Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
An enzyme that hydrolyzes thiamine pyrophosphate to thiamine monophosphate plus inorganic phosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.
Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A gonadal stimulant and inducer of ovulation. It is used in the treatment of infertility and amenorrhea, but is thought to be less effective than CLOMIPHENE.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A tomographic technique for obtaining 3-dimensional images with transmission electron microscopy.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.

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Stack Exchange Network. Stack Exchange network consists of 178 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most ... Im looking for a way to leave the MOSI signal high on a Raspberry Pi during an SPI transaction. I have an Si8902 ADC which ... Is there a way to leave the SDI (MOSI) signal high during an SPI transaction?. Ask Question ... Yes, set it high!. MOSI is master out serial in. The line will be in the state you tell it to be in. Transmit 1 bits ...
Signal Processing Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for practitioners of the art and science of signal, image and ... Stack Exchange Network. Stack Exchange network consists of 178 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most ... Thanks for contributing an answer to Signal Processing Stack Exchange!. *Please be sure to answer the question. Provide details ... Stack Overflow for Teams - Collaborate and share knowledge with a private group. Create a free Team What is Teams? ...
async-signal-safe is a much higher bar to pass than just thread-safe (aka reentrant). - bdonlan Dec 6 11 at 20:11 ... Which I thought was the highest order of thread safety? Being re-entrant does not make it async-signal-safe? - user255205 Dec 6 ... is not async-signal-safe, so you shouldnt be using that inside a signal handler ... use write. instead using fileno(stdout). . ... Stack Overflow Public questions & answers * Stack Overflow for Teams Where developers & technologists share private knowledge ...
year high.. This year has been a great reminder that share markets do not necessarily follow economies and so it is entirely ... So how do those valuations stack up?. Australias "forward PE (price to earnings) ratio", which is based on earnings forecasts ... And there are plenty of sceptics ready to point to elevated valuations as a warning signal. ... Further, high-growth companies such as the tech sector have defied any gravitational pull of lower PE ratios. Ive argued ...
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The signal is stronger in two energy bands, E , 0.5 GeV and E , 1 GeV, but it is also seen at E , 10 GeV. No cross-correlation ... For the latter, we use three different methods: a stacking technique with both a model-dependent and model-independent ... The Limited Contribution of Low- and High-luminosity Gamma-Ray Bursts to Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays journal, May 2019 * ... Search for ultra high-energy cosmic rays from radiogalaxy Virgo A journal, January 2019 * Kobzar, Oleh; Hnatyk, Bohdan; ...
Has the Curiosity rover ever communicated directly with Earth via its high-gain antenna? Signal strength & data rate? ... Stack Exchange Network. Stack Exchange network consists of 178 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most ... Stack Overflow for Teams - Collaborate and share knowledge with a private group. Create a free Team What is Teams? ... One problem we looked at was erosion of the thermal protection material on the front heat shield, due to high speed impacts by ...
If two tags are placed with one behind the other, the tag in front can block the signal of the one in back of it. If no energy ... With high-frequency (HF) tags, a company called Magellan Technology has solved this issue using phased jitter modulation (PJM ... I have seen the firm read 100 tags on documents stacked one on top of another. I have also witnessed NXP Semiconductors ...
... we could devise a way to submit to both output stages the same signal contaminated with 50% of the higher B+ voltages ripple. ... Here we see the signal relationships. Note that the 6SN7 must deliver more signal to the 6AS7 than we will get at the output. ... Stacked Cathode-Follower OPS. After finishing my last post, I decided to search my previous posts to see if anything needed ... I would love to hear this album on vinyl or high-res Flac.) Well, I had to find more of her albums, but only these two were ...
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High signal to noise ratio (SNR). ◆Full resolution @60 frame/s (Normal), 4K2K @60 frame/s (Normal), 1080p @240 frame/sFull ... Back-illuminated and stacked CMOS image sensor◆Digital Overlap High Dynamic Range (DOL-HDR) mode with raw data output. ... The High Quality Camera is designed to accept CS-mount lenses and, with the supplied adapter, C-mount lenses. The CGL 6 mm CS- ... Sony IMX477R stacked, back-illuminated sensor, 12.3 megapixels, 7.9 mm sensor diagonal, 1.55 μm × 1.55 μm pixel size ...
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This is supposed to remove the signal lag and heat produced by the doubler and deliver a higher burst current, ideal for ... and operate at higher frequencies. Stack ROG Strix Z590-E Gaming WiFi with your favorite modules and maximize the throughput of ... smooth signals with a higher surge tolerance, and static electricity protection. The Strix-E also includes Intels CNVi-based ... However, the highest-rated kit on the QVL is rated at 4800 MHz. Memory support varies between the tenth and eleventh gen ...
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The high speed bus is used only internally to the stack shown in the picture. Each module has female pin header on the right ... The master signals SSI to the first slave and configures it. When done, the first slave passes SSO to the second slave in the ... The high speed bus is used only internally to the stack shown in the picture. Each module has female pin header on the right ... Hi Nicolas,. Just curious about why you would need such high rates?. Pretty excited about this development. Any more specifics? ...
For example, a voice signaling stack such as in-band voice over ATM and/or other voice signaling stack may be used. ... so that the signal is amplified and filtered at each tap 60. on the high frequency cable system. In this way, it is possible to ... which may include signal co-processor 102. A and/or a high performance controller such as the 8960), provision of dial tone ... the ISD/IRG has an opportunity to adjust the signal strength and frequency of the return signal such that when the signals ...
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Only the application layer at the top of the stack doesnt provide services to a higher-level layer. ... It determines how physical connections to the network are set up and how bits are represented into predictable signals as ... The higher layer, which is called logical link control (LLC), is responsible for multiplexing, flow control, acknowledgement ... ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology that facilitates fast data transmission at a high bandwidth on ...
Hi I have a FFT which is quite noisy. How to apply to my code Hamming window to make it less noisy. Look at my code: ... signal ... Stack Exchange Network. Stack Exchange network consists of 178 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most ... Hi I am trying to produce an image which is a combination of multiple images such as in focus stacking. Now I have 6 photos and ... I am having a hard time figuring out how to employ a high pass filter to remove the DC offset of my data signal with the scipy ...
modular programming library for high-performance digital signal processing. It is easy to program, flexible and highly ... Windows network stack. *Brick library. One most prominent feature in Sora SDK ver 1.6 is the Brick library. Brick is a. modular ... COMPLEX16 Samples[SORA_RX_SIGNAL_UNIT_COMPLEX16_NUM];. COMPLEX8 SmallSamples[SORA_RX_SIGNAL_UNIT_COMPLEX8_NUM];. #pragma ... COMPLEX16 Samples[SORA_RX_SIGNAL_UNIT_COMPLEX16_NUM];. COMPLEX8 SmallSamples[SORA_RX_SIGNAL_UNIT_COMPLEX8_NUM];. #pragma ...
... by adding another generators that somehow contains the signal with the lower/higher octave.. Square in (analog)generators is ... You can also stack the following set up to get other octave as well:. Due to the use of absolute function, playing 2 notes will ... Supported Signal Type: Just shows the methods can be applied with which kind of signal.. Ok, lets move to actual solution!. ... Polyphony Stability: Stable for all supported signals. Supported Signal Type: Saw, Square. In case you need to move a saw wave ...

No FAQ available that match "signal high stack"