The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
The conversion of absorbed light energy into molecular signals.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.

Inducible NO synthase: role in cellular signalling. (1/128527)

The discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and its identification as nitric oxide (NO) was one of the most exciting discoveries of biomedical research in the 1980s. Besides its potent vasodilatory effects, NO was found under certain circumstances to be responsible for the killing of microorganisms and tumour cells by activated macrophages and to act as a novel, unconventional type of neurotransmitter. In 1992, Science picked NO as the 'Molecule of the Year', and over the past years NO has become established as a universal intercellular messenger that acutely affects important signalling pathways and, on a more long-term scale, modulates gene expression in target cells. These actions will form the focus of the present review.  (+info)

The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm. (2/128527)

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (3/128527)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (4/128527)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (5/128527)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Cancer genetics: tumor suppressor meets oncogene. (6/128527)

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein is inactivated by mutations in the majority of colorectal cancers. A recent study has revealed that alterations in the APC signaling pathway can result in the transcriptional activation of the c-MYC gene.  (+info)

The hematopoietic-specific adaptor protein gads functions in T-cell signaling via interactions with the SLP-76 and LAT adaptors. (7/128527)

BACKGROUND: The adaptor protein Gads is a Grb2-related protein originally identified on the basis of its interaction with the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the docking protein Shc. Gads protein expression is restricted to hematopoietic tissues and cell lines. Gads contains a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, which has previously been shown to have a similar binding specificity to that of Grb2. Gads also possesses two SH3 domains, but these have a distinct binding specificity to those of Grb2, as Gads does not bind to known Grb2 SH3 domain targets. Here, we investigated whether Gads is involved in T-cell signaling. RESULTS: We found that Gads is highly expressed in T cells and that the SLP-76 adaptor protein is a major Gads-associated protein in vivo. The constitutive interaction between Gads and SLP-76 was mediated by the carboxy-terminal SH3 domain of Gads and a 20 amino-acid proline-rich region in SLP-76. Gads also coimmunoprecipitated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the linker for activated T cells (LAT) adaptor protein following cross-linking of the T-cell receptor; this interaction was mediated by the Gads SH2 domain. Overexpression of Gads and SLP-76 resulted in a synergistic augmentation of T-cell signaling, as measured by activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and this cooperation required a functional Gads SH2 domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Gads plays an important role in T-cell signaling via its association with SLP-76 and LAT. Gads may promote cross-talk between the LAT and SLP-76 signaling complexes, thereby coupling membrane-proximal events to downstream signaling pathways.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (8/128527)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, occurs during development, wound healing and cancer and involves stages that orchestrate a network of cooperative interactions. Peptide growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components are two major groups of angiogenesis mediators. Among the different ECM proteins, collagens have been well-associated with in vivo angiogenesis. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) grown in 3-D collagen gels we show that: (1) HUVEC do not survive well in 3-D collagen gels due to rapid induction of apoptosis. (2) VEGF, a potent in vivo angiogenic factor, fails to induce tube formation. (3) PMA was effective in inducing tube formation and survival in HUVEC dispersed in 3-D collagen gels, activating MAP kinase, phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI-3-kinase) and Akt/PKB (protein kinase B) pathways. (4) VEGF was effective in preventing PMA-induced tube-like structure regression after PMA-withdrawal by (5) activating the ...
en] Biological systems and, in particular, cellular signal transduction pathways are characterised by their high complexity. Mathematical models describing these processes might be of great help to gain qualitative and, most importantly, quantitative knowledge about such complex systems. However, a detailed mathematical description of these systems leads to nearly unmanageably large models, especially when combining models of different signalling pathways to study cross-talk phenomena. Therefore, simplification of models becomes very important. Different methods are available for model reduction of biological models. Importantly, most of the common model reduction methods cannot be applied to cellular signal transduction pathways. Using as an example the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling pathway, we discuss how quantitative methods like system analysis and simulation studies can help to suitably reduce models and additionally give new insights into the signal transmission and processing ...
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein ...
Growth factor signaling in neurons controls the expansion of synaptic arbors in response to activity and external stimuli, leading to long-lasting changes in synapse strength and connectivity that underlie learning and memory. Receptor complexes regulating growth factor signal transduction are internalized via endocytosis and directed to specific subcellular membrane compartments from which they exhibit distinct signaling properties, caused by compartment-specific posttranslational modifications and degradative events, or interactions with local binding partners (Sadowski et al., 2009). Therefore, defining the mechanisms by which the rate and direction of the flow of endosomal protein traffic are controlled is critical to determining how neuronal signal transduction pathways are tuned up and down after activation. A host of protein factors control membrane traffic through the interconnected tubules and vesicles of the endosomal system, and sorting occurs by isolation of cargo in membrane domains ...
Title: The FRK / RAK-SHB Signaling Cascade: A Versatile Signal- Transduction Pathway that Regulates Cell Survival, Differentiation and Proliferation. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Cecilia Anneren, Cecilia K. Lindholm, Vitezslav Kriz and Michael Welsh. Affiliation:Department of Medical Cell Biology, Husargatan 3, 75237, Uppsala, Sweden.. Keywords:signal-transduction pathway, proliferation, src homology 2, sh2 domain adapter protein. Abstract: Recent experiments have unravelled novel signal transduction pathways that involve the SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain adapter protein SHB. SHB is ubiquitously expressed and contains proline rich motifs, a phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, tyrosine phosphorylation sites and an SH2 domain and serves a role in generating signaling complexes in response to tyrosine kinase activation. SHB mediates certain responses in platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-, neural growth factor (NGF) receptor TRKA-, T cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sirt1 Regulates Microtubule Dynamics Through Negative Regulation of Plk1 in Mitosis. AU - Kim, Jin Ju. AU - Gil, Na Yeon. AU - Zhang, Xiang Hua. AU - Chun, Kwang Hoon. AU - Fang, Guowei. AU - Kim, Joon. AU - Cho, Hyeseong. AU - Jang, Chang Young. AU - Cha, Hyuk Jin. PY - 2015/9/1. Y1 - 2015/9/1. N2 - Although loss of Sirt1 leads to chromosome aneuploidy, which accounts for higher tumor susceptibility, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that Sirt1 directly regulates Plk1, of which activity is critical for mitotic progression and spindle dynamics. Depletion or inhibition of Sirt1 significantly perturbs the formation of the mitotic spindle, leading to defective chromosome segregation. Elevated depolymerization of the mitotic spindle following loss of Sirt1 was associated with the deregulation of Plk1 activity. Thus, we conclude that Sirt1 may contribute to a mitotic regulator that controls spindle dynamics through Plk1 activity, resulting in fine-tuning ...
The regulatory signaling pathways crucial during embryonic development seem to play key roles in adult tissues homeostasis and are often deregulated in pathological conditions. The Wnt pathway plays a pivotal role in orchestrating cell fate decisions during embryonic development, organogenesis, and adult tissues homeostasis of endoderm-derived tissues. The canonical Wnt ... read more signaling is required at different stages of embryonic development, regulating gut patterning and organogenesis, and is instrumental for the maintenance of the intestine epithelium homeostasis in adults. Tumorigenesis arises as a disruption of the homeostatic state of a tissue. Initiation of colorectal tumorigenesis is principally associated with mutations in the APC gene, a central component of the canonical Wnt pathway. Studies of early embryonic events and molecular mechanisms regulating tissue morphogenesis and organogenesis are challenging in higher vertebrates. Due to the large clutch size, ex utero ...
Structural approaches are becoming increasingly important for our understanding of cell biology, as the functioning of gene products needs to be analysed in the context of the complex organisation of cells and cannot be understood by studying proteins in isolation alone. This holds particularly true for components of cellular signal transduction pathways. It is now clear that subcellular compartmentalisation and spatiotemporal turnover (i.e. distribution within the cellular structures) of signal transduction components are playing a critical role in the response of cells to extrinsic stimulation. Methods of biochemistry and molecular genetics are widely employed to analyse protein interactions and dissect signalling pathways - however, these approaches yield little information with regard to relevant structural aspects.. In recent years, the concept of differential cellular signalling through recruitment of signal transduction molecules into specialised plasma membrane microdomains, so-called ...
Signal Transduction Pathways in Breast Cancer: The Important Role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Miguel A. Ortega , 1 , 2 , 3 Oscar Fraile-Martínez , 1 Ángel Asúnsolo , 2 , 4 Julia Buján , 1 , 2 Natalio García-Honduvilla , 1 , 2 and Santiago Coca 1 , 2 Discovery of the Hippo signal transduction network. On several proteins, O-GlcNAc and O-phosphate alternatively occupy the same or adjacent sites, leading to the hypothesis that one function of this saccharide is to transiently block phosphorylation. Enormous advances have been made over the last 10 years in unravelling cytokine signal transduction. The functioning of a signal transduction pathway is based on extra-cellular signaling that in turn creates a response that causes other subsequent responses, hence creating a chain reaction, or cascade. 2003 ; Grefen et al. (+1) 510 642 2293; Fax (+1) 510 643 6334. Aim: Urokinase is an important and critical enzyme of the Pulmonary renal cascade. Signal transduction in the immune system, the coupling between ...
Title:An Integrated and Disease-Oriented Growth Factor-Regulated Signal Transduction Network. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):A. Erol. Affiliation:Mimar Sinan Mahallesi, Muammer Aksoy Caddesi, Elmassokak 4, Silivri-Istanbul, Turkey.. Keywords:Akt, β-catenin, Erk, E2F1, DAPK, GSK3, mTORC1, mTORC2, Pin1, Wnt. Abstract:The importance of Akt, Erk, and their downstream effectors-mediated signaling is indisputable for the proliferation of cell. Growth factor-induced activation of Akt and Erk pathways interacts with each other to regulate proliferation. However, an instructive model, wiring the crucial signaling nodes working in cellular growth and division, is still absent or controversial. Although growth factor-mediated mTORC1 regulation is defined considerably, debates still exist formTORC2. TSC1-TSC2 complex integrates both nutrient and mitogenic signals coming from growth factor receptors. Growth factor-induced PI3K/Akt- and Ras/Erk-mediated TSC2 inhibition is well defined. However, the ...
Application of Petri net based analysis techniques to signal transduction pathways - Background: Signal transduction pathways are usually modelled using classical quantitative methods, which are based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs). However, some difficulties are inherent in this approach. On the one hand, the kinetic parameters involved are often unknown and have to be estimated. With increasing size and complexity of signal transduction pathways, the estimation of missing kinetic data is not possible. On the other hand, ODEs based models do not support any explicit insights into possible (signal-) flows within the network. Moreover, a huge amount of qualitative data is available due to high-throughput techniques. In order to get information on the systems behaviour, qualitative analysis techniques have been developed. Applications of the known qualitative analysis methods concern mainly metabolic networks. Petri net theory provides a variety of established analysis techniques, which are
Intracellular signal transduction is achieved by networks of proteins and small molecules that transmit information from the cell surface to the nucleus, where they ultimately effect transcriptional changes. Understanding the mechanisms cells use to accomplish this important process requires a detailed molecular description of the networks involved. We have developed a computational approach for generating static models of signal transduction networks which utilizes protein-interaction maps generated from large-scale two-hybrid screens and expression profiles from DNA microarrays. Networks are determined entirely by integrating protein-protein interaction data with microarray expression data, without prior knowledge of any pathway intermediates. In effect, this is equivalent to extracting subnetworks of the protein interaction dataset whose members have the most correlated expression profiles. We show that our technique accurately reconstructs MAP Kinase signaling networks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
1680 Cell density is a potent regulator of the cell cycle during exponential growth and thus affects gene expression. Many recent studies have characterized cell-density as a controlling factor for cell-cell interactions and the binding of surface-associated adhesion molecules to the cytoskeleton. We examined the impact of cell density on two distinct signal transduction pathways, Protein kinase B (Akt) and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). These pathways regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and exhibit cross-talk. Downstream, the MAPK and Akt pathways regulate p70S6kinase (p70S6K) and its substrate S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP). Whereas levels of phospho-S6RP are known to be regulated by phosphorylated-Akt, our findings suggest that in Jurkat cells this is dependent upon the cell density. We show that maximum phosphorylation of S6RP(S235/S236 and S240/244) is observed at lower cell densities (0.5x106 cells/mL). In contrast, levels of phosphorylated Akt increase ...
Clone REA812 recognizes the human CD163 antigen, a single-chain transmembrane protein also known as hemoglobin scavenger receptor or M130. It is expressed by mature tissue macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes. The expression of CD163 is up-regulated in vitro and in vivo by anti-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) and (gluco)corticosteroid and is shed to blood upon inflammatory activation of macrophages. CD163 functions as a high affinity scavenger receptor for the complex of haemoglobin and haptoglobin. Depending on the ligand, crosslinking of CD163 initiates signal transduction leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines Il-1ß, IL-6, and GM-CSF or the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Additional information: Clone REA812 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Latvija
Cytokine signal transduction is essential for normal immune function and controls the quality of responses to a wide variety of microbial infections. Innate and adaptive host responses to virus infections are regulated by autocrine and paracrine cytokine signaling systems. For most cytokines, receptor binding triggers an intracellular signaling cascade involving one or more signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins. Diverse cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways produce active STAT transcription factors that specify mRNA induction profiles (26). For example, the alpha and beta interferon (IFN-α/β) family is of primary importance for both innate and adaptive antiviral immunity (reviewed in references 1, 49, and 53). In the innate antiviral system, IFN-α/β initiates a receptor-mediated signaling system that produces an activated STAT1-STAT2-IRF9 heterotrimeric transcription complex known as ISGF3 (27). The ISGF3 complex translocates to the nucleus, where it can ...
Extracellular signals transduced by both RTKs and GPCRs converge upon the activation of a family of PI3Ks. Activation of these lipid kinases by GPCRs is thought to be dependent on the direct binding of Gβγ subunits and Ras to PI3Ks [88]. PI3K activation initiates a phosphorylation cascade leading to the activation of Akt (also termed protein kinase B) and its downstream kinases phosphoinositide-dependant kinase 1 (PDK1), glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and others [89]. In addition, we have already seen how GPCRs can activate PI3K pathways via RTK or integrin transactivation [41,42,66]. Following direct or indirect GPCR-induced PI3K activation, cell cycle progression is regulated by the effect of PI3K-activated kinases on the expression and stability of cell cycle proteins, or by the modulation of the activity of other signal transduction pathways. For example, somatostatin SST2 receptors expressed in Chinese ...
Post-Doctoral Position,br, Arabidopsis Signal Transduction,br, A post-doctoral position is available immediately in the laboratory of Mannie Liscum at the University of Missouri-Columbia.  This project deals with the reverse genetic analyses of the ,i,NPH3,/i,/,i,RPT2,/i, gene family in Arabidopsis.  This large family of genes (>15 members) encode novel proteins, however both NPH3 and RPT2 have been shown genetically to be required for early signal transduction during response to phototropic stimuli.  We hypothesize that this novel family of proteins function as molecular scaffolds to mediate the assembly/stability of signal transduction components in a variety of signal-response systems (i.e., not limited to phototropism).  A variety of approaches will be used address the biological roles of members of this family, including isolation of knock-out mutants via T-DNA and transposon mutagenesis, generation of mutants through anti-sense construction, and transgenic ...
The maternal D-raf serine/threonine kinase acts downstream of Torso (Tor) for specification of cell fates at the embryonic termini. D-raf activity is also required in other signal transduction pathways and consistent with its pleiotropic role, we find accumulation of a 90-kD D-raf protein throughout embryonic development. We also characterize the accumulation of maternal D-raf proteins in 0-2-hr embryos derived from females with germ cells lacking D-raf activity. Accumulation of a 90-kD or truncated mutant D-raf protein is observed for some of these embryos, while others lack the maternal D-raf protein. Then, to determine whether rescue of the Tor pathway is influenced by pools of nonfunctional maternal D-raf, wild-type D-raf mRNA was injected into embryos that inherit maternal stores of inactive 90-kD or truncated D-raf protein. For embryos lacking the maternal D-raf protein, a high level of terminal rescue is obtained. In contrast, rescue is reduced or not observed for embryos that accumulate ...
DNA double strand breaks are the pivotal cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation. A plethora of molecular and cellular processes are activated as part of the cellular stress response that result in cell cycle arrest and induction of the DNA-repair machinery to restore the damage of DNA or to activate a cell death program. However ionizing radiation also initiates signal transduction cascades that are generated at cellular sites distant from and independent of DNA-damage. These signaling processes are similar to hormone activated growth factor receptor controlled signal transduction cascades and represent interesting targets for anticancer treatment modalities combining ionizing radiation with molecular defined pharmacological compounds. Activation of these signal transduction cascades upon irradiation or upregulation of growth factor mediated pathways due to oncogene-transformation often contribute to an acquired or inherent treatment resistance in malignant cells. Therefore ...
