics, and evolution of these important organisms. (
  • Rates of spontaneous mutation per genome as measured in the laboratory are remarkably similar within broad groups of organisms but differ strikingly among groups. (
  • Meiosis is the specialized cell division used in sexually reproducing organisms to produce haploid gametes from diploid cells (reviewed by Petronczki et al , 2003 ). (
  • Viridiplantae encompass a group of organisms that have cellulose in their cell walls, possess chlorophylls a and b and have plastids that are bound by only two membranes that are capable of storing starch. (
  • The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms . (
  • Some organisms, such as most bacteria , are unicellular (consist of a single cell). (
  • The cell theory , first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann , states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells. (
  • Prokaryotic cells are usually independent, while eukaryotic cells are often found in multicellular organisms. (
  • This, in turn, leads in inadequate ATP (energy) production and the presence of unwelcome anaerobic cells and organisms. (
  • Since then, new technologies have enabled significant progress in our understanding of the diversity of structures and functions of RNA molecules that exist in the cells of all organisms. (
  • First Monoploid Reference Sequence of Sugarcane For the highly polyploid sugarcane, an international team of researchers has successfully assembled a first monoploid reference sequence using a targeted approach that focused on the gene rich part of the genome by harnessing information from a sequenced related species - sorghum. (
  • DAS Tool for Genome Reconstruction from Metagenomes Through the JGI's Emerging Technologies Opportunity Program (ETOP), researchers have developed and improved upon a tool that combines existing DNA sequence binning algorithms, allowing them to reconstruct more near-complete genomes from soil metagenomes compared to other methods. (
  • New Software Tools Streamline DNA Sequence Design-and-Build Process Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) have developed a suite of build-optimization software tools (BOOST) to streamline the design-build transition in synthetic biology engineering workflows. (
  • For most substrates of sortase enzymes, the recognition signal consists of the motif LPXTG (Leu-Pro-any-Thr-Gly), then a highly hydrophobic transmembrane sequence, followed by a cluster of basic residues such as arginine. (
  • Genomic traits such as codon usage, frequency of allelic sequence variation, and genome size have changed considerably between S. barkhanus and S. salmonicida . (
  • 3. The genetically engineered host cell of claim 1, wherein the heterologous promoter is a promoter comprising a nucleotide sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO: 4, SEQ ID NO: 5, SEQ ID NO: 6, SEQ ID NO: 7, and SEQ ID NO: 8. (
  • 8. The genetically engineered host cell of claim 1, wherein the heterologous promoter is a promoter comprising the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, and wherein the polynucleotide encoding the RNA degradation gene is SEQ ID NO: 20. (
  • Furthermore, cTFbase provides phylogenetic trees of individual TF family, multiple sequence alignments of the DNA-binding domains and ortholog identification from any selected genomes. (
  • We present an extension of the Minimum Information about any (x) Sequence (MIxS) standard for reporting sequences of uncultivated virus genomes. (
  • Draft Genome Sequence of Actinomyces odontolyticus subsp. (
  • 2006) Macronuclear Genome Sequence of the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a Model Eukaryote. (
  • We also acknowledge Genome Canada for support of EST library construction and sequencing through the Protist EST Project and grant RR-009231 to EO from the National Institutes of Health (the National Center for Research Resources) which supported the RAPD and Cbs work and an EO subcontract to NSF grant MCB-0132675 which supported sequence analyses related to number of chromosomes and their copy number. (
  • The completion of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome sequence gives us an opportunity to decipher the molecular nature of its signal transduction machinery. (
  • However, these analyses were limited by sequence availability due to the lack of sequence genomes and available cDNA libraries, which resulted in incomplete or weakly supported hypotheses about CDF family phylogeny within plants. (
  • This can be accomplished because different gene features, such as exons, introns, promoters, polyadenylation signal etc are associated with unique patterns in the DNA sequence. (
  • Adjacent to the PTC is the entrance of the protein exit tunnel, shown to play active roles in sequence-specific gating of nascent chains and in responding to cellular signals. (
  • Community-wide adoption of MIUViG standards, which complement the Minimum Information about a Single Amplified Genome (MISAG) and Metagenome-Assembled Genome (MIMAG) standards for uncultivated bacteria and archaea, will improve the reporting of uncultivated virus genomes in public databases. (
  • In order to orchestrate population-wide behaviors such as biofilm formation, quorum signaling (QS) systems are often used by bacteria to regulate gene expression ( Miller and Bassler, 2001 ). (
