HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Glycogen Storage Disease Type I: An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Glycogen Storage Disease Type II: An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE deficiency. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Glycogen Storage Disease Type III: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Inbred BALB CCross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV: An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a deficiency in expression of glycogen branching enzyme 1 (alpha-1,4-glucan-6-alpha-glucosyltransferase), resulting in an accumulation of abnormal GLYCOGEN with long outer branches. Clinical features are MUSCLE HYPOTONIA and CIRRHOSIS. Death from liver disease usually occurs before age 2.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Gaucher Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Glycogen Storage Disease: A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdnexa Uteri: Appendages of the UTERUS which include the FALLOPIAN TUBES, the OVARY, and the supporting ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).Coagulation Protein Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII: An autosomal recessive glycogen storage disease in which there is deficient expression of 6-phosphofructose 1-kinase in muscle (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE) resulting in abnormal deposition of glycogen in muscle tissue. These patients have severe congenital muscular dystrophy and are exercise intolerant.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type A: The classic infantile form of Niemann-Pick Disease, caused by mutation in SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE. It is characterized by accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS in the cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM and other cell throughout the body leading to cell death. Clinical signs include JAUNDICE, hepatosplenomegaly, and severe brain damage.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI: A hepatic GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE in which there is an apparent deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE, LIVER FORM) activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glucosylceramidase: A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Glycogen Storage Disease Type V: Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII: An x-linked recessive hepatic glycogen storage disease resulting from lack of expression of phosphorylase-b-kinase activity. Symptoms are relatively mild; hepatomegaly, increased liver glycogen, and decreased leukocyte phosphorylase are present. Liver shrinkage occurs in response to glucagon.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.Sapindaceae: The soapberry plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain SAPONINS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mice, Inbred MRL lpr: A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Hepatomegaly: Enlargement of the liver.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).B-Cell Activating Factor: A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System: Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).Hereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy: A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy. HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE. HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.HLA-DQ beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Self Tolerance: The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Histocompatibility Antigen H-2D: A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Antibodies, Bispecific: Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.von Willebrand Diseases: Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type B: An allelic disorder of TYPE A NIEMANN-PICK DISEASE, a late-onset form. It is also caused by mutation in SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE but clinical signs involve only visceral organs (non-neuropathic type).Thyroiditis, Autoimmune: Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.1-Deoxynojirimycin: An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
In this process T-cells are stimulated to grow and can signal B-cells to produce antibodies. DQ functions in recognizing and ... Two autoimmune diseases in which HLA-DQ is involved are coeliac disease and diabetes mellitus type 1. DQ is one of several ... HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells. It is an αβ heterodimer of type MHC class II ... The DQ loci are in close genetic linkage to HLA-DR, and less closely linked to HLA-DP, HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C. Different ...
... and the autoimmune disease Kawasaki Disease is known to be caused by SAg infection. SAg activation in T-cells leads to ... The body naturally produces antibodies to some SAgs, and this effect can be augmented by stimulating B-cell production of these ... SAgs show preference for the HLA-DQ form of the molecule. Binding to the α-chain puts the SAg in the appropriate position to ... These effects produce memory cells that are unresponsive to antigen stimulation. One mechanism by which this is possible ...
TGA and EMA testing are the most sensitive serum antibody tests, but as a negative HLA-DQ type excludes the diagnosis of ... August 2004). "Antigen presentation to celiac lesion-derived T cells of a 33-mer gliadin peptide naturally formed by ... It is associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 1 and thyroiditis, among others. Coeliac ... The reason these genes produce an increase in risk of coeliac disease is that the receptors formed by these genes bind to ...
The HLA-A antigens can mediate apoptosis in autoimmune disease and HLA A*0201 in with the HLA-DQ8 haplotypes has been ... The B-cells mature into plasma cells producing anti-gliadin antibodies. This does not cause coeliac disease and is an unknown ... HLA-DQ2 primarily presents gliadins with the HLA-DQ isoform DQ2.5 (DQ α5-β2) isoform. DQA1*0202:DQB1*0201 homozygotes (DQ α2-β2 ... April 2003). "HLA types in celiac disease patients not carrying the DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2) heterodimer: results from the ...
TGA and EMA testing are the most sensitive serum antibody tests, but as a negative HLA-DQ type excludes the diagnosis of ... This innate response to gliadin results in immune-system signalling that attracts inflammatory cells and increases the release ... HLA-DQ is part of the MHC class II antigen-presenting receptor (also called the human leukocyte antigen) system and ... Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.[10 ...
The body naturally produces antibodies to some SAgs, and this effect can be augmented by stimulating B-cell production of these ... This cytokine is closely linked with induction of autoimmunity,[19] and the autoimmune disease Kawasaki Disease is known to be ... SAgs show preference for the HLA-DQ form of the molecule.[8] Binding to the α-chain puts the SAg in the appropriate position to ... T-cell signalingEdit. The SAg cross-links the MHC and the TCR inducing a signaling pathway that results in the proliferation of ...
... stop signal' needed for firm contact between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, those studies compared CTLA- ... Polymorphisms of the CTLA-4 gene are associated with autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune thyroid disease and multiple ... Antibodies to CTLA-4 may exert additional effects when used in vivo, by binding and thereby depleting regulatory T cells. The ... Kuehn HS, Ouyang W, Lo B, Deenick EK, Niemela JE, Avery DT, Schickel JN, Tran DQ, Stoddard J, Zhang Y, Frucht DM, Dumitriu B, ...
The body's sensitized B-lymphocyte cells will now produce antibodies against these nuclear-related proteins. These antibodies ... Hypersensitivity and autoimmune diseases (279.5-6). Type I/allergy/atopy. (IgE). Foreign. *Atopic eczema ... Autoreactive B cells, maturated coincidentally, normally do not receive survival signals by antigen planted on follicular ... "An extensive screen of the HLA region reveals an independent association of HLA class I and class II with susceptibility for ...