Biological signal transduction networks are commonly viewed as circuits that pass along information-in the process amplifying signals, enhancing sensitivity, or performing other signal-processing tasks-to transcriptional and other components. Here, we report on a reverse-causality phenomenon, which we call load-induced modulation. Through a combination of analytical and experimental tools, we discovered that signaling was modulated, in a surprising way, by downstream targets that receive the signal and, in doing so, apply what in physics is called a load. Specifically, we found that non-intuitive changes in response dynamics occurred for a covalent modification cycle when load was present. Loading altered the response time of a system, depending on whether the activity of one of the enzymes was maximal and the other was operating at its minimal rate or whether both enzymes were operating at submaximal rates. These two conditions, which we call limit regime and intermediate regime, were ...
Background: Akt is a critical molecule in several signal transduction pathways involved in vascular responses. Membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), a membrane-anchored MMP, functions as a signaling molecule in addition to a proteolytic enzyme.. Hypothesis: Akt cooperates with MT1-MMP in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced signaling pathways of vascular responses including endothelial dysfunction and haemostasis.. Methods and Results: TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL) induced a transient increase in Akt phosphorylation within 15 minutes, followed by the profound decrease of Akt phosphorylation and the increase in MT1-MMP activity within 60 minutes, in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (ECs). To demonstrate the role of MT1-MMP for Akt signaling pathway in TNF-alpha-stimulated ECs, we used siRNA to knockdown MT1-MMP protein in ECs. Silencing of MT1-MMP reversed TNF-alpha-triggered transient upregulation of Akt phosohorylation within 15 minutes and the downregulation within 60 minutes, ...
As the key neuron-to-neuron interface, the synapse is involved in learning and memory, including traumatic memories during times of stress. However, the signal transduction mechanisms by which stress mediates its lasting effects on synapse transmission and on memory are not fully understood. A key component of the stress response is the increased secretion of adrenal steroids. Adrenal steroids (e.g., cortisol) bind to genomic mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors (gMRs and gGRs) in the cytosol. In addition, they may act through membrane receptors (mMRs and mGRs), and signal transduction through these receptors may allow for rapid modulation of synaptic transmission as well as modulation of membrane ion currents. mMRs increase synaptic and neuronal excitability; mechanisms include the facilitation of glutamate release through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction. In contrast, mGRs decrease synaptic and neuronal excitability by reducing calcium currents through ...
FIG. 3. Alignment of the H-box sequence containing the phosphoaccepting histidine. Subalignments of the H-box region (58) from the sequence alignment used for Fig. 2 are shown. For each group, the consensus sequences for N. crassa (Nc), G. moniliformis (Gm), B. fuckeliana (Bf), and C. heterostrophus (Ch) are shown in bold at the top. (A) Conserved HK groups. Lowercase letters indicate amino acid residues that are not absolutely conserved among orthologs in the four euascomycetes considered here. Sequences from other ascomycetes (underlined) or paralogs (italicized) are represented by dashes for consensus (conserved) residues or the appropriate amino acid. (B) Divergent HK groups. All sequences are shown, even when two or more paralogs have identical H-box sequences. Absolutely conserved residues are shaded black, and residues conserved in at least 50% of all sequences are shaded gray. Asterisks indicate positions of conserved histidine residues. ...
Since the discovery of the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1) by Sawamura and colleagues in 1997, this multi-ligand receptor has been implicated in atherosclerosis and diabetes. Oxidised LDL binding and trafficking via LOX-1 cause the activation of downstream signal transduction that cause pro-athrogenic changes such as endothelial dysfunction, apoptosis and foam cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms have not be been fully explained. In this study, tetracycline- inducible cell lines expressing LOX-1 wild-type and trafficking-defective LOX-1-D5A were developed. The findings show different trafficking properties between LOX-1-WT and LOX-1-D5A in response to oxidised LDL. Due to these differences, LOX-1-WT and LOX-1-D5A in response to oxidised LDL exhibited differential downstream signal transduction. Moreover, 24 hour stimulation of oxidised LDL via LOX-1-WT caused decreased endothelial cell permeability; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. The ...
Cerebral cortical development requires orderly transitions between neurogenesis and differentiation. Neurogenesis also results in overproduction of neurons that are selectively targeted for apoptosis. In these experiments, we conditionally immortalized (Almazan and McKay, 1992; Yanai and Obinata, 1994; Taher et al., 1995; Eves et al., 1996) neural precursors from embryonic rat cerebral cortex, to contrast estrogen and neurotrophin regulation of p53-dependent cortical differentiation and death.. The large T antigen promotes mammalian cell cycle by inhibiting checkpoint transcription factors like p53 (for review, see Levine, 1997). Consequently, the Ts/U19 large T antigen mutation permits synchronization of differentiation, by conditionally regulating p53-dependent mechanisms. At the nonpermissive temperature (39°C), large T antigen expression ceases and substantial cell death occurs, that is partly caused by apoptosis. At this temperature, we also observed induction of pp53 and p53-dependent ...
For example, in frogs, cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) binds to cyclin B to form an active kinase which phosphorylates a prereplication complex initiating S phase and mitosis. Cyclin B, a 45Kd protein, accumulates to high levels just before S phase. Its concentration drops sharply at the end of mitosis. The kinase, a 34 Kd protein, is encoded by the CDC2 gene (for cell division cycle gene). A homologous gene exists in humans - the CDK2 gene (cyclin dependent kinase 2) - and controls entry in S phase. These kinases can be considered heterodimers with a kinase catalytic subunit and a cyclin regulatory subunit. In animal cells, there are at least ten different cyclins (A, B, .....) and at least eight different cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK1-8). Another Look at Neurotransmission and Ion Channels. You may have noticed above that some signaling molecules, whose effects are regulated by kinases (b-adrenergic and some olfactory signals by PKA and acetylcholine by PKC for example), are ...
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Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous signaling molecule with both physiological and pathological functions in biological systems. Formed by the enzymatic conversion of arginine to citrulline, NO, has known roles in circulatory, immune and nervous tissues. In the nervous system nitric oxide has been implicated in long-term potentiation, neurotransmitter release, channel function, neuronal protection and neuronal degeneration. Much of our work has focused on yet another role for nitric oxide in cells, namely, neuronal differentiation. During development, neuronal differentiation is closely coupled with cessation of proliferation. We use nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells as a model and find a novel signal transduction pathway that blocks cell proliferation. Treatment of PC12 cells with NGF leads to induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The resulting nitric oxide (NO) acts as a second messenger, activating the p21(WAF1) promoter and inducing expression of p21(WAF1)
Genomes and Genes, Species, Research Topics, Scientific Experts, Publications about Experts and Doctors on signal transduction in Holland, Michigan, United States
Species, Publications, Research Topics, Genomes and Genes, Locale, Scientific Experts about Experts and Doctors on signal transduction in Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
Clone REA508 recognizes the human ErbB-3 antigen, a single-pass type I membrane protein, which is also known as tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER3. ErbB-3 is a receptor tyrosine kinase and a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (EGFR). It is unique among the ErbB family members in that it is has been shown to have weak or no tyrosine kinase activity. After dimerization with other members of the EGFR family several signal transduction cascades can be activated, including phosphoinosite 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). ErbB-3 is widely expressed in normal tissues including cells of the gastrointestinal, reproductive, respiratory and urinary tracts, as well as the skin, endocrine, and nervous system. It is expressed at elevated levels in a range of human malignancies. Additional information: Clone REA508 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Principat dAndorra
Postdoc position - signal transduction & transcription Applications are invited for postdoctoral positions in a newly established research group at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR) in Uppsala, Sweden. The successful candidates will study the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways and the transcriptional mechanisms of growth factor signal transduction (Ericsson et al. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 945-950; Ericsson et al. (1996) J. Biol. Chem., 271, 24359-24367; Ericsson and Edwards. (1998) J. Biol. Chem., in press; Heldin et al. (1997) Nature, 390, 465-471; Dennler et al. (1998) EMBO J., 17, 3091-3100). The aim is to identify the downstream targets (i.e. transcription factors, coactivators and corepressors) of these signaling pathways and to determine how these molecules regulate gene expression. We are also interested in how abnormal regulation of these processes is related to the development of human disease. We are seeking highly motivated scientists ...
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Plays an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by changes in the environment. Mediates signal transduction of TRAF6, various cytokines including interleukin-1 (IL-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB), TGFB-related factors like BMP2 and BMP4, toll-like receptors (TLR), tumor necrosis factor receptor CD40 and B-cell receptor (BCR). Ceramides are also able to activate MAP3K7/TAK1. Once activated, acts as an upstream activator of the MKK/JNK signal transduction cascade and the p38 MAPK signal transduction cascade through the phosphorylation and activation of several MAP kinase kinases like MAP2K1/MEK1, MAP2K3/MKK3, MAP2K6/MKK6 and MAP2K7/MKK7. These MAP2Ks in turn activate p38 MAPKs, c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and I-kappa-B kinase complex (IKK). Both p38 MAPK and JNK pathways control the transcription factors activator protein-1 (AP-1), while nuclear ...
A. Cellular Signal Transduction: Using cells KDd, KOd or mutated for AD/AR-PKD or cystic kidney syndromic genes [Identification of potential signaling defects]. 1. Measure steady state activities of cellular signal transduction pathways such as MAP kinase, Hippo, canonical Wnt and Sonic Hedgehog (previously implicated in AD- and ARPKD and ciliopathies) [Immunofluorescence and quantitative immunoblotting and mass. 2. Measure the steady-state activity and agonist-induced transcriptional response of jun, yap/taz, tcf and gli transcription factors. [qPCR]. 3. Investigate downstream activation of CREB and NFAT transcription factors that are downstream of second messenger signaling of cAMP and Ca2+, respectively [qPCR, Immunofluorescence and quantitative immunoblotting and mass spectrometry]. B. Cellular and Ciliary Dynamics: Using fluorescent protein-based localization and activity reporters [Consultation for detailed temporal measurements of signaling]. 1. Measure Hh (Smo translocation, Gli ...
The basal ganglia is a critical regulator of a myriad of processes in the brain including motor control and behavior. This system is divided into several nuclei...
The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated gene data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
This enzyme hydrolyses 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) to produce PtdIns(3,4)P2, thereby negatively regulating the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathways. The enzyme also shows activity toward (PtdIns(1,3,4,5)P4) [5]. The enzyme is involved in several signal transduction pathways in the immune system leading to an adverse range of effects ...
beyond the classical view of a synapse to a more sophisticated, view, in which considers post-receptor, intracellular messenger pathways.. This means that, despite the initial actions of a drug or stress on the activity of a neurotransmitter or receptor system, the many actions of drugs and stress on brain function are achieved ultimately through the complex network of intracellular messenger pathways that mediate physiological responses to neurotransmitter-receptor interactions. These intracellular pathways consist of G proteins, second messenger systems, protein kinases, and protein phosphatases, among many others. Repeated exposure to drugs and stress would be expected to produce molecular and cellular adaptations as a result of repeated perturbation of these intracellular pathways. We believe that these adaptations are ultimately responsible for many features of addiction and depression. ...
Cellular responses are triggered by proteins, drugs, or pathogens binding to specific receptors. Receptor mediated signaling is a cascade of enzymatic reactions that amplifies the signal. The agonists and antagonists modulating receptor functionality are essential tools for research and medical practice. read more. ...
Currently, there are no PET radiotracers or MRI techniques that allow for noninvasive assessment of hypoxia-induced molecular-genetic and signaling processes in cells at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Therefore, to study the temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of hypoxia development and HIF-1-mediated transcriptional activation of hypoxia-inducible genes, we developed a novel HIF-1-specific reporter system that allows for noninvasive in vivo PET imaging in living mice. The Red2XPRT beacon gene (16) facilitates the imaging of transduced cell (tissue) localization, whereas the TKGFP sensor gene (19) allows for imaging of HIF-1 transcriptional activity. Furthermore, both reporter genes encode PET reporter enzymes (XPRT or HSV1-TK), which metabolically entrap specific radiolabeled probes (xanthine or FEAU) in transduced cells (16 , 19) . These enzymes are fused with fluorescent proteins (DsRed or eGFP) that allow for fluorescence microscopic visualization of expression ...
Compare T cell, immune regulator 1, ATPase, H transporting, lysosomal V0 protein A3 T cell, immune regulator 1, ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 protein A3 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
The Raf-1 protein, encoded by the c-raf-1 gene, is a 75 kDa serine-threonine kinase that functions as a key regulator of cell growth, proliferation, and survival (1) . Raf-1 is a critical component of multiple signal transduction pathways, integrating signals from cell membrane-bound growth factor receptors and apoptotic regulators (2) . Activated Raf-1 in turn interfaces with a many downstream targets controlling proliferation and survival, including activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinases MEK1 and MEK2, activation of the nuclear factor κB survival and proliferation pathway, and inhibition of the proapoptotic factor Bad (3) .. Deregulated Raf-1 activity has been implicated in oncogenic transformation (4 , 5) . Constitutive Raf-1 activation leads to morphological changes consistent with a malignant phenotype, to growth factor-independent proliferation, and to increased resistance to cytotoxic agents (6) . Raf-1 promotes full malignant ...
Lung cancer is the primary cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and although improvements in treatment have been achieved over the last few years, long-term survival rates for lung cancer patients remain poor. Therefore, there is an imperative need for molecularly targeted agents that will achieve long-term disease control. Numerous downstream molecular pathways, such as EGF/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR are identified as having a key role in the pathogenesis of various forms of human cancer, including lung cancer. PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway is an important intracellular signal transduction pathway with a significant role in cell proliferation, growth, survival, vesicle trafficking, glucose transport, and cytoskeletal organization. Aberrations in many primary and secondary messenger molecules of this pathway, including mutations and amplifications, are accounted for tumor cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy-radiotherapy. In
In cellular signal transduction, scaffold proteins provide binding sites to organize signaling proteins into supramolecular complexes and act as nodes in the signaling network. Furthermore, multivalent interactions between the scaffold and other signaling proteins contribute to the formation of protein microclusters. Such microclusters are prominent in early T cell signaling. Here, we explored the minimal structural requirement for a scaffold protein by coupling multiple copies of a proline-rich peptide corresponding to an interaction motif for the SH3 domain of the adaptor protein GADS to an N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide polymer backbone. When added to GADS-containing cell lysates, these scaffolds (but not individual peptides) promoted the binding of GADS to peptide microarrays. This can be explained by the cross-linking of GADS into larger complexes. Furthermore, following import into Jurkat T cell leukemia cells, this synthetic scaffold enhanced the formation of microclusters of signaling ...
QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for signal transduction research, enabling analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. Signal transduction transmits and amplifies signals of stimuli from extracellular sources to the nucleus. Signaling molecules include various hormones, growth factors, metabolites, cytokines, chemokines, neurotransmitters, extracellular matrix components, receptors, protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and DNA-binding proteins. The purpose of signal transduction is to regulate the cellular response to the molecular stimuli via changes in gene and protein expression. Solutions optimized for these research studies are organized into more focused research topics, shown below ...
Phosphorylation of specific tyrosine and threonine residues in the activation loop of this enzyme by EC 2.7.12.2 is necessary for enzyme activation. -!- Once activated, the enzyme phosphorylates target substrates on serine or threonine residues followed by a proline. -!- A distinguishing feature of all MAPKs is the conserved sequence Thr- Xaa-Tyr (TXY). -!- Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways are among the most widespread mechanisms of cellular regulation. -!- Mammalian MAPK pathways can be recruited by a wide variety of stimuli including hormones (e.g. insulin and growth hormone), mitogens (e.g. epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor), vasoactive peptides (e.g. angiotensin-II and endothelin), inflammatory cytokines of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and environmental stresses such as osmotic shock, ionizing radiation and ischemeic injury. -!- Formerly EC 2.7.1.37 ...
Multifunctional glycoprotein that acts as receptor for a broad range of ligands. Ligands can be of proteinaceous nature like thrombospondin, fibronectin, collagen or amyloid-beta as well as of lipidic nature such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), anionic phospholipids, long-chain fatty acids and bacterial diacylated lipopeptides (PubMed:7685021). They are generally multivalent and can therefore engage multiple receptors simultaneously, the resulting formation of CD36 clusters initiates signal transduction and internalization of receptor-ligand complexes. The dependency on coreceptor signaling is strongly ligand specific. Cellular responses to these ligands are involved in angiogenesis, inflammatory response, fatty acid metabolism, taste and dietary fat processing in the intestine (Probable) (PubMed:19847289, PubMed:20037584, PubMed:23395392). Binds long-chain fatty acids and facilitates their transport into cells, thus participating in muscle lipid utilization, adipose energy storage, and gut
Signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Processes referred to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers. In many transduction processes, an increasing number of enzymes and other molecules become engaged in the events that proceed from the initial stimulus. Responses of cells to environmental signals, toxins and stressors have profound implications for diverse aspects of human health and disease including development, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, asthma, heart, autoimmune diseases and cancer. The delineation of the signal transduction pathways affected in these and other complex human diseases are likely to present new avenues for therapeutic intervention and understanding of human disease mechanisms ...