  • 2. The genetically engineered host cell of claim 1, wherein the RNA degradation gene is an endogenous gene. (
  • The soma-like macronucleus (MAC), which possesses a genome processed from that of the MIC, is the center of gene expression and does not directly contribute DNA to sexual progeny. (
  • With this versatility comes the need to tightly regulate its genome to optimise its gene expression and behaviour to the prevailing conditions. (
  • [email protected]#To construct a eukaryotic expression vector of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) and to investigate the effect of TFPI-2 gene on the growth of acute monocytic leukemia cell line (SHI-1). (
  • [email protected]#The human TFPI-2 gene eukaryotic expression vector PEGFP-N1-TFPI-2 was successfully constructed, then the transfected into SHI-1 cells, observed by fluorescence microscopy 24 hours later, as a result, the PEGFP-N1-TFPI-2 was successfully transferred into SHI-1 cells, and the number of fluorescent cells increased after 48 h and 72 h. (
  • [email protected]#The expression of TFPI-2 gene in PEGFP-N1-TFPI-2 can inhibit the growth of SHI-1 cells, which provides a research direction for gene therapy of leukemia in the future. (
  • [email protected]#To construct eukaryotic expression vectors for human platelet CD36 gene 220 C>T and 429+4insg variants and analyze their expressions in HEK293T cells. (
  • Within land plants, local expansion continues within select groups, while several groups are strictly maintained as one gene copy per genome. (
  • As observed before, the genomic variation inside the Ctr genomes is very low and the phylogenetic placement in comparison to publicly available genomes is as expected by ompA gene serotyping. (
  • When a eukaryotic cell replaces a broken gene with the backup version, it's called "gene conversion" ( 2 ), an excellent example of robust software management. (
  • Here we address these questions by investigating the function of a gene circuit that responds to reactive oxygen species damage in archaea, microorganisms that represent the third domain of life. (
  • other loosestrife of gene, a crop synthesized with a manganese-deficiency of banana, may find if the cell assessment has biological, back if an transgenic crew of breakdown has in the motorcycle. (
  • Sequential 16S rRNA gene and transcript amplicon sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with Raman microspectroscopy revealed that only few bacterial species were the main degraders of 13C-spirulina necromass. (
  • Adenoviruses are popular gene delivery vehicles because they efficiently transduce many different cell types, including hard-to-transfect terminally differentiated cells. (
  • Hidden Giants in Forest Soils In Nature Communications, giant virus genomes have been discovered for the first time in a forest soil ecosystem by JGI and University of Massachusetts-Amherst researchers. (
  • Although bacterial viability-linked community characterizations are now feasible in many environments and thus are the focus of this critical review, further methods development is needed for complex environmental samples and to more fully capture the diversity of microbes (e.g., eukaryotic microbes and viruses) and metabolic states (e.g., spores) of microbes in natural environments. (
  • Fungal and bacterial endophytes are primarily acquired via contagious spread from the surrounding environment. (
  • ROS can be detrimental (it is then referred to as "oxidative and nitrosative stress") when produced in high amounts in the intracellular compartments and cells generally respond to ROS by upregulating antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) that protects them by converting dangerous free radicals to harmless molecules (i.e. water). (
  • A PakD-GFP fusion protein localizes to an intracellular punctum that is not the nucleus or centrosome, and PakD-GFP is also occasionally observed at the rear cortex of moving cells. (
  • The gram-positive soil bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is a hyphal organism with a complex developmental cycle that imparts unique features to its cell division ( 8 , 16 ). (
  • When antisense DNA or RNA is added to a cell, it binds to a specific mRNA molecule and inactivates it by physically blocking the ability of ribosomes to move along the messenger RNA or by simply accelerating its degradation. (
  • TFIIS4 depletion impairs the assembly of a functional somatic genome and affects excision of a large fraction of IESs, which leads to strong lethality in the sexual progeny. (
  • 7. It is always necessary to prepare a tissue culture to study viruses, as they can't grow without a host cell. (
  • Mutation rates in RNA viruses, whose genomes contain ca. 10 4 bases, are roughly 1 per genome per replication for lytic viruses and roughly 0.1 per genome per replication for retroviruses and a retrotransposon. (
  • Crucially, single ROS initiation events can generate multiple reactions and radical molecules by complex chain reactions (mostly catalysed by metal cations in Fenton reactions) that affect all cell components [ 20 ]. (
  • Therefore, it seems that the presence of xenic quorum signaling molecules enhances the predatory activity of M. xanthus . (
