Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
A cyclic peptide consisting of three residues of delta-N-hydroxy-delta-N-acetylornithine. It acts as an iron transport agent in Ustilago sphaerogena.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family ALTEROMONADACEAE. The inability to utilize carbohydrates is a distinguishing feature from other genera in the family.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Complex cytotoxic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces flocculus or S. rufochronmogenus. It is used in advanced carcinoma and causes leukopenia.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped or pleomorphic bacteria which are halotolerant. Members of this genus are capable of growth in sodium chloride concentrations of up to 20% or more. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.
A reagent used for the determination of iron.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
An imperfect fungus that produces ochratoxins and contaminates EDIBLE GRAIN and coffee beans.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Mechanisms of action and interactions of the components of the IMMUNE SYSTEM.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.

Inhibition of vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish. (1/930)

To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect of P. fluorescens AH2 was studied under iron-rich and iron-limited conditions. Sterile-filtered culture supernatants from iron-limited P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum, whereas sterile-filtered supernatants from iron-replete cultures of P. fluorescens AH2 did not. P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1, 000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic treatment resulted in a 46% reduction of calculated accumulated mortality; accumulated mortality was 25% after 7 days at 12 degrees C in the probiotic-treated fish, whereas mortality was 47% in fish not treated with the probiont.  (+info)

IC202A, a new siderophore with immunosuppressive activity produced by Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activity. (2/930)

IC202A, a new immunosuppressive compound, was isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. It showed a suppressive effect on mixed lymphocyte culture reaction with an IC50 value of 3.6 microg/ml and mitogen induced lymphocyte blastogenesis in vitro.  (+info)

IC202A, a new siderophore with immunosuppressive activity produced by Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. II. Physico-chemical properties and structure elucidation. (3/930)

IC202A (1) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. The structure of 1 was determined by spectral analysis including a variety of two-dimentional NMR and FAB-MS experiments. IC202A is a ferrioxamine-related compound containing a butylidene N-oxide function.  (+info)

Ferrioxamine-mediated Iron(III) utilization by Salmonella enterica. (4/930)

Utilization of ferrioxamines as sole sources of iron distinguishes Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis from a number of related species, including Escherichia coli. Ferrioxamine supplements have therefore been used in preenrichment and selection media to increase the bacterial growth rate while selectivity is maintained. We characterized the determinants involved in utilization of ferrioxamines B, E, and G by S. enterica serotype Typhimurium by performing siderophore cross-feeding bioassays. Transport of all three ferric siderophores across the outer membrane was dependent on the FoxA receptor encoded by the Fur-repressible foxA gene. However, only the transport of ferrioxamine G was dependent on the energy-transducing protein TonB, since growth stimulation of a tonB strain by ferrioxamines B and E was observed, albeit at lower efficiencies than in the parental strain. Transport across the inner membrane was dependent on the periplasmic binding protein-dependent ABC transporter complex comprising FhuBCD, as has been reported for other hydroxamate siderophores of enteric bacteria. The distribution of the foxA gene in the genus Salmonella, as indicated by DNA hybridization studies and correlated with the ability to utilize ferrioxamine E, was restricted to subspecies I, II, and IIIb, and this gene was absent from subspecies IIIa, IV, VI, and VII (formerly subspecies IV) and Salmonella bongori (formerly subspecies V). S. enterica serotype Typhimurium mutants with either a transposon insertion or a defined nonpolar frameshift (+2) mutation in the foxA gene were not able to utilize any of the three ferrioxamines tested. A strain carrying the nonpolar foxA mutation exhibited a significantly reduced ability to colonize rabbit ileal loops compared to the foxA+ parent. In addition, a foxA mutant was markedly attenuated in mice inoculated by either the intragastric or intravenous route. Mice inoculated with the foxA mutant were protected against subsequent challenge by the foxA+ parent strain.  (+info)

The fhu genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum, specifying siderophore uptake proteins: fhuDCB are adjacent to a pseudogene version of fhuA. (5/930)

A mutant of Rhizobium leguminosarum was isolated which fails to take up the siderophore vicibactin. The mutation is in a homologue of fhuB, which in Escherichia coli specifies an inner-membrane protein of the ferric hydroxamate uptake system. In Rhizobium, fhuB is in an operon fhuDCB, which specifies the cytoplasmic membrane and periplasmic proteins involved in siderophore uptake. fhuDCB mutants make vicibactin when grown in Fe concentrations that inhibit its production in the wild-type. Nodules on peas induced by fhuDCB mutants were apparently normal in N2 fixation. Transcription of an fhuDCB-lacZ fusion was Fe-regulated, being approximately 10-fold higher in Fe-depleted cells. Downstream of fhuB, in the opposite orientation, is a version of fhuA whose homologues in other bacteria specify hydroxamate outer-membrane receptors. This fhuA gene appears to be a pseudogene with stop codons and undetectable expression.  (+info)

Multiple haem-utilization loci in Helicobacter pylori. (6/930)

To identify genes responsible for the utilization of haem as an iron source in Helicobacter pylori, a siderophore synthesis mutant of Escherichia coli was transformed with an ordered cosmid library of H. pylori NCTC 11638. Four independent cosmids were found that were able to complement this mutant on iron-restrictive solid media containing different haem compounds as the sole source of iron. Hybridization experiments revealed that the four cosmids contained unrelated DNA fragments. No major differences were observed in the growth of the four transformants on iron-restrictive solid media to which different haem compounds had been added. None of the cosmids could confer the ability to use haem as an iron source to an E. coli aroB tonB mutant, which means that transport of iron and/or haem across the outer membrane requires a functional TonB protein. Further characterization of the cosmids revealed that one of them was also able to complement E. coli aroB hemA, indicating that the haem molecule is taken up as a whole by this haem-biosynthesis mutant. Expression of this haem-uptake system could not be repressed by excess iron. Another cosmid expressed two polypeptides in E. coli which were specifically immunoreactive with a polyclonal antiserum raised against whole cells of H. pylori. The production of these proteins appeared to be iron repressible. One of these proteins has the same molecular mass as a previously described 77 kDa haem-binding iron-repressible outer-membrane protein (IROMP) of H. pylori.  (+info)

The siderophore 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid is not required for virulence of Brucella abortus in BALB/c mice. (7/930)

2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) is the only siderophore described for Brucella, and previous studies suggested that DHBA might contribute to the capacity of these organisms to persist in host macrophages. Employing an isogenic siderophore mutant (DeltaentC) constructed from virulent Brucella abortus 2308, however, we found that production of DHBA is not required for replication in cultured murine macrophages or for the establishment and maintenance of chronic infection in the BALB/c mouse model.  (+info)

Environmental factors modulating antibiotic and siderophore biosynthesis by Pseudomonas fluorescens biocontrol strains. (8/930)

Understanding the environmental factors that regulate the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds by disease-suppressive strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens is an essential step toward improving the level and reliability of their biocontrol activity. We used liquid culture assays to identify several minerals and carbon sources which had a differential influence on the production of the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL), pyoluteorin (PLT), and pyrrolnitrin and the siderophores salicylic acid and pyochelin by the model strain CHA0, which was isolated from a natural disease-suppressive soil in Switzerland. Production of PHL was stimulated by Zn2+, NH4Mo2+, and glucose; the precursor compound mono-acetylphloroglucinol was stimulated by the same factors as PHL. Production of PLT was stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+, and glycerol but was repressed by glucose. Pyrrolnitrin production was increased by fructose, mannitol, and a mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+. Pyochelin production was increased by Co2+, fructose, mannitol, and glucose. Interestingly, production of its precursor salicylic acid was increased by different factors, i.e., NH4Mo2+, glycerol, and glucose. The mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+ with fructose, mannitol, or glycerol further enhanced the production of PHL and PLT compared with either the minerals or the carbon sources used alone, but it did not improve siderophore production. Extending fermentation time from 2 to 5 days increased the accumulation of PLT, pyrrolnitrin, and pyochelin but not of PHL. When findings with CHA0 were extended to an ecologically and genetically diverse collection of 41 P. fluorescens biocontrol strains, the effect of certain factors was strain dependent, while others had a general effect. Stimulation of PHL by Zn2+ and glucose was strain dependent, whereas PLT production by all strains that can produce this compound was stimulated by Zn2+ and transiently repressed by glucose. Inorganic phosphate reduced PHL production by CHA0 and seven other strains tested but to various degrees. Production of PLT but not pyrrolnitrin by CHA0 was also reduced by 100 mM phosphate. The use of 1/10-strength nutrient broth-yeast extract, compared with standard nutrient broth-yeast extract, amended with glucose and/or glycerol resulted in dramatically increased accumulations of PHL (but not PLT), pyochelin, and salicylic acid, indicating that the ratio of carbon source to nutrient concentration played a key role in the metabolic flow. The results of this study (i) provide insight into the biosynthetic regulation of antimicrobial compounds, (ii) limit the number of factors for intensive study in situ, and (iii) indicate factors that can be manipulated to improve bacterial inoculants.  (+info)