In this paper, we propose a stochastic simulation to model and analyze cellular signal transduction. The high number of objects in a simulation requires advanced visualization techniques: first to handle the large data sets, second to support the human perception in the crowded environment, and third to provide an interactive exploration tool. To adjust the state of the cell to an external signal, a specific set of signaling molecules transports the information to the nucleus deep inside the cell. There, key molecules regulate gene expression. In contrast to continuous ODE models we model all signaling molecules individually in a more realistic crowded and disordered environment. Beyond spatiotemporal concentration profiles our data describes the process on a mesoscopic, molecular level, allowing a detailed view of intracellular events. In our proposed schematic visualization individual molecules, their tracks, or reactions can be selected and brought into focus to highlight the signal ...
Dear Colleagues,. We would like to inform you that the registration and abstract submission for the 20th International Symposium on Signal Transduction at the Blood-Brain Barriers is open till 31st of July and we are looking forward to your registration!. The symposium will be held September 13-15, 2017 in Kraków, Poland.. For more information please see: http://bbb.pan.olsztyn.pl/. The program covers all areas of blood-brain barriers research and reflects the latest developments in neurodegenerative diseases, membrane receptors and transporters, transcytosis regulators, epigenetic and transcriptional regulators, metabolic and nutrition regulation, in vivo and in vitro brain barriers models as well as the role of tight junctions and glycocalyx in blood brain barrier permeability. In addition, signaling pathways implicated in the development of neurological diseases and brain tumors are addressed.. We hope to meet you all in Kraków for this anniversary Blood-Brain Barriers event!. Best ...
Dear Colleagues,. We would like to inform you that the registration and abstract submission for the 20th International Symposium on Signal Transduction at the Blood-Brain Barriers is open till 31st of July and we are looking forward to your registration!. The symposium will be held September 13-15, 2017 in Kraków, Poland.. For more information please see: http://bbb.pan.olsztyn.pl/. The program covers all areas of blood-brain barriers research and reflects the latest developments in neurodegenerative diseases, membrane receptors and transporters, transcytosis regulators, epigenetic and transcriptional regulators, metabolic and nutrition regulation, in vivo and in vitro brain barriers models as well as the role of tight junctions and glycocalyx in blood brain barrier permeability. In addition, signaling pathways implicated in the development of neurological diseases and brain tumors are addressed.. We hope to meet you all in Kraków for this anniversary Blood-Brain Barriers event!. Best ...
The organizing committee warmly invites you to the 20th International Symposium on Signal Transduction at the Blood-Brain Barriers, which will be held September 13-15, 2017 in Kraków, Poland.. Kraków (English: Krakoof) is one of the oldest cities in Poland, dating back to the 7th century. Situated on the Vistula (Polish: Wisła) River, it was the capital of the Kingdom of Poland from 1038 to 1795. Kraków is one of the leading centers of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life, and is the home of the second oldest university in Central Europe (namely, the Jagiellonian University), alma mater of Nicolaus Copernicus and the Nobel laureate Maria Skłodowska-Curie.. Krakóws historic center includes: the Old Town, with the largest medieval market square in Europe; Kazimierz, an old Jewish district; and the Wawel Castle. Kraków was named European Capital of Culture in 2000.. The symposium program covers all areas of blood-brain barriers research and reflects the latest developments in ...
Neuronal growth factors regulate the expression of voltage-activated sodium current in differentiating sympathetic neurons and PC12 cells. We show that, in PC12 cells, the NGF- and FGF-induced sodium current results from increased expression of two distinct sodium channel types. Sodium current results from the rapid induction of a novel sodium channel transcript, also found in peripheral neurons, and from the long term induction of brain type II/IIA mRNA. Expression of the type II/IIA sodium channel requires activation of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase), whereas induction of the peripheral neuron type sodium channel occurs through an A-kinase-independent signal transduction pathway. These findings suggest that the two sodium channel types act in concert to ensure the generation of action potentials during neuronal differentiation. ...
The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. The detection of p38 MAP kinase in the nucleus of activated cells suggests that p38 MAP kinase can mediate signaling to the nucleus. To test this hypothesis, we constructed expression vectors for activated MKK3 and MKK6, two MAP kinase kinases that phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase. Expression of activated MKK3 and MKK6 in cultured cells caused a selective increase in p38 MAP kinase activity. Cotransfection experiments demonstrated that p38 MAP kinase activation causes increased reporter gene expression mediated by the transcription factors ATF2 and Elk-1. These data demonstrate that the nucleus is one target of the p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. ...
Raingeaud J., Whitmarsh A.J., Barrett T., Derijard B., Davis R.J.. The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. The detection of p38 MAP kinase in the nucleus of activated cells suggests that p38 MAP kinase can mediate signaling to the nucleus. To test this hypothesis, we constructed expression vectors for activated MKK3 and MKK6, two MAP kinase kinases that phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase. Expression of activated MKK3 and MKK6 in cultured cells caused a selective increase in p38 MAP kinase activity. Cotransfection experiments demonstrated that p38 MAP kinase activation causes increased reporter gene expression mediated by the transcription factors ATF2 and Elk-1. These data demonstrate that the nucleus is one target of the p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway.. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:1247-1255(1996) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase is insufficient for downstream signal transduction in B lymphocytes. AU - Hsueh, Robert C.. AU - Hammill, Adrienne M.. AU - Lee, Jamie A.. AU - Uhr, Jonathan W.. AU - Scheuermann, Richard H.. PY - 2002/12/6. Y1 - 2002/12/6. N2 - Background: Immature B lymphocytes and certain B cell lymphomas undergo apoptotic cell death following activation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal transduction pathway. Several biochemical changes occur in response to BCR engagement, including activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase. Although Syk activation appears to be necessary for some downstream biochemical and cellular responses, the signaling events that precede Syk activation remain ill defined. In addition, the requirements for complete activation of the Syk-dependent signaling step remain to be elucidated. Results: A mutant form of Syk carrying a combination of a K395A substitution in the kinase domain and substitutions of three phenylalanines (3F) ...
Clear protocols for the study of membrane lipid properties, cellular transport or signal transduction are presented in this manual. Following a short introduction to membrane lipids, techniques for the isolation and extraction of membrane fractions, the analysis of the lipid composition, lipid turnover, and the involvement in signal transduction as well as the preparation of liposomes are : Paperback.. Clear protocols for the study of membrane lipid properties, cellular transport or signal transduction are Manual on Membrane Lipids. Authors: Prasad, Rajendra Free Preview.. Buy this book eB08 About this book. Clear protocols for the study of membrane lipid properties, cellular transport or signal transduction are presented in this manual. Following a short introduction to membrane lipids, techniques for the isolation and extraction of membrane fractions, the analysis of the lipid composition, lipid turnover, and the involvement in signal transduction as well as the preparation of liposomes are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sensory Signaling-Dependent Remodeling of Olfactory Cilia Architecture in C. elegans. AU - Mukhopadhyay, Saikat. AU - Lu, Yun. AU - Shaham, Shai. AU - Sengupta, Piali. PY - 2008/5/13. Y1 - 2008/5/13. N2 - Nonmotile primary cilia are sensory organelles composed of a microtubular axoneme and a surrounding membrane sheath that houses signaling molecules. Optimal cellular function requires the precise regulation of axoneme assembly, membrane biogenesis, and signaling protein targeting and localization via as yet poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we show that sensory signaling is required to maintain the architecture of the specialized AWB olfactory neuron cilia in C. elegans. Decreased sensory signaling results in alteration of axoneme length and expansion of a membraneous structure, thereby altering the topological distribution of a subset of ciliary transmembrane signaling molecules. Signaling-regulated alteration of ciliary structures can be bypassed by modulation of ...
This course will discuss the basic concepts of cellular signal transduction. The role of Signal transduction pathways involving (receptor) kinases, G-protein coupled receptors, adhesion receptors, cytokine receptors, and nuclear hormone receptors in disease development, progression and drug development is discussed.. Disease development and progression is largely due to the activation and or modulation of cellular signaling. Mutations in signaling pathways that drive cell proliferation are key to cancer development and progression. In atherosclerosis, immune signaling is essential to promote plaque formation. Given the involvement of perturbed signaling in disease, components of signaling networks are important candidate drug targets. The course will discuss the concepts of cellular signal transduction and focus on (receptor) kinases, G-protein coupled receptors, cytokine receptors, and nuclear hormone receptors. We will discuss how these receptors are activated and which downstream signaling ...
Mechanical strain plays a significant role in the regulation of bone matrix turnover, which is mediated in part by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. However, little is known about the correlation between mechanical strain and osteoblastic cell activities, including extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism. Herein, we determined the effect of different magnitudes of cyclic tensile strain (0%, 6%, 12%, and 18%) on MMP-13 and TIMP-1 mRNA and protein expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Furthermore, we employed specific inhibitors to examine the role of distinct signal transduction pathways known to mediate cellular responses to mechanical strain. We identified a magnitude-dependent increase in MMP-13 and TIMP-1 mRNA and protein levels in response to mechanical strains corresponding to 6%, 12%, and 18% elongation. The strain-induced increases in MMP-13 and TIMP-1 mRNA expression were inhibited by PD098059 and cycloheximide, respectively. Our results
TY - JOUR. T1 - Integrin signaling via the PI3-kinase-Akt pathway increases neuronal resistance to glutamate-induced apoptosis. AU - Gary, Devin S.. AU - Mattson, Mark P.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Integrins are integral membrane proteins that mediate adhesive interactions of cells with the extracellular matrix and with other cells. Integrin engagement results in activation of intracellular signaling cascades that effect several different cellular responses including motility, proliferation and survival. Although integrins are known to provide cell survival signaling in various types of non-neuronal cells, the possibility that integrins modulate neuron survival has not been explored. We now report data demonstrating a neuroprotective function of integrins in embryonic hippocampal neurons. Neurons grown on laminin, an integrin ligand, exhibit increased resistance to glutamate-induced apoptosis compared with neurons grown on polylysine. Neurons expressed integrin β1 and treatment of cultures ...
Title: Molecular Mechanisms of Bcl10-Mediated NF-kappaB Signal Transduction Author: Felicia D. Langel, Ph.D., 2006 Directed by: Brian C. Schaefer, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology Bcl10 is a key signaling intermediate in the TCR-to-NF-?B pathway in T lymphocytes. It is currently believed that, once activated, Bcl10 functions within a multiprotein signaling complex that activates the IKK complex. Bcl10 is thought to regulate this signaling complex, but how it transmits its signal through the complex is unknown. A thorough knowledge of Bcl10 biology is critical to understanding how Bcl10 functions and how it regulates its binding partners. In this study, we used mutational analysis, molecular imaging, biochemistry, and computer/bioinformatics modeling to elucidate a structure and function for Bcl10. From our data, we identified a novel binding site for MALT1 within the Bcl10 protein, hypothesized that this site is completely separate and distinct from the ...
Traditionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been regarded as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. However, in recent years it has become apparent that plants actively produce ROS as signalling molecules. ROS are able to mediate adaptive responses to various environmental stresses as well as processes such as stomatal closure and development. Downstream signalling events that are modulated by ROS include calcium mobilisation, protein phosphorylation and gene expression. This study investigated signalling proteins acting downstream of ROS, in order to understand how ROS are perceived and transduced to elicit such a wide range of responses. To establish a molecular profile provoked by ROS, a microarray experiment of Arabidopsis plants exposed to exogenous H(_2)O(_2) was analysed. Of the 895 differentially expressed transcripts, a substantial proportion had predicted functions in cell rescue and defence, including heat shock, disease resistance and antioxidant genes. Genes encoding ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipid rafts are required for efficient signal transduction by CD1d. AU - Park, Yoon Kyung. AU - Lee, Joong Won. AU - Ko, Young Gyu. AU - Hong, Seokmann. AU - Park, Se Ho. N1 - Funding Information: The authors thank Dr. Albert Bendelac for critical reading of the manuscript and for providing αGalCer. This work was supported by a Rheumatism Research Center Grant (R11-2002-003) from the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (to S.-H.P), and by a grant from the 21C frontier for the functional proteomics (FPR-02-A-5 to Y.-G.K).. PY - 2005/2/25. Y1 - 2005/2/25. N2 - Plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells are not uniform, possessing distinct cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich lipid raft microdomains which constitute critical sites for signal transduction through various immune cell receptors and their co-receptors. CD1d is a conserved family of major histocompatibility class I-like molecules, which has been established as an important factor in lipid antigen presentation to natural ...
Strand breaks in cellular DNA occur continuously as a consequence of normal processes such as recombination or the infliction of DNA damage. DNA damage triggers several signal transduction pathways that lead either to damage repair coupled with attenuation of cell cycle progression, or to programmed cell death (apoptosis). A junction of such pathways is controlled by the transcription factor p53. After DNA damage, the amount of p53 in cells is increased through posttranscriptional mechanisms and its transactivation activity is enhanced, leading to the activation of downstream genes (1).. The genetic disorder A-T results in genome instability, cerebellar and thymic degeneration, immunodeficiency, gonadal dysgenesis, radiation sensitivity, and predisposition to cancer. A-T cells exhibit acute sensitivity to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic chemicals, and their cell cycle checkpoints fail to be activated after treatment with these agents (2). The responsible gene, ATM, encodes a 370-kD protein ...
Canonical WNT signals are transduced through Frizzled (FZD) family receptor and LRP5/LRP6 co-receptor to upregulate FGF20, JAG1, DKK1, WISP1, CCND1 and MYC genes for cell-fate determination, while non-canonical WNT signals are transduced through FZD family receptor and ROR2/PTK7/RYK co-receptor to activate RHOA/RHOU/RAC/CDC42, JNK, PKC, NLK and NFAT signaling cascades for the regulation of tissue polarity, cell movement, and adhesion. We previously reported molecular cloning and characterization of human FZD5, which showed six amino-acid substitutions with human Hfz5. FZD5, functioning as WNT5A receptor, is the key molecule in the fields of oncology, regenerative medicine, cardiology, rheumatology, diabetology, and gastroenterology. Here, comparative integromics analyses on FZD5 orthologs were performed by using bioinformatics (Techint) and human intelligence (Humint). Chimpanzee FZD5 and cow Fzd5 genes were identified within NW_104292.1 and AC166656.2 genome sequences, respectively. FZD5 ...
The previous studies have shown that HCMV infection initiates a novel signal transduction pathway that leads to the induction of ISGs (35, 36). Later, it was discovered that the HCMV envelope glycoproteins, gB and gH, and subsequent virion fusion are required for this virus-induced activation (3, 19, 25). In this study, we demonstrated that ISRE and GAS elements are HCMV response sites (VRS). A number of cellular proteins are activated after HCMV infection that specifically interact with the VRS. These proteins have molecular masses between 19 and 41.7 kDa.. It was interesting and unexpected to determine that both ISRE and GAS elements, in fact, form identical complexes with HCMV-activated proteins. The ISRE normally interacts with IFN-α or -β-activated complexes or ISGF-3 containing Stat1, Stat2, and IRF-9 (p48). GAS normally interacts with the IFN-γ-activated Stat1 homodimer (6, 7). The fact that HCMV-activated complexes recognize both ISRE and GAS elements suggests that either a single ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Small-molecule inhibitors reveal multiple strategies for Hedgehog pathway blockade. AU - Hyman, Joel M. AU - Firestone, Ari J. AU - Heine, Vivi M. AU - Zhao, Yun. AU - Ocasio, Cory A. AU - Han, Kyuho. AU - Sun, Mark. AU - Rack, Paul G. AU - Sinha, Surajit. AU - Wu, Jason J. AU - Solow-Cordero, David E. AU - Jiang, Jin. AU - Rowitch, David H. AU - Chen, James K. PY - 2009/8/18. Y1 - 2009/8/18. N2 - Inappropriate activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been implicated in a diverse spectrum of cancers, and its pharmacological blockade has emerged as an anti-tumor strategy. While nearly all known Hh pathway antagonists target the transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo), small molecules that suppress downstream effectors could more comprehensively remediate Hh pathway-dependent tumors. We report here four Hh pathway antagonists that are epistatic to the nucleocytoplasmic regulator Suppressor of Fused [Su(fu)], including two that can inhibit Hh target gene expression ...