Upon binding, T cells should in principle tolerate the auto-antigen, but activate when exposed to the allo-antigen. Disease ... one HLA-A, -B, and -C allele from each parent) and six to eight MHC class II alleles (one HLA-DP and -DQ, and one or two HLA-DR ... and include B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells (NK cells). B cells, which act specifically, secrete antibody molecules ... NK cells lose the inhibitory KIR signal and trigger programmed cell death of the abnormal cell. NK cells thus help prevent ...
Thus, the B cell presents the foreign peptide (modified gliadin) but produces antibodies specific for the self-antigen (tTG). ... and is associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype HLA-DQ2 along with coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity.[8 ... These T cells become activated and polarised into type I helper T (Th1) cells. Th1 cells reactive towards gliadin have been ... The disease has been associated with autoimmune thyroid disease, insulin-dependent diabetes, lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's ...
In this process T-cells are stimulated to grow and can signal B-cells to produce antibodies. DQ functions in recognizing and ... Two autoimmune diseases in which HLA-DQ is involved are coeliac disease and diabetes mellitus type 1. DQ is one of several ... HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells. It is an αβ heterodimer of type MHC class II ... The DQ loci are in close genetic linkage to HLA-DR, and less closely linked to HLA-DP, HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C. ...
In this process T-cells are stimulated to grow and can signal B-cells to produce antibodies. DQ functions in recognizing and ... Two autoimmune diseases in which HLA-DQ is involved are coeliac disease and diabetes mellitus type 1. DQ is one of several ... HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells. It is an αβ heterodimer of type MHC class II ... The DQ loci are in close genetic linkage to HLA-DR, and less closely linked to HLA-DP, HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C. Different ...
... which then signal B-cells to produce antibodies. The HLA-DQ recognizes foreign antigens from pathogens, but it also recognizes ... triggering autoimmune diseases such as celiac, lupus, and type 1 diabetes.. Genetic Variants Involved in Celiac Risk:. ... One HLA type is HLA-DQ, which is a protein found on antigen presenting cells. DQ is involved in the immune system through ... The typing is based on their cell surface antigens. In humans, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) determines the serotype; the ...
... signal 2, signal 3; Fig. 2).. Susceptibility to type 1 diabetes is conferred by specific HLA DR/DQ alleles (e.g., DRB1*03-DQB1* ... which in turn cross-talk to B-cells to produce antigen-specific antibodies. The components of adaptive immunity are T and B ... WHAT IS THE ANTIGEN?. A common peculiarity of many autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, is the presence of humoral as ... along with the ability to signal B-cells to generate an antibody response. CD8+ T-cells, when activated, produce inflammatory ...
"Nomenclature and listing of celiac disease relevant gluten T-cell epitopes restricted by HLA-DQ molecules," Immunogenetics, vol ... These antibodies in the liver and in other extraintestinal tissues could modify other external- or self-antigens and generate ... Associated Autoimmune Endocrine Diseases. 3.2.1. Type 1 Diabetes. The association between CD and autoimmune insulin-dependent ... IE-CTLs can destroy the intestinal epithelial cells in CD on the basis of the presence of stress signals, rather than because ...
Makes two kinds of molecules in cells: -class I (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C). -class II(HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR) ... maintains tolerance to self-antigens, and down regulates autoimmune disease. ... Constant regions of 2 antibody molecules in the Antigen-antibody complex bind C1 - C4-C2-C3 (breaks down to C3a +C3b). - ... subset of T helper cells producing interleukin 17 (IL-17). They are considered developmentally distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells ...
Both type 1 diabetes and celiac disease are associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes on chromosome 6p21 ... disrupting the hormone that would normally signal glucose to enter cells and produce energy. Treatment involves daily insulin ... By way of brief review, recall that both type 1 diabetes and celiac disease are autoimmune conditions. In type 1 diabetes, the ... Antigens prompt the creation of antibodies and cause an immune reaction. The HLA system is the name of the major ...
... or severe autoimmune diseases and transplantation. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is an emerging approach that necessitates ... or severe autoimmune diseases and transplantation. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is an emerging approach that necessitates ... They constitute a reliable and easily usable platform to stimulate and amplify antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Here, we review ... They constitute a reliable and easily usable platform to stimulate and amplify antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Here, we review ...
Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the T-cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing β-cells, ... We investigated whether HLA-A*24 typing complements screening for HLA-DQ and for antibodies (Abs) against insulin, GAD, IA-2 ( ... HLA genes associated with autoimmunity and progression to disease in type 1 diabetes. Tissue Antigens 2003;61:146-153pmid: ... Circulating preproinsulin signal peptide-specific CD8 T cells restricted by the susceptibility molecule HLA-A24 are expanded at ...
... and the autoimmune disease Kawasaki Disease is known to be caused by SAg infection. SAg activation in T-cells leads to ... The body naturally produces antibodies to some SAgs, and this effect can be augmented by stimulating B-cell production of these ... SAgs show preference for the HLA-DQ form of the molecule. Binding to the α-chain puts the SAg in the appropriate position to ... These effects produce memory cells that are unresponsive to antigen stimulation. One mechanism by which this is possible ...
... and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, ... HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP [23] that code the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), expressed only in antigen-presenting ... 4. DM1: Death of the Pancreatic Beta Cell. As it has been previously discussed, DM1 is an autoimmune disease of chronic ... PBC normally produce Fas-L but they normally do not produce Fas at detectable levels. However, conditions associated to cell ...
MARIA allows identification of immunogenic epitopes in diverse cancers and autoimmune disease. A neural network trained on ... Across independent cancer neoantigen studies, peptides with high MARIA scores are more likely to elicit strong CD4+ T cell ... neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the context of specific HLA ... In addition to in vitro binding measurements, MARIA is trained on peptide HLA ligand sequences identified by mass spectrometry ...
Signalling through CD30 protects against autoimmune diabetes mediated by CD8 T cells. Kurts, C., Carbone, F.R., Krummel, M.F., ... New HLA DNA polymorphisms associated with autoimmune diseases. Festenstein, H., Awad, J., Hitman, G.A., Cutbush, S., Groves, A. ... A novel subtype of type 1 diabetes mellitus characterized by a rapid onset and an absence of diabetes-related antibodies. Osaka ... Expression of an insulin/interleukin-1 receptor antagonist hybrid gene in insulin-producing cell lines (HIT-T15 and NIT-1) ...