Siderophores are secondary metabolites produced by different organisms in order to scavenge iron from their surrounding environment making this essential element available to the cell. Presenting high affinity for ferric iron, siderophores are secreted out to form soluble ferric complexes that can be taken up by the organisms. Siderophores present complex chemistry that allows them to form the strongest ironchelating complexes. Interest in this field is always up to date and new siderophores are found with new roles and applications. For example, siderophores participate to the mobilization of iron and other elements and are involved in virulence processes. Recently, a strong relation between siderophores and oxidative stress tolerance has been also highlighted. Their application in medicine has been widely studied as well as in agriculture. However, new fields are paying attention to the use of siderophores as green-iron chelators. In particular, siderophores have been proposed for the preservation of
Article Adsorption of Trihydroxamate and Catecholate Siderophores on -iron (Hydr)oxides and their dissolution at pH 3.0 to 6.0. The adsorption of ...
Additional file 4: of Tracking key virulence loci encoding aerobactin and salmochelin siderophore synthesis in Klebsiella pneumoniae
This chapter highlights both the well established and the yet poorly understood aspects of siderophoremediated iron acquisition in pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacteria, with a particular emphasis in the siderophore system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The M. tuberculosis siderophore system is believed to play a crucial role in the procurement of a suitable iron supply to support bacterial multiplication in vivo and to be a key factor in the ability of this human pathogen to produce successful infections. The mycobacteria examined for iron-acquisition systems appear to rely on siderophores with high affinity for the ferric ion as the primary mechanism for iron acquisition. Transcription of genes of the exochelin (EXC) and mycobactin/carboxymycobactin (MBT/CMBT) systems is derepressed when the bacterium experiences iron limitations, thus leading to siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore-mediated iron uptake. Several Mycobacterium species produce two structurally related families of high-affinity
Shop Probable siderophore transport system permease protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Probable siderophore transport system permease protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
AngR, a 110-kDa protein encoded on the pJM1 plasmid of V. anguillarum, appears to play a role in both regulation of the expression of the iron transport genes fatDCBA (5, 14) and the production of the siderophore anguibactin, either at the biosynthetic level (18, 51) or as a regulator of expression of siderophore biosynthetic genes (44). Early transposition mutagenesis studies revealed that a particular region of the pJM1 plasmid, a region, spanning nearly 25 kb, was required for siderophore production, iron acquisition, and virulence (53). A discrete subregion, spanning just under 10 kb, harbored the iron transport genes fatDCBA, theangR gene, and angT, a gene found downstream ofangR, whose product may be a thioesterase acting in the release of the finished anguibactin from a pantothenate site (2, 18, 24, 44, 51, 53). The concerted regulation of these genetic determinants, as well as their consecutive locations, suggested that these genes could be transcribed as a single polycistronic ...
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a recognised agent of multidrug-resistant (MDR) healthcare-associated infections; however, individual strains vary in their virulence potential due to the presence of mobile accessory genes. In particular, gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of siderophores aerobactin (iuc) and salmochelin (iro) are associated with invasive disease and are common amongst hypervirulent K. pneumoniae clones that cause severe community-associated infections such as liver abscess and pneumonia. Concerningly, iuc has also been reported in MDR strains in the hospital setting, where it was associated with increased mortality, highlighting the need to understand, detect and track the mobility of these virulence loci in the K. pneumoniae population. Here, we examined the genetic diversity, distribution and mobilisation of iuc and iro loci amongst 2503 K. pneumoniae genomes using comparative genomics approaches and developed tools for tracking them via genomic surveillance. Iro and iuc were detected
S. aureus possesses both siderophore-mediated and nonsiderophore iron uptake systems, and the relative role that each system plays during pathogenesis needs to be resolved. In this study, we characterized a genetic locus (sbn) that is involved in the biosynthesis of a siderophore in S. aureus. We showed that an sbnE mutation correlates with impaired growth in an iron-deficient medium and decreased virulence of S. aureus in a murine kidney abscess model.. Mutation of the sbnE coding region resulted in the inability of S. aureus strains to synthesize an as yet structurally uncharacterized molecule that we have named staphylobactin. Introduction of multicopy sbnE into sbnE mutants resulted in the restored ability of S. aureus to produce staphylobactin, a molecule which when purified by HPLC promoted the iron-restricted growth of S. aureus. It would appear, then, that the staphylobactin molecule is a product synthesized from expression of the sbn operon; however, in order to validate this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of non-porous pillar array columns for the separation of Pseudomonas pyoverdine siderophores as an example of a real-world biological sample. AU - Eghbali, Hamed. AU - Matthijs, Sandra. AU - Verdoold, Vincent. AU - Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.. AU - Cornelis, Pierre. AU - Desmet, Gert. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - We report on the first separation of a complex biomixture in pressure-driven mode using perfectly ordered pillar array columns. The separations were conducted in the reversed-phase mode using a highly aqueous mobile phase, while the outer surface of the non-porous pillars was chemically functionalized with a hydrophobic C8-layer. The samples originated from two different bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Pseudomonas sp. W15Feb38) of fluorescent pseudomonads. These produce fluorescent yellow-green pyoverdines that serve as siderophores to shuttle iron inside the cell. The pyoverdines of both strains were prepared from the supernatant through a crude solid ...
Eisendle, M., Oberegger, H., Zadra, I. and Haas, H. (2003) The Siderophore System Is Essential for Viability of Aspergillus nidulans Functional Analysis of Two Genes Encoding L-Ornithine N5-Monooxygenase (sidA) and a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (sidC). Molecular Microbiology, 49, 359-375.
in FEMS microbiology letters (2005), 246(2), 167-74. Actively secreted iron chelating agents termed siderophores play an important role in the virulence and rhizosphere competence of fluorescent pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa which secretes ... [more ▼]. Actively secreted iron chelating agents termed siderophores play an important role in the virulence and rhizosphere competence of fluorescent pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa which secretes a high affinity siderophore, pyoverdine, and the low affinity siderophore, pyochelin. Uptake of the iron-siderophore complexes is an active process that requires specific outer membrane located receptors, which are dependent of the inner membrane-associated protein TonB and two other inner membrane proteins, ExbB and ExbC. P. aeruginosa is also capable of using a remarkable variety of heterologous siderophores as sources of iron, apparently by expressing their cognate receptors. Illustrative of this feature are the 32 (of which ...
Genetic network analysis and biochemical profiling reveal a common association with siderophores. We observed that the bacterial networks identified above correspond well to a siderophore genotype. Siderophores are secreted, disease-associated molecules defined by their ability to scavenge iron from the human host as a nutrient source. When we used mass spectrometry to compare the number of different siderophore types actually synthesized by E.coli strain collections associated with different anatomical sites, we observed a correlation between disease severity and the number of siderophore types expressed. A pilot analysis of siderophore expression by a subset of the 337 inpatient strains suggested that inactivation of one of the siderophore genes limits a strains ability to cause bacteremia. This finding suggests that a biochemical expression assay informed by this genetic network will identify patients colonized by high-risk E.coli. Individual variation in urinary E.coli growth ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Post-translational acetylation of MbtA modulates mycobacterial siderophore biosynthesis. AU - Vergnolle, Olivia. AU - Xu, Hua. AU - Tufariello, Joann M.. AU - Favrot, Lorenza. AU - Malek, Adel A.. AU - Jacobs, William R.. AU - Blanchard, John S.. PY - 2016/10/14. Y1 - 2016/10/14. N2 - Iron is an essential element for life, but its soluble form is scarce in the environment and is rarer in the human body. Mtb (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) produces two aryl-capped siderophores, mycobactin (MBT) and carboxymycobactin (cMBT), to chelate intracellular iron. The adenylating enzyme MbtA catalyzes the first step of mycobactin biosynthesis in two half-reactions: activation of the salicylic acid as an acyl-adenylate and ligation onto the acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain of MbtB to form covalently salicylated MbtB-ACP. We report the first apo-MbtA structure from Mycobacterium smegmatis at 2.3 Å. We demonstrate here that MbtA activity can be reversibly, posttranslationally regulated by ...
Siderophores (Greek: iron carrier) are small, high-affinity iron-chelating compounds secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi and serving to transport iron across cell membranes. Siderophores are amongst the strongest soluble Fe3+ binding agents known. Iron is essential for almost all life for processes such as respiration and DNA synthesis. Despite being one of the most abundant elements in the Earths crust, the bioavailability of iron in many environments such as the soil or sea is limited by the very low solubility of the Fe3+ ion. This is the predominant state of iron in aqueous, non-acidic, oxygenated environments. It accumulates in common mineral phases such as iron oxides and hydroxides (the minerals that are responsible for red and yellow soil colours) hence cannot be readily used by organisms. Microbes release siderophores to scavenge iron from these mineral phases by formation of soluble Fe3+ complexes that can be taken up by active transport mechanisms. Many ...
rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms=http://purl.org/dc/terms/ xmlns:dc=http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ xmlns:rdf=http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# xmlns:bibo=http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/ xmlns:dspace=http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0# xmlns:foaf=http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ xmlns:void=http://rdfs.org/ns/void# xmlns:xsd=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema# , ,rdf:Description rdf:about=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/39422, ,foaf:homepage rdf:resource=http://localhost:8080/jspui/, ,dc:contributor,Böttcher, Thomas,/dc:contributor, ,dc:creator,Rütschlin, Sina,/dc:creator, ,dcterms:available rdf:datatype=http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime,2017-06-27T09:42:49Z,/dcterms:available, ,void:sparqlEndpoint rdf:resource=http://localhost/fuseki/dspace/sparql/, ,bibo:uri rdf:resource=https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/handle/123456789/39422/, ,dcterms:title,One Enzyme, Three Metabolites : Shewanella algae Controls Siderophore Production via the ...
Before joining Brooklyn College as Carol and Larry Zicklin Professor in Biology in January 2010, Luis Quadri held faculty and head of laboratory positions at Weill Medical College of Cornell University for 10 years. The Quadri Lab applies multidisciplinary approaches to elucidate the biosynthesis of virulence factors in mycobacteria and to develop compounds with utility as leads for antibacterial drug development or chemical biology tools. Drugs that inhibit the biosynthesis of virulence factors will have applications in the treatment of mycobacterial diseases. LINK TO COMPLETE PUBLICATION LIST ...
Mycobacterium neoaurum is a soil saprophyte and obligate aerobic bacterium. This group of mycobacterium is relatively fast-growing. They form colonies on nutrient agar at 37 masculineC within 3 - 4 days. In natural soil habitats, bioavailability of iron is limited. To facilitate iron uptake, most mycobacteria produce siderophores. One example is exochelin, which is extracellular and water-soluble. In this report, the production of exochelin in M. neoaurum was induced in iron-deficiency, but repressed under ironsufficiency growth conditions. It is however not induced under zinc-deficiency growth conditions. The growth of this mycobacterium was correlated with exochelin secretion under iron-deficiency culture conditions. When M. neoaurum was grown in defined medium containing 0.04 microg Fe(III)/mL (final concentration), the production of exochelin reached a maximum and the corresponding cell growth was comparable to that under iron-sufficiency conditions. In this study, exochelin was purified ...
Molecular mechanism of regulation of siderophore-mediated iron assimilation. Adhikari, P., Berish, S. A., Nowalk, A. J., Veraldi, K. L., Morse,…. Continue Reading →. ...
I had a good summer studying Advanced Bacterial Genetics at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. The course was intense but very good. Research in the lab is centering around the thermodynamics of the transfer of iron from various chelators to bacterial siderophores, and learning more about bioinformatics and molecular modeling. Plans are also being made to get back to isolating and characterizing bacterial iron reductases.. Relevant Scholarly Activities. I am an active, ad hoc reviewer for the journal Archives of Biochemistry & Biophysics.. Attending STEM Conference for Educators, June 20 - 24, 2016, San Diego, CA.. ATP, Positive Heterotropic Interactions, and Allosteric Control of Fe3+ Release from Fe3+-Transferrin. Richard E. Cowart. Presented at the University of Iowa School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, June 6, 2015.. U.S. Patent No. 8,647,640, February 11, 2014. Vaccine Compositions and Methods of Use to Protect against Infectious Diseases. Richard E. Cowart, Inventor. A putative ...
Our research interest is the characterization of fungal-specific pathways and regulatory circuits to improve therapy and diagnosis of fungal infections as well as the biotechnological potential of fungi. A major research focus is fungal iron homeostasis. Our studies revealed the essentiality of siderophore biosynthesis for virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus making the siderophore system an attractive target for improvement of antifungal therapy and diagnosis of fungal infections
Company evaluation was conducted for 40+ companies offering Data Acquisition Systems, out of which 25 companies were shortlisted and categorized on a quadrant under Visionary Leaders, Innovators, Dynamic Differentiators, and Emerging Companies.. National Instruments, Keysight Technologies, Fortive, Ametek, Teledyne, and Yokogawa have been identified as Visionary Leaders, as they have established product portfolios and a robust market presence &business strategy. These vendors offer highly customizable and easily deployable Data Acquisition Systems for commercial clients, which, when combined with their robust business strategies, enables them to achieve sustained growth in the market.. Siemens, Bruel & Kjaer, Schneider Electric, HBM, Omron, and Tektronix have been identified as Innovators, as these companieshave innovative portfolios of the Best Data Acquisition Systems and the potential to build strong business strategies for their business growth to be at par with the leading companies in the ...
A sufficient supply of Fe ions is essential for all living organisms. But although iron is amongst the most abundant elements making up about 3.5% of the earth crust it is hard to come by for...
A data acquisition system (10) includes an interface (12) communicating with at least one transducer sensing neuronal activity of a subject under observation. The interface (12) acquires neuronal signals output by the at least one transducer and inhibits ohmic contact between the at least one transducer and the subject. A data acquisition and processing device (16) is coupled to the interface (12) and captures and processes the neuronal signals acquired by the interface. In the preferred embodiment, the data acquisition system further includes a behavioural processor (18) recording at least one physical condition of the subject as the subject performs a task. The behavioural processor (18) conditions the data acquisition and processing device (16) to capture neuronal signals at selected times corresponding to selected instances during task performance. The data acquisition and processing device (16) correlates the neuronal signals with the at least one recorded physical condition to yield anatomical
A system and method providing a centralized acquisition system for facilitating event requests for multiple client products and/or services. The acquisition system includes at least one of a portal and a client interface system for accepting data from a client and an E-Acquisition system for facilitating product or service fulfillment for the client. The E-Acquisition system includes a handler system for facilitating the event request from the client and a worker utility invoked by the handler system to perform tasks associated with the event request. A dispatcher forwards event requests to one or more handlers to apply client business logic to process and fulfill the event request. The handlers further employ task-specific workers for facilitating the individual steps required to complete the process. One worker facilitates global data validation for multiple clients, which simplifies validation, decisioning, and fulfillment of event requests for the multiple clients.
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: COL; locus tag: SACOL_RS11415 (SACOL2171); symbol: sfnaD; product: IucA/IucC family siderophore biosynthesis protein