The CssRS two-component system responds to heat and secretion stresses in Bacillus subtilis by controlling expression of HtrA and HtrB chaperone-type proteases and positively autoregulating its own expression. Here we report on the features of the CssS extracellular loop domain that are involved in signal perception and on CssS subcellular localization. Individual regions of the CssS extracellular loop domain contribute differently to signal perception and activation. The conserved hydrophilic 26-amino-acid segment juxtaposed to transmembrane helix 1 is involved in the switch between the deactivated and activated states, while the conserved 19-amino-acid hydrophobic segment juxtaposed to transmembrane 2 is required for signal perception and/or transduction. Perturbing the size of the extracellular loop domain increases CssS kinase activity and makes it unresponsive to secretion stress. CssS is localized primarily at the septum but is also found in a punctate pattern with lower intensity ...
9. An apparatus for simulating a therapeutic manipulation comprising: an elongate body having an axial cavity; an elongate reciprocating body adapted to fit into the axial cavity of the elongate body; a biasing member adapted to fit within the axial cavity of the elongate body, the biasing member being further adapted to be disposed along an axis of the axial cavity and bias the elongate reciprocating body to a first position relative to the axis of the axial cavity; a rod attached to the elongate body and disposed along the axis of the axial cavity; a sensing system disposed within the elongate reciprocating body and configured to measure a relative displacement of the rod and the elongate reciprocating body, the sensing system including a plurality of photo interrupters disposed along the axis of the axial cavity of the elongate body and configured to generate first position signals that identify different fixed positions of the rod, and an optical sensor disposed along the axis of the axial ...
Short Talk: Cell Basal Polarity Complex Scribble Is Required for Leukemic Initiation and Propagation through Negative Regulation of Apical Polarity Complex Activator Cdc42 and Hypoxia Inducing Factor-1α ...
Despite the fact that ExoS induction of apoptosis is independent of de novo gene expression, the patterns of differentially altered gene expression observed in our study could be important signatures for the activation or stimulation of specific signal transduction pathways, such as JNK activation. An earlier report studying gene expression in the A549 lung pneumocyte cell line after exposure to P. aeruginosa identified host genes that are preferentially expressed upon infection by P. aeruginosa (39). Several of those genes are also seen in our present study, such as c-Jun in particular (data not shown).. One effect of ExoS ADPRT activity is to inhibit activation of cell survival pathways. The ExoS-dependent inhibition of ERK1/2 is consistent with previous work from other investigators (30). Although the specific contribution of p38 activation to survival in HeLa cells is unknown, p38 has been implicated in both apoptosis and anti-apoptosis signaling (31). Thus, inhibition of p38 phosphorylation ...
Basic molecular mechanisms of cell surface receptors that mediate transmembrane signals can be elucidated by integrating information from multiple interdisciplinary approaches. Our studies focus on the receptor (FceRI) for immunoglobulin E (IgE) that plays a central role in the allergic response and serves as a model for other types of immune receptors. Binding and cross-linking of IgE-FceRI complexes by antigen initiates signal transduction resulting in cell activation and release of chemical mediators.. We measure kinetics and thermodynamics of binding and cross-linking between cell-bound IgE and structurally defined ligands with fluorescence methods and analyze with realistic theoretical models to determine features that are critical for signaling. We employ quantitative fluorescence microscopy, including confocal imaging and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, to monitor changes in the distribution and dynamics of the receptor and signaling components (and genetically ...
Background B cells are essential regulators and effectors of adaptive and innate immune system responses, autoimmunity and inflammation, for example in anti-NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. IL-10 creating B cells after BCR/Compact disc40 excitement. Conclusions noncompetitive NMDAR antagonists attenuate BCR and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) B-cell signaling and effector function and may foster IL-10 creation. Consequently, NMDAR antagonists may be beneficial to focus on B cells in autoimmune illnesses or pathological systemic swelling. The drugs extra unwanted effects on B cells is highly recommended in remedies of neuronal disorders with NMDAR antagonists. [29]. Furthermore, although actions of noncompetitive NMDAR antagonists on memory space B cells isnt looked into, pharmacological modulation of memory space B-cell differentiation or supplementary B-cell responses could be envisaged. Since particular blockade of Kv1.3 and KCa3.1 stations leads to immunosuppression of B and T cells [54, ...
Natural Killer (NK) cell responses are shaped by the integration of signals transduced from multiple activating and inhibitory receptors at their surface. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified most of the key proteins involved in signal integration but a major challenge remains in understanding how the spatial and temporal dynamics of their interactions lead to NK cells responding appropriately when encountering ligands on target cells. Well over a decade of research using fluorescence microscopy has revealed much about the architecture of the NK cell immune synapse - the structured interface between NK cells and target cells - and how it varies when inhibition or activation is the outcome of signal integration. However, key questions - such as the proximity of individual activating and inhibitory receptors - have remained unanswered because the resolution of optical microscopy has been insufficient, being limited by diffraction. Recent developments in fluorescence microscopy have broken
Significant pharmaceutical innovations and progresses have occurred in oncology treatments and patients management. Recent signal transduction inhibitor agents having a strong anti-tumour specificity are able to disrupt signal pathways mediating cancer cell proliferation and efficiently prevent tumour growth. Signal transduction inhibitors include imatinib, sunitinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, sorafenib and other tyrosine kinase blockers currently under investigation. But other chemotherapeutic drugs such as antimetabolites (methotrexate, 5-Fluorouracil), mitotic spindle inhibitors (vincristine, vinorelbine), antibiotic inhibitors of topoisomerases (etoposide, topotecan) etc. are also increasingly used in oncology. As a consequence, cancer patients are living longer, and the amount of consumption of these classes of drugs has grown accordingly. In parallel, the amount of anticancer drug residues released into the environment has increased. Indeed, most anticancer drugs are eliminated by urines or ...
The current standard of care for malignant glioma is initial treatment with radiation therapy combined with TMZ; however, malignant gliomas usually recur with a median time to progression of approximately 7 months [1]. Two decades of molecular studies have identified important genetic events such as dysregulation of growth factor signaling via amplification or mutation of receptor tyrosine kinase genes; activation of PI3K pathway; and inactivation of p53 and Rb tumor suppressor pathways [2]. In this study, we tried to identify the potential targets for counteracting the pro-survival signaling implicated in radioresistance of malignant glioma cells and to get insight into potential strategies to improve the therapeutic outcome of radiotherapy and TMZ in the management of GBM.. Inhibition of signal transduction pathways may provide the basis for a new paradigm of GBM therapy, based on the fact that most human gliomas exhibit aberrant activation of a pro-survival/pro-growth signaling network. EGFR ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutants of basic fibroblast growth factor identity different cellular response programs. AU - Leenders, W.P.J.. AU - van Hinsbergh, V.W.M.. AU - van Genesen, S.T.. AU - Schoenmakers, J.G.G.. AU - Zoelen, E.J.J.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. U2 - 10.3109/08977199709021521. DO - 10.3109/08977199709021521. M3 - Article. VL - 14. SP - 213. EP - 228. JO - Growth Factors. JF - Growth Factors. SN - 0897-7194. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signal transduction pathways of GM-CSF in neural cell lines. AU - Choi, Jung Kyoung. AU - Choi, Byung Hyune. AU - Ha, Yoon. AU - Park, Hyeonseon. AU - Yoon, Seung Hwan. AU - Park, Hyung Chun. AU - Park, So Ra. N1 - Funding Information: This study was supported by a grant of the Korea Health 21 R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (A050082). PY - 2007/6/15. Y1 - 2007/6/15. N2 - GM-CSF is recently being suggested to play important role(s) in the nervous system. Present study was intended to understand signal transduction pathways of GM-CSF in human neuroblastoma (SK-N-(BE)2) and glioblastoma (A172) cell lines. The expression of GM-CSF receptors on the surface of these cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. When treated for 10 min, GM-CSF activated the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) in both cell lines. However, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) was activated ...
ScienceDaily (July 12, 2011) - Research to be presented at the upcoming annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior (SSIB), the foremost society for research into all aspects of eating and drinking behavior, finds that alterations of meal-related gut hormone signals may contribute to the overall effects of exercise to help manage body weight.. Regular exercise is important in maintaining low body weight and also is known to facilitate weight loss in obese subjects. Running exercise is known to increase sensitivity to leptin, a hormone released from fat cells that inhibits food intake. The authors new study reveals additional mechanisms that contribute the beneficial effects of exercise.. Gut hormones are released before and after a meal to initiate and terminate food intake. The authors measured gut hormone release after a palatable tasty meal before and after rats exercised in running wheels. In rats with a lot of running wheel experience, consuming a tasty meal led to ...
Upon immune cell activation with antigen, growth factors, or other stimuli, the cytoskeleton undergoes extensive reorganization to elicit a cellular response. The cytoskeleton, consisting of microtubules and actin, is a highly organized network regulated by various signal transduction pathways. Specifically, Rho GTPases (RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42) regulate the cytoskeleton, albeit through different pathways. p21-activated kinases (Pak) are serine/threonine kinases directly bound and activated by Rac1 and Cdc42. There are 6 Pak isoforms separated into 2 groups (groups I&II) in this family of kinases, and only recently have isoform specificities been identified by the use of genetically-engineered mouse models deleted for individual isoforms. In this dissertation we sought to identify if differences exist between Pak1 and Pak2 in immune function, in particular how they differ in regulation of the cytoskeleton reorganization required for immune cell function. Using primary bone marrow derived mast cells, an
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphoproteins involved in bacterial signal transduction. AU - Stock, Ann. AU - Wylie, D. C.. AU - Mottonen, J. M.. AU - Lupas, A. N.. AU - Ninfa, E. G.. AU - Ninfa, A. J.. AU - Schutt, C. E.. AU - Stock, J. B.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024155286&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024155286&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1101/sqb.1988.053.01.009. DO - 10.1101/sqb.1988.053.01.009. M3 - Article. C2 - 3076087. AN - SCOPUS:0024155286. VL - 53. SP - 49. EP - 57. JO - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. JF - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. SN - 0091-7451. IS - 1. ER - ...
Bioorganic Chemistry of Biological Signal Transduction by Herbert Waldmann (Editor) starting at $10.00. Bioorganic Chemistry of Biological Signal Transduction has 2 available editions to buy at Alibris
Kawakami, Y.; Capdevila, J.; Buscher, D.; Itoh, T.; Rodriguez Esteban, C.; Ng, J.; Izpisua Belmonte, J.C.rlos, 2001: WNT signals control FGF-dependent limb initiation and AER induction in the chick embryo
A heart attack occurs when a blood clot forms in a coronary artery depriving blood flow from a region of the heart, a condition termed ischemia. Current therapy is to reopen the artery but blood flow is seldom restored before a significant amount of the heart muscle has died. Because lost heart muscle cannot be regenerated the patient is left with a weakened heart and heart failure often occurs. Our research is directed toward identifying therapies that prevent cell death in ischemic heart. We have found that population of Gi-coupled receptors prior to ischemia makes the heart very resistant to cell death. Our current research is directed at mapping the complex signal transduction pathway involved. To date we have found that population of surface receptors with bradykinin or opioids, through their G-proteins, cause transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors. That in turn activates PI3 kinase which causes activation of Akt through phosphorylation. Akt activation results ultimately in ...
Statins are the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide, are cholesterol lowering agents used to manage and prevent cardiovascular and coronary heart diseases. Recently a multifaceted actions in different physiological and pathological conditions has been also proposed for statins such as antiiflammation, neuroprotection etc. Statins have been shown to act through cholesterol dependant & independent mechanisms which are able to affect several tissue functions and modulate specific signal transduction pathways. Here we review the pharmacology of statins, providing a comprehensive update of the current knowledge of their effects on tissues, biological processes & pathological conditions; but statins are now becoming recognized as powerful anti-inflammatory agents that exert beneficial effects beyond low density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction.
The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) are evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine protein kinases that are activated by proinflammatory cytokines, environmental stress, and genotoxic agents. These kinases play key regulatory roles within a cell by coordinating signals from the cell surface to nuclear transcription factors. JNK phosphorylates the amino terminal domain of all three Jun transcription factors (JunB, c-Jun and JunD) all members of the AP-1 family. The activated transcription factors modulate gene expression to generate appropriate biological responses, including cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and cell death. The role of the JNK signaling pathway in cell death/apoptosis is controversial, both pro-apoptotic and pro-survival roles have been attributed to JNK. The mechanism that enables the JNK signaling pathway to mediate both apoptosis and survival is unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the role of TNF-stimulated JNK activation on cell survival. The proinflammatory
MAPK signaling cascades seem to play divergent roles in the prostate gland. Significant differences have been observed in the activation pattern of all MAPK network components in prostate epithelial and stromal cells, under normal and pathologic conditions. Modulation of MAPK pathways has been shown in several prostate cancer cell lines by growth factors, cytokines, and a variety of agents that control growth and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. However, structure and function of MAPK signal transduction pathways have not been thoroughly defined in prostate carcinogenesis.. The prostate is a heterogeneous gland comprising several cell types, which regulate each others function by paracrine mechanisms. Hence, it is important to decipher the role played by MAPK signal transduction pathways in mediating the interaction between various neighboring prostate cell types. A diverse array of signaling cascades have been identified as activating elements upstream of the MAPK circuitry. In-depth ...
Aberrant activity of the MAP and PI3 kinases is implicated in many forms of cancer. The ability to gather quantifiable information on the activation state of these kinases from limited in-vitro and in-vivo tumor samples would accelerate drug development and ultimately, the treatment of cancer. In this BioScale poster, presented at ELRIG Drug Discovery 2012, non-optical acoustic membrane microparticle (AMMP®) technology was used to quantitate the activity state of multiple kinases including EGFR,
Despite extensive studies on the involvement of farnesol in C. albicans germination and biofilm formation, the characterization of a physiological role for farnesol and its implications on the fungal cell cycle have been lacking. As eukaryotic cells, fungal and human cells share similar metabolic pathways. Hence, the inhibitory effect of farnesol on C. albicans could also involve cellular signal transduction pathways similar to the apoptotic process described in mammalian cells. Therefore, in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying farnesol cytotoxicity and its possible involvement in an apoptotic process in C. albicans, a global two-dimensional proteomic approach was utilized to unravel altered protein expression following farnesol treatment. In addition, an assessment of standard apoptotic markers using fluorescent microscopy and gene expression analysis was also undertaken.. Proteomic analysis of the farnesol-exposed cells revealed a significant number of proteins to be differentially ...
Activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of innate immune sensors stimulates multiple signal transduction pathways. Previous studies have suggested that TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 induce serine phosphorylation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription-1 (STAT1) at residue 727 (S727), a …
The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of signal transduction molecules plays crucial roles in the regulation of cell behavior. TGFβ regulates gene transcription through Smad proteins and signals via non-Smad pathways. The TGFβ pathway is strictly regulated, and perturbations lead to tumorigenesis. Several pathway components are known to be targeted for proteasomal degradation via ubiquitination by E3 ligases. Smurfs are well known negative regulators of TGFβ, which function as E3 ligases recruited by adaptors such as I-Smads. TGFβ signaling can also be enhanced by E3 ligases, such as Arkadia, that target repressors for degradation. It is becoming clear that E3 ligases often target multiple pathways, thereby acting as mediators of signaling cross-talk. Regulation via ubiquitination involves a complex network of E3 ligases, adaptor proteins, and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), the last-mentioned acting by removing ubiquitin from its targets. Interestingly, also non-degradative ...
Purification and characterization of two isoenzymes of DL-glycerol-3-phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Identification of the corresponding GPP1 and GPP2 genes and evidence for osmotic regulation of Gpp2p expression by the osmosensing mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway ...
Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins regulates many biological phenomena [1]. Among the several kinds of PTM, phosphorylation affects enzymatic activity, conformations, interactions, degradation, and localization of proteins, among other effects [2-4]; one of the critical roles of phosphorylation is in the control of protein signaling [5]. More than 500 protein kinases are thought to regulate protein signaling in humans [6]. In protein signaling, various reaction cascades transmit and amplify signals in a highly regulated manner by means of reversible site-specific protein phosphorylation [5]. Kinases recognize the specific surrounding sequences of phosphosites when they phosphorylate their targets, and the majority of the identified kinases are thought to have their own unique target sequences, which are known as motif sequences [7].. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), combined with phosphopeptide enrichment technology [8], is a powerful ...
Read The woody plant poplar has a functionally conserved salt overly sensitive pathway in response to salinity stress, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Signal transduction[edit]. As with all TAS2R proteins, TAS2R38 utilizes the G-protein gustducin as its primary method of signal ... signal transduction. • response to stimulus. • sensory perception of taste. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. ... signal transducer activity. • bitter taste receptor activity. Cellular component. • membrane. • plasma membrane. • integral ... transduction. Both the α- and βγ-subunits are crucial to the transmission of the taste signal.[9] See: taste receptor. ...