AID: Autoimmune diseases. CD: Celiac disease. DM1: Diabetes mellitus type 1. GWAS: Genome-wide association study. HLA: Human ... 7. Inui M, Martello G, Piccolo S. MicroRNA control of signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2010;11:252-63. [ Links ]. ... Evidence for a primary association of celiac disease to a particular HLA-DQ alpha/beta heterodimer. J Exp Med 1989;169:345-50 ... may be due to the fact that these antibodies identify individuals affected mainly by the autoimmune components of the disease, ...
... used to generate DNA hybridization probes and antibodies for assays to detect a persons susceptibility to autoimmune diseases ... which detect either directly or indirectly the identity of the codon encoding for the amino acid at position 57 of the DQ-beta ... Such antibodies and peptides encoded by said DNA sequences can be used therapeutically or prophylactically. ... DNA sequences and corresponding amino acid sequences from the HLA class II beta region of the human genome that are associated ...
Antibody responses to H-Y minor histocompatibility antigens correlate with chronic graft-versus-host disease and disease ... Association of the T-cell regulatory gene CTLA4 with susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Nature 2003; 423:506-511. ... An antigen produced by splicing of noncontiguous peptides in the reverse order. Science 2006; 313:1444-1447. ... NK cell responses occur as a result of competing signals mediated through these inhibitory and activating receptors. In general ...
... with mixed features of Type I immediate hypersensitivity, Type III antigen-antibody response, and Type IV cellular immune ... Persons with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) phenotypes DR2 or DR5 may be at risk for the disease, perhaps because of impaired ... Airway dendritic cells process fungal antigens, presenting them to T cells and releasing inflammatory cytokines. ... In contrast, the HLA-DQ phenotype may protect patients from developing ABPA. ...
... and defects in either system can provoke illness or disease, such as inappropriate inflammation, autoimmune diseases, ... which enables the host to mount a more rapid and efficient immune response upon subsequent exposure to the antigen. There is a ... Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is antigen-dependent and antigen-specific; it has the capacity for memory, ... Five major types of antibodies are produced by B cells: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM. IgG antibodies can be further subdivided ...
... and therefore its gene product was found on cells that express murine CD3. In contrast to other HLA-DR and HLA-DQ transgenic ... ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND PEPTIDE-MEDIATED IMMUNOTHERAPY IN AUTOIMMUNE-DISEASE IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Smilek, D. E., Lock, C. B., ... Depending on the cell type, location, and disease stage, CD47 has Janus-like roles, with opposing effects on EAE pathogenesis. ... To study the immune function of HLA-DR4 and attempt to generate a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis we have produced triple ...
T cell recognition of human pre-proinsulin peptides depends on the polymorphism at HLA DQ locus: a study using HLA DQ8 and DQ6 ... Th1 and Th2 CD4+ T cells in the pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Immunol Today 1995. 16:34-38. View this ... T cells was very similar between these two types of mice. It is possible that the reduction of IFN-γ-producing Th1 immune ... In vivo evidence for the contribution of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ molecules to the development of ...
DQ Structure Type Cell surface receptor Quartenary αβ-heterodimer, ligand ... HLA-DQ DQ1 binding pocket with ligand major histocompatibility complex, class II, ... In mice the MHC locus known as IA is homologous to human HLA DQ. Several autoimmune diseases that occur in humans that are ... Alternatively, macrophages and other megalocytes consume cells by apoptotic signaling and present self-antigens. Self antigens ...
HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) are found on all nucleated cells and platelets. Class II antigens (HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP) are ... Like many autoimmune diseases, its more common in women. Joints that are red, warm, tender, and swollen may signal lupus. ... The anticardiolipin antibodies are one type of antiphospholipid antibody. However, this type of "specialized" treatment ignores ... Unfortunately, high doses are also most likely to produce side effects. The panel suggests SOC alone over adding other IS in ...
The activated CD4+ T-cells secrete cytokines/chemokines that stimulate B-cells to produce TSAb, and in turn hyperthyroidism ... Inheritance of HLA genes, especially HLA-DR3, is associated with GD. TSHR-ECD protein is endocytosed into antigen presenting ... is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and Thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major autoantigen in this condition. Since ... Inheritance of HLA genes, especially HLA-DR3, is associated with GD. TSHR-ECD protein is endocytosed into antigen presenting ...
HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) are found on all nucleated cells and platelets. Class II antigens (HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP) are ... such as cell signaling, metabolism, division, and survival. Certain kinases are more active in some types of cancer cells and ... This discovery led to the understanding of what are now known as autoimmune diseases.[119] It is estimated that more than 1.5 ... Building on the knowledge that those with SLE had auto-antibodies that would attach themselves to the nuclei of normal cells, ...
Streamlined Single Cell TCR Isolation and Generation of Retroviral Vectors for In Vitro and In Vivo Expression of Human TCRs ... Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2015 , Pubmed ID: 26579520 Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease ... Antibody blocking demonstrated that the majority of YFV-specific T cells were HLA-DR restricted. Therefore, CD4(+) T cell ... Type 1 diabetes is associated with T-cell responses to β-cell antigens such as GAD65. Single T-cell epitopes have been ...
... a chronic illness characterized by the bodys inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells ... Onset most often occurs in childhood, but the disease can also develop in adults in their late 30s and early 40s. ... Polymorphisms of the class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes that encode DR and DQ are the major genetic determinants of ... Pilia et al found a higher prevalence of islet cell antibodies (IA2) and anti-GAD antibodies in patients with autoimmune ...