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: USA300_FPR3757; locus tag: SAUSA300_RS11785 (SAUSA300_2140); symbol: sfnaD; product: IucA/IucC family siderophore biosynthesis protein
Hot Deals 5pcs/lot ADS1256 8 Road 24 Bit Data Acquisition AD Module Multi Channel Acquisition System 30Khz for DIY Electronic Design AD002 dixvel review
Siderophore production in response to iron limitation was observed in Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34, and the corresponding siderophore was named alcaligin E. Alcaligin E was characterized as a phenolate-type siderophore containing neither catecholate nor hydroxamate groups, Alcaligin E promoted the growth of siderophore-deficient A. eutrophus mutants under iron-restricted
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two genomic regions involved in catechol siderophore production by Erwinia carotovora. AU - Bull, Carolee Theresa. AU - Ishimaru, C. A.. AU - Loper, J. E.. PY - 1994/2/8. Y1 - 1994/2/8. N2 - Two regions involved in catechol biosynthesis (cbs) of Erwinia carotovora W3C105 were cloned by functional complementation of Escherichia coli mutants that were deficient in the biosynthesis of the catechol siderophore enterobactin (ent). A 4.3-kb region of genomic DNA of E. carotovora complemented the entB402 mutation of E. coli. A second genomic region of 12.8 kb complemented entD, entC147, entE405, and entA403 mutations of E. coli. Although functions encoded by catechol biosynthesis genes (cbsA, cbsB, cbsC, cbsD, and cbsE) of E. carotovora were interchangeable with those encoded by corresponding enterobactin biosynthesis genes (entA, entB, entC, entD, and entE), only cbsE hybridized to its functional counterpart (entE) in E. coli. The cbsEA region of E. carotovora W3C105 hybridized to ...
Filamentous fungi are an important cause of pulmonary and systemic morbidity and mortality, and also cause corneal blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Utilizing in vitro neutrophil killing assays and a model of fungal infection of the cornea, we demonstrated that Dectin-1 dependent IL-6 production regulates expression of iron chelators, heme and siderophore binding proteins and hepcidin in infected mice. In addition, we show that human neutrophils synthesize lipocalin-1, which sequesters fungal siderophores, and that topical lipocalin-1 or lactoferrin restricts fungal growth in vivo. Conversely, we show that exogenous iron or the xenosiderophore deferroxamine enhances fungal growth in infected mice. By examining mutant Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, we found that fungal transcriptional responses to low iron levels and extracellular siderophores are essential for fungal growth during infection. Further, we showed that targeting fungal iron acquisition or siderophore biosynthesis by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The siderophore pyoverdine of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 is an intrinsic virulence factor in host tobacco infection. AU - Taguchi, Fumiko. AU - Suzuki, Tomoko. AU - Inagaki, Yoshishige. AU - Toyoda, Kazuhiro. AU - Shiraishi, Tomonori. AU - Ichinose, Yuki. PY - 2010/1. Y1 - 2010/1. N2 - To investigate the role of iron uptake mediated by the siderophore pyoverdine in the virulence of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605, three predicted pyoverdine synthesis-related genes, pvdJ, pvdL, and fpvA, were mutated. The pvdJ, pvdL, and fpvA genes encode the pyoverdine side chain peptide synthetase III L-Thr-L-Ser component, the pyoverdine chromophore synthetase, and the TonB-dependent ferripyoverdine receptor, respectively. The ΔpvdJ and ΔpvdL mutants were unable to produce pyoverdine in mineral salts-glucose medium, which was used for the iron-depleted condition. Furthermore, the ΔpvdJ and ΔpvdL mutants showed lower abilities to produce tabtoxin, ...
Siderophores are essential factors for iron (Fe) acquisition in bacteria during colonization and infection of eukaryotic hosts, which restrain iron access through iron-binding protein, such as lactoferrin and transferrin. The synthesis of siderophores by Escherichia coli is considered to be fully regulated at the transcriptional level by the Fe-responsive transcriptional repressor Fur. Here we characterized two different pathways that promote the production of the siderophore enterobactin via the action of the small RNA RyhB. First, RyhB is required for normal expression of an important enterobactin biosynthesis polycistron, entCEBAH. Second, RyhB directly represses the translation of cysE, which encodes a serine acetyltransferase that uses serine as a substrate for cysteine biosynthesis. Reduction of CysE activity by RyhB allows serine to be used as building blocks for enterobactin synthesis through the nonribosomal peptide synthesis pathway. Thus, RyhB plays an essential role in siderophore ...
1. KornitzerD 2009 Fungal mechanisms for host iron acquisition. Current opinion in microbiology 12 377 383. 2. SchrettlMBeckmannNVargaJHeinekampTJacobsenID 2010 HapX-mediated adaption to iron starvation is crucial for virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus. PLoS Pathog 6 e1001124 doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001124. 3. SchrettlMIbrahim-GranetODroinSHuerreMLatgeJP 2010 The crucial role of the Aspergillus fumigatus siderophore system in interaction with alveolar macrophages. Microbes and infection/Institut Pasteur 12 1035 1041. 4. SchrettlMBignellEKraglCSabihaYLossO 2007 Distinct roles for intra- and extracellular siderophores during Aspergillus fumigatus infection. PLoS Pathog 3 e128 doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030128. 5. SchrettlMBignellEKraglCJoechlCRogersT 2004 Siderophore biosynthesis but not reductive iron assimilation is essential for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence. The Journal of experimental medicine 200 1213 1219. 6. HissenAHChowJMPintoLJMooreMM 2004 Survival of Aspergillus fumigatus in serum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Host-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis interactome reveals a novel iron assimilation mechanism linked to nitric oxide stress during early infection. AU - Lamont, Elise A. AU - Xu, Wayne W.. AU - Sreevatsan, Srinand. PY - 2013/10/10. Y1 - 2013/10/10. N2 - Background: The initial interaction between host cell and pathogen sets the stage for the ensuing infection and ultimately determine the course of disease. However, there is limited knowledge of the transcripts utilized by host and pathogen and how they may impact one another during this critical step. The purpose of this study was to create a host-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) interactome for early infection in an epithelium-macrophage co-culture system using RNA-seq.Results: Establishment of the host-MAP interactome revealed a novel iron assimilation system for carboxymycobactin. Iron assimilation is linked to nitric oxide synthase-2 production by the host and subsequent nitric oxide buildup. Iron ...
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as oncogene 24p3 or neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LCN2 gene. NGAL is involved in innate immunity by sequestrating iron that in turn limits bacterial growth. It is expressed in neutrophils and in low levels in the kidney, prostate, and epithelia of the respiratory and alimentary tracts. NGAL is used as a biomarker of kidney injury. The binding of NGAL to bacterial siderophores is important in the innate immune response to bacterial infection. Upon encountering invading bacteria the toll-like receptors on immune cells stimulate the synthesis and secretion of NGAL. Secreted NGAL then limits bacterial growth by sequestering iron-containing siderophores. Lipocalin-2 binds, next to bacterial siderophores, also to the mammalian siderophore 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA). This complex ensures that excess free iron does not accumulate in the cytoplasm. Mammalian cells lacking 2,5-DHBA accumulate ...
Insertional inactivation of the irp1 and irp2yersiniabactin biosynthetic genes results not only in elimination of the corresponding polypeptide bands but also in downregulation of the other proteins involved in yersiniabactin synthesis and binding; namely, irp1 inactivation was followed by considerable reduction of HMWP2 and FyuA proteins (Fig. 6 and 9). Nonsense mutation in the fyuA gene resulted in downregulation of theirp1 and irp2 genes. It was expected that inactivation of the irp2 gene, being the first gene in the polycistronic operon, would lead to a reduction of the irp1gene product since irp1 is devoid of promoter/operator sequences. The unexpected reduction of HMWP2 and FyuA production as a result of irp1 inactivation suggests that the yersiniabactin biosynthetic operon is subjected to autoregulation by its product, the siderophore. Indeed, the addition of yersiniabactin to the siderophore-negative mutant WA-CSirp1::Kanr upregulates the production of HMWP2 (Fig. 7 and 8) and its ...
The enantiomeric siderophores pyochelin and enantiopyochelin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas protegens promote growth under iron limitation and activate transcription of their biosynthesis and uptake genes via the AraC-type regulator PchR. Here we investigated siderophore binding to PchR in vitro using fluorescence spectroscopy. A fusion of the N-terminal domain of P. aeruginosa PchR with maltose binding protein (MBP-PchRPAO) bound iron-loaded (ferri-) pyochelin with an affinity (Kd) of 41 ± 5 μM. By contrast, no binding occurred with ferri-enantiopyochelin. Stereospecificity of a similar fusion protein of the P. protegens PchR (MBP-PchRCHA0) was less pronounced. The Kds of MBP-PchRCHA0 for ferri-enantiopyochelin and ferri-pyochelin were 24 ± 5 and 40 ± 7 μM, respectively. None of the proteins interacted with the iron-free siderophore enantiomers, suggesting that transcriptional activation by PchR occurs only when the respective siderophore actively procures iron to the c
In this study we described that iron-sequestering molecules are responsible for the toxicity of iron containing SWNTs to microorganisms. After incubating different concentrations of functionalized SWNTs with bacteria and fungal cells, it was found that these microorganisms produced siderophores. These molecules were seen in the medium as early as 10 min after the addition of SWNTs. After 30 min we observed some bacterial and fungal cells saturated with siderophore-containing SWNTs. Analysis of the bacterial and fungal cells saturated with siderophore-containing SWNTs revealed that those bacterial cells were dead because too many SWNTs present in the bacterial cells interfered with processes such as binary fission, and electron transport. Contact with the SWNTs is not a possible mechanism in this case since the microorganisms had enough time to produce siderophores and still thrived for a few minutes after the endocytosis of the siderophores. In addition, we noticed that the effect of siderophore
Based on the ability of phytosiderophores to chelate other heavy metals besides iron ( Fe), phytosiderophores were suggested to prevent graminaceous plants from cadmium (Cd) toxicity. To assess interactions between Cd and phytosiderophore-mediated Fe acquisition, maize (Zea mays) plants were grown hydroponically under limiting Fe supply. Exposure to Cd decreased uptake rates of 59 Fe(III)-phytosiderophores and enhanced the expression of the Fe-phytosiderophore transporter gene ZmYS1 in roots as well as the release of the phytosiderophore 2-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) from roots under Fe deficiency. However, DMA hardly mobilized Cd from soil or from a Cd-loaded resin in comparison to the synthetic chelators diaminetriaminepentaacetic acid and HEDTA. While nano-electrospray-high resolution mass spectrometry revealed the formation of an intact Cd(II)-DMA complex in aqueous solutions, competition studies with Fe( III) and zinc( II) showed that the formed Cd(II)-DMA complex was weak. Unlike HEDTA, DMA ...
Iron is an essential nutrient for nearly all living organisms (1). Transport systems for the uptake of iron and iron-chelation complexes are therefore critical for growth (64). In many bacteria, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein coordinates the expression of iron uptake and homeostasis pathways in response to available iron (1). For example, in Escherichia coli K-12 the Fur regulon includes genes for the biosynthesis and transport of the catechol siderophore enterobactin, the uptake of various hydroxamate siderophores, and a substrate-inducible ferric citrate uptake system (25, 45). In addition, Fur represses a small RNA, RyhB, that in turn negatively regulates the expression of iron-rich enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase, and aconitase (36). This allows the production of these enzymes to be activated in response to available iron.. The production of low-molecular-weight Fe(III) chelators (siderophores) enables microorganisms to efficiently scavenge iron even in aerobic ...
Because iron is essential for Plasmodium falciparum, we investigated the in vitro potential of various synthetic siderophores to kill P. falciparum in infected human erythrocytes. The substances with the most promising profile, i.e., low 50% lethal doses for plasmodia and minimum toxicity towards mammalian cells, were siderophores with an acylated monocatecholate or a triscatecholate as substituent ...
Iron, an essential nutrient, is primarily present in soils in the form of iron-bearing minerals characterized with low solubilities. Under iron deficient conditions, some plants and microorganisms exude a mixture of iron-complexing agents, including carboxylates and siderophores, that can cause minerals to dissolve and increase iron solubility. Siderophores are chelating agents with functional groups such as hydroxamate, catecholate, or α-hydroxycarboxylate, that have high selectivity and specificity for Fe(III). This thesis is focused on adsorption/dissolution processes at the surface of a common soil mineral, goethite(α-FeOOH), in the presence of oxalate and a trihydroxamate siderophore, desferrioxamine-B (DFOB) at pH 4 and/or 6 in the absence of visible light. In order to characterize these processes at a molecular level and to understand the reaction mechanisms, a combination of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mycotic Aneurysm in Thoracic Aorta Detected by Gallium-67 Scan. T2 - A Case Report. AU - Kuo, Chi-Lin. AU - Chuang, Feng-Ju AU - Hsu, Chung-Huei. AU - Lee, Yuarn Jang. AU - Lee, Chi-Ming. AU - Chang, Nen-Chung. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Gallium-67 (67Ga) citrate has been used for detecting infection and inflammation ever since its discovery in 1971. At the sites of inflammation, it is taken by leukocytes and bacterial siderophores. It has an affinity to lactoferrin which isreleased from degranulated neutrophils. To our knowledge, mycotic aneurym detected by 67Ga scan has rarely been reported. We report an interesting case of infected aneurysm of thoracic aorta detected by 67Ga citrate scan but was indeterminate onthe MRI study.. AB - Gallium-67 (67Ga) citrate has been used for detecting infection and inflammation ever since its discovery in 1971. At the sites of inflammation, it is taken by leukocytes and bacterial siderophores. It has an affinity to lactoferrin which isreleased ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The plug domain of FepA, a TonB-dependent transport protein from Escherichia coli, binds its siderophore in the absence of the transmembrane barrel domain. AU - Usher, Ken C.. AU - Özkan, Engin. AU - Gardner, Kevin H.. AU - Deisenhofer, Johann. PY - 2001/9/11. Y1 - 2001/9/11. N2 - FepA, an outer membrane iron siderophore transporter from Escherichia coli, is composed of a 22-stranded membrane-spanning β barrel with a globular N-terminal plug domain of 148 residues that folds up inside the barrel and completely occludes the barrels interior (1). We have overexpressed and purified this plug domain by itself and find that it behaves in vitro as a predominantly unfolded yet soluble protein, as determined by circular dichroism, thermal denaturation, and NMR studies. Despite its unfolded state, the isolated domain binds ferric enterobactin, the siderophore ligand of FepA, with an affinity of 5 μM, just 100-fold reduced from that of intact FepA. These findings argue against the ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important pathogen of mammals that relies on 2-hydroxyphenyloxazoline-containing siderophore molecules called mycobactins for the acquisition of iron in the restrictive environment of the mammalian macrophage. These compounds have been proposed to be biosynthesized through the action of a cluster of genes that include both nonribosomal peptide synthase and polyketide synthase components. One of these genes encodes a protein, MbtB, that putatively couples activated salicylic acid with serine or threonine and then cyclizes this precursor to the phenyloxazoline ring system. We have used gene replacement through homologous recombination to delete the mbtB gene and replace this with a hygromycin-resistance cassette in the virulent strain of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The resulting mutant is restricted for growth in iron-limited media but grows normally in iron-replete media. Analysis of siderophore production by this organism revealed that the biosynthesis of all salicylate
It has been suggested that some perennial grasses secrete phytosiderophores in response to iron (Fe) deficiency, but the compounds have not been identified. Here, we identified and characterized the phytosiderophores secreted by two perennial grasses
The lasso peptide microcin J25 is known to hijack the siderophore receptor FhuA for initiating internalization. Here, we provide what is to our knowledge the first structural evidence on the recognition mechanism, and our biochemical data show that another closely related lasso peptide cannot
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Feng Xie, Shengwang Dai, Jinzhao Shen, Biao Ren, Pei Huang, Qiushui Wang, Xueting Liu, Buchang Zhang, Huanqin Dai, Lixin Zhang].
McQuaid JB, Kustka AB, Oborník M, Horák A, McCrow JP, Karas BJ, Zheng H, Kindeberg T, Andersson AJ, Barbeau KA, Allen AE Nature. 2018 Mar 22;555(7697):534-537. PDF Commentary by Dr Paolo Arosio Of importance is the role of iron not only in mammals, but also in the oceans, particularly after the various fertilization experiments that showed…