The signal transduction pathway is the mechanism by which the energy of a photon signals a mechanism in the cell that leads to ... The steps, or signal transduction pathway, in the vertebrate eye's rod and cone photoreceptors are then: *The rhodopsin or ... Photoreceptors signals color; they only signal the presence of light in the visual field. ... Early Notch signaling maintains progenitor cycling. Photoreceptor precursors come about through inhibition of Notch signaling ...
Signal transduction[edit]. GHRH binding to GHRHR results in increased GH production mainly by the cAMP-dependent pathway,[5] ... a b c d e f g h i j k GeneGlobe -, GHRH Signaling[permanent dead link] Retrieved on May 31, 2009 ...
Signal transduction pathways[edit]. Skeletal muscle fiber-type phenotype in adult animals is regulated by several independent ... The Ras/MAPK signaling pathway links the motor neurons and signaling systems, coupling excitation and transcription regulation ... The EMG signals are much greater when a skeletal muscle is contracting verses relaxing. However, for smaller and deeper ... Exercise-Included Signaling Pathways in Skeletal Muscle That Determine Specialized Characteristics of slow twitch and fast ...
Calmodulin is an example of a signal-transduction protein. It is a small protein that contains four EF-hand motifs, each of ... enzymes and signal transduction proteins, or infectious diseases.[7] Most metals in the human body are bound to proteins. For ... Calmodulin participates in an intracellular signaling system by acting as a diffusible second messenger to the initial stimuli. ...
Ji TH, Ryu KS, Gilchrist R, Ji I (1997). "Interaction, signal generation, signal divergence, and signal transduction of LH/CG ... hormone-mediated signaling pathway. • cellular response to gonadotropin stimulus. • signal transduction. • primary ovarian ... Ryu KS, Gilchrist RL, Koo YB, Ji I, Ji TH (Apr 1998). "Gene, interaction, signal generation, signal divergence and signal ... Ligand binding and signal transduction[edit]. Upon binding of LH to the external part of the membrane spanning receptor, a ...
Cell biology and genomics RNA interference (RNAi) and small-RNA biology; DNA replication; RNA splicing; signal transduction; ... stem cell signaling; plant-environment interactions; using genetic insights to increase yield of staple crops, e.g., maize, ...
... signal transduction; general regulatory or receptor activity. Metabolism: Anabolic and catabolic processes; cell maintenance ...
Signal Transduction. 5 (3): 142-151. doi:10.1002/sita.200400052. Laursen LV, Bjergbaek L, Murray JM, Andersen AH (2003). "RecQ ...
Weston CR, Lambright DG, Davis RJ (2002). "Signal transduction. MAP kinase signaling specificity". Science. 296 (5577): 2345-7 ... RAF kinases participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade, also referred to as the mitogen-activated protein ... Bonni A, Brunet A, West AE, Datta SR, Takasu MA, Greenberg ME (1999). "Cell survival promoted by the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway ... Chen YR, Tan TH (2000). "The c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway and apoptotic signaling (review)". Int. J. Oncol. 16 (4): 651-62. ...
... signal transduction; notch signaling pathway PATH:ko04330 Cellular processes; cell growth and death; cell cycle PATH:ko04110 ... Class II HDACs (HDAC4, 5, 6, 7 9, and 10) are able to shuttle in and out of the nucleus, depending on different signals. HDAC6 ... PTEN is an important phosphatase involved in cell signaling via phosphoinositols and the AKT/PI3 kinase pathway. PTEN is ...
Pouysségur J (2000). "Signal transduction. An arresting start for MAPK". Science. 290 (5496): 1515-8. doi:10.1126/science. ... MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular ... Kelkar N, Gupta S, Dickens M, Davis RJ (2000). "Interaction of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling module with the ... Freedman BD, Liu QH, Del Corno M, Collman RG (2003). "HIV-1 gp120 chemokine receptor-mediated signaling in human macrophages". ...
Tatham P, Gomperts BD, Kramer IM (2003). Signal transduction. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-289632-3. Wu H ... Once a T cell has been appropriately activated (i.e. has received signal one and signal two) it alters its cell surface ... T cell receptor signalling alone results in anergy. The signalling pathways downstream from co-stimulatory molecules usually ... The first signal is provided by binding of the T cell receptor to its cognate peptide presented on MHCII on an APC. MHCII is ...
Signal Transduction. 4: 29-35. doi:10.1002/sita.200400032. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, ... 2007). "Interleukin-10 regulates transforming growth factor-beta signaling in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells". ...
B. D. Gomperts; Ijsbrand M. Kramer; Peter E. R. Tatham (1 July 2009). Signal transduction. Academic Press. pp. 378-. ISBN 978-0 ... structure of variable subgenes of Ig and the surface immunoglobulin determine the propensity of chronic or tonic BCR signalling ...
Signal transduction. References[edit]. *^ a b Foley, P. (2007), "Succi nervorum: a brief history of neurochemistry", ...
... termed signal transduction pathways, that regulate specific cellular functions. Each signal transduction occurs with a primary ... system The Insulin Signaling Pathway The Sonic hedgehog Signaling Pathway The Wnt signaling pathway The JAK-STAT signaling ... triggering intracellular cascades and in turn amplifying the initial signal. Two main signal transduction mechanisms have been ... several important enzymatic cascades and signal transduction cascades participate in metabolic pathways or signaling networks, ...
... in transduction of signaling from the G protein-coupled receptor for a variety of signaling processes like hormonal signaling, ... "Signal-Transduction Pathways". Biochemistry. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 2007. Scheffzek, K. et al. "The Ras-RasGAP ... "Signal-Transduction Pathways". Biochemistry. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 2007. Nellore, Anoma et al. "Loss of Rap1GAP ... Gerhard Krauss (2008). Biochemistry of signal transduction and regulation. Wiley-VCH. pp. 235-. ISBN 978-3-527-31397-6. ...
Signal Transduction. 7 (2): 85-98. PMID 9392437. Satyal SH, Chen D, Fox SG, Kramer JM, Morimoto RI (Jul 1998). "Negative ... "Proteomic and functional evidence for a P2X7 receptor signalling complex". The EMBO Journal. 20 (22): 6347-58. doi:10.1093/ ...
Signal transduction Gomperts, BD.; Kramer, IM. Tatham, PER. (2002). Signal transduction. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-289631-9 ... Regulation of MHC class II signal transduction by the B cell coreceptors CD19 and CD22. Wang, J., Meihers, R., Xiong, Y., Lui, ... The term co-receptor is prominent in literature regarding signal transduction, the process by which external stimuli regulate ... They can also transmit signals through adaptor molecules through their cytoplasmic domain which bind to signalling motifs. ...
Stryer, Lubert (1995). "Signal transduction cascades.". In: Biochemistry (Fourth ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. pp. ...
eds.). Signal Transduction Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology. 284. Humana Press. pp. 67-77. doi:10.1385/1-59259-816-1:067 ...
Signal Transduction. 7 (2): 85-98. PMID 9392437. Miyata Y, Chambraud B, Radanyi C, Leclerc J, Lebeau MC, Renoir JM, Shirai R, ...
"Signal transduction of IL-6, leukemia-inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M: structural receptor requirements for signal ... The members of the IL-6 receptor family all complex with gp130 for signal transduction. For example, IL-6 binds to the IL-6 ... It is often referred to as the common gp130 subunit, and is important for signal transduction following cytokine engagement. As ... Kim H, Baumann H (1998). "Transmembrane domain of gp130 contributes to intracellular signal transduction in hepatic cells". J. ...
Perrin RM, Young LS, Murthy UM, Harrison BR, Wang Y, Will JL, Masson PH (October 2005). "Gravity signal transduction in primary ... Scheel D, Wasternack C (2002). Plant signal transduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-963879-9. Xiong L, Zhu JK ... Clark GB, Thompson G, Roux SJ (January 2001). "Signal transduction mechanisms in plants: an overview". Current Science. 80 (2 ... Scheel D, Wastermack C (May 2002). Plant Signal Transduction. Oxford University Press. p. 346. ISBN 978-0-19-963879-6. ...
Signal Transduction. 7 (4): 241-56. PMID 9633825. Tsujimoto H, Nishizuka S, Redpath JL, Stanbridge EJ (1999). "Differential ... PTPs are cell signaling molecules that play regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes. This tyrosine phosphatase is a ...
Signal Transduction. 7 (4): 241-56. PMID 9633825. Zeng Q, Si X, Horstmann H, et al. (2000). "Prenylation-dependent association ... 2001). "Role of PRL-3, a human muscle-specific tyrosine phosphatase, in angiotensin-II signaling". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... PTPs are cell signaling molecules that play regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes. This class of PTPs contain a ...
Signal Transduction. 7 (3): 143-50. PMID 9440501. Shetzline MA, Premont RT, Walker JK, Vigna SR, Caron MG (March 1998). "A role ...
Signal transduction[redigér , redigér wikikode]. [[1]] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21205/ ... PDF]AMPK Signaling: The Fuel Sensor and Regulator Pathway - Abcam docs.abcam.com/pdf/cardiovascular/ampk_signaling.pdf AMPK-α(1 ... AMPK Signaling (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways www.wikipathways.org/index.php/Pathway:WP1403 May 9, 2014 - AMPK signaling pathway ... AMPK Signaling Pathway , CST Cell Signaling Technology www.cellsignal.com/contents/science-pathway.../ampk.../pathways-ampk ...
Post RM (1992). "Transduction of psychosocial stress into the neurobiology of recurrent affective disorder". Am J Psychiatry ... Electrical or chemical stimulation of the rat hippocampus causes strengthening of synaptic signals, a process known as long- ...
signal transduction. • chemical synaptic transmission. • regulation of membrane potential. • nervous system process. • synaptic ... Receptor/signaling modulators GABAA receptor positive modulators GABA metabolism/transport modulators ... gamma-aminobutyric acid signaling pathway. • chloride transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • regulation of response to ... transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity. • GABA-gated chloride ...
She serves as the Editorial Board Member of the Journal of Receptors and Signal Transduction, Tuberculosis,[23] Physiology ... Her research involves the investigation of the mechanism of signal transduction via cyclic nucleotides, phosphodiesterases and ... the Alliance for Cell Signalling[20] (1997-present), the TB Structural Genomics Consortium, the American Society for ...
The transduction of sounds requires an oxygen supply that will be readily depleted due to the prolonged threshold shifts. ... Brondel, L.; Cabanac, M. (2007). "Alliesthesia in visual and auditory sensations from environmental signals". Physiology & ... metabolic energy is needed to maintain the relevant electrochemical gradients used in the transduction of sounds. The extra ...
Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways mediated by cytokines, it has been proposed that ... a novel potent inhibitor of signal transduction and growth in vitro and in vivo in small cell lung cancer cells". Cancer ... Kovács KA, Steinmann M, Magistretti PJ, Halfon O, Cardinaux JR (Sep 2006). "C/EBPbeta couples dopamine signalling to substance ... and/or acetylcholine receptor signaling. NK1Rs are stimulated. In turn, a fairly complex reflex is triggered involving cranial ...
The signal transduction pathway is the mechanism by which the energy of a photon signals a mechanism in the cell that leads to ... The steps, or signal transduction pathway, in the vertebrate eye's rod and cone photoreceptors are then: *The rhodopsin or ... Photoreceptors do not signal color; they only signal the presence of light in the visual field. ... Early Notch signaling maintains progenitor cycling. Photoreceptor precursors come about through inhibition of Notch signaling ...
"Overexpression of the prosystemin gene in transgenic tomato plants generates a systemic signal that constitutively induces ...
... signal transduction, apoptosis, cell polarity and transport, cell motility and adhesion.[8] ... thyroid-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process. • ventricular ...
Recent results indicate androgens inhibit the ability of some fat cells to store lipids by blocking a signal transduction ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. ... Androgens have also been found to signal through membrane androgen receptors, which are distinct from the classical nuclear ...
signal transduction. • steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase ... cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription initiation from ... paracrine signaling. • lung alveolus development. • regulation of epithelial cell proliferation. • progesterone receptor ... "Progesterone receptor transcription and non-transcription signaling mechanisms". Steroids. 68 (10-13): 761-70. doi:10.1016/ ...
Stavenga, D.G.; de Grip, W.J.; Pugh, E.N. (30 November 2000). Molecular Mechanisms in Visual Transduction. Elsevier. p. 269. ... An animal first venturing out onto land would have difficulty in locating such chemical signals if its sensory apparatus had ...
... and the generation of antibody-producing plasma cells and memory B cells deregulation of intracellular signal transduction ... Cambier, J. (2005). "Immunosenescence: a problem of lymphopoiesis, homeostasis, microenvironment, and signaling". Immunological ...
intracellular signal transduction. • protein processing. • protein maturation. • myeloid dendritic cell differentiation. • ... Wnt signaling pathway[edit]. Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in several critical steps in embryogenesis and ... Chan YM, Jan YN (August 1998). "Roles for proteolysis and trafficking in notch maturation and signal transduction". Cell. 94 (4 ... Notch signaling pathway[edit]. In Notch signaling, critical proteolytic reactions takes place during maturation and activation ...
Margolskee RF (2002). "Molecular mechanisms of bitter and sweet taste transduction.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (1): 1-4. DOI:10.1074/ ... Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, et al. (2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks ... different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways.". Cell 112 (3): 293-301. DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00071-0. PMID ...
This sensor use electrostatic transduction to measure the output signal. The reported sensitivity is improved to 69.6 Hz/T ... Instead of using piezoresistive transduction, their sensor relies on electrostatic transduction. They patterned several ... The mechanical structure is often driven to its resonance in order to obtain the maximum output signal. Piezoresistive and ... In addition, temperature rise will generate larger Johnson noise (affect the piezoresistive transduction) and increase ...
signal transduction. • response to stimulus. • detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of smell. • G- ... and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The ...
... was awarded the Feldberg Foundation Prize for his work on the role GTP-binding proteins played on signal transduction ... Prior to this publication, there were conflicting reports as to the role of Gaq in cell signalling via Rho; some said that it ... In 2010, Hall analysed a number of Rho signalling pathways, which regulate the formation of apical junctions in human bronchial ... In 2002, Alan Hall discerned the role of Gaq in Rho signalling pathways. ...
1995). "Independent human MAP-kinase signal transduction pathways defined by MEK and MKK isoforms". Science. 267 (5198): 682-5 ... The knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this kinase in mediating survival signal in T cell development, as well as ... 1997). "Stress-signalling kinase Sek1 protects thymocytes from apoptosis mediated by CD95 and CD3". Nature. 385 (6614): 350-3. ... 1998). "Divergent effects of exercise on metabolic and mitogenic signaling pathways in human skeletal muscle". FASEB J. 12 (13 ...
Signal transduction. *Stem cell marker. *Wikipedia:MeSH D12.776#MeSH D12.776.543.750 - receptors.2C cell surface ... Relaying sends the signal onward, amplification increases the effect of a single ligand, and integration allows the signal to ... In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.[1] When ... There are three main ways the action of the receptor can be classified: relay of signal, amplification, or integration.[2] ...
signal transduction. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway ... 2000). "LDL-receptor-related proteins in Wnt signal transduction". Nature. 407 (6803): 530-5. doi:10.1038/35035117. PMID ... Wnt signaling pathway involved in dorsal/ventral axis specification. • canonical Wnt signaling pathway. • synapse assembly. • ... signal transducer activity. • Wnt-protein binding. • protein binding. • protein kinase binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase ...
Signal transduction. Skauk't categeries: *Pages wi citations uisin unsupportit parameters. *Airticles conteenin Auncient Greek- ... Whan a hormone binds tae the receptor, it results in the activation o a seegnal transduction pathwey that teepically activates ...
"Plant Signaling & Behavior. 9 (2): e27793. doi:10.4161/psb.27793. PMC 4091236. PMID 24618927.. ... In somatosensory transduction, the afferent neurons transmit messages through synapses in the dorsal column nuclei, where ... Johansson RS, Westling G (1987). "Signals in tactile afferents from the fingers eliciting adaptive motor responses during ... The third-order neurons then send the signal to the somatosensory cortex. ...
Signal transduction. *Simple aromatic rings. *Simplified molecular input line entry specification. *George Gaylord Simpson ...
... signal transduction alterations; and 4) inappropriate re-entry into the cell cycle.[8] Smith collaborated with and co-authored ...
DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest. • regulation of transcription ... regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator. • positive regulation of protein kinase activity ... 1994). «Identification of the nuclear and nucleolar localization signals of the protein p120. Interaction with translocation ... Interaction of nucleolar protein B23 with peptides related to nuclear localization signals.». Biochemistry. 34 (25): 8037-42. ...
The process is called signal transduction: The binding starts a chemical change on the inside of the membrane. ... Extracellular signalling molecules (usually hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors or cell recognition ...