  • Chemotaxis is a motility-based response that biases cell movement toward beneficial molecules, called attractants, and away from harmful molecules, also known as repellents. (
  • Here, we present a comparative analysis of the enzymes and adaptor molecules that are the key components of the protein phosphorylation signaling network present in C. elegans . (
  • Recognition by T cells of the MHC molecules on an allogeneic individual's antigen-presenting cells which results in allograft rejection in vivo and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in vitro . (
  • Metabolism , including taking in raw materials, building cell components, converting energy , molecules and releasing by-products . (
  • The functioning of a cell depends upon its ability to extract and use chemical energy stored in organic molecules. (
  • Based on these data, we conclude that AtHDT1/2 repress the transcription of AtGA2ox2 , and likely fine-tunes GA homeostasis to regulate the switch from cell division to expansion in root tips. (
  • In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis , which divides the cytoplasm , organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. (
  • Innovative Technology Improves Our Understanding of Bacterial Cell Signaling Cyclic di-GMP (Guanine Monophosphate) is found in nearly all types of bacteria and interacts with cell signaling networks that control many basic cellular functions. (
  • We suggest that this universal coupling constitutes a generic law of cell migration, which originates in the advection of polarity cues by an actin cytoskeleton undergoing flows at the cellular scale. (
  • The The Semantic Web: crafting infrastructure will be modular to command roles for subject plant on an cellular DNA of the system to depend attacked initially on the Princeton University Press impact, and ever also demonstrate still-unregulated to interaction genomes, travelled vector, and 700+ readers as they are brought. (
  • In this study, we investigated whether changes in the phylogenetic composition of bacterioplankton were associated with changes in bacterial carbon processing (bacterial production, respiration and biomass) in the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean. (
  • The chemoreceptors transduce this information to the central regulator of bacterial chemotaxis, the CheA kinase ( Fig. 1 ) (reviewed in references 1 and 2 ), which in turn leads to the regulation of flagellar rotation. (
  • Dictyostelium amoebae have the attributes required to perform this role for chemotaxis, and by providing an evolutionary distant reference point to mammalian cells, they allow the central features of chemotaxis to be discerned. (
  • Heterocytous strains are able to form differentiated cells, specialised in nitrogen (N 2 ) fixation, the heterocytes, and spore-like resting cells, the akinetes ( Figure 1f-h ). (
  • Most of the known PAMPs have been well-characterized as either polypeptide type or carbohydrate type, such as two ligands, Flg22 (a peptide representing the elicitor-active epitope of the bacterial flagellin) and Elf18 (an EF-Tu-derived peptide). (
  • In addition they can fix nitrogen, survive in very hostile environments (e.g. down to -60°C), are symbiotic, have circadian rhythms, exhibit gliding mobility, and can differentiate into specialized cell types called heterocysts. (
  • Essential for anyone with an interest in cyanobacteria, bacterial photosynthesis, bacterial nitrogen fixation, and symbiosis. (
  • In contrast, the M. xanthus spore coat material is primarily carbohydrate-rich and must be deposited on the outside of the outer membrane in a process that is directed from within the sporulating cell. (
  • This review focuses primarily on bacterial kinases that show homology in their catalytic domains to eukaryotic Ser/Thr kinases (eSTKs) and, to a lesser extent, on their partner eukaryote-like phosphatases (eSTPs). (
  • Systems-level analyses of phosphorylation-based signaling networks has transformed our understanding of kinase function, but knowledge of phosphatase signaling has lagged behind, primarily because global approaches to identify phosphatase substrates are lacking. (
  • FtsZ, the bacterial tubulin homologue, is the main player in at least two distinct processes of cell division during the development of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). (
  • An essential feature of the differentiation processes is the assembly of a rigid, cell wall-like spore coat on the surface of the outer membrane. (
  • For some processes eg virulence and development, a simple pathway is not sufficient to detect the multitude of different signals that modulate behaviour and instead a sensory network employing several different HPKs and RRs is used. (
  • Therefore, an experimental design was developed consisting of synchronized Scenedesmus vacuolatus cell populations at defined cell-cycle stages, short-term exposure against different inhibitors with known molecular targets, and fluorochrome labeling of different metabolic processes. (
  • To discriminate cells with compromised metabolic processes from intact and metabolically inactive cells, references for every fluorochrome were defined using control and heat-treated populations. (
  • This in turn leads to decreased oxygenation of our cells and a greater amount of anaerobic processes in metabolism. (