Iron Chelating Agents
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Immune System Processes
Periplasmic Binding Proteins
Molecular Sequence Data
Inhibition of vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish. (1/930)To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect of P. fluorescens AH2 was studied under iron-rich and iron-limited conditions. Sterile-filtered culture supernatants from iron-limited P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum, whereas sterile-filtered supernatants from iron-replete cultures of P. fluorescens AH2 did not. P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1, 000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic treatment resulted in a 46% reduction of calculated accumulated mortality; accumulated mortality was 25% after 7 days at 12 degrees C in the probiotic-treated fish, whereas mortality was 47% in fish not treated with the probiont. (+info)
IC202A, a new siderophore with immunosuppressive activity produced by Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activity. (2/930)IC202A, a new immunosuppressive compound, was isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. It showed a suppressive effect on mixed lymphocyte culture reaction with an IC50 value of 3.6 microg/ml and mitogen induced lymphocyte blastogenesis in vitro. (+info)
IC202A, a new siderophore with immunosuppressive activity produced by Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. II. Physico-chemical properties and structure elucidation. (3/930)IC202A (1) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptoalloteichus sp. 1454-19. The structure of 1 was determined by spectral analysis including a variety of two-dimentional NMR and FAB-MS experiments. IC202A is a ferrioxamine-related compound containing a butylidene N-oxide function. (+info)
Ferrioxamine-mediated Iron(III) utilization by Salmonella enterica. (4/930)Utilization of ferrioxamines as sole sources of iron distinguishes Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis from a number of related species, including Escherichia coli