An oversimplification of its role is to state that it: checks to ensure odor signals arose from actual odors rather than villi ... because they both give the brain information about the chemical composition of objects through a process called transduction. ... The anterior olfactory nucleus distributes reciprocal signals between the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex.[23] The anterior ... and plays a role in transmitting positive signals to reward sensors (and is thus involved in addiction).[12][13][14] ...
U3 is a sequence between PPT and R, which serves as a signal that the provirus can use in transcription. R is the terminal ... As a result, cells such as neurons are very resistant to infection and transduction by retroviruses. This gives rise to a ... Later it was found that a similar gene in cells is involved in cell signaling, which was most likely excised with the proviral ... L region is an untranslated leader region that gives the signal for packaging of the genome RNA. The 3' end includes 3 regions ...
An example is KRAS, an oncogene that encodes a GTPase involved in several signal transduction pathways. Prognostic biomarkers ...
... which publishes the latest discoveries and progress in both basic science and clinical research related to signal transduction ... Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy is an online-only, open access journal ... We are delighted to announce that Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy has been selected for coverage in Science Citation ...
Signal Transduction / Cancer / Inflammation, with University of Liège (ULg). Apply Today. ... Postdoctoral Position in Molecular Biology / Signal Transduction / Cancer / Inflammation. University of Liège (ULg). Liège, ... The Unit is currently studying poorly characterized candidates acting in oncogenic signaling pathways. Some of these projects ...
Lipid rafts and signal transduction.. Simons K1, Toomre D.. Author information. 1. Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell ... Signal transduction is initiated by complex protein-protein interactions between ligands, receptors and kinases, to name only a ... This favours specific protein-protein interactions, resulting in the activation of signalling cascades. ...
Signal transduction in guard cells.. Assmann SM1.. Author information. 1. Harvard University, Department of Organismic and ...
Hoch JA, Silhavy TJ (1995) Two-component signal transduction. ASM Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar ... Wuichet K, Cantwell BJ, Zhulin IB (2010) Evolution and phyletic distribution of two-component signal transduction systems. Curr ... Manson M.D. (2018) Transmembrane Signal Transduction in Bacterial Chemosensing. In: Manson M. (eds) Bacterial Chemosensing. ... Creating chemical tools for studying chemosensory signal transduction; (7) Computerized analysis of chemotaxis. Every effort ...
Cellular signalling pathways are fundamental to the control and regulation of cell behavior. Understanding of biosignalling ... Păun A., Pérez-Jiménez M.J., Romero-Campero F.J. (2006) Modeling Signal Transduction Using P Systems. In: Hoogeboom H.J., Păun ... Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Epidermal Growth Factor Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signalling Cellular Signalling ... Cellular signalling pathways are fundamental to the control and regulation of cell behavior. Understanding of biosignalling ...
These systems typically consist of a receptor histidine kinase, which reacts to an extracellular signal by ph … ... Two-component signal transduction (TCST) systems are the principal means for coordinating responses to environmental changes in ... Evolution of two-component signal transduction Mol Biol Evol. 2000 Dec;17(12):1956-70. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev. ... Two-component signal transduction (TCST) systems are the principal means for coordinating responses to environmental changes in ...
K. Miyazono, S. Maeda, and T. Imamura, "BMP receptor signaling: transcriptional targets, regulation of signals, and signaling ... S. Itoh and P. ten Dijke, "Negative regulation of TGF-β receptor/Smad signal transduction," Current Opinion in Cell Biology, ... B. Schmierer and C. S. Hill, "TGFβ-SMAD signal transduction: molecular specificity and functional flexibility," Nature Reviews ... Regulation of TGF-β Signal Transduction. Bing Zhao and Ye-Guang Chen ...
Multiple signaling pathways promote B lymphocyte stimulator-dependent B-cell growth and survival Robert T. Woodland, Casey J. ... The role of Akt in the signaling pathway of the glycoprotein Ib-IX-induced platelet activation Hong Yin, Aleksandra Stojanovic ... Thrombospondin-1 stimulates platelet aggregation by blocking the antithrombotic activity of nitric oxide/cGMP signaling Jeff S. ... Calmodulin-dependent kinase IV links Toll-like receptor 4 signaling with survival pathway of activated dendritic cells ...
... Pathways in Development: Hedgehog Proteins and their Receptors. *Signal Transduction Pathways in ... Cell‐to‐Cell Signalling in Development: Wnt Signalling. Stefan Hoppler, Yukio Nakamura. Published online: April 2014. ... Two‐Component Signalling in Plants. Christian A Burr, Carly M Sacks, Joseph J Kieber. Published online: April 2014. ... Signalling from Endosomes and Exosomes. Adam Huckaby, Mark Dombrovski, Erin Maher, Waheeda Naimi, Matthew Perez, Rolf Skyberg, ...
Kinetic proofreading in T-cell receptor signal transduction. T W McKeithan. PNAS May 23, 1995 92 (11) 5042-5046; https://doi. ... The requirement for these modifications introduces a temporal lag between ligand binding and receptor signaling. A model for ... Through these mechanisms, ligands of different affinity potentially may elicit qualitatively different signals. ... after ligand binding but before transmitting a signal. ... Kinetic proofreading in T-cell receptor signal transduction. T ...
Histidine kinases in signal transduction; 1 edition; First published in 2003; Subjects: Protein kinases, Cellular signal ... Histidine kinases in signal transduction edited by Masayori Inouye, Rinku Dutta. Published 2003 by Academic Press in Amsterdam ... Are you sure you want to remove Histidine kinases in signal transduction from your list? ... Histidine kinases in signal transduction ,url = https://archive.org/details/histidinekinases00inou ,lccn = 2002107358 , ...
The concept of signal transduction therapy has got into the front line of modern drug research, and a multidisciplinary ... The aim of this journal is to publish timely in-depth reviews as well as original papers in the field of signal transduction ... Current Signal Transduction Therapy is an essential journal for all involved in drug design and discovery. ... Thematic issues will also be published to cover selected areas of signal transduction therapy. Coverage of the field will ...
... Julie Pajaud, Sandeep Kumar, Claudine Rauch, Fabrice Morel, and ... Furthermore, NF-κB with upstream participation of TNFα, signaling through TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) together with IL-6 and signal ... This interaction inhibits apoptosis signal regulated kinase 1 (ASK1)-mediated activation of JNK/SAPK signaling pathway induced ... and mediate the signal transduction from, members of the TNF receptor superfamily. For example, binding of TNFα on its ...
ALK2 is a receptor serine/threonine kinase that is member of the ALK family and is upstream of signaling pathway involving the ... cell subsets from human whole blood samples for studying phosphorylated protein induction in MAP Kinase and JAK/STAT signaling ...
Promega Corporation is a worldwide leader in applying biochemistry and molecular biology to the development of innovative, high-value products for the life sciences. The Promega mission statement is: To be the most responsive supplier of biological reagents and reagent systems used in research and applied technology applications worldwide.
... Mannie Liscum LiscumM at missouri.edu Tue Jul 20 11:10:59 EST 1999 *Previous message: ... Post-Doctoral Position,br, Arabidopsis Signal Transduction,br, A post-doctoral position is available immediately in the ... function as molecular scaffolds to mediate the assembly/stability of signal transduction components in a variety of signal- ... however both NPH3 and RPT2 have been shown genetically to be required for early signal transduction during response to ...
Signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Processes referred to ... Chapter 8. FLT3 Signal Transduction and Leukemia; pp. 191-204 (Shinichiro Takahashi, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, ... The delineation of the signal transduction pathways affected in these and other complex human diseases are likely to present ... as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and ...
... Johan Ericsson ericsson at biovx1.biology.ucla.edu Wed Jun 10 18:07:09 ... Postdoc position - signal transduction & transcription Applications are invited for postdoctoral positions in a newly ... transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. Funding is available from the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and the ... the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways and the transcriptional mechanisms of growth factor signal transduction ( ...
... and signal transduction pathway activation. Signal transduction transmits and amplifies signals of stimuli from extracellular ... The purpose of signal transduction is to regulate the cellular response to the molecular stimuli via changes in gene and ... QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for signal transduction research, enabling analysis of gene expression and ... mTOR Signaling. QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for mTOR signaling research that enables analysis of gene ...
... and short-lived signal transduction molecules can be a very difficult task. In Signal Transduction Immunohistochemistry: ... and short-lived signal transduction molecules can be a very difficult task. In Signal Transduction Immunohistochemistry: ... Signal Transduction Immunohistochemistry. Book Subtitle. Methods and Protocols. Editors. * Alexander E. Kalyuzhny ... Authoritative and practical, Signal Transduction Immunohistochemistry: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide for ...
Induction of host signal transduction pathways by Helicobacter pylori. Ellyn D. Segal, C. Lange, A. Covacci, L. S. Tompkins, S. ... Induction of host signal transduction pathways by Helicobacter pylori. Ellyn D. Segal, C. Lange, A. Covacci, L. S. Tompkins, S. ... Induction of host signal transduction pathways by Helicobacter pylori. Ellyn D. Segal, C. Lange, A. Covacci, L. S. Tompkins, ... Induction of host signal transduction pathways by Helicobacter pylori Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
The various techniques used to study signal transduction as well as important experimental strategies employing these ... Oncogene products as signal transducers and the interaction of the known signaling pathways are also covered. ...
... this signal regulates cell-fate choices in embryos of the fruit fly Drosophila and vertebrates. Armadillo/beta-catenin is als … ... of the Drosophila segment polarity gene armadillo and its vertebrate homologue beta-catenin are components of the signal ... Cell adhesion and signal transduction: the Armadillo connection Trends Cell Biol. 1995 Jun;5(6):224-9. doi: 10.1016/s0962-8924( ... Drosophila segment polarity gene armadillo and its vertebrate homologue beta-catenin are components of the signal transduction ...
... daemon at net.bio.net daemon at net.bio.net Mon May 11 11:12:00 EST 1998 * ... on the signal transduction processes coupling UV-A/blue light perception to the control of gene expression in Arabidopsis (see ... Life Sciences Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH ASSISTANTSHIP IN PLANT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION = ...
... Aurora Scientific, Inc.. in Product Guide Lab Equipment Signal Transduction Reagents ... in Product Guide Lab Equipment Assay Kits Protein Purification Systems Signal Transduction Reagents Other Amphipols Cell ...
... The Signal Transduction Program explores the molecular signals within and between cells that drive cancer ... The Signal Transduction Program has two major overarching themes: 1) Identifying and targeting signaling in cancer; and 2) ... In addition, the Signal Transduction Program is working to develop improved models of cancer. Program members include experts ... Extensive collaborations among Signal Transduction Program members and other CSHL Cancer Center Programs have combined novel ...
Because of the complexity and the rapid pace of research developments in the field of signal transduction, there are few ... Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science Signaling Message Body. (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science Signaling. ...
Learn more about the areas that The Division of Signal Transduction at BIDMC in Boston is conducting research. ... Division of Signal Transduction. Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. 330 Brookline Avenue. Boston, MA ... More Within Signal Transduction Signal Transduction * Cell Signaling * Signal Transduction and Cancer Metabolism ...
... intracellular signaling pathway, protein kinase cascade, signal transduction via intracellular signaling cascade, signal ... intracellular signal transduction pathway, intracellular signaling cascade, intracellular signaling chain, ... intracellular signal transduction. GO ID. GO:0035556 Aspect. Biological Process. Description. The process in which a signal is ... passed on to downstream components within the cell, which become activated themselves to further propagate the signal and ...
  • The JNK signal transduction pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies have led to progress towards understanding the physiological function of the JNK signaling pathway, including the analysis of the phenotype of knockout mice. (nih.gov)
  • An important role for JNK in the non-canonical Wnt-signaling pathway has been established. (nih.gov)
  • ALK2 is a receptor serine/threonine kinase that is member of the ALK family and is upstream of signaling pathway involving the SMAD proteins especially SMAD1/5/8. (fishersci.com)
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for signal transduction research, enabling analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • Most processes of signal transduction involve ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes , activated by second messengers , resulting in a signal transduction pathway . (bionity.com)
  • The changes elicited by ligand binding (or signal sensing) in a receptor give rise to a biochemical cascade, which is a chain of biochemical events known as a signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each component (or node) of a signaling pathway is classified according to the role it plays with respect to the initial stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Wehr and his team use molecular, biochemical and cell biology techniques and mouse models to investigate how molecular mechanisms are altered by schizophrenia candidate risk genes, i.e. they analyse the impact of selected schizophrenia risk genes on changes in signalling pathway activities and synaptic plasticity. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In the second part, the signal transduction pathway, sometimes a lot of different proteins make one long chain that passes along the message . (everything2.com)
  • Another kind of signal transduction pathway. (everything2.com)
  • This often involves the activation of a signal transduction pathway utilizing multi-step enzyme cascades to convert the stimulus. (novusbio.com)
  • B ) Diagram of the TNF-NF-κB signaling pathway represented in biochemical form (left) and as a noisy communication channel (right). (sciencemag.org)
  • Applying this framework to analyze a four-dimensional compendium of single-cell responses to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ( Fig. 1C , see also SOM section 1), an inflammatory cytokine that initiates stochastic signaling at physiologic concentrations spanning about four orders of magnitude ( 15 - 21 ), shows that signaling via a network rather than a single pathway can abate the information lost to noise. (sciencemag.org)
  • As a consequence, the signal transduction pathway is initiated. (europa.eu)
  • The PathDetect in vivo signal transduction pathway trans-reportings. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Stratagenes PathDetect in vivo signal transduction pathway reporting systems are used to study activation of specific signaling pathways by uncharacterized gene products, extracellular stimuli, or drug candidates. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The PathDetect in vivo signal transduction pathway trans-reporting systems 1 are used to study the in vivo effects of new genes, growth factors, drug candidates, and extracellular stimuli on the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2,3 (JNK), mitogen-activated protein kinase 4,5 (MAPK), cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase 6 (PKA), and other signaling molecules that lead to the activation of these kinases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. (harvard.edu)
  • Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. (harvard.edu)
  • for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway. (harvard.edu)
  • The Ras Signal Transduction Pathway in Development (R. Hamilton). (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Since many of the signal molecules in this pathway relay more than one of the upstream signals to downstream targets, it has been suggested that the transmission of signals involves a network, rather than a linear sequence in the activation of NF-κB. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In many transduction processes, an increasing number of enzymes and other molecules become engaged in the events that proceed from the initial stimulus. (novapublishers.com)
  • The aim is to identify the downstream targets (i.e. transcription factors, coactivators and corepressors) of these signaling pathways and to determine how these molecules regulate gene expression. (bio.net)
  • Unlike detecting constitutively expressed targets, immunohistochemical detection of labile, low abundance, and short-lived signal transduction molecules can be a very difficult task. (springer.com)
  • However, chemical processes and individual molecules are not the only factors influencing signal transmission. (fz-juelich.de)
  • The number of proteins and other molecules participating in the events involving signal transduction increases as the process emanates from the initial stimulus, resulting in a "signal cascade," beginning with a relatively small stimulus that elicits a large response. (bionity.com)
  • Most signal transduction involves the binding of extracellular signaling molecules (or ligands) to cell-surface receptors that face outward from the plasma membrane and trigger events inside the cell. (bionity.com)
  • Steroids represent another example of extracellular signaling molecules that may cross the plasma membrane due to their lipophilic or hydrophobic nature. (bionity.com)
  • Depending on the efficiency of the nodes, a signal can be amplified (a concept known as signal gain), so that one signaling molecule can generate a response involving hundreds to millions of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of signal transduction pathways involve the binding of signaling molecules, known as ligands, to receptors that trigger events inside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all classifications of signaling molecules take into account the molecular nature of each class member. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific GSLs, indeed, interface with specific protein domains that are found in signalling molecules and which act as GSL sensors to modify signalling responses. (mdpi.com)
  • The chains of molecules that relay intracellular signals are known as intracellular signal transduction pathways. (khanacademy.org)
  • They direct the recruitment, activation, and scaffolding of cytoplasmic signaling complexes via two multifunctional adaptor and transducer molecules, β-arrestins 1 and 2. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sometimes when the communication is local signaling, cells just have molecules stuck on their surface s that connect to each other, or they have tunnel s between them through which signaling molecules can move. (everything2.com)
  • These proteins do a lot of different things, but one of the things that they do is receive chemical signal molecules. (everything2.com)
  • The signal molecules fit right inside them like keys into locks or pieces into puzzles. (everything2.com)
  • After the receptor proteins get the signal molecules, they're usually changed. (everything2.com)
  • When they change shape, they affect other molecules inside the cell, and that's called transduction. (everything2.com)
  • Many of these signaling molecules can serve as potential pharmaceutical targets for the specific inhibition of NF-κB activation leading to interruption of disease processes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Thus, the detailed elucidation of the upstream signaling molecules involved with NF-κB activation will be important to the development of pharmaceutical inhibitors that specifically inhibit the activation of NF-kB. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This series is intended to reflect our increasing understanding of the organization of signalling networks, which are no longer viewed merely as linear pathways but instead as complex webs in which scaffold-organized multiprotein complexes and subcellular localization of signalling molecules play key roles. (biologists.org)
  • Future articles in the series examine the importance of subcellular localization of signalling molecules such as Ca(2+), inositol phosphates and Ras, scaffold proteins such as STE5, KSR and AKAPs, and proteins such as p300/CBP and WASP that play central roles integrating signalling to produce biological output (see over). (biologists.org)
  • Through these mechanisms, ligands of different affinity potentially may elicit qualitatively different signals. (pnas.org)
  • The delineation of the signal transduction pathways affected in these and other complex human diseases are likely to present new avenues for therapeutic intervention and understanding of human disease mechanisms. (novapublishers.com)