A Pseudomonas sp PS-102 recovered from Muttukkadu brackish water lagoon, situated south of Chennai, showed significant activity against a number of shrimp pathogenic vibrios. Out of the 112 isolates of bacterial pathogens comprising Vibrio harveyi, V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis, and Aeromonas spp, 73% were inhibited in vitro by the cell-free culture supernatant of Pseudomonas sp PS-102 isolate. The organism produced yellowish fluorescent pigment on Kings B medium, hydrolysed starch and protein, and produced 36.4% siderophore units by CAS assay and 32 μM of catechol siderophores as estimated by Arnows assay. The PS-102 isolate showed wide ranging environmental tolerance with, temperatures from 25 to 40 °C, pH from 6 to 8, salinity from 0 to 36 ppt, while the antagonistic activity peaked in cultures grown at 30 °C, pH 8.0 and at 5 ppt saline conditions. The antagonistic activity of the culture supernatant was evident even at 30% v / v dilution against V. ...
Bull, Carolee T., Carol A. Ishimaru, and Joyce E. Loper. Two Genomic Regions Involved in Catechol Siderophore Production by Erwinia carotovora. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60.2 (1994): 662-669. Web. 06 Aug. 2020. ...
Assay: An assay is an analysis done to determine: The presence of a substance and the amount of that substance. In vitro assays that monitor your compound to target interaction in a complex cellular that mimics your disease state can provide predictive insights earlier in the drug development process. GARD™skin is an assay for assessment of skin sensitizers, based on in vitro chemical exposure of DC-like cells. Serological test, any of several laboratory procedures carried out on a sample of blood serum, aimed specifically at the detection of antibodies or antibody-like substances that appear in association with certain diseases. Human primary cell-based assays, such as cell proliferation assays, cell viability assays, and GPCR assays, were developed using cells derived from tissue, blood, or differentiated stem cells … The biological or … types of HTS technologies have been adapted to screening epigenetic targets. In this review, we introduce the physics of droplets, and then focus on the ...
General Information: This organism is associated with severe and chronic periodontal (tissues surrounding and supporting the tooth) diseases. Progression of the disease is caused by colonization by this organism in an anaerobic environment in host tissues and severe progression results in loss of the tissues supporting the tooth and eventually loss of the tooth itself. The black pigmentation characteristic of this bacterium comes from iron acquisition that does not use the typical siderophore system of other bacteria but accumulates hemin. Peptides appear to be the predominant carbon and energy source of this organism, perhaps in keeping with its ability to destroy host tissue. Oxygen tolerance systems play a part in establishment of the organism in the oral cavity, including a superoxide dismutase. Pathogenic factors include extracellular adhesins that mediate interactions with other bacteria as well as the extracellular matrix, and a host of degradative enzymes that are responsible for tissue ...
Myxochelin A ((S)-N,N-(6-hydroxyhexane-1,5-diyl)bis(2,3-dihydroxybenzamide)) belongs to the family of siderophores (Kunze et al., 1989) and is well known for its selective complex formation with iron(III). In a neutral medium, metal binding probably occurs via the two catecholate groups (Huang et al., 1995; Duhme et al., 1996). However, myxochelin A also forms stable ferric complexes in an acidic medium around pH 2-3. Under such conditions, a complete deprotonation of all four phenolic hydroxy groups is unfavourable and, alternatively, metal binding may rather occur in a bis-bidentate fashion via the two ortho-hydroxy-benzamide moieties (Cappillino et al., 2009; Stoicescu et al., 2009). For a direct investigation of such a coordination mode, we prepared dideoxy-myxochelin A as a model ligand and report here its crystal structure. The structure elucidation of a related achiral derivative, which is devoid of the hydroxymethyl group, has been reported by Huang et al. (1995).. The crystal structure ...
Using a selection system that was enriched for mutants unable to grow on low-iron media, Askwith et al. reported the identification of a mutant, fet3, that was unable to grow on low-iron media (14). This mutant had a normal surface reductase activity but was unable to accumulate 59Fe. A gene that could complement both the low-iron growth defect and the inability to accumulate radioactive iron was identified by complementation of the mutant strain with a genomic library. Genetic studies.... ...
Even though we tried to simplify the cloning, our many attempts to obtain the constructions failed. We thus investigated every step of our cloning in order to determine why it did not work. We finally assumed that these failures were due to several reasons. First,the design of the overhangs parts for the golden gate assembly had not been thoroughly designed. Indeed, two differents combination in the parts order were actually possible. Further more, sequencing results of our plasmids has shown that among the two theorical possibilities, only one of them was obtained in all the clones we have tested. This combination were characterised by a switch in the parts order, leading to a non functional siderophore production system. Therefore, we came to the conclusion that our functional system, as we engineered it, was probably toxic for our bacteria. Thus, we have conceived new cloning approaches. First of all, we chose to extract the different genes of the enterobactin biosynthesis for a new ...
I just dont get this question...Why would aconitase release Fe-S under low iron condition when it also wants to preserve intramolecular iron? Can anyone...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Proteins with slippery properties (lipopeptides) are produced by many bacteria, which enables them to grow on surfaces that do not absorb water, such as plant leaf or stem surfaces. Bacteria have also evolved ways to make iron-binding compounds (siderophores), which allow them to grow under conditions where very little iron is available. The second example of a rarely found compound, a lipopeptide siderophore, has been discovered by German scientists in collaboration with the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The group isolated the compound from a bacterium (Pseudomonas corrugata) that causes tomato stems to rot. They next determined the chemical structure of the compound and named it corrugatin. Bacteria in the Pseudomonas class (genus) are important because they cause many plant diseases that are responsible for millions of dollars in crop losses. The results of their cooperative work will be valuable for resolving the taxonomical placement of the tomato ...
Iron and Bacterial Infections. The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains is an emerging threat to public health. Overcoming the challenges created by MDR organisms requires the identification of critical new targets and the development of small molecule inhibitors. In this context, bacterial iron metabolism offers a major vulnerability because although the concentration of free iron in the host is vanishingly small (~10-18 M), invading pathogens must obtain essential iron from the host to support their growth.. The central role of iron in infections suggests that disruption of bacterial iron acquisition paths or bacterial iron homeostasis may cause invading pathogens to lose their infectivity or be killed. Although genes that participate in these processes have designated functions, much less is known about the structure, dynamics and inter-protein associations of the proteins they code. Thus our vision is to gain atomic level understanding of key proteins and their ...
HJST is seeking a Mechanical Engineer to design, develop, assemble, and validate prototype instrumentation to automate and miniaturize biological and chemical assays. This role will involve rapid prototyping to iterate through benchtop solutions for various automation challenges, including fluidic routing, pressure control, temperature control, and more. This candidate should be interested in biological applications as well as comfortable working in a multi-disciplinary team of scientist and engineers. ...
HapX positively regulates the levels of the CIR1 and RIM101 transcripts.Quantification of HAPX, CIR1 and RIM101 transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR in WT, hapXΔ
Article Delphin Offers New ProfiMessage D Data Acquisition System. Measurement Data Acquisition, Monitoring & Automation CAS Dataloggers is pleased to ...
A customer acquisition system is disclosed that allows an offeror service provider to acquire new customers by making acquisition offers to customers through the billing statements of other businesses (
The PMX multi channel data acquisition system can be used to measure and control in real-time. This system is ideal for production and quality assurance.
siderophore-based immunization strategy to inhibit growth of enteric pathogens infections with gram-negative pathogens pose a serious threat to public
... siderophores; cholic acid derivatives and organic acids. It is hoped that further research into alkaliphilic enzymes will allow ...
In the case of siderophores, a positive correlation was found between relatedness among bacterial lineages and siderophore ... One very popular example of mutually beneficial microbial interactions involves the production of siderophores. Siderophores ... The production of siderophores is often used as an example of mutualism as the compounds are not constricted to individual ... Once released, the siderophores will sequester the iron, and form a complex, which is recognized by bacterial cell receptors. ...
Siderophores are deployed as ion scavengers for microbes. Siderophores solubilize compounds by forming strong complexes. PDTC ... It functions as a siderophore, a small chelating agent with a high affinity for iron. ... Dipicolinic acid Budzikiewicz, Herbert (2010). "Microbial Siderophores". In Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Falk, Heinz; Kobayashi, ...
Siderophores, which are typically quite soluble and have exceptionally high avidity for iron (III) (the avidity of some ... Like most siderophores, pyoverdine is synthesized and secreted into the environment when the microorganism that produces it ... S. Wendenbaum; P. Demange; A. Dell; J. M. Meyer; M. A. Abdallah (1983). "The structure of pyoverdine Pa, the siderophore of ... Pyoverdin-Type Siderophores from Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Liebigs Ann Chem. 1989 (4): 375-384. doi:10.1002/jlac.198919890164. ...
Hider RC, Kong X (May 2010). "Chemistry and biology of siderophores". Natural Product Reports. 27 (5): 637-657. doi:10.1039/ ... Rhodotorulic acid is the smallest of the 2,5-diketopiperazine family of hydroxamate siderophores which are high-affinity ... Van der Helm D, Winkelmann G (February 1994). "Hydroxamates and Polycarboxylates as Ion Transport Agents (Siderophores)". In ... siderophore)3 complexes to fulfill an octahedral coordination for iron. Rhodotorulic acid occurs in basidiomycetous yeasts and ...
T. R. Swinburne (2012). Iron, Siderophores, and Plant Diseases. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 1461594804. Peterson, S ... Penicillium parvum produces ferrichrome siderophores Phytochemical investigation of the soil microfungus Eupenicillum parvum ...
These siderophores vary per organism. Some examples include yersiniabactin in the organisms Yersinia pestis and Yersinia ... but generally salicylate can be used in many bacteria as a building block for various siderophores (organic Fe3+ chelators). ... a precursor to the siderophore pyochelin. Believed to be a pericyclic reaction, the enzyme's transition state, when ...
Fe3+( siderophore)](n-3)- binds to a receptor-transporter on the cell surface and then is up taken. The exact mechanism how ... It is a siderophore composed of three glycine and three modified ornithine residues with hydroxamate groups [-N(OH)C(=O)C-]. ... Ferrichrome is a siderophore, which are metal chelating agents that have a low molecular mass and are produced by ... It is important to note microbes make their own type of siderophore so that they are not competing with other organisms for ...
They are often toxins, siderophores, or pigments. Nonribosomal peptide antibiotics, cytostatics, and immunosuppressants are in ... Siderophores Pyoverdine Enterobactin Myxochelin A Pigments Indigoidine Toxins Microcystins and Nodularins, cyanotoxins from ...
"Gram-positive siderophore-shuttle with iron-exchange from Fe-siderophore to apo-siderophore by Bacillus cereus YxeB". ... Siderophores and ferric iron can associate to form stable complexes. Siderophores bind iron using a variety of ligands, most ... Mammalian siderophores, specifically catechols, can be found in the human gut and in siderophores, such as enterobactin, and ... Structural analysis of the siderocalin/siderophore interaction has shown that the siderophore is accompanied by a poor and ...
... is a siderophore, or small iron-binding compound secreted by bacteria to transport iron into the cell. Ornibactin is ... Stephan H, Freund S, Beck W, Jung G, Meyer JM, Winkelmann G (1993). "Ornibactins--a new family of siderophores from Pseudomonas ... Sokol PA, Darling P, Lewenza S, Corbett CR, Kooi CD (December 2000). "Identification of a siderophore receptor required for ... Braun V, Braun M (April 2002). "Active transport of iron and siderophore antibiotics". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 5 (2): ...
Siderophore mediated absorption of iron. InSiderophores from Microorganisms and Plants 1984 (pp. 25-87). Springer, Berlin, ... This laboratory was centred on siderophore chemistry and biochemistry On return to the UK, Hider in collaboration with Ernest ... His most cited articles are: Hider RC, Kong X. Chemistry and biology of siderophores. Natural product reports. 2010;27(5):637- ...
It is in a medication class known as siderophores, and was the first siderophore antibiotic to be approved by the U.S. Food and ... 2017). "Cefiderocol, a Siderophore Cephalosporin for Gram‐Negative Bacterial Infections: Pharmacokinetics and Safety in ... December 2016). "Siderophore Cephalosporin Cefiderocol Utilizes Ferric Iron Transporter Systems for Antibacterial Activity ... Choi, Justin J; McCarthy, Matthew W. (24 January 2018). "Cefiderocol: a novel siderophore cephalosporin". Expert Opinion on ...
... role of siderophores". Biochemical Society Transactions. 34 (1): 152-5. doi:10.1042/BST0340152. PMID 16417508.CS1 maint: ...
In particular, bacteria have evolved very high-affinity sequestering agents called siderophores. After uptake in human cells, ... DOI 10.1515/9783110589771-006 Neilands, J.B. (1995). "Siderophores: structure and function of microbial iron transport ... Boukhalfa, Hakim; Crumbliss, Alvin L. (2002). "Chemical aspects of siderophore mediated iron transport". BioMetals. 15 (4): 325 ...
Siderophore Protonophore Chelation Bakker E1, Bühlmann P, Pretsch E. (1997). "Carrier-Based Ion-Selective Electrodes and Bulk ... Iron ionophores and chelating agents are collectively called siderophores. Many synthetic ionophores are based on crown ethers ...
... is a siderophore in the ferrichrome family. Iron is an essential element for the survival and proliferation of ... Ferrichrome A was found as one of the two siderophores produced by the biotrophic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis during its ... Microorganisms produce and secrete potent iron chelators, also known as siderophores, to aid in the sequestration and increase ... Since the discovery of ferrichrome in 1952, the ferrichrome family of siderophores contains at least 20 structurally distinct ...
... is a bacterial iron chelating agent (siderophore) found in E. coli. It is a virulence factor enabling E. coli to ... Rhizobactin from Sinorhizobium Alcaligin from Bordetella J. B. Neilands (1995). "Siderophores: Structure and Function of ...
... area "P3" produce highest siderophore.. The study showed significantly higher increase in root length over control ...
... is a catechol siderophore that helps the microbial system to acquire iron. It was first isolated from Vibrio ... Griffiths, Gary L.; Sigel, Suzanne P.; Payne, Shelley M.; Neilands, J. B. (1984). "Vibriobactin, a Siderophore from Vibrio ...
"Siderophores from neighboring organisms promote the growth of uncultured bacteria." Chemistry & biology 17.3 (2010): 254-264. ...
2002). "Siderophore typing, a powerful tool for the identification of fluorescent and nonfluorescent pseudomonads". Appl. ... Certain Pseudomonas species may also produce additional types of siderophore, such as pyocyanin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ... 2006). "Cyanide metabolism of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344: role of siderophores". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 34 (Pt 1): ... 2007). "Thioquinolobactin, a Pseudomonas siderophore with antifungal and anti-Pythium activity". Environ. Microbiol. 9 (2): 425 ...
Miller, Marvin J. (1989-11-01). "Syntheses and therapeutic potential of hydroxamic acid based siderophores and analogs". ...
Synthetic siderophores such as deferiprone and deferasirox have been developed, using the known structure of deferoxamine as a ... deferoxamine, a naturally occurring siderophore produced by the actinobacter Streptomyces pilosus and was used initially as a ... Miller, Marvin J. (1989). "Syntheses and therapeutic potential of hydroxamic acid-based siderophores and analogs". Chemical ...
... binds, next to bacterial siderophores, also to the mammalian siderophore 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA). This ... Devireddy LR, Hart DO, Goetz DH, Green MR (June 2010). "A mammalian siderophore synthesized by an enzyme with a bacterial ... The binding of NGAL to bacterial siderophores is important in the innate immune response to bacterial infection. Upon ... Secreted NGAL then limits bacterial growth by sequestering iron-containing siderophores. ...
... produces hydroxamic acid-based siderophores, which are compounds that can chelate iron and extract it from the ... Haselwandter K, Häninger G, Ganzera M (2011). "Hydroxamate siderophores of the ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus granulatus and S. ...
Some bacteria have evolved siderophores, iron-chelating particles that seek and bring back iron for the bacteria. Siderophores ... ceased siderophore production in favor of using the other's siderophores. Although one would expect that the non-producer would ... One strain, known as the producer, produced a higher level of siderophores, which meant that other strain, known as the non- ... This result suggested that P. fluorescens ceased siderophore production in favor of taking up iron-bound coelichen, an ...
Haas H (September 2003). "Molecular genetics of fungal siderophore biosynthesis and uptake: the role of siderophores in iron ... In contrast, targeted mutation of sidA, the first gene in the siderophore biosynthesis pathway, proved siderophore-mediated ... Mutation of the downstream siderophore biosynthesis genes sidC, sidD, sidF and sidG resulted in strains of A. fumigatus with ... November 2004). "Siderophore biosynthesis but not reductive iron assimilation is essential for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence ...
... exudation of micro-nutrient mobilising siderophores/chelates (e.g. Fe3+), reduction of trace elements from less soluble ...
Nature has evolved families of hydroxamic acids to function as iron-binding compounds (siderophores) in bacteria. They extract ... Miller, Marvin J. (November 1989). "Syntheses and Therapeutic Potential of Hydroxamic Acid Based Siderophores and Analogues". ... and Absolute Configuration of the Siderophore Ferric N,N',N"-Triacetylfusarinine, FeC39H57N6O15". Journal of the American ...
M. Teintze, M.B. Hossain, C.L. Barnes, J. Leong, and D. van der Helm, Structure of Ferric Pseudobactin, a Siderophore from a ... P.E. Powell, G.R. Cline, C.P.P. Reid, and P.J. Szaniszlav, Occurance of Hydroxamate Siderophore Ion Chelators in Soils, Nature ... S. Wendenbaum, P. Demange, A. Dell, J.M. Meyer, and M.A. Abdallah, The Structure of Pyoverdine Pa, the Siderophore of ... J.S. Buyer, J.M. Wright, and J. Leong, Structure of Pseudobactin A 214, a Siderophore from a Bean-Deleterious Pseudomonas, ...
Budzikiewicz, H. (2004) Siderophores of the Pseudomonadaceae sensu stricto (fluorescent and non-fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.). ... Meyer, J.-M., Stintzi, A., De Vos, D., Cornelis, P., Tappe, R., Taraz, K. and Budzikiewicz, H. (1997) Use of siderophores to ... Teintze, M., Hossain, M.B., Barnes, C.L., Leong, J. and van der Helm, D. (1981) Structure of ferric pseudobactin, a siderophore ... Zywno, S.R., Arceneaux, J.E.L., Altwegg, M. and Byers, B.R. (1992) Siderophore production and DNA hybridization groups of ...
Examples of siderophores produced by various bacteria and fungi: Hydroxamate siderophores Catecholate siderophores Mixed ... Siderophores are usually classified by the ligands used to chelate the ferric iron. The major groups of siderophores include ... The production of siderophores also requires the bacterium to expend energy. Thus, siderophore production can be looked at as ... Microbial iron transport (siderophore)-mediated drug delivery makes use of the recognition of siderophores as iron delivery ...
Article Adsorption of Trihydroxamate and Catecholate Siderophores on -iron (Hydr)oxides and their dissolution at pH 3.0 to 6.0 ... Incongruency between dissolution kinetics and siderophore adsorption data trends was explained by siderophores triggering ... Adsorption of Trihydroxamate and Catecholate Siderophores on -iron (Hydr)oxides and their dissolution at pH 3.0 to 6.0 0 ... No comments were found for Adsorption of Trihydroxamate and Catecholate Siderophores on -iron (Hydr)oxides and their ...
These siderophores are produced in addition to a number of previously described amphibactins and are excreted into the culture ... Structures of amphiphilic siderophores produced by Halomonas meridiana str. HC4321C1 and Vibrio sp. HC0601C5 ... These four new siderophores are more hydrophilic than their previously reported relatives, aquachelins A-D and the amphibactin ... Two new members of the aquachelin family of siderophores, aquachelins I and J, which have an hydroxylated C12 fatty acid and a ...
... a catechol-based siderophore, and that of the hydroxamate-based siderophores such as ferrichrome. For ferric enterobactin there ... Siderophore electrochemistry: relation to intracellular iron release mechanism. S R Cooper, J V McArdle, and K N Raymond ... Siderophore electrochemistry: relation to intracellular iron release mechanism Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... In contrast, iron is released by the hydroxamate-based siderophores and the ligands are reused in subsequent iron transport. It ...
Cooperation, virulence and siderophore production in bacterial parasites.. West SA1, Buckling A. ... siderophores), which results in higher growth rates and virulence. More generally, the same underlying idea can predict a ...
RyhB plays an essential role in siderophore production and may modulate bacterial virulence through optimization of siderophore ... The synthesis of siderophores by Escherichia coli is considered to be fully regulated at the transcriptional level by the Fe- ... Siderophores are essential factors for iron (Fe) acquisition in bacteria during colonization and infection of eukaryotic hosts ... A small RNA promotes siderophore production through transcriptional and metabolic remodeling. Hubert Salvail, Pascale Lanthier- ...
These siderophores are not produced by commensal bacteria and are required for UTI. The siderophore vaccines reported here are ... The mice were immunized with 0.75 μg of siderophore plus 10 μg of cBSA on day 0 and boosted with 0.19 μg of siderophore plus ... Protection provided by siderophore vaccines requires the biosynthesis of bacterial stealth siderophores. CBA/J mice were ... The siderophore-protein conjugates elicited an adaptive immune response that targeted bacterial stealth siderophores and ...
Expression of hydroxamate and phenolate siderophores by Shigella flexneri.. S M Payne, D W Niesel, S S Peixotto, K M Lawlor ... Expression of hydroxamate and phenolate siderophores by Shigella flexneri. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
siderophore: Any medium-sized molecule that has a high specificity for binding or chelating iron; they are employed by ... E. tarda has developed abilities to utilize hemin, hemoglobin and hematin as iron source as well as siderophore-mediated iron ... Five characterized Y. pestis iron/siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu) and a putative iron/chelate ... 2003) Identification and characterization of genes required for biosynthesis and transport of the siderophore vibrioferrin in ...
Detection of mycobacterial siderophores and implications for diagnostics Author: McBride, Nicholas S. ISNI: 0000 0004 2731 080X ... Acquisition of iron within the host is vital to the pathogenicity of Mtb and to accomplish this it produces siderophores called ... This dissertation has sought to build a simple assay for detection and quantification of mycobacterial siderophores that has ... These data provided information regarding the potential use of siderophores as diagnostic biomarkers for TB. ...
Pyoverdine (pvd) siderophores synthesized by pseudomonads have been shown to promote iron nutrition in various plant species ( ... This study evidences the impact of bacterial siderophores on pea iron status and pea ionome composition, and shows that this ... S, benefited from bacterial siderophores for its iron nutrition to a greater extent. ... Pyoverdine (pvd) siderophores synthesized by pseudomonads have been shown to promote iron nutrition in various plant species ( ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in siderophore metabolic process pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
... siderophore free) was minimally active, but that, when loaded with a siderophore (enterochelin), the protein was protective: ... The Ngal:siderophore:Fe complex upregulates heme oxygenase-1, a protective enzyme, preserves proximal tubule N-cadherin, and ... Ngal activity depends on delivery of the protein and its siderophore to the proximal tubule. Iron must also be delivered, since ... The first panel shows that holo-Ngal (≥10 μg) from XL1-Blue bacteria (containing siderophore and iron) rescued renal function ...
The Ngal:siderophore:Fe complex upregulates heme oxygenase-1, a protective enzyme, preserves proximal tubule N-cadherin, and ... Ngal activity depends on delivery of the protein and its siderophore to the proximal tubule. Iron must also be delivered, since ... In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Ngal:siderophore:Fe protects adult kidney epithelial cells or accelerates their ... Because mouse urine contains an Ngal-dependent siderophore-like activity, endogenous Ngal might also play a protective role. ...
Neither group appears to produce siderophores, although some coastal c … ... including siderophores. Rather than direct internalization of siderophores and other iron chelates, marine organisms primarily ... The role of siderophores in iron acquisition by photosynthetic marine microorganisms Biometals. 2009 Aug;22(4):659-69. doi: ... Neither group appears to produce siderophores, although some coastal cyanobacteria do. This is interpreted as an adaptation to ...
Reductive Iron Assimilation and Intracellular Siderophores Assist Extracellular Siderophore-Driven Iron Homeostasis and ... and extracellular siderophores, respectively. Deletion of NPS6 results in loss of extracellular siderophore biosynthesis, ... Fungi use nonribosomally synthesized secreted iron chelators (siderophores) or reductive iron assimilation (RIA) mechanisms to ... while the role of RIA in metabolism and virulence is overshadowed by that of extracellular siderophores as a high-affinity iron ...
Siderophores are important for the growth of bacteria or the applications in treatment of iron overload-associated diseases due ... Salicylate synthase played a key role in the biosynthesis of some NRPS-derived siderophores by the providing of an iron ... A new salicylate synthase AmS is identified for siderophores biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis methanolica 239(T).. [Feng Xie, ... A new salicylate synthase, namely AmS, was identified in the biosynthesis pathway of siderophore amychelin in Amycolatopsis ...
Characterization of anguibactin, a novel siderophore from Vibrio anguillarum 775(pJM1).. L A Actis, W Fish, J H Crosa, K ... Characterization of anguibactin, a novel siderophore from Vibrio anguillarum 775(pJM1).. L A Actis, W Fish, J H Crosa, K ... Characterization of anguibactin, a novel siderophore from Vibrio anguillarum 775(pJM1).. L A Actis, W Fish, J H Crosa, K ... Anguibactin, a siderophore produced by cells of Vibrio anguillarum 775 harboring the pJM1 plasmid, has now been isolated from ...
A universal method to detect and determine siderophores was developed by using their high affinity for iron(III). The ternary ... Universal chemical assay for the detection and determination of siderophores Anal Biochem. 1987 Jan;160(1):47-56. doi: 10.1016/ ... A universal method to detect and determine siderophores was developed by using their high affinity for iron(III). The ternary ... Orange halos around the colonies on blue agar are indicative of siderophore excretion. It was demonstrated with Escherichia ...
Imaging of Infection and Tumors using labelled Siderophores. Preclinical Imaging Siderophores are low-molecular weight, high ... As well as infection imaging with siderophores, it is also possible to derivatize the siderophore molecule by conjugation of ... Siderophores have demonstrated potential in the field of nuclear medical imaging; they can be labeled with radionuclides and ... Novy and Petrik will describe the studies they have conducted into the use of rlabeled siderophores for the nuclear and optical ...
... microbes secrete siderophores, chelators with widely varying Fe affinities. Strains of the soil bacterium Azotobacter ... We analyzed the genome and siderophores of a second AC strain, A. chroococcum str. B3, and found that it also produces ... We found conserved patterns of low vs. high-affinity siderophore production across strains: the low-affinity vibrioferrin was ... NCIMB 8003 was shown to synthesize three siderophore classes: (1) vibrioferrin, a low-affinity α-hydroxy carboxylate (pFe = ...
Siderophores also induced changes in the tubulin skeleton and these changes were iron-dependent. The effect of siderophores on ... More root cells with a depolymerized cytoskeleton were observed when the roots were exposed to iron-free siderophores and the ... However, whether iron chelating compounds (siderophores) can have an effect on the acetylation process in plant roots is ... Collectively, these data indicated that the metabolites of pathogenic fungi mirror siderophore action, and iron limitation can ...
siderophore answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... siderophore is a topic covered in the Tabers Medical Dictionary. To view the entire topic, please sign in or purchase a ... "Siderophore." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Tabers Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/ ... Tabers-Dictionary/729145/all/siderophore. Siderophore. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. ...
Iron-regulated siderophore production and expression of A. fumigatus sidA, ftrA, and fetC. (A) Siderophore biosynthesis is up- ... The siderophore iron transporter of Candida albicans (Sit1p/Arn1p) mediates uptake of ferrichrome-type siderophores and is ... SidA Is Essential for Siderophore Biosynthesis.. In a first step to studying the role of the siderophore system in iron ... In contrast to a siderophore-negative A. nidulans strain, which is almost nonviable without siderophore supplementation (18), ...
The strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 15, which produced hydroxamate-type siderophore, was selected for siderophore ... Its siderophore production was inhibited by FeCl3, especially when FeCl3 concentration was higher than 20 μM. Effects of ... Siderophore; Iron; Microcystis; Anabaena. Products or Services information in the article. ...obtained. Genomic DNA was ... Six siderophore-producing bacterial strains were isolated from the freshwater, in which five strains belonged to Pseudomona ...
Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin is a Novel Bacteriostatic Agent that Interferes with Siderophore-mediated Iron ... The Neutrophil Lipocalin NGAL is a Bacteriostatic Agent that Interferes with Siderophore-mediated Iron Acquisition. Goetz, D.H. ... Here we report that NGAL tightly binds bacterial catecholate-type ferric siderophores through a cyclically permuted, hybrid ... Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin is a Novel Bacteriostatic Agent that Interferes with Siderophore-mediated Iron ...
Siderophores from neighboring organisms promote the growth of uncultured bacteria. Chem Biol. 2010 Mar 26; 17(3):254-64. ...
  • Previous studies with the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus identified two genes, NPS2 and NPS6 , encoding different nonribosomal peptide synthetases responsible for biosynthesis of intra- and extracellular siderophores, respectively. (apsnet.org)
  • Deletion of NPS6 results in loss of extracellular siderophore biosynthesis, attenuated virulence, hypersensitivity to oxidative and iron-depletion stress, and reduced asexual sporulation, while nps2 mutants are phenotypically wild type in all of these traits but defective in sexual spore development when NPS2 is missing from both mating partners. (apsnet.org)
  • A new salicylate synthase AmS is identified for siderophores biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis methanolica 239(T). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Salicylate synthase played a key role in the biosynthesis of some NRPS-derived siderophores by the providing of an iron coordination moiety as the initial building block. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A new salicylate synthase, namely AmS, was identified in the biosynthesis pathway of siderophore amychelin in Amycolatopsis methanolica 239(T), since it shunt chorismate, an integrant precursor, from primary to secondary metabolite flow. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In striking contrast, A. fumigatus l -ornithine- N 5 -monooxygenase (SidA), which catalyses the first committed step of hydroxamate-type siderophore biosynthesis, is absolutely essential for virulence. (rupress.org)
  • We have shown that l -ornithine- N 5 -monooxygenase catalyzes the first committed step in biosynthesis of both triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC) and desferriferricrocin (DFFC), the two major siderophores of Aspergillus nidulans ( 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • Notably, the gene encoding l -ornithine- N 5 -monooxygenase is not clustered with other genes involved in siderophore biosynthesis in A. nidulans . (rupress.org)
  • Mixing and Matching Siderophore Clusters: Structure and Biosynthesis of Serratiochelins from Serratia sp. (harvard.edu)
  • Despite these regulatory differences the mechanisms of siderophore biosynthesis follow the same fundamental enzymatic logic, which involves a series of elongating acyl-S-enzyme intermediates on multimodular protein assembly lines: nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). (asm.org)
  • The genome of R. jostii RHA1 contains 23 secondary metabolite gene clusters, all considered to be orphan with respect to their product, including two clusters putatively involved in siderophore biosynthesis. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Bioinformatic analysis of the R. jostii RHA1 genome revealed the enzymes responsible for siderophore biosynthesis to be encoded in three distant NRPS gene clusters. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Much research has been conducted to investigate the biosynthesis, iron chelation, iron assimilation, and genetics which allow microbes to acquire iron via siderophores. (asm.org)
  • Mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374 defective in biosynthesis of the fluorescent siderophore pseudobactin still display siderophore activity, indicating the production of a second siderophore. (csic.es)
  • A recombinant cosmid clone (pMB374-07) of a WCS374 gene library harboring loci necessary for the biosynthesis of salicylic acid (SA) and this second siderophore pseudomonine was isolated. (csic.es)
  • a third ORF (pmsE) encoded a protein with strong similarity with enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of siderophores in other bacterial species. (csic.es)
  • Two regions involved in catechol biosynthesis (cbs) of Erwinia carotovora W3C105 were cloned by functional complementation of Escherichia coli mutants that were deficient in the biosynthesis of the catechol siderophore enterobactin (ent). (elsevier.com)
  • In particular, gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of siderophores aerobactin (iuc) and salmochelin (iro) are associated with invasive disease and are common amongst hypervirulent K. pneumoniae clones that cause severe community-associated infections such as liver abscess and pneumonia. (pasteur.fr)
  • Analysis of the gene cluster involved in the biosynthesis of piscibactin, the siderophore produced by Photobacterium damselae subsp. (pronamar.com)
  • Analysis of the gene cluster involved in the siderophores biosynthesis produced by Aeromonas salmonicida as the pathogenic bacteria responsible of this fish disease, allowed the structural prediction and posterior isolation and elucidation of those compounds. (pronamar.com)
  • To begin, we determined that the genome of strain K279a is predicted to encode a complete siderophore system, including a biosynthesis pathway, an outer-membrane receptor for ferrisiderophore, and other import and export machinery. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A mutation in one of the predicted biosynthesis genes ( entC ) abolished production of the siderophore and impaired bacterial growth in low-iron conditions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Although the biosynthesis and import loci showed some similarity to those of enterobactin, a well-known catecholate made by enteric bacteria, the siderophore of K279a was unable to rescue the growth of an enterobactin-utilizing indicator strain, and conversely iron-starved S. maltophilia could not use purified enterobactin. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The alc gene cluster of Bordetella pertussis includes three genes, alcA, alcB, and alcC, which are involved in alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis in response to iron starvation. (ecu.edu)
  • Kang, Ho Young and Armstrong, Sandra K., "Transcriptional Analysis of the Bordetella Alcaligin Siderophore Biosynthesis Operon," Journal of Bacteriology 180, no. 4 (February 1998), http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3321 (accessed April 21, 2019). (ecu.edu)
  • Biosynthesis of siderophore group nonribosomal peptides - Xanthomonas campestris pv. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ch.-Ch. Yang and J. Leong, Structure of Pseudobactin 7SR1, a Siderophore from a Plant-Deleterious Pseudomonas , Biochem. (springer.com)
  • Budzikiewicz, H. (2004) Siderophores of the Pseudomonadaceae sensu stricto (fluorescent and non-fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. (springer.com)
  • Meyer, J.-M. (2000) Pyoverdines: pigments, siderophores and potential taxonomic markers of fluorescent Pseudomonas species. (springer.com)
  • Dillmann B. Czaplicki J, Abdallah M, Atkinson RA, Kief - fer B. Multiple conformations of the Metal-B.und pyoverdine PvdI, a siderophore of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a NMR study B.ochemistry 2008 Vol. 47 pp: 3397-9 5. (wordnik.com)
  • Audenaert K, Pattery T, Cornelis P, Höfte M. Induced resistance to Botrytis cinerea by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: role of siderophores and pyocyanin. (ugent.be)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces siderophores, pyoverdin and pyochelin, for high-affinity iron uptake. (asm.org)
  • The siderophore systems encoded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, namely, pyochelin and pyoverdin, as well as the siderophore amonabactin, specified by Aeromonas hydrophila, are also discussed. (asm.org)
  • Neilands and colleagues ( 33 - 35 ) observed that their microbe, named Pseudomonas FC1, degraded the hydroxamate siderophores ferrichrome, ferrichrome A, and coprogen, with ferrichrome A being the most facile to degrade. (asm.org)
  • Pseudomonas FC1 siderophore degradation was due to inducible enzymes and could occur with either the deferrisiderophore or the ferrisiderophore. (asm.org)
  • Siderophore-mediated cooperation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The potential for siderophore mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to attenuate virulence during infection, and the possibility of exploiting this for clinical ends, have attracted much discussion. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The ability to utilise additional siderophores may increase the ecological fitness of biocontrol inoculants of Pseudomonas in the rhizosphere. (mendeley.com)
  • Intermicrobial interaction: Aspergillus fumigatus siderophores protect against competition by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PLoS One , vol. 14 , nº 5: e0216085. (inrs.ca)
  • We have investigated the DNA homology between the siderophore synthesis genes of an opportunist animal pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and three plant-associated species Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Siderophores and outer membrane proteins of antagonistic, plant-growth-stimulating, root-colonizing Pseudomonas spp. (core.ac.uk)
  • Cooperation, virulence and siderophore production in bacterial parasites. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, RyhB plays an essential role in siderophore production and may modulate bacterial virulence through optimization of siderophore production. (pnas.org)
  • The siderophore vaccines reported here are easy to formulate and reduce bacterial burdens in a murine model of UTI. (pnas.org)
  • These pathogen-associated stealth siderophores evade host immune defenses and enhance bacterial virulence. (pnas.org)
  • Because their cognate siderophores are water soluble, we hypothesized that these bacterial-derived small molecules are prime vaccine candidates. (pnas.org)
  • The siderophore-protein conjugates elicited an adaptive immune response that targeted bacterial stealth siderophores and protected against UTI. (pnas.org)
  • This study evidences the impact of bacterial siderophores on pea iron status and pea ionome composition, and shows that this impact varies with the siderophore and host-plant cultivar, thereby emphasizing the specificity of these plant-microorganisms interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • S, benefited from bacterial siderophores for its iron nutrition to a greater extent. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies on the bacterial hydroxamic siderophore showed the ability of pyoverdine to trigger induced systemic resistance [ 10 , 11 , 12 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Effects of freshwater bacterial siderophore on Microcystis and Anabaena. (genscript.com)
  • Six siderophore-producing bacterial strains were isolated from the freshwater, in which five strains belonged to Pseudomona genus, and the other belonged to Stenotrophomonas genus. (genscript.com)
  • Here we report that NGAL tightly binds bacterial catecholate-type ferric siderophores through a cyclically permuted, hybrid electrostatic/cation-pi interaction and is a potent bacteriostatic agent in iron-limiting conditions. (rcsb.org)
  • Because siderophore-mediated iron acquisition is a virulence trait shared by many bacterial and fungal pathogens, blocking microbial iron acquisition by siderophore-based immunization or other siderophoretargeted approaches may represent a novel strategy to prevent and ameliorate a broad range of infections. (universia.net)
  • A key feature which enables pathogenic bacteria to survive within the vertebrate host is the production of siderophores, iron-sequestering compounds, and the synthesis of their cognate transport systems, which are crucial in overcoming the nonspecific defense mechanisms of the host and allow for bacterial multiplication ( 10 , 12 , 24 - 30 , 78 , 79 , 90 ). (asm.org)
  • The potential role of siderophore-mediated systems as virulence determinants in the specific host-bacteria interaction leading to disease is also analyzed with respect to the influence of these systems in the expression of other factors, such as toxins, in the bacterial virulence repertoire. (asm.org)
  • The promotion of bacterial growth by dopamine was independent of the siderophore-binding host peptide lipocalin-2. (asm.org)
  • S-649266 is a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin ( Fig. 1 ) which employs a "Trojan horse" strategy using the active transport of S-649266 into bacterial cells by exploiting the bacterial iron-siderophore uptake system and has demonstrated potent in vitro and in vivo activity against carbapenemase-producing MDR isolates ( 7 - 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition has been well studied in many bacterial pathogens because it contributes to virulence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The production and fate of bacterial hydroxamate siderophores in soil was analyzed, and the presence of ferrioxamines E, B, D, and G was shown. (diva-portal.org)
  • The role of microbial siderophores in virulence to plant hosts was first demonstrated for the bacterial pathogen Erwinia chysanthemi which produces the catecholate chrysobactin and the carboxylate achromobactin. (biotecharticles.com)
  • However, less of knowledge on the influence of siderophores and N -acyl homoserinelactone as interspecies communication signals on the bacterial diversity of seawater has been understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Artificial addition of siderophores and HSLs may be a possible method to aid in the identification and isolation of marine bacterial species which are thought to be unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The goal of this study is to understand the influence of co-dependency of siderophores and HSL as interspecies chemical signals on a bacterial community in the natural marine ecosystem, and to test for the possibility that they stimulate the growth of uncultivable species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These molecules are called siderophores , meaning they are able to scavenge iron to support bacterial survival and growth. (plos.org)
  • Fungi use nonribosomally synthesized secreted iron chelators (siderophores) or reductive iron assimilation (RIA) mechanisms to acquire iron in a high affinity manner. (apsnet.org)
  • A novel structure for anguibactin was indicated by the failure of a large number of known siderophores and synthetic chelators to yield a similar type of specific cross-feeding in the V. anguillarum bioassay. (asm.org)
  • To increase iron (Fe) bioavailability in surface soils, microbes secrete siderophores, chelators with widely varying Fe affinities. (rsc.org)
  • Siderophores are low molecular mass, organic, ferric iron-specific chelators, which are excreted during iron starvation ( 8 , 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • To utilize such complexes as iron sources, bacteria generally possess some sophisticated mechanisms, which include an iron uptake system mediated by high-affinity iron chelators called siderophores and a system for heme uptake via specific receptors ( 18 , 26 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the most commonly found strategies evolved by microorganisms is the production of siderophores, low-molecular-weight iron chelators that have very high constants of association for their complexes with iron. (asm.org)
  • Siderophores (ferric ion chelators) are secreted by organisms in response to iron deficiency. (plantphysiol.org)
  • As the solution to the problem of acquiring sufficient amounts of Fe, numerous microbes employ siderophores, that is, avid, organic, microbial ferric ion chelators which sequester iron from environments where it is in short supply. (asm.org)
  • However, new fields are paying attention to the use of siderophores as green-iron chelators. (tind.io)
  • In response to this restriction, pathogens evolved high-affinity iron uptake pathways, being one of them the synthesis and secretion of Fe(III) chelators, named siderophores. (pronamar.com)
  • Under conditions of iron starvation, many fungi synthesize iron chelators known as siderophores. (asm.org)
  • hydroxamate siderophores (iron chelators) serve instead as storage molecules in these phyla ( 61 , 63 ). (asm.org)
  • This occurs because a high relatedness can favour greater (cooperative) production of molecules that scavenge iron (siderophores), which results in higher growth rates and virulence. (nih.gov)
  • These findings demonstrate that, while the role of RIA in metabolism and virulence is overshadowed by that of extracellular siderophores as a high-affinity iron acquisition mechanism in C. heterostrophus , it functions as a critical backup for the fungus. (apsnet.org)
  • Thus, metal-binding siderophores secreted by fungi, which regulate iron distribution, play an important role in virulence [ 1 , 3 , 5 ] and in maintaining the mutualistic interaction of mycorrhizae [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast to bacteria ( 12 ), direct proof of the involvement of siderophore production in systemic fungal virulence is lacking. (rupress.org)
  • Siderophore-mediated iron uptake but not reductive iron assimilation was found to be essential for virulence in a murine model of invasive aspergillosis. (rupress.org)
  • One potential virulence factor implicated in the pathogenesis of B. cepacia infections is the production of siderophores. (asm.org)
  • Siderophores are virulence factors for both animal and plant pathogens ( 2 , 3 , 9 - 11 , 18 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • This has largely been based on the results of in vitro experiments conducted in iron-limited growth medium, in which siderophore mutants act as social 'cheats:' increasing in frequency at the expense of the wild type to result in low-productivity, low-virulence populations dominated by mutants. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • For example, siderophores participate to the mobilization of iron and other elements and are involved in virulence processes. (tind.io)
  • Moreover, it became clear that siderophores are a common virulence determinant of at least some animal and plant-pathogenic fungal species, and that sider. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Siderophores (Greek: "iron carrier") are small, high-affinity iron-chelating compounds that are secreted by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi and serve primarily to transport iron across cell membranes, although a widening range of siderophore functions is now being appreciated. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is plausible then that the mineralogical composition of the soil could, in part, regulate the production of siderophores by microorganisms and plants. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Microorganisms release siderophores that chelate iron and subsequently internalize the resulting complexes within their cytoplasm ( Hider and Kong, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Most photosynthetic marine microorganisms are presumably, however, capable of accessing iron from strong chelates since the majority of dissolved iron in seawater is complexed by organic ligands, including siderophores. (nih.gov)
  • Siderophores are low-molecular weight, high affinity, iron-chelating ligands produced by many microorganisms as a means of acquiring iron. (bruker.com)
  • In iron-restricted conditions, some microorganisms produce large amounts of siderophores, which chelate free iron present in the environment and then carry it across the cell membrane, into the microorganism. (bruker.com)
  • NRPS evolution will try out new combinations of chain initiation, elongation and tailoring, and termination steps, possibly by genetic exchange with other microorganisms and/or within the same bacterium, to create new variants of iron-chelating siderophores that can fit a particular niche for the producer bacterium. (asm.org)
  • The production of metabolically costly extracellular iron-scavenging molecules (siderophores) by microorganisms is a cooperative behaviour because it benefits nearby conspecifics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study aims to understand the role of microorganisms in the chemical diversity and distribution of siderophores in podzol soil and how this diversity can contribute to the bioavailability of Fe in forest soil.Soil samples were collected from an experimental site in the area of Bispgården in central Sweden (63°07′N, 16°70′E) from the O (organic), E (eluvial), B1 (upper illuvial), and C (mineral) horizons. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast, concentrations of adsorbed hydroxamates, catecholates and carboxylates were only up to 1.8, 3 and 0.2 nmol/ g soil, respectively.Siderophore-producing microorganisms were isolated from the same soil samples. (diva-portal.org)
  • Only the E layer contained the three types of siderophore-producing microorganisms investigated in this study. (diva-portal.org)
  • Siderophores were extracted from culture filtrates of the isolated microorganisms when grown under iron-limited conditions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Siderophore production by microorganisms in solid medium, Chrome Azurol' S (CAS) Agar plate assay was used. (journalcra.com)
  • For example, S. cerevisiae expresses a high-affinity Fe(III) reductase under conditions of low iron availability and may also utilize siderophores produced by other microorganisms in its environment. (asm.org)
  • A universal method to detect and determine siderophores was developed by using their high affinity for iron(III). (nih.gov)
  • NCIMB 8003 was shown to synthesize three siderophore classes: (1) vibrioferrin, a low-affinity α-hydroxy carboxylate ( p Fe = 18.4), (2) amphibactins, high-affinity tris-hydroxamates, and (3) crochelin A, a high-affinity siderophore with mixed Fe-chelating groups ( p Fe = 23.9). (rsc.org)
  • We found conserved patterns of low vs. high-affinity siderophore production across strains: the low-affinity vibrioferrin was produced by mildly Fe limited cultures. (rsc.org)
  • Our results show the evolution of low and high-affinity siderophore families and conserved patterns for their production in response to Fe bioavailability in a common soil diazotroph. (rsc.org)
  • These include two high affinity uptake mechanisms, reductive iron assimilation, and siderophore-assisted iron mobilization ( 8 - 10 ). (rupress.org)
  • In Phaeodactylum tricornutum , hydroxamate siderophores are taken up without previous reduction by a high-affinity mechanism that involves binding to the cell surface followed by endocytosis-mediated uptake and delivery to the chloroplast. (sciencemag.org)
  • P. aeruginosa is known to produce two chemically distinct siderophores, pyoverdin (Pvd) and pyochelin (Pch), for high-affinity iron uptake ( 10 , 11 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Siderophores (Greek: "iron carrier") are high-affinity iron chelating compounds secreted by living organisms to selectively catch iron from the environment decreasing its availability for competitors. (diff.org)
  • Presenting high affinity for ferric iron, siderophores are secreted out to form soluble ferric complexes that can be taken up by the organisms. (tind.io)
  • Two major responses to iron stress in fungi are a high-affinity ferric iron reductase and siderophore synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Siderophores are amongst the strongest binders to Fe3+ known, with enterobactin being one of the strongest of these. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that there is a major difference between the iron release mechanism of enterobactin, a catechol-based siderophore, and that of the hydroxamate-based siderophores such as ferrichrome. (pnas.org)
  • The results demonstrate that the observed hydrolysis of enterobactin is a necessary prerequisite to in vivo release of iron from the siderophore via ferric ion reduction. (pnas.org)
  • Here we characterized two different pathways that promote the production of the siderophore enterobactin via the action of the small RNA RyhB. (pnas.org)
  • Bioinformatic analyses and mutagenesis results demonstrate that genes from two well-known siderophore clusters, the Escherichia coli enterobactin cluster and the Vibrio cholera vibriobactin cluster, were shuffled to produce a new siderophore biosynthetic pathway. (harvard.edu)
  • In this review I have analyzed in detail three siderophore-mediated iron uptake systems: the plasmid-encoded anguibactin system of Vibrio anguillarum, the aerobactin-mediated iron assimilation system present in the pColV-K30 plasmid and in the chromosomes of many enteric bacteria, and the chromosomally encoded enterobactin iron uptake system, found in Escherichia coli, Shigella spp. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the S. maltophilia siderophore displayed patterns of solubility in organic compounds and mobility upon thin-layer chromatography that were distinct from those of enterobactin and its derivative, salmochelin. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Within the present project, the properties of a biomimetic model of the tetradentate siderophore known as the enterobactin linear dimer was investigated, followed by those of the enterobactin linear dimer itself. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • While all strains produced enterobactin, strong preferential expression of the siderophores yersiniabactin and salmochelin was observed among urinary strains. (plos.org)
  • A linearized enterobactin siderophore was also identified as a product of strains with an active salmochelin gene cluster. (plos.org)
  • Altogether, the data allow considering pyoverdine, the fluorescent pigment and siderophore, which characterizes these species, as a very powerful taxonomic marker. (springer.com)
  • Pyoverdine (pvd) siderophores synthesized by pseudomonads have been shown to promote iron nutrition in various plant species ( Arabidopsis , clover and grasses). (frontiersin.org)
  • Pyoverdine siderophores: from biogenesis to biosignificance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We showed previously that the P. aeruginosa siderophore pyoverdine is the main instrument in battling A. fumigatus biofilms, by iron chelation and denial of iron to the fungus. (inrs.ca)
  • Supernatants of A. fumigatus cultures lacking the sidA gene (AfDeltasidA), unable to produce hydroxamate siderophores, were less capable of protecting A. fumigatus biofilms from P. aeruginosa supernatants and pyoverdine. (inrs.ca)
  • Supplementation of sidA-deficient A. fumigatus biofilm with A. fumigatus siderophores restored resistance to pyoverdine. (inrs.ca)
  • Microbial cell specific transporters recognize and bind the radiolabelled siderophores, which are then taken up by the microbe. (bruker.com)
  • Collectively, these data reveal a new link between two processes mediated by SA and iron in response to microbial siderophores. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Microbial iron transport via a siderophore shuttle: a membrane ion transport paradigm. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The common theme is the production of one or more siderophores by cells during periods of iron starvation (which means that the intracellular iron concentration drops below the threshold of about 10 -6 M, which is critical for microbial growth). (biotecharticles.com)
  • Siderophore-based microbial adaptations to iron scarcity across the eastern Pacific Ocean. (geotraces.org)
  • Examples of siderophores produced by various bacteria and fungi: Hydroxamate siderophores Catecholate siderophores Mixed ligands A comprehensive list of siderophore structures (over 250) is presented in Appendix 1 in reference. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adsorption of desferrioxamine (DFOB), acetyl desferrioxamine (DFOD1), and a catecholate derivative (DFOMTA)] on goethite (-FeOOH) and hematite (-Fe2O3) and mineral dissolution behavior at pH 3.0 to 6.0 were studied to yield an understanding of the mechanisms of siderophore complexation on phases and also to study how variations in siderophore molecular structure, as modified by proton activity, affect siderophore effectiveness at releasing Fe from different soil minerals. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Kinetics and Fe siderophore stability constants in solution data trends correlated possibly because the formation of Fe-siderophore complexes limits dissolution for both -phase trihydroxamate and catecholate siderophores. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Siderophore production in response to iron limitation was observed in Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34, and the corresponding siderophore was named alcaligin E. Alcaligin E was characterized as a phenolate-type siderophore containing neither catecholate nor hydroxamate groups, Alcaligin E promoted the growth of siderophore-deficient A. eutrophus mutants under iron-restricted conditions and promoted Fe-59 uptake by iron-limited cells. (rti.org)
  • Pch is a structurally unique siderophore possessing phenolate, but neither a hydroxamate nor a catecholate moiety ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Siderophores have low molecular weights and very diverse chemical structures that can contain one or a combination of several types of iron-binding moieties: hydroxamate, catecholate, and hydroxycarboxylate. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this study, the isolation, structural characterization and genetic analysis of the biosynthetic origin of rhodochelin, a unique mixed-type catecholate-hydroxamate siderophore isolated from R. jostii RHA1, which represents the first characterized NRPS-derived natural product of the strain, is reported. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Concentrations of dissolved hydroxamate, catecholate and carboxylate siderophores were up to 84, 17 and 0.2 nmol/ g soil, respectively. (diva-portal.org)
  • Fungal isolates produced up to 183 μM of hydroxamates, especially those isolated from the O layer, whereas bacteria and actinomycete isolated from the O and E layers of the soil produced high amounts of carboxylate, catecholate and hydroxamate siderophores. (diva-portal.org)
  • Compatible with these data, K279a and other clinical isolates of S. maltophilia secreted a siderophore-like activity when grown at 25-37 °C in low-iron media, as demonstrated by a chrome azurol S assay, which detects iron chelation, and Arnow and Rioux assays, which detect catecholate structures. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Together, these data demonstrate that S. maltophilia secretes a novel catecholate siderophore. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • whereas, the metabolites from mycorrhizal fungi and iron-enriched forms of siderophores slightly altered the cytoskeleton network of root cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Collectively, these data indicated that the metabolites of pathogenic fungi mirror siderophore action, and iron limitation can lead to enhanced alternations in cell structure and physiology. (mdpi.com)
  • The response of Pinus sylvestris roots to the application of different siderophores mirrored the response of the same roots to the application of the total metabolites secreted by either pathogenic or mycorrhizal fungi, and it was manifested as an imbalance in the distribution of elements that were measured in key cell compartments [ 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, most fungi utilize intracellular siderophores as an iron storage compound. (rupress.org)
  • van der Helm, D. and Winkelmann, G. (1994) Hydroxamates and Polycarboxylates as Iron Transport Agents (Siderophores) in Fungi. (scirp.org)
  • In recent years it became clear that the siderophore system constitutes a central element in iron homeostasis of many if not most fungi, affecting growth, oxidative stress resistance,as well as asexual and sexual development. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Siderophores (from the Greek: "iron carriers") are defined as relatively low molecular weight, ferric ion specific chelating agents elaborated by bacteria and fungi growing under low iron stress. (biotecharticles.com)
  • It should be noted that some reports (Table 1 ) on siderophore formation by fungi are based solely on color reactions and that such reactions are not necessarily specific for iron-regulated siderophores ( 29 , 75 , 80 ). (asm.org)
  • Siderophores are also important for some pathogenic bacteria for their acquisition of iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, based on Fe release for goethite, the contribution of siderophores to the acquisition of Fe in goethitic soil profiles becomes less pronounced with decreases in the proton activity of the soil solution. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Siderophores are essential factors for iron (Fe) acquisition in bacteria during colonization and infection of eukaryotic hosts, which restrain iron access through iron-binding protein, such as lactoferrin and transferrin. (pnas.org)
  • Five characterized Y. pestis iron/ siderophore acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe, Yfu, Yiu and Hmu) and a putative iron/chelate outer membrane receptor (Y0850) were increased in abundance in iron-starved cells. (wordnik.com)
  • Acquisition of iron within the host is vital to the pathogenicity of Mtb and to accomplish this it produces siderophores called mycobactins and carboxymycobactins. (bl.uk)
  • The biogenesis of siderophores is investigated as it is a mechanism of iron acquisition. (scirp.org)
  • It is possible that non-siderophore-mediated iron acquisition, such as via heme uptake, might also play an important role in P. aeruginosa infections. (asm.org)
  • Multiple biosynthetic and uptake systems mediate siderophore-dependent iron acquisition in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC 23877. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Summary Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) are necessary for the production of a variety of secondary metabolites, such as siderophores involved in iron acquisition. (ovid.com)
  • Siderophore-dependent iron acquisition pathways can be found among a broad spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes (and even in higher plants) and show a high variety in structure and function of the involved components. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Included are methods of acquisition of iron from a variety of ferric chelates in iron-replete media [e.g., low-affinity Fe(III) reduction] and those regulated by iron concentration (e.g., methods involving the siderophores). (asm.org)
  • Previous animal studies revealed that vaccination with siderophore receptor proteins protects against UTI. (pnas.org)
  • Transport of iron into the cell cytosol is mediated by specific membrane receptor and transport systems which recognize the iron-siderophore complexes. (asm.org)
  • Siderophore transport through Escherichia coli outer membrane receptor FhuA with disulfide-tethered cork and barrel domains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Inactivation of the putative receptor gene ( fepA ) prevented the utilization of siderophore-containing supernatants for growth in low-iron conditions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The iroN gene of Salmonella enterica and uropathogenic Escherichia coli encodes the outer membrane receptor of Fe(3+) -bound salmochelin, a siderophore tailored to evade capture by the host's immune system. (pasteur.fr)
  • The presence of specific siderophore receptor genes, however, does not reliably predict activity of the complex protein assemblies involved in synthesis and transport of these secondary metabolites. (plos.org)
  • We have pioneered a strategy using small iron-chelating compounds called siderophores as vaccine antigens. (pnas.org)
  • However, whether iron chelating compounds (siderophores) can have an effect on the acetylation process in plant roots is largely unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • Siderophores-soluble, low molecular weight compounds-have an easily understood and measured function: acquiring iron from the environment. (harvard.edu)
  • Siderophore production in haloalkaliphiles (and extremophiles in general) is poorly characterized and some of the isolates appear to produce siderophores that may constitute new compounds. (openthesis.org)
  • Thus, siderophores act as extracellular solubilizing agents for iron from minerals or organic compounds, such as transferrin and lactoferrin in the host vertebrate, under conditions of iron limitation. (asm.org)
  • The most important one is the production of siderophores, which are operationally defined as low-molecular-mass biogenic Fe (III)-binding compounds which may greatly increase bioavailability of Fe [1]. (diva-portal.org)
  • The investigation of the chemical characteristics of siderophores has been of interest for many years, for both the understanding of their fundamental chemistry and exploiting the design features of these natural compounds for novel applications. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The presented project investigates the binding of periplasmic binding proteins CeuE, FepB and VctP with a range of iron(III)-siderophore and siderophore-mimic compounds. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Siderophores are organic compounds secreted by microbes to facilitate iron uptake. (geotraces.org)
  • Uptake of siderophores is a diverse process, which varies among the different classes of compounds. (asm.org)
  • The third part of this dissertation involves the identification and characterization of siderophores produced by the halophilic and alkaliphilic bacterium Halomonas campisalis. (openthesis.org)
  • Several desferrioxamine siderophores including desferrioxamines G1, G1t, X3, X7, D2, and E were isolated from low-iron, culture supernatant and structurally characterized by ESI-MS and ESI- MS/MS. This work represents the first documentation of ferrioxamine production by a haloalkaliphilic bacterium. (openthesis.org)
  • To my knowledge, this is the first characterization of amphiphilic siderophores produced by a bacterium from a soda lake environment that is capable of reducing Fe(III). (openthesis.org)
  • From the pathogenic bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, responsible of this fish disease, we were able to isolate and characterize vanchrobactin (Vb) as the second siderophore-mediated system of this bacterium. (pronamar.com)
  • Siderophore production by the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 is elicited by sufficient iron rather than by iron starvation. (elsevier.com)
  • The synthesis of siderophores by Escherichia coli is considered to be fully regulated at the transcriptional level by the Fe-responsive transcriptional repressor Fur. (pnas.org)
  • In vivo synthesis of the periplasmic domain of TonB inhibits transport through the FecA and FhuA iron siderophore transporters of Escherichia coli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we have developed a novel quantitative metabolomic approach based on stable isotope dilution to compare the complement of siderophores produced by Escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal colonization or urinary tract disease. (plos.org)
  • For example, the anthrax pathogen Bacillus anthracis releases two siderophores, bacillibactin and petrobactin, to scavenge ferric iron from iron containing proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides siderophores, some pathogenic bacteria produce hemophores (heme binding scavenging proteins) or have receptors that bind directly to iron/heme proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to iron limitation in their environment, genes involved in microbe siderophore production and uptake are derepressed, leading to manufacture of siderophores and the appropriate uptake proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human Siderophores are proteins that can be taken up by endosomes to release iron and eventually to be digested. (diff.org)
  • Fe-siderophore uptake through the inner membrane depends on ABC-type transporters with different domain arrangements and localizations periplasmic binding proteins/domains are shown in bright orange,membrane-spanning proteins/domains are shown in green, and cytoplasmic ATP-binding proteins/domains are shown in dark blue. (biotecharticles.com)
  • BioMetals provides a forum for new research and clinical results on the structure and function of metal ions, metal chelates, siderophores, metal-containing proteins and biominerals in all kinds of biosystems. (springer.com)
  • with respect to siderophore production, antagonistic activity, plasmid content, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of their cell envelope proteins. (core.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the role of siderophores in releasing structural Fe becomes increasingly important as mineral solubility becomes limiting. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Because of this property, they have attracted interest from medical science in metal chelation therapy, with the siderophore desferrioxamine B gaining widespread use in treatments for iron poisoning and thalassemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evaluation of growth promotion and inhibition from mycobactins and nonmycobacterial siderophores (Desferrioxamine and FR160) in Mycobacterium aurum. (asm.org)
  • The wide variety of siderophores may be due to evolutionary pressures placed on microbes to produce structurally different siderophores which cannot be transported by other microbes' specific active transport systems, or in the case of pathogens deactivated by the host organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study, western blotting and confocal microscopy was used to examine the degree of acetylation of histone H3 and alpha tubulin in Pinus sylvestris root cells in the presence of structurally different siderophores. (mdpi.com)
  • Secreted siderophores form extracellular Fe(III) complexes with stabilities ranging over about 30 orders of magnitude for different siderophores. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Neither group appears to produce siderophores, although some coastal cyanobacteria do. (nih.gov)
  • This is interpreted as an adaptation to the dilute oceanic environment rather than a phylogenetic constraint, since there are cases in which related taxa from different environments have the capacity to produce siderophores. (nih.gov)
  • Many bacteria produce siderophores for sequestration of growth-essential iron. (edu.au)
  • Siderophores are then recognized by cell specific receptors on the outer membrane of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fe (III)-siderophore complexes bound to receptors are thought, generally in gram-negative bacteria, to be internalized into the periplasm across the outer membrane with energy transduced by the TonB protein from the cytoplasmic membrane ( 6 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • 2014. "Structural Basis for Hijacking Siderophore Receptors by Antimicrobial Lasso Peptides. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Evidence for a common siderophore transport system but different siderophore receptors in Neurospora crassa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Conventional PCR genotyping of siderophore receptors was often insensitive to these differences. (plos.org)
  • Combined with the absence of a sidA ortholog-and the fungal siderophore system in general-in mammals, these data demonstrate that the siderophore biosynthetic pathway represents a promising new target for the development of antifungal therapies. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, the results enabled the proposal of a biosynthetic pathway for this siderophore. (pronamar.com)
  • This is followed by excretion of the siderophore into the extracellular environment, where the siderophore acts to sequester and solubilize the iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, either the iron charged siderophore is taken up by ferric-chelate-specific transporters or siderophore-bound Fe(III) undergoes reduction to Fe(II), which is catalyzed by free extracellular or membrane- standing ferric-chelate reductases. (biotecharticles.com)
  • The use of siderophores which the yeast cannot itself synthesize may occur by uptake of the entire iron-ligand complex with intracellular release of iron by reduction or by extracellular reduction of iron and transport of the Fe(II) ion. (asm.org)
  • Crosa JH (1989) Genetics and molecular biology of siderophore -mediated iron transport in bacteria. (wordnik.com)
  • Genetics and molecular biology of siderophore-mediated iron transport in bacteria. (asm.org)
  • It is a member of the as-yet uncharacterized fungal type VI siderophore synthetase family which is highly conserved and widely distributed among the basidiomycetes. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Screening siderophore producing bacteria as potential biological control agent for fungal rice pathogens in Thailand. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here we show that A. fumigatus siderophores defend against anti-fungal P. aeruginosa effects. (inrs.ca)
  • The A. fumigatus siderophore production inhibitor celastrol sensitized wildtype A. fumigatus biofilms towards the anti-fungal activity of DFP. (inrs.ca)
  • The relevance and specific functions of these siderophores in AC strains remain unclear. (rsc.org)
  • More recently, B. cepacia strains have also been reported to produce linear hydroxamate or hydroxycarboxylate siderophores, termed ornibactins ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • The results showed that all strains produce hydroxamate-type siderophores which, because of the correlation with Fe3+ limitation, are thought to be the major factor responsible for antagonistic activity. (core.ac.uk)
  • Siderophore-negative mutants of two strains had a strongly decreased antagonistic activity. (core.ac.uk)
  • Genes with siderophore function were identified in 50% of the strains, however, all but one harboured the ferric-uptake-regulator gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microbes release siderophores to scavenge iron from these mineral phases by formation of soluble Fe3+ complexes that can be taken up by active transport mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Siderophores present complex chemistry that allows them to form the strongest ironchelating complexes. (tind.io)
  • Phytoplankton can, however, stand iron from siderophore complexes by the aid of academic-bound reductases [35] and certainly from personal II generated via photochemical decomposition of different III siderophores. (redoakpta.com)
  • Many siderophores are nonribosomal peptides, although several are biosynthesised independently. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as infection imaging with siderophores, it is also possible to derivatize the siderophore molecule by conjugation of different targeting vectors such as peptides (eg. (bruker.com)
  • The researchers will also describe how attaching two arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) and minigastrin peptides to the 68Ga-labelled siderophore fusarinine C, enables targeted in vivo imaging of tumors in animal models. (bruker.com)
  • Sixty-one Burkholderia cepacia isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and four plant isolates were screened for production of the siderophores salicylic acid (SA), pyochelin, cepabactin, and ornibactins and fingerprinted by a PCR-based randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. (asm.org)
  • Both wild-type strain CH34 and aleB mutant AE1152 were able to use the same heterologous siderophores, indicating that AleB is involved only in ferric iron-alcaligin E uptake, Interestingly, no utilization of pyochelin, which is also a phenolate-type siderophore, was observed for A. eutrophus CH34. (rti.org)
  • Importance of the ornibactin and pyochelin siderophore transport systems in Burkholderia cenocepacia lung infections. (semanticscholar.org)
  • June 1999 Masters Research (DEA) Crystallography and NMR Structural analysis of a Gallium complex of pyoverdin PvdI: peptidic siderophore of Pseu - domonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692 Pr.ject directed by Pr. (wordnik.com)
  • Small iron-chelating molecules called siderophores were selected as antigens to vaccinate against UTI for this vaccine strategy. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report an immunization approach that targets siderophores, which are small molecules exported by enteric Gram-negative pathogens to acquire iron, an essential nutrient, in the host. (universia.net)
  • Siderophores are avid ferric ion-chelating molecules that sequester the metal for microbes. (asm.org)
  • Microbes elicit siderophores in numerous and different environments, but the means by which these molecules reenter the carbon and nitrogen cycles is poorly understood. (asm.org)
  • Polyphosphates, ferritins, and siderophores themselves have been described as storage molecules. (asm.org)
  • In bacteria, Fe2+-dependent repressors bind to DNA upstream to genes involved in siderophore production at high intracellular iron concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we immunized mice with siderophores conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein. (pnas.org)
  • Because siderophores are nonimmunogenic, we designed and synthesized conjugates of a native siderophore and the immunogenic carrier protein cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). (universia.net)
  • Siderophore-Mediated Aluminum Uptake by Bacillus megaterium ATCC 19213. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Enzymatic determination of itoic acid a Bacillus subtilis siderophore and 2 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. (uncg.edu)
  • A specific enzymatic method to determine the amounts of itoic acid a Bacillus subtilis siderophore and 2 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2 3-DHBA) was devised. (uncg.edu)
  • Siderophore produced by the strain Bacillus licheniformis DS3 was identified as hydroxamate type. (journalcra.com)
  • The most effective siderophores are those that have three bidentate ligands per molecule, forming a hexadentate complex and causing a smaller entropic change than that caused by chelating a single ferric ion with separate ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbes usually release the iron from the siderophore by reduction to Fe2+ which has little affinity to these ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Siderophores are usually classified by the ligands used to chelate the ferric iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, iron is released by the hydroxamate-based siderophores and the ligands are reused in subsequent iron transport. (pnas.org)
  • The pathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi produces two siderophores, achromobactin and chrysobactin (CB), which are required for systemic dissemination in host plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Mtb (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) produces two aryl-capped siderophores, mycobactin (MBT) and carboxymycobactin (cMBT), to chelate intracellular iron. (elsevier.com)
  • M. magneticum AMB-1 produces both hydroxamate and catechol siderophores. (elsevier.com)
  • Siderophores are secondary metabolites produced by different organisms in order to scavenge iron from their surrounding environment making this essential element available to the cell. (tind.io)
  • Analysis of the Salinispora genomes suggests that these marine actinomycetes support multiple hydroxamate- and phenolate-type siderophore pathways. (edu.au)
  • The strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 15, which produced hydroxamate-type siderophore, was selected for siderophore preparation. (genscript.com)
  • These results highlight how modular siderophore gene clusters can be mixed and matched during evolution to generate structural diversity in siderophores. (harvard.edu)
  • A large gene cluster encoding peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases is involved in production of siderophores and oxidative stress response in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (ovid.com)
  • The function of this gene cluster was unknown, and one possibility could be the synthesis of siderophores. (ovid.com)
  • One mutant, MΔ41-49, bearing a large deletion of 43.4 kb in this gene cluster, synthesized considerably less siderophores and contained less iron as compared with the wild type. (ovid.com)
  • We propose that this gene cluster is involved in the synthesis of siderophores in Anabaena sp. (ovid.com)
  • Gene inactivation of the predicted iron-chelator biosynthetic loci sid2-4 did not abolish siderophore chemistry. (edu.au)
  • Lawson E. C. , Jonsson C.B. , Hemming B. C. 1986 Genotypic diversity of fluorescent pseudomonads as revealed by Southern hybridization analysis with siderophore-related gene probes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The researchers will discuss the use of rabiolabeled siderophores in the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus, a fungus that causes the life-threatening infection invasive aspergillosis (IA). (bruker.com)
  • Now, Novy, Petrik and co-workers have discovered that the Aspergillus siderophore triacetylfusarinine C shows great potential as sensitive and selective PET tracer of Aspergillus infection once it is labelled with the radionuclide Gallium-68 (68Ga). (bruker.com)
  • Eisendle, M., Oberegger, H., Zadra, I. and Haas, H. (2003) The Siderophore System Is Essential for Viability of Aspergillus nidulans Functional Analysis of Two Genes Encoding L-Ornithine N5-Monooxygenase (sidA) and a Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (sidC). (scirp.org)
  • Cornelis, P. and Matthijs, S. (2002) Diversity of siderophore-mediated iron uptake systems in fluorescent pseudomonads: not only pyoverdines. (springer.com)
  • A larger fraction of the culturable resident fluorescent pseudomonads in the rhizosphere of sugarbeet grown in a low-iron sandy loam soil could supply siderophore-complexed iron to B24Rif(pCUP2) rather than to B24Rif. (mendeley.com)
  • Summary: Many species of pseudomonads produce fluorescent siderophores involved in iron uptake. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However, the concept of regulation of iron uptake systems is becoming more complex with the recent findings of positive regulation of iron transport and siderophore biosynthetic genes, rather than only derepression mediated by the decrease of iron availability in the cell cytosol. (asm.org)
  • Our strategy implies first the isolation and structural elucidation of the siderophore(s) biosynthesized by the pathogenic bacteria. (pronamar.com)
  • The first addresses siderophore production by plants and microbes as a means of acquiring ferric iron. (openthesis.org)
  • Siderophores are thus essential to the nutrition of microbes existing in environments that would otherwise limit their growth ( 1 , 8 , 14 , 24 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Three siderophore-degrading microbes, a pseudomonad ( 33 - 35 ), Azospirillum irakense ( 36 , 37 ), and Mesorhizobium loti ( 4 , 7 , 17 , 39 ), catabolize siderophores concomitant with their growth. (asm.org)
  • Companion phylogenetic analysis of siderophore synthesis genes in the TARA Oceans metagenomic catalogue led Boiteau and co-workers to suggest that lateral transfer of siderophore synthesis genes help microbes adapt to low iron conditions found in many regions of the ocean. (geotraces.org)
  • Salmochelin mimic siderophores Sal-n-LICAM (n= 4, 5) were synthesised and iron(III)-binding established via Job plot. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Heat stability and structural consistency of siderophores obtained from sterile culture filtrate were shown. (diva-portal.org)
  • CB activates the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated signaling pathway, while the CB ferric complex is ineffective, suggesting that the elicitor activity of this siderophore is due to its iron-binding property. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The effect of siderophores on the microtubule network was dependent on the presence of iron. (mdpi.com)
  • We confirmed this hypothesis by testing the effect of siderophores structurally unrelated to CB, including deferrioxamine. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Two new members of the aquachelin family of siderophores, aquachelins I and J, which have an hydroxylated C12 fatty acid and a saturated C10 fatty acid, respectively, were produced by Halomonas meridiana str. (nih.gov)
  • Distribution of siderophores across the GEOTRACES EPZT. (geotraces.org)
  • Of the 24 RAPD types plus 2 phenotypic variants of types 1 and 9, 3 were associated with isolates that produced all four siderophores, 8 were associated with isolates that produced three siderophores, 12 were associated with isolates that produced two siderophores, and 3 were associated with isolates that produced only one siderophore. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that the numbers and types of siderophores produced by CF isolates of B. cepacia correlate with RAPD type and that SA and ornibactins are the most prevalent siderophores produced. (asm.org)
  • Much of this work focuses on the identification of the siderophores produced by other halophilic and alkaliphilic isolates obtained in an earlier portion of this work. (openthesis.org)
  • Because uropathogenic E. coli are believed to reside in the gut microbiome prior to infection, we compared siderophore production between urinary and rectal isolates within individual patients with recurrent UTI. (plos.org)
  • Effects of siderophore on cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 and Anabaena flos-aquae FACHB-245 were studied. (genscript.com)
  • To investigate their contribution to P. aeruginosa infections, we constructed allelic exchange mutants from strain PAO1 which were deficient in producing one or both of the siderophores. (asm.org)
  • In conclusion, A. fumigatus hydroxamate siderophores play a pivotal role in A. fumigatus competition for iron against P. aeruginosa. (inrs.ca)
  • The existence of DNA homology allowed us to clone some of the siderophore synthesis genes from P. aeruginosa , and genetic mapping indicates that the cloned DNA lies in a locus previously identified as being involved in siderophore production. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However, recent data indicate that A. fumigatus survival in human serum in vitro involves siderophore-mediated removal of iron from transferrin ( 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • Our results show that it is crucial to develop defined in vitro models in order to predict whether siderophores are social, cheatable and suitable for clinical exploitation in specific infection contexts. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Because iron is essential for Plasmodium falciparum, we investigated the in vitro potential of various synthetic siderophores to kill P. falciparum in infected human erythrocytes. (core.ac.uk)
  • The Ngal:siderophore:Fe complex upregulates heme oxygenase-1, a protective enzyme, preserves proximal tubule N-cadherin, and inhibits cell death. (jci.org)
  • Transmembrane subunit (TM), of Periplasmic Binding Protein (PBP)-dependent ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters involved in the uptake of siderophores, heme, vitamin B12, or the divalent cations Mg2+ and Zn2+. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/729145/all/siderophore. (tabers.com)
  • Orange halos around the colonies on blue agar are indicative of siderophore excretion. (nih.gov)
  • The propensity of M. magneticum AMB-1 for the assimilation of large amounts of iron accounts for the rapid depletion of iron in the medium, thereby triggering siderophore excretion. (elsevier.com)
  • Based on Fe release data for hematite, it was concluded that siderophores contribute to the Fe pool in soil solutions with decreasing proton activity. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In line with evolutionary theory, we found that highly diffusible siderophores have preferentially evolved in species living in structured habitats, such as soil and hosts, because struc-turing can keep producers and their shareable goods together. (uzh.ch)
  • The metabolism of the trihydroxamic acid siderophore deferrioxamine B by a Mesorhizobium loti isolated from soil was investigated. (asm.org)
  • Concentration and chemical composition of dissolved and adsorbed siderophores in the soil samples were determined using colorimetric assays and high-performance liquid chromatography.The highest siderophore concentrations were found in the O layer and thereafter decreased by depth. (diva-portal.org)
  • Fate and behavior of hydroxamate siderophores in metal-contaminated soils may affect soil properties as well as conditions for its inhabiting (micro)organisms. (diva-portal.org)
  • The shove of Fe III -siderophore troubles are affected by pH because of the most for the free siderophore mothers between free revisions and Fe Albrecht-Gary and Crumbliss, Deftly grown in an iron -amusing soil, roots of different plants secrete siderophores into the history. (redoakpta.com)