  • Serotyping is capable of identifying most aspects of DQ isoform structure and function, however sequence specific PCR is now the preferred method of determining HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles, as serotyping cannot resolve, often, the critical contribution of the DQ α-chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognize HLA-DQB1*02 gene products which include gene products of the following alleles: HLA-DQB1*02:01 HLA-DQB1*02:02 HLA-DQB1*02:03 Sometimes DQ2 antibodies recognize other gene products, such as DQB1*03:03, resulting in serotyping errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually everyone with Celiac disease has either the HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 alleles. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • https://maria.stanford.edu/ ), a multimodal recurrent neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the context of specific HLA class II alleles. (nature.com)
  • 100 alleles sequenced with SSP-PCR typing capability. (chemeurope.com)
  • The resistant alleles, like those of the DR isotype expressing aspartic acid, elicit a primarily Th2 cell response. (davidson.edu)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles, cell surface glycoproteins with a high degree of allelic polymorphism ( 8 ), are constitutively expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells. (asm.org)
  • MHC class II alleles exhibit four major pockets ( 13 ) to accommodate and present a broad peptide repertoire to CD4 + T cells: the same peptide can be presented by different MHC class II alleles due to highly degenerate peptide binding motifs ( 12 , 16 , 29 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • Some MHC class II alleles have been associated with "better" immune responses to infectious pathogens ( 1 , 24 ), while other MHC class II alleles show differential effects: an enhanced or decreased risk of diseases, based on the nature of the antigen and on the T-cell repertoire capable of reacting to a distinct set of peptides. (asm.org)
  • This idea is based on the existence of a NK cell subset expressing a specific inhibitory receptor for allogeneic MHC alleles. (asm.org)
  • Current strategies for donor-recipient matching involve detailed matching for alleles at HLA class I and II loci, but this approach is evidently inadequate. (asm.org)
  • Current methods may not allow adequate matching of the class I and II alleles, as has been demonstrated in a case report of T-cell rejection involving mismatching at HLA-B ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Unfortunately, this is largely hampered by the diversity of MHC class I and II alleles of individual patients as well as by the lack of defined HLA class II-restricted peptide epitopes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Others result in changes in regions that are removed when the proteins is processed to the cell surface, still others result in change in the non-functional regions of the protein, and some changes result in a change of function of the DQ isoform that is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • One HLA type is HLA-DQ, which is a protein found on antigen presenting cells. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Immunointerventions with anti-CD3 antibodies (Abs) ( 2 , 3 ), rituximab ( 4 ), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4-immunoglobulin fusion protein ( 5 ) transiently preserved β-cell function, preferentially in a patient subgroup with younger age at diagnosis and with relatively preserved residual functional β-cell mass ( 3 ), hereby opening perspectives for future trials at the preclinical stage ( 3 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • They also include the action of proinflammatory cytokines, the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation (typical of necroptosis in type 1 diabetic patients), excessive production of islet amyloid polypeptide with the consequent endoplasmic reticulum stress, disruption in autophagy mechanisms, and protein complex formation, such as the inflammasome, capable of increasing oxidative stress produced by mitochondrial damage. (hindawi.com)
  • TSHR-ECD protein is endocytosed into antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and processed to TSHR-ECD peptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specifically, marker DNA sequences which detect either directly or indirectly the identity of the codon encoding for the amino acid at position 57 of the DQ-beta protein sequence are disclosed as well as sequences from the DR-beta region. (google.com.au)
  • Islet-specific Glucose-6-phosphatase Catalytic Subunit-related Protein-reactive CD4+ T Cells in Human Subjects Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 16493034 Islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP) is recognized as a major autoantigen for autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the NOD mouse model. (jove.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the soluble human HLA-DM protein is used in step (b)(ii). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the human MHC class II protein is the a DR, DP or DQ protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • individuals with type 1 diabetes havelower levels of Vitamin D Binding Protein than controls. (ufl.edu)
  • Further investigation of the role of vitamin Dbinding protein, sCD25, rs2069762 and disease state in type 1 diabetes will benecessary before we can fully appreciate the meaning of the complex interactionsbetween genetics and environment that lead to type 1 diabetes. (ufl.edu)
  • However, while antibodies will recognise and bind to part of a whole protein, such as the protein coat of a virus, T cell receptors only recognise tiny fragments of proteins. (mecfsresearchreview.me)
  • But T cells need to be activated first before they get going, and they are activated in part by antigens, which for T cells are peptides, short pieces of protein. (mecfsresearchreview.me)
  • Several antigens, in particular Chlamydia pneumoniae , human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and human heat-shock protein-60 (hHSP60), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • In conclusion, a rather detailed picture of protein expression in β-cell lines, islets, and transplanted islets both in vitro and in vivo have been described. (mcponline.org)
  • C- Reactive Protein (High Sensitivity- Cardiac) CRP-c - C-Reactive Protein is a type of protein produced by the liver that present during episodes of acute as well as chronic inflammatory processes such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, elevated blood sugar imbalances and cancer. (mylabsforlife.com)
  • The OspA vaccination caused the same disease as chronic Lyme: Neuropathy and cognitive impairment following vaccination with the OspA protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. (blogspot.com)
  • Whole cell extracts of B. burgdorferi also modulated immune responses but required a much greater quantity of protein than needed for the OspA preparation. (blogspot.com)
  • Several years ago Kammer et al, who were the first to search for biochemical defects in SLE T cells, identified abnormalities in cAMP metabolism and PKA-catalyzed protein phosphorylation (Mandler et al. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Disclosed are synthetic nanocarrier compositions, and related methods, comprising therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens and immunosuppressants that provide tolerogenic immune responses specific to therapeutic proteins. (justia.com)
  • This invention relates to synthetic nanocarrier compositions with therapeutic protein antigen-presenting cell (APC) presentable antigens and immunosuppressants, and related methods. (justia.com)
  • In one aspect, a composition comprising (i) a first population of synthetic nanocarriers that are coupled to immunosuppressants, and (ii) a second population of synthetic nanocarriers that are coupled to therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens is provided. (justia.com)
  • In some embodiments, the therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens are provided by coupling the therapeutic protein to the synthetic nanocarriers. (justia.com)
  • In other embodiments, the therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens are provided by coupling a polypeptide or peptide obtained or derived from the therapeutic protein. (justia.com)
  • In a further embodiment, the therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens comprise MHC Class I-restricted and/or MHC Class II-restricted epitopes and/or B cell epitopes of a therapeutic protein. (justia.com)
  • In another embodiment, the therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens comprise substantially no B cell epitopes of a therapeutic protein. (justia.com)
  • In one embodiment, the therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens comprise a therapeutic protein for protein replacement or protein supplementation therapy, or a fragment or derivative thereof. (justia.com)
  • 1. A composition comprising: (i) a first population of synthetic nanocarriers that are coupled to immunosuppressants, and (ii) a second population of synthetic nanocarriers that are coupled to therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 5. The composition of claim 1, wherein the therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens comprise MHC Class I-restricted and/or MHC Class II-restricted epitopes of a therapeutic protein. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 7. The composition of claim 1, wherein the therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens comprise B cell epitopes of a therapeutic protein. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 9. The composition of claim 1, wherein the therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens comprise a therapeutic protein for protein replacement or protein supplementation therapy, or a fragment thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 56. A method comprising: administering to a subject a composition comprising: (i) a first population of synthetic nanocarriers that are coupled to immunosuppressants, and (ii) a second population of synthetic nanocarriers that are coupled to therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens, wherein the composition is in an amount effective to reduce the generation of an undesired immune response against the therapeutic protein APC presentable antigens. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • They are the source of the rheumatoid factors and anticitrullinated protein antibodies, which contribute to immune complex formation and complement activation in the joints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Early studies have suggested that most patients in whom the virus persists develop a defective blood CD4+ T cell response to the recombinant HCV proteins' core, nonstructural protein 3 (NS3), NS4, and NS5 during the acute phase of the disease (Diepolder et al. (guwsmedical.info)
  • DCs cocultured with epithelial explants from dry eye mice for 2 days produced higher levels of TGF-β1, IL-6, IL-23, and IL-1β mRNA transcripts and of TGF-β1, IL-6, and IL-1β protein. (arvojournals.org)
  • CD4 + T cells cocultured with DCs and epithelial explants from dry eye mice expressed increased levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, CCL-20, and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-γt mRNA transcripts and increased IL-17A protein and number of IL-17-producing T cells (Th17 cells). (arvojournals.org)
  • Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to gliadin , a prolamin ( gluten protein) found in wheat, and similar proteins found in the crops of the tribe Triticeae (which includes other common grains such as barley and rye ). (gutenberg.org)
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether human DCs transfected with mRNA encoding a chimeric hTERT/lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP-1) protein, carrying the endosomal/lysosomal sorting signal of the LAMP-1, are capable of stimulating concomitant hTERT-specific CD8 + and CD4 + T-cell responses in vitro . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunization with hTERT mRNA-transfected DCs favors the induction of class I-restricted T-cell responses because the transfected mRNA is translated into protein in the cytoplasm. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we sought to determine whether human DCs transfected with mRNA encoding a chimeric hTERT/LAMP-1 fusion protein are capable of enhancing the stimulation of hTERT-specific CD4 + T-cell responses, thereby constituting a useful strategy for immunotherapy of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It has been proposed that the presence of NLRP3 in the skin (keratinocytes and tissue resident dendritic cells) provides a first line of defence by enabling the rapid sensing of invading pathogens, thereby triggering an innate immune response via NLRP3 inflammasome activation 21, 22. (peptide-solubility.com)
  • Stimulation of the Vδ1 clones was optimal in the presence of Borrelia , dendritic cells, and exogenous IL-2, which was reflected by proliferation, TCR down-modulation, as well as induction of CD25 and Fas ligand expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Stimulation by B. burgdorferi -pulsed dendritic cells withstood chemical fixation and was not restricted to class I or class II MHC, CD1a, CD1b, or CD1c. (jimmunol.org)
  • A variety of cell types is potentially available for processing and presenting Ag within the inflamed synovium, including B cells, macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DC). (jimmunol.org)
  • Regulatory T cells are thought to be primed by antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). (alpfmedical.info)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are targets for dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YF) replication and are the first cell population to interact with these viruses during a natural infection, which leads to an induction of protective immunity in humans. (scielo.br)
  • Monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are the main targets for viruses involved in vascular permeability induction (Schnittler & Feldmann 2003, Clyde et al. (scielo.br)
  • To explore the phenomenon that corneal and conjunctival tissues subjected to desiccating stress (DS) promote Th17 differentiation by stimulating the production of Th17-inducing cytokines through a dendritic cell (DC)-mediated pathway. (arvojournals.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that DS creates an environment on the ocular surface that stimulates the production of Th17-inducing cytokines by corneal and conjunctival epithelia that promote Th17 differentiation through a dendritic cell-mediated pathway. (arvojournals.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with mRNA encoding human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) have been shown to represent potent inducers of CTLs and antitumor immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The table should be interpreted as follows: For row 1, the locus is DQ, and the allele is 201. (davidson.edu)
  • However, genotype at thers2069762 locus did not directly associate with disease state. (ufl.edu)
  • We investigated whether SNPs significantly associated with diseases in which EBV is known or suspected to play a role (namely nasopharyngeal lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis) also show evidence of associated with EBNA-1 antibody levels, finding an overlap only for the HLA locus, but none elsewhere in the genome. (prolekare.cz)
  • Due to their multiple functions in immunity and immune tolerance, targeting CD4 + T cells has important clinical applications to treat cancer and chronic viral diseases, or to induce tolerance in autoimmune diseases and allograft. (frontiersin.org)
  • The generation of appropriate class II tetramers could provide valuable new insights into the role CD4 + T cells play in these chronic diseases. (jimmunol.org)
  • Background- CD4 + CD28 null T cells are present in increased numbers in the peripheral blood of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with patients with chronic stable angina (CSA). (ahajournals.org)
  • Patients with unstable angina (UA) but not chronic stable angina (CSA) experience expansion of a subset of CD4 + T cells that lack the CD28 marker. (ahajournals.org)
  • Gastric carcinoid tumors, evolving from enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell hyperplasia induced by chronic hypergastrinemia, may develop in 4-9% of patients with autoimmune gastritis/pernicious anemia and are 13 times less frequent in control subjects ( 12 - 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Goitrous autoimmune thyroiditis, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a common form of chronic autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). (springer.com)
  • Many undiagnosed people considered asymptomatic actually are not, but have become accustomed to living with a chronic bad health status as if it were normal, and they are able to recognise that they actually had symptoms related to coeliac disease after starting the gluten-free diet and improvement is evident, in contrast to the situation prior to the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • A role for T cells in Lyme arthritis is suggested by a predominant synovial T cell infiltrate ( 2 ) and by the observation that antibiotic-resistant chronic Lyme arthritis patients possess an increased frequency of HLA-DR4 ( 3 ), which is also noted in rheumatoid arthritis ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • there is an increase in Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, cardiac disease and the development of chronic muscle wasting. (mylabsforlife.com)
  • If the vaccine caused the same disease without spirochetes, what is chronic neuro-Lyme? (blogspot.com)
  • The similarity between the neurological sequelae observed in the OspA-vaccinated patients and those with chronic Lyme disease suggests a possible role for immune mechanisms in some of the manifestations of chronic Lyme disease that are resistant to antibiotic treatment. (blogspot.com)
  • The stability of tolDC is, therefore, an especially important consideration if they are going to be used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases that are characterized by chronic inflammation, as is the case in RA. (mirnadatabase.com)
  • Such studies plasma HIV-1 RNA reflects short-lived bursts of virus produc- must also consider the interplay between virus replication and tion from latently infected memory CD4 T cells, but with ongo- host immunity, and the role of chronic immune activation and ing virus replication and genetic evolution inhibited by ART . (deepdyve.com)
  • Current preclinical and clinical studies, with certain notable limitations, have shown that major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted T helper (Th) cells is an important trigger for nerve injury-induced chronic tactile allodynia, one of the most prevalent and intractable clinical symptoms of neuropathic pain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, depending on the biology of Th cells in a neuroimmunological perspective, we summarize what is currently known about Th cells as a trigger for chronic tactile allodynia after nerve injuries, with a focus on identifying what inconsistencies are evident. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Then, we discuss how an interdisciplinary perspective would improve the understanding of Th cells as a trigger for chronic tactile allodynia after nerve injuries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, we hope that the expected new findings in the near future would translate into new therapeutic strategies via targeting Th cells in the context of precision medicine to either prevent or reverse chronic neuropathic tactile allodynia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This chronic disease typically manifests as an increased or altered sensitivity to mechanical or thermal stimuli (hyperalgesia or allodynia). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aging Western societies are facing an increasing prevalence of chronic autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disorders (AIMIDs) for which treatments that are safe and effective are scarce. (primate-biol.net)
  • We are also looking at Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Lyme Disease, and acquired Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). (gardasilsyndrome.com)
  • The diarrhoea that is characteristic of coeliac disease is (chronic) pale , voluminous and abnormally malodorous. (gutenberg.org)
  • The haplotypes HLA (human leucocyte antigen) DQ2/DQ8 confer the highest estimated heritability reported so far (close to 35 %) (3). (isciii.es)
  • HLA haplotypes, DQ2/DQ8, are more frequent in female than in male CD patients . (ommegaonline.org)
  • Strong predisposition for T1D derives from selected HLA class II (HLA-II) haplotypes, especially HLA-DRB1*04 (DR4), DQA1*03:01-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8), HLA-DRB1*03:01 (DR3), and DQA1*05:01-DQB1*02:01 (DQ2). (jci.org)
  • To test this prediction, multiple cell lines from unrelated individuals having the same ancestral haplotypes were tested for the NK-defined allospecificities. (asm.org)
  • It was found that cells having the same ancestral haplotypes do have the same NK-defined specificities. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the NK-defined phenotype of cells that possess two different ancestral haplotypes can be predicted from the NK-defined phenotypes of unrelated cells that are homozygous for the ancestral haplotypes concerned. (asm.org)
  • Antibodies act against the pancreatic islet until the beta cells make little to no insulin, disrupting the hormone that would normally signal glucose to enter cells and produce energy. (todaysdietitian.com)
  • Necroptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis are molecular mechanisms that modulate the survival of the pancreatic beta cell, demonstrating the importance of the immune system in glucolipotoxicity processes and the potential role for immunometabolism as another component of what once known as the "ominous octet. (hindawi.com)
  • The pancreas is a mixed gland formed by exocrine tissue represented by acinar cells that synthetize and secrete inactive digestive enzymes and by epithelial cells lining the small pancreatic ducts, which secrete great volumes of liquid rich in sodium and bicarbonate [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • On the other hand, pancreatic endocrine tissue is represented by the islets of Langerhans constituted by alpha, gamma, and epsilon cells as well as beta cells (PBC). (hindawi.com)
  • It is characterized by autoreactive antibodies that bind autoantigens on pancreatic beta cells, thereby signalling their destruction (Cruise 1995). (davidson.edu)
  • The pancreatic islets of Langerhans are small conglomerates of cells (on average 1,000 cells) with their own blood supply and neural innervations and are dispersed all over the pancreas embedded in the exocrine tissue. (mcponline.org)
  • The absence of Cat L affords strong protection from disease at the stage of pancreatic infiltration. (100md.com)
  • Case reports suggest a role for monoclonal antibodies directed against IgE in selected patients whose disease has failed to respond to conventional therapy. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • This effect is not due to a selective depletion of or toxicity to endogeneous NK since viability studies and monoclonal antibody studies demonstrate no significant changes after culture with the organism (FIG.5). (blogspot.com)
  • Such markers can be identified by specific monoclonal antibodies and are numbered CD1, CD2, CD3, etc. (for c luster d esignation, according to how their specificity characteristics group together when analyzed by computer). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • High-throughput epitope discovery reveals frequent recognition of neo-antigens by CD4 + T cells in human melanoma. (nature.com)
  • The large number of activated T-cells generates a massive immune response which is not specific to any particular epitope on the SAg thus undermining one of the fundamental strengths of the adaptive immune system, that is, its ability to target antigens with high specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • We review and update the role of immunogenic TSHR epitopes and HLA in GD, and offer perspectives on TSHR epitope specific treatments. (frontiersin.org)
  • The tetramer-guided epitope mapping approach was used to identify IGRP-specific CD4+ T cell epitopes. (jove.com)
  • More than 80% of subjects with either DRB1*0401 or DRB1*0301 haplotype have IGRP-specific CD4+ T cell responses for at least one IGRP epitope. (jove.com)
  • DRA1*0101/DRB1*0401 IGRP(247-259)-restricted T cells also show cross-reactivity to an epitope derived from liver/kidney glucose-6-phosphatase. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 16677863 With the advent of class II tetramer technology, a tetramer-guided epitope mapping (TGEM) technique was developed for the identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes. (jove.com)
  • Disclosed herein is a reductionistic system incorporating known participants of MHC class II antigen processing in solution to generate peptide pools from antigens, including those for which no immunodominant epitope has yet been identified, that are highly enriched for proteolytic fragments containing their immunodominant epitopes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Epitope - The distinct surface features of an antigen, its antigenic determinant . (howlingpixel.com)
  • We first screened a panel of six epitope peptide candidates selected with the TEPITOPE program and found that all six peptides induced peptide-specific T-cell proliferation from one or more donors with estimated T-cell precursor frequencies of 0-4.17 × 10 −6 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • MARIA allows identification of immunogenic epitopes in diverse cancers and autoimmune disease. (nature.com)
  • Numerous studies have been done to identify T- and B-cell epitopes in TSHR-ECD, including (1) in silico , (2) in vitro , (3) in vivo , and (4) clinical experiments. (frontiersin.org)
  • TSHR peptide epitopes bound to HLA-class II are presented by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to CD4+ T cells (Figure 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • TSHR epitopes bound to HLA-class II presented on the surface of APC are the most crucial factor to determine immunogenicity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rational design of immunotherapeutics relies on clear knowledge of the immunodominant epitopes of antigens. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We have previously identified and characterized three DQ2-restricted gluten epitopes that are recognized by intestinal T cells isolated from CD patients, two of which are immunodominant. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because almost all of the gluten epitopes are restricted by DQ2, and because we have detailed knowledge of several of these epitopes, we chose to develop peptide-DQ2 tetramers as a reagent to further investigate the role of these T cells in CD. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the development of such technology is hindered by the lack of knowledge about which Ags and T cell epitopes play a role in human autoimmune diseases. (jimmunol.org)
  • Identification of the epitopes recognized by the intestinal T cells in CD is complicated by the complexity of the gluten Ag, which is made up of alcohol-soluble α-, γ-, and ω-gliadins and alcohol-insoluble glutenins. (jimmunol.org)
  • Three DQ2-restricted gliadin epitopes have been characterized to date, and for each of them conversion of specific glutamine residues improves their binding to DQ2 and is critical for their recognition by intestinal T cells ( 18 , 21 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Most antigens have the potential to be bound by multiple antibodies, each of which is specific to one of the antigen's epitopes. (howlingpixel.com)
  • Using the "lock and key" metaphor, the antigen can be seen as a string of keys (epitopes) each of which matches a different lock (antibody). (howlingpixel.com)
  • CD4+ Th cells that recognize MHC class II-restricted epitopes play a central role in the initiation and maintenance of antitumor immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to Ii proteolysis, Cat family members also contribute to class II MHC antigen presentation through the generation of antigenic peptide epitopes (11, 12). (100md.com)
  • We show that processing of hTERT/LAMP-1 transcripts leads to enhanced stimulation of hTERT-specific CD4 + T cells and does not negatively affect intracellular generation and subsequent presentation of MHC class I epitopes, hence, generating a CTL response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cumulatively, these findings support the concept that in cancer immunotherapy not only specific HLA class I-specific, but also HLA class II-restricted, epitopes of tumor antigens should be targeted. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The implementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD) improves the overall clinical course and influences the evolution of the associated diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Fig. 4: MARIA trained on human HLA-DQ ligand peptides identified celiac-related gluten antigens. (nature.com)
  • La EC es una enteropatía crónica del intestino delgado provocada por proteínas del gluten, caracterizada por una respuesta inmune alterada en individuos genéticamente susceptibles, que se traduce en daño de la mucosa del intestino delgado. (isciii.es)
  • For a correct antibody test result, you would have had to ingest gluten recently to test positive, or a false negative may occur on those who have given up gluten months beforehand. (fixyourgut.com)
  • When we produce HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 our T helper cells do not react when exposed to gluten and little to no inflammatory processes are generated. (fixyourgut.com)
  • State the mechanism of coeliac disease from gluten consumption to villous atrophy. (brainscape.com)
  • Genetic, immunological and environmental factors (the intake of gluten) participate in the establishment and development of the disease. (ommegaonline.org)
  • Gluten peptides have been identified that are recognized by CD4 + T cells isolated from the intestines of CD patients ( 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This test is used to detect allergen specific IgG antibodies to 8 common foods known to instigate an immune response: Wheat, Gluten, Milk (Cow), Eggs (Whole), Soy, Almond, Peanut and Corn. (mylabsforlife.com)
  • 1993) found that HLA-DQ2- and HLA-DQ8-restricted, gluten -specific T cells are present in the small intestine of CD patients. (alpfmedical.info)
  • CD4 + T cells differentiate into various T helper subsets characterized by distinct cytokine secreting profiles that confer them effector functions adapted to a variety of infectious or endogenous threats. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each type of CD4 + T helper (Th) cells is endowed with a specific cytokine profile that regulates adaptive and innate immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD4 + T cells also exert direct anti-tumor and anti-viral roles based on their cytolytic activity and effector cytokine secretion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Superantigens (SAgs) are a class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells resulting in polyclonal T cell activation and massive cytokine release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetically predisposed individuals could be influenced by an environmental trigger (i.e., dietary iodine, infection, pregnancy, cytokine therapy) that induces an autoimmune response against thyroid-specific antigens by infiltrating immune cells. (springer.com)
  • Proteomics has been applied in studies of differentiating β-cells, cytokine exposed islets, dietary manipulated islets, and in transplanted islets. (mcponline.org)
  • Superantigen - A class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells, resulting in polyclonal T-cell activation and massive cytokine release. (howlingpixel.com)
  • One can speculate the connection of sex hormones with environmental factors as MEK162 pontent inhibitor well as epigenetic changes caused by the microbiota determine the immune MEK162 pontent inhibitor response by cells of innate and adaptive immune cells and the overall sex-biased difference in immune-mediated cytokine reactions. (techbizstrategy.com)
  • We studied the infectivity of DENV2 (strain 16681), a YF vaccine (YF17DD) and a chimeric YF17D/DENV2 vaccine in monocyte-derived DCs in vitro with regard to cell maturation, activation and cytokine production. (scielo.br)
  • In an effort to identify tumor-specific antigens recognized by CD4 + T cells, an approach was developed that allows the screening of an invariant chain-complementary DNA fusion library in a genetically engineered cell line expressing the essential components of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II processing and presentation pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • The hemopoietic histocompatibility system in mice has been shown to determine F1 hybrid resistance to a bone marrow graft from either parent with graft rejection mediated by radio-resistant NK cells ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Unlike classical MHC antigens, hemopoietic histocompatibility antigens are inherited in a recessive fashion ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • IBD: Inflammatory bowel disease. (isciii.es)
  • Innate immunity can be viewed as comprising four types of defensive barriers: anatomic (skin and mucous membrane), physiologic (temperature, low pH and chemical mediators), endocytic and phagocytic, and inflammatory. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Circulating hHSP60-specific CD4 + CD28 null cells may, along other inflammatory mechanisms, contribute to vascular damage in these patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the small bowel, this causes an inflammatory reaction and may produce shortening of the villi lining the small intestine ( villous atrophy ). (wikipedia.org)
  • γδ T cells are found in increased numbers in inflamed synovial fluid from both rheumatoid ( 9 , 10 , 11 ) and Lyme arthritis ( 12 ) as well as at diverse idiopathic inflammatory sites ( 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Defects in autophagy have been linked to a wide range of medical illnesses, including cancer as well as infectious, neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases. (jci.org)
  • While aging can be associated with adjustments in immune system cells in both sexes (53), in ladies heightened immune system response and build up of antibodies over an interval can cause a minimal grade inflammation that may predispose to sex-bias in inflammatory illnesses. (techbizstrategy.com)
  • Thus, although RF alone is not proinflammatory, RF associated with immune complexes can enhance local inflammatory processes, and there is compelling clinical evidence that RFs contribute to extra-articular disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To compare their image quality with 3D gradient-echo imaging, both 2D and 3D imaging were performed on 11 healthy volunteers and 4 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The signal to noise ratio (SNR) in gray and white matter and their contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was simulated for the 2D and 3D magnitude images using parameters from the imaging. (stanford.edu)
  • Using multiple sclerosis as a prototype, we review here how new methodologies such as gene expression profiling can be exploited to gain insight into complex trait diseases. (bmj.com)
  • So Herpes viruses in particular have this dalliance with collagen and get blamed as a cofactor in all the degenerative diseases like Heart Disease, Arthritis and Multiple Sclerosis. (laleva.org)
  • The α and β chains are encoded by two loci, HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1, that are adjacent to each other on chromosome band 6p21.3. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-DQ (DQ) is encoded on the HLA region of chromosome 6p21.3, in what was classically known as the "D" antigen region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome-wide evidence of both significant linkage and association was obtained on chromosome 6 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and replicated in an independent Mexican American sample of large families (minimum p -value in combined analysis of both datasets is 1.4×10 −15 for SNPs rs477515 and rs2516049). (prolekare.cz)
  • For example, a test for antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) in the blood is probably the first tool a physician will use. (livehopelupus.org)
  • Thus, the expression of DR4 appeared to downregulate DQ8-restricted autoreactive T cells in DQ8DR4/RIP-B7 mice. (jci.org)
  • The detection of IGRP-reactive T cells in both type 1 diabetic subjects and healthy subjects and recent reports of other autoreactive T cells detected in healthy subjects underscore the prevalence of potentially autoreactive T cells in the peripheral immune system of the general population. (jove.com)
  • Thus, if one is exposed to the superantigen at an early age, then all, or at least enough, of the autoreactive T cells are inactivated, providing protection against IDDM. (davidson.edu)
  • Autoreactive T cells are key mediators of β cell destruction. (jci.org)
  • autoreactive T cells are considered the main effectors of β cell destruction. (jci.org)
  • The ability to detect and phenotype autoreactive T cells in circulation, where they are present at extremely low frequencies, has greatly improved. (jci.org)
  • Thus, B cells can act as highly efficient antigen-presenting cells (APCs), supporting the activation of autoreactive T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies directed against components of the CNS are part of the normal immune repertoire. (alpfmedical.info)
  • A given SAg can activate a large proportion of the T-cell population because the human T-cell repertoire comprises only about 50 types of Vβ elements and some SAgs are capable of binding to multiple types of Vβ regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Editing of the HLA-DR-peptide repertoire by HLA-DM," The EMBO Journal, 15(22):6144-6154 (1996). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The numbers of I-Ag7 Crestricted CD4+ T cells are diminished in Cat L Cdeficient mice, although a potentially diabetogenic T cell repertoire persists. (100md.com)
  • Neuropathic pain is a debilitating category of pathological pain caused by a heterogeneous repertoire of lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system, which can result in either heightened or disordered transmission of sensory signals into the spinal cord and the brain [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activation of the immune response through autoantibody production, together with the recruitment and transition of endothelial cells and pericytes into active myofibroblasts, seems to play an important role in the progression of fibrosis in almost all organs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, the recently resolved crystallographic structure of a human IgM RF-Fc co-complex revealed that contacts with IgG antigen involved only the periphery of the antigen-binding cleft of the autoantibody [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)