  • The successful candidates will study the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways and the transcriptional mechanisms of growth factor signal transduction (Ericsson et al. (bio.net)
  • Current research is focused on identifying and targeting the signaling mechanisms and tumor-host interactions that drive cancer. (cshl.edu)
  • With the advent of computational biology, the analysis of signaling pathways and networks has become an essential tool to understand cellular functions and disease, including signaling rewiring mechanisms underlying responses to acquired drug resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many other intercellular signal relay mechanisms exist in multicellular organisms, such as those that govern embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrating advances in the biochemistry, cell biology, physiology, and physics of phototransduction, Signal Transduction in the Retina presents the methodologies and experimental approaches that yield key information on the mechanisms underlying normal retinal physiology. (routledge.com)
  • Given the dominance and wealth of information on rhodopsin-based phototransduction, the book devotes substantial attention to this topic, but also evaluates a diversity of signaling mechanisms. (routledge.com)
  • Beginning with the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate phototransduction, this volume presents the structure of phototransduction cascade components at atomic resolution, as well as molecular interactions in multi-protein complexes and novel cell-based strategies for understanding signal shut-off and light adaptation. (routledge.com)
  • We are interested in unraveling the mechanisms by which transforming growth factor- β (TGF- β ) family members elicit their multifunctional cellular effects and how perturbation in their signal transduction pathways contribute to human diseases. (lumc.nl)
  • Stomatal guard cells, being an easy and versatile system to study the their cellular components, are considered as excellent models for studying the signal transduction mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Screening the natural products, large combinatorial chemistry libraries and with the advent of computational biology including proteomics, genomics and the analysis of signaling pathways and networks has become an essential tool to understand cellular functions and disease mechanisms. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In this review, we describe detailed mechanisms of signal transduction pathways of Ang II involving small G proteins in VSMCs together with their functional significances in mediating vascular remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • The focus of this article is applied physiology of the inner ear, emphasizing the processes involved in transduction and the homeostatic mechanisms necessary for maintaining the inner ear in a functional state. (medscape.com)
  • This textbook provides a comprehensive view of signal transduction, covering both the fundamental mechanisms involved and their roles in key biological processes. (cshlpress.com)
  • On the other hand, in the Fas-mediated apoptosis of Jurkat (type II) cells, which is characterized by involvement of mitochondria and, thus, shares signal transduction mechanisms with apoptosis induced by other stimuli such as genotoxins, activation of the three caspases, cleavage of DFF45 (ICAD), and nuclear changes were blocked by reduction of intracellular ATP, whereas release of cytochrome c was not affected. (aacrjournals.org)
  • mechanisms regulating neuronal second messenger signaling in synaptic plasticity. (ucdenver.edu)
  • signaling and transcriptional mechanisms of muscle disease. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Understanding the signaling mechanisms that control apoptosis in cancer development and during the response of tumor cells to cancer therapeutics. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Such effects on signaling mechanisms probably account for the role of oxidative stress in inflammation, aging, and cancer. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Most chapters contain comparative analyses of the role of growth factors, as well as their signal transduction mechanisms in these different developing systems. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • We identify novel mechanisms ensuring specificity and robustness within stomatal Ca 2+ -signaling on a cellular, genetic, and biochemical level. (osti.gov)
  • Thus, a thorough understanding of cellular signal transduction and its underlying molecular mechanisms is crucial for the development of novel drugs targeting cellular communication pathways. (uni.lu)
  • Although detailed signal transduction mechanisms of neither cryptochromes nor phototropins are well understood, significant progress has been made in recent years. (plantcell.org)
  • 15 members) encode novel proteins, however both NPH3 and RPT2 have been shown genetically to be required for early signal transduction during response to phototropic stimuli. (bio.net)
  • We hypothesize that this novel family of proteins function as molecular scaffolds to mediate the assembly/stability of signal transduction components in a variety of signal-response systems (i.e., not limited to phototropism). (bio.net)
  • Program members include experts who bring an in-depth understanding of different families of signaling proteins, integrated with investigators who have expertise in cutting-edge technologies and systems. (cshl.edu)
  • The present focus within our group is on 1) the identification of novel critical regulators of TGF- β family signaling pathways using functional genetic screens, 2) how TGF- β specificity and bioavailability is regulated via known (co-)receptors and ligand binding proteins and 3) chemical biology approaches to normalize deregulated TGF- β signalling. (lumc.nl)
  • Our group showed that different signal proteins were activated under acidic conditions compared with those observed in a typical medium of around pH 7.4 that has been used until now. (mdpi.com)
  • Genes encoding receptors, signal proteins including transcription factors, and cytokines including growth factors numbered 35, 32, and 17 among the 379 genes, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • After 24 h culture at pH 6.7, expressions of 412 genes were repressed more than twofold compared with those in cells cultured at pH 7.5, and the 412 genes contained 35, 76, and 7 genes encoding receptors, signal proteins including transcription factors, and cytokines including growth factors, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • 5-8 Importantly, recent accumulating evidence highlighted the significance of these small G proteins as essential molecular switches that trigger many of the signal transduction and functions of Ang II. (ahajournals.org)
  • Taking a novel approach, it first lays out the basic principles of signal transduction, explaining how different receptors receive information and transmit it via signaling proteins, ions, and second messengers. (cshlpress.com)
  • The receiver and signalling domain may be present in distinct proteins that form a complex or may be fused in a single polypeptide chain. (mpg.de)
  • A notable feature of Growth Factors and Signal Transduction in Development is its glossary of genes and proteins referred to in this volume. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Morgan Sheng's summary of the scaffold functions of PSD-95 in the post-synaptic density (see Cell Science at a Glance) underlines this complexity: PSD-95 is part of an extensive network of proteins that links together different classes of glutamate receptor and couples them to intracellular signalling pathways. (biologists.org)
  • We illustrate these cellular models simulating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling cascade and the FAS-induced apoptosis using a deterministic strategy for the evolution of P systems. (springer.com)
  • Moghal, N., Sternberg, P.W.: Multiple positive and negative regulators of signaling by the EGFR receptor. (springer.com)
  • These systems typically consist of a receptor histidine kinase, which reacts to an extracellular signal by phosphorylating a cytoplasmic response regulator, causing a change in cellular behavior. (nih.gov)
  • L. Z. Xiao, N. Topley, T. Ito, and A. Phillips, "Interleukin-6 regulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)- β receptor compartmentalization and turnover enhances TGF- β 1 signaling," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 280, no. 13, pp. 12239-12245, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • The disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM12 contributes to TGF- β signaling through interaction with the type II receptor," Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 178, no. 2, pp. 201-208, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • S. Hayes, A. Chawla, and S. Corvera, "TGF β receptor internalization into EEA1-enriched early endosomes: role in signaling to Smad2," Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 158, no. 7, pp. 1239-1249, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • Like other cell-surface receptors with intrinsic or associated protein-tyrosine kinase activity, the T-cell receptor complex undergoes a number of modifications, including tyrosine phosphorylation steps, after ligand binding but before transmitting a signal. (pnas.org)
  • The requirement for these modifications introduces a temporal lag between ligand binding and receptor signaling. (pnas.org)
  • The process by which a signal, such as a hormone or a change in the concentration of an ion, is converted into a biochemical response by means of the activation of a receptor on the surface or interior of a cell. (yourdictionary.com)
  • The binding of a signaling molecule with a receptor causes a change in the conformation of the receptor, known as receptor activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulation exerted by GSLs on signal transduction is orthogonal to the ligand-receptor axis, as it usually does not directly interfere with the ligand binding to receptors. (mdpi.com)
  • Learn how signals are relayed inside a cell starting from the cell membrane receptor. (khanacademy.org)
  • The transmission of extracellular signals to the interior of the cell is a function of plasma membrane receptors, of which the seven transmembrane receptor family is by far the largest and most versatile. (sciencemag.org)
  • One other kind of receptor is a ligand-gated ion-channel receptor, which is like a closed tunnel that opens when a signal molecule binds to it, letting ions from outside the cell go into the cell to make changes. (everything2.com)
  • Large populations of cells can accurately sense signaling inputs, such as the concentration of growth factors or other receptor ligands, but this task can be challenging for an individual cell affected by biochemical noise ( 1 - 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • One receptor that has been identified is novel and may represent a new class of molecule that interacts with low density lipoproteins and consequently initiates a signal transduction cascade. (europa.eu)
  • Although recent work has begun to illuminate the signal transduction pathways activated by MIF, the nature of its membrane receptor has not been known. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Through this receptor, Ang II activates a number of cytoplasmic signaling pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • The involvement of ADAP in the regulation of receptor-mediated inside-out signaling leading to integrin activation is well characterized, especially in T cells and in platelets. (asm.org)
  • In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. (harvard.edu)
  • A principal means by which AGEs alter cellular properties is through interaction with their signal-transduction receptor RAGE. (ahajournals.org)
  • It has been discovered that many growth factors have the option of more than one receptor for signal transduction. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • T-Cell Signalling and Activation Through the Interleukin-2 Receptor Complex (N. Terada, et al. ). (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The Handbook of Receptor Classification and Signal Transduction contains over 100 entries covering such topics as Intracellular Signaling Enzymes and Receptors, Ion Channels, Non-Peptide Receptors, Synthesis and Metabolism, Peptide Receptors and Peptide Metabolism, Protein Kinase, Serine, Threonine, and Tyrosine Kinases, and Transporters. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • First, a signalling molecule or ligand binds to the outside of the cell and activates a specific receptor on the cell membrane. (sciencephoto.com)
  • When the receptor is activated, a second messenger continues the signal inside the cell and elicits a physiological response. (sciencephoto.com)
  • On p. 1265, Graeme Milligan develops the theme by reviewing the evidence for regulation of G-protein-coupled receptor signalling through receptor oligomerization. (biologists.org)
  • This GRC will be held in conjunction with the "Photosensory Receptors and Signal Transduction (GRS)" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). (grc.org)
  • Current Signal Transduction Therapy is an essential journal for all involved in drug design and discovery. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This thematic issue of Current Signal Transduction Therapy aims at featuring the latest developments of cell signaling research and to encourage design and development of new drug treatments against cancer, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated to abnormal signal transduction. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Cellular signalling pathways are fundamental to the control and regulation of cell behavior. (springer.com)
  • Early endosomal regulation of Smad-dependent signaling in endothelial cells," Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 277, no. 20, pp. 18046-18052, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • We are seeking highly motivated scientists (Ph.D./M.D.) with strong backgrounds in molecular and cellular biology, gene expression, transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. (bio.net)
  • In 1993, the year in which the paper cited above was published, insight into the importance of growth factors and signal transduction pathways in cell cycle regulation was increasing rapidly, but metabolic and energetic aspects of cell proliferation had attracted relatively little attention. (waterstones.com)
  • set the foundation to use protoplasts to study gene regulation and signal transduction in plant cells. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In various intercellular signal systems, scientists today understand the composition and structure of the unique receptors on the target cells as well as the various ways in which the signals received by the cell are transduced and modified in the cell, sometimes in a complex chain of events, until the induction or regulation of the encoded response of the target cell. (openu.ac.il)
  • Developmental Regulation and Signal Transduction Pathways of Fibroblast Growth Factors and Their Receptors (K. Miller & A. Rizzino). (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The aim of this journal is to publish timely in-depth reviews as well as original papers in the field of signal transduction therapy. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Because of the complexity and the rapid pace of research developments in the field of signal transduction, there are few textbooks devoted to this subject specifically. (sciencemag.org)
  • and in part to our need for another expert in the field of signal transduction among the Editors. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, we would like to emphasize our interest in primary articles relating to this topic and take this opportunity to encourage all those working in the field of signal transduction to submit their best articles to the journal. (biologists.org)
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science Signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page from the Science Signaling web site. (sciencemag.org)
  • Signal transduction transmits and amplifies signals of stimuli from extracellular sources to the nucleus. (qiagen.com)
  • Also, intracellular signaling cascades can be triggered through cell-substratum interactions, as in the case of integrins , which bind ligands found within the extracellular matrix . (bionity.com)
  • Signal transduction pathways may involve many different types of signals, including hormones, neurotransmitters , growth factors, cytokines , neurotrophins or extracellular matrix components. (novusbio.com)
  • Signaling networks are biochemical systems dedicated to processing information about the environment provided by extracellular stimuli. (sciencemag.org)
  • MIF binds to the extracellular domain of CD74, and CD74 is required for MIF-induced activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 MAP kinase cascade, cell proliferation, and PGE2 production. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A recombinant, soluble form of CD74 binds MIF with a dissociation constant of approximately 9 x 10-9 Kd, as defined by surface plasmon resonance (BIAcore analysis), and soluble CD74 inhibits MIF-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in defined cell systems. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Ras mediates its effect on cell proliferation mainly by activation of its effector Raf to initiate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular signal regulated kinase [ERK]) cascade. (ahajournals.org)
  • The physiological functions of the atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3) remain poorly characterized. (asm.org)
  • A recombinant, soluble form of CD74 binds MIF with a dissociation constant of ∼9 × 10 −9 K d , as defined by surface plasmon resonance (BIAcore analysis), and soluble CD74 inhibits MIF-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in defined cell systems. (rupress.org)
  • MIF broadly counter-regulates the immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids ( 21 - 24 ), and at the subcellular level, it induces a sustained pattern of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 MAP kinase activation ( 25 ) and maintains proinflammatory function by inhibiting p53-dependent apoptosis ( 10 , 26 ). (rupress.org)
  • Processes referred to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers. (novapublishers.com)
  • Investigators study ion channels, second messengers, growth factor-signaling and the cell cycle. (ucdenver.edu)
  • There is now evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can alter cell function by acting upon the intermediates, or second messengers, in signal transductions. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Signal travels from exterior to interior of cell via first and second messengers. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The various techniques used to study signal transduction as well as important experimental strategies employing these techniques will also be presented. (umich.edu)
  • Stratagene has continued to update the PathDetect trans-systems to study signal transduction events that converge at the transcription factors CHOP (activated by p38 MAPK), ATF2 and c-Fos. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Signal Transduction: A Systems Biology Approach" presents readers with an introduction to systems biology, while also providing details of approaches and methods in use today to study signal transduction from a systems biology perspective. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • A postdoctoral position is available in the Plant Molecular Science Group to work with Dr Gareth I. Jenkins and Dr Marc R. Knight (University of Oxford) on the signal transduction processes coupling UV-A/blue light perception to the control of gene expression in Arabidopsis (see Plant Cell 8, 1555-1567). (bio.net)
  • As can be seen from the graph to the right, it is not until the late 1980s/early 1990s that research papers directly addressing signal transduction processes began to appear in large numbers in the scientific literature. (bionity.com)
  • In the twenty-first century, we are just beginning to understand more clearly the enormous diversity and complexity of signaling processes in the retina. (routledge.com)
  • The book also compares the visual signaling processes of vertebrates and invertebrates. (routledge.com)
  • Signal transduction executed in the signal cascades is the common term used to define a divers biochemical mecha nisms that regulate processes in the nanonetworks. (actapress.com)
  • The signal cascades existing in the different type of cells (for selected processes) can be retrieved from the biochemical research available in the specialized databases. (actapress.com)
  • It then surveys the major signaling pathways that operate in cells, before examining in detail how these function in processes such as cell growth and division, cell movement, metabolism, development, reproduction, the nervous system, and immune function. (cshlpress.com)
  • It will also be a vital reference for all cell, molecular, and developmental biologists and pharmacologists, neurobiologists, and immunologists studying processes regulated by cell signaling. (cshlpress.com)
  • Here we discuss computational approaches for modeling protein signal transduction and metabolism as well as how the regulatory relationship between these two important cellular processes can be combined into hybrid models. (umich.edu)
  • Many MCGD faculty strive to understand how signal transduction regulates cellular processes, including cell proliferation, cell survival, differentiation, fate determination, and cell movement. (yale.edu)
  • The study of these processes is known as signal transduction, or cellular signaling, which is one of the key areas of biomedical research, because of what it tells us about normal functions and the therapeutic opportunities that it identifies. (ucdenver.edu)
  • We are delighted to announce that Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy has been selected for coverage in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) and Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition. (nature.com)
  • Signal transduction is initiated by complex protein-protein interactions between ligands, receptors and kinases, to name only a few. (nih.gov)
  • Are you sure you want to remove Histidine kinases in signal transduction from your list? (openlibrary.org)
  • Histidine kinases in signal transduction edited by Masayori Inouye, Rinku Dutta. (openlibrary.org)
  • Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The uncontrolled growth of tumor cells is caused by mutations in the genes encoding growth factors, their receptors, signal transducing enzymes (mostly kinases), and transcription factors. (uni.lu)
  • According to the University of Dundee, the MRC Protein Phosphorylation Unit, the Scottish Institute for Cell Signalling and the College of Life Sciences at Dundee together make up the world's largest centre for the study of kinases and the ubiquitin system, with some 200 scientific and support staff working in this area. (pharmatimes.com)
  • Just like people, cells can communicate when they're close together, which is called local signaling, or when they're far apart, which is done by hormones , but both kinds of communicating use chemical molecule s that the cell secretes and other cells receive. (everything2.com)
  • Either way, the receiving cell gets a signal molecule from the sending cell. (everything2.com)
  • In either step, the signal can be amplified, meaning that one signalling molecule can cause many responses. (sciencephoto.com)
  • University of Glasgow Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH ASSISTANTSHIP IN PLANT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION =A315, 159-=A316, 927 p.a. (bio.net)
  • Ligands are termed first messengers, while receptors are the signal transducers, which then activate primary effectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Prior to 1977 articles can be found that use the term "signal transmission" or "sensory transduction" within their title or abstract. (bionity.com)
  • While performing this sensory transduction process, the inner ear analyzes a sound stimulus in terms of its frequency, intensity, and temporal properties, and it transmits this information to the CNS for further processing and interpretation. (medscape.com)
  • Two-component signal transduction (TCST) systems are the principal means for coordinating responses to environmental changes in bacteria as well as some plants, fungi, protozoa, and archaea. (nih.gov)
  • Responses of cells to environmental signals, toxins and stressors have profound implications for diverse aspects of human health and disease including development, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, asthma, heart, autoimmune diseases and cancer. (novapublishers.com)
  • When signaling pathways interact with one another they form networks, which allow cellular responses to be coordinated, often by combinatorial signaling events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noise maps an input signal to a distribution of possible output responses, which can cause loss of information about the input. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, the signals can be modified at any stage causing many responses. (omicsonline.org)
  • This favours specific protein-protein interactions, resulting in the activation of signalling cascades. (nih.gov)
  • The interaction of GH with GH receptors (GHR) on target cells promotes the association of the cellular tyrosine kinase JAK2 with the GHR, initiating tyrosine phosphorylation of GHR and JAK2, and activation of multiple signaling cascades. (biomedsearch.com)
  • GH-stimulated activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K) cascades have been shown to regulate the transcription of GH-responsive genes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cross-talk among these signaling cascades in regulating specific genes suggests that GH signaling to the nucleus involves a GH-regulated signaling network. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previous research from us and other laboratories have now firmly established the intracellular signaling cascade of TGF- β via serine/threonine kinase receptors and SMAD transcriptional effectors. (lumc.nl)
  • Bottlenecks likewise constrain information attained by networks signaling through multiple genes or cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since the functions of 78 genes are unknown, it can be argued that cells may have other genes for signaling under acidic conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Still, many missing links exist in the plant transduction pathways from signals to target genes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The eventual outcome is an alteration in cellular activity and changes in the program of genes expressed within the responding cells.Numerous diseases are caused by a dysfunctional cellular signal transduction. (uni.lu)
  • Multiple signaling pathways mediate the diverse effects of growth hormone (GH) on growth and metabolism. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Despite this, the concept seemed inescapable that the two seemingly distinct and unrelated determinants - signal transduction and metabolism - were integrally linked. (waterstones.com)
  • Many of the same signaling pathways are routinely dysregulated in cancer and a number of important oncogenic signaling pathways play important regulatory roles in central carbon metabolism. (umich.edu)
  • Unraveling the complex regulatory relationship between cancer metabolism and signaling requires the application of systems biology approaches. (umich.edu)
  • Wynn ML, Merajver SD, Schnell S (2012) Unraveling the Complex Regulatory Relationships Between Metabolism and Signal Transduction in Cancer. (umich.edu)
  • [2] [3] However, it is not until 1977 that papers start to appear with the specific term "signal transduction" within their abstract, and 1979 before this specific term appears within a paper title. (bionity.com)
  • The purpose of signal transduction is to regulate the cellular response to the molecular stimuli via changes in gene and protein expression. (qiagen.com)
  • In multicellular organisms, signal transduction pathways regulate cell communication in a wide variety of ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent evidence, however, indicates another previously unappreciated strategy used by the receptors to regulate intracellular signaling pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • In multicellular organisms, signal transduction pathways have evolved to regulate cell communication in a wide variety of ways. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Western blots offer a qualitative method for assessing protein expression and modification (phosphorylation, ubitquitination etc.) in response to alterations in cell signalling pathways. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • The role of signal transduction and other regulatory pathways (phosphorylation/dephosphorylation) is a major focus both because our knowledge of how transport is regulated is rudimentary and because some Na'-sensitive enzymes may modulate inositol-based signalling pathways. (europa.eu)
  • Moreover, we demonstrate an unexpected interdependence of the Ca 2+ -dependent and Ca 2+ -independent ABA-signaling branches and the in planta requirement of simultaneous phosphorylation at two key phosphorylation sites in SLAC1. (osti.gov)
  • The DSTT includes 15 research teams based at the University of Dundee, 13 of them within the MRC [Medical Research Council] Protein Phosphorylation Unit and the Scottish Institute for Cell Signalling (SCILLS) at the College of Life Sciences. (pharmatimes.com)
  • The Unit is currently studying poorly characterized candidates acting in oncogenic signaling pathways. (nature.com)
  • These effects of H. pylori attachment to cells suggests that alteration of host cell signal transduction might lead to chronic inflammation and perhaps may lead to the oncogenic transformation that are the hallmarks of symptomatic H. pylori infection. (pnas.org)
  • The Signal Transduction Program explores the molecular signals within and between cells that drive cancer. (cshl.edu)
  • How do these cells process incoming signals and how do they pass them on? (fz-juelich.de)
  • The Innate Immunity Signal Transduction in Human Leukocytes is a research study to determine the response of immune cells from the bloodstream. (nih.gov)
  • This study will investigate the response of immune cells to various signals in the test tube to determine how they sense the signals in the body and what substances they produce in response to them. (nih.gov)
  • Mostly, the cell makes the signaling chemical, then lets these chemicals out to diffuse through the fluid outside the cell to other cells nearby. (everything2.com)
  • Signal transduction is the process by which cells convert one type of stimulus into a new type of signal. (novusbio.com)
  • Many reviews on signaling components in guard cells have been highly focused on single signaling components and have appeared in different journals. (frontiersin.org)
  • The proposed Frontiers Topic on "Signal Transduction in Stomatal Guard Cells" would provide a compendium of reviews by experts, all in one place and would be an excellent source of information to those interested in guard cell function as well as signal transduction in plant cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results suggest that the signal pathways in acidic diseased areas are different, at least in part, from those examined with cells cultured at a pH of around 7.4. (mdpi.com)
  • These data provide a molecular basis for MIF's interaction with target cells and identify it as a natural ligand for CD74, which has been implicated previously in signaling and accessory functions for immune cell activation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cells must respond to a wide variety of signals. (cshlpress.com)
  • In SKW6.4 (type I) cells characterized by rapid formation of the death-inducing signaling complex on Fas treatment, the activation of caspases 8, 9, and 3, cleavage of DFF45 (ICAD), and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm were not affected by reduction of intracellular ATP, although chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were inhibited. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results suggested that the ATP-dependent step(s) of Fas-mediated apoptotic signal transduction in type I cells are only located downstream of caspase 3 activation, whereas the activation of caspase 9 by released cytochrome c is the most upstream ATP-dependent step in type II cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells receive external cues and signals from many different molecular sources, both nearby and far away. (yale.edu)
  • Study and manipulation of protein homeostasis and signaling pathways in live cells, optogenetic tools for controlling protein interactions, synthetic biology, cytosolic protein misfolding, yeast genetics/genomics. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Analogous to the mammalian tissue culture lines and transient gene expression assays that are indispensable for the rapid progress in discoveries of signal transduction pathways in multicellular organisms, protoplast transient expression systems using parsley ( Petroselinum crispum ), maize ( Zea mays ), carrot ( Daucus carota ), alfalfa ( Medicago sativa ), Arabidopsis, and tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) suspension culture cells have been established. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The process by which cells receive, transduce and respond to signals is vitally important in all activities that characterize the term life. (openu.ac.il)
  • Plant guard cells, that form stomatal pores for gas exchange, provide a powerful system for in depth investigation of Ca 2+ -signaling specificity in plants. (osti.gov)
  • In intact guard cells, abscisic acid (ABA) enhances (primes) the Ca 2+ -sensitivity of downstream signaling events that result in activation of S-type anion channels during stomatal closure, providing a specificity mechanism in Ca 2+ -signaling. (osti.gov)
  • This volume is devoted primarily to methods used to study either the behavior of bacteria in response to their environment or methods used to study events that involve signaling pathways that are initiated by events at the cell membrane. (springer.com)
  • ISEs traditionally involve potentiometric signal transduction, i.e. the ion activity is related to the equilibrium potential of the sensor vs. the reference electrode. (abo.fi)
  • Several abiotic/environmental and biotic signals, such as plant hormones and elicitors or microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) modulate stomatal function. (frontiersin.org)
  • Among the hormonal signals, the perception and action of the plant hormones, abscisic acid (ABA), is well characterized. (frontiersin.org)
  • These include hormones, growth factors, morphogens, and environmental stress, as well as signals from internal regulators and checkpoints. (cshlpress.com)
  • The signals usually take the form of chemicals, such as hormones or nutrients, but they may take another form, such as light, heat or sound. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Although it is now well known that some diseased areas, such as cancer nests, inflammation loci, and infarction areas, are acidified, little is known about cellular signal transduction, gene expression, and cellular functions under acidic conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Interest in cellular signal transduction pathways has increased in recent years following identification of many cellular oncogenes encoded into the components of these pathways and the understanding that their malfunction plays a key role in the development of malignant tumors. (openu.ac.il)
  • Growth hormone signal transduction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The role of hexokinase in plant sugar signal transduction and growth and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth Factors and Signal Transduction in Development Edited by Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Professor of Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Iowa State University Animal development relies on the interaction of complex combinations of growth factors and their receptors. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Growth Factors and Signal Transduction in Development thoroughly describes the interactions of several key growth factors, their receptors, and the subsequent signal transduction pathways they activate. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The editor has organized this book to contrast different signaling pathways using specific growth factors as paradigms: FGF IGF-1 PDGF IL-2 EGF TGFß Leading experts in the field have contributed to the unique mix of both molecular and biochemical perspectives as well as more integrative and organismal treatments of the well-studied amphibian, nematode, and insect developing systems. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The Insulin Family of Growth Factors and Signal Transduction During Development (C. Ward, et al. ). (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Growth Factors and Signal Transduction in Drosophila (E. Liebl & F. Hoffman). (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Describes the interactions of several key growth factors, their receptors, and the subsequent signal transduction pathways they activate. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • John has a background in developmental biology and has for many years been a leading figure in the field of growth factor and cytokine signalling. (biologists.org)
  • Signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. (novapublishers.com)
  • The basis for signal transduction is the transformation of a certain stimulus into a biochemical signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal transduction is defined as the response of a cell to the application of an external stimulus. (mpg.de)
  • Adaptation is defined as return of the signalling system to the pre-stimulus level while the stimulus persists. (mpg.de)
  • biochemistry) A series of chemical reactions within a cell which start when a transmembrane protein comes into contact with a chemical signal, resulting in a second messenger being triggered. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Course in Biochemistry and signal transduction or Instructor permission. (umich.edu)
  • Horizon offers both western blotting and cell-based ELISAs to analyze activation of signal transduction pathways and to measure changes in protein expression. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • These observations also confirm the existence of two pathways for Fas-mediated apoptotic signal transduction and suggest that the Apaf-1 (Ced-4 homologue) system for caspase 9 activation operates in an ATP-dependent manner in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Their activation is forwarded by a transducer protein that contains a signalling domain. (mpg.de)
  • During the past few years, considerable attention has been paid to the upstream signaling pathways that lead to the activation of NF-κB. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Fei Chen, Laurence M. Demers and Xianglin Shi, " Upstream Signal Transduction of NF-κB Activation", Current Drug Targets - Inflammation & Allergy (2002) 1: 137. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This mechanism regulates aspects of cell motility, chemotaxis, apoptosis, and likely other cellular functions through a rapidly expanding list of signaling pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • The process in which a signal is passed on to downstream components within the cell, which become activated themselves to further propagate the signal and finally trigger a change in the function or state of the cell. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Such signaling is mainly orchestrated in focal adhesions, regions where the integrin-bound actin cytoskeleton detects changes and transmits them downstream through YAP1. (wikipedia.org)
  • X.-H. Feng and R. Derynck, "Specificity and versatility in TGF- β signaling through smads," Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology , vol. 21, pp. 659-693, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • TOR and RPS6 transmit light signals to enhance protein translation in deetiolating Arabidopsis seedlings. (harvard.edu)
  • Moreover, deregulation of microRNAs contributes to cancer development.Recent exciting examples of successful transpositions of basic signal transduction research into clinical applications include kinase inhibitors used in tumor therapy or microRNA inhibitors used in treatment of hepatitis C patients. (uni.lu)
  • Analyzing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling revealed that individual TNF signaling pathways transduce information sufficient for accurate binary decisions, and an upstream bottleneck limits the information gained via multiple integrated pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • Postdoc position - signal transduction & transcription Applications are invited for postdoctoral positions in a newly established research group at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR) in Uppsala, Sweden. (bio.net)
  • Each of us daily using immunohistochemical protocols to reveal targets either useful for research or diagnostic aims will surely wonder by which tricky techniques it is possible to overcome the preservation and unmasking of those labile antigens involved in signal transduction. (springer.com)
  • A complex network of signal transduction pathways within the cell ensures that these signals are relayed to the correct molecular targets and that the cell responds appropriately. (cshlpress.com)
  • The concept of signal transduction therapy has got into the front line of modern drug research, and a multidisciplinary approach is being used to identify and treat signaling disorders. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Within this research project (PRECISE) we explore a new signal transduction method for solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (solid-contact ISEs). (abo.fi)
  • This is a fundamental limitation of potentiometric ISEs, which is addressed in this research project by exploring a new signal transduction principle. (abo.fi)
  • Six leading pharmaceutical companies have committed over £14 million in new funds to the Division of Signal Transduction Therapy (DSTT), a collaboration between industry and academia at Scotland's University of Dundee that pursues early-stage research in fields such as cancer, arthritis, lupus, hypertension and Parkinson's disease. (pharmatimes.com)
  • Coverage of the field will include genomics, proteomics, medicinal chemistry and the relevant diseases involved in signaling e.g. cancer, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In addition, the Signal Transduction Program is working to develop improved models of cancer. (cshl.edu)
  • Extensive collaborations among Signal Transduction Program members and other CSHL Cancer Center Programs have combined novel model systems of cancer, RNA interference, CRISPR, and state-of-the-art molecular/cellular and biochemical/proteomics approaches. (cshl.edu)
  • This highly collaborative and innovative environment has led to breakthroughs in our understanding of the signaling networks and immune interactions that drive cancer. (cshl.edu)
  • JUNB governs a feed-forward network of TGFβ signaling that aggravates breast cancer invasion. (lumc.nl)
  • Abnormal signal transduction produces many diseases such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and Parkinson's disease. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The development of defined protoplast transient expression systems for high-throughput screening and systematic characterization of gene functions has greatly contributed to elucidating plant signal transduction pathways, in combination with genetic, genomic, and transgenic approaches. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this paper we present P systems as a feasible computational modeling tool for cellular signalling pathways that takes into consideration the discrete character of the components of the system and the key role played by membranes in their functioning. (springer.com)
  • Although several model systems, including sporulation and chemotaxis, have been extensively studied, the evolutionary relationships between specific TCST systems are not well understood, and the ancestry of the signal transduction components is unclear. (nih.gov)
  • 4 Determining the physiological role of receptors and other components of signal transduction systems. (europa.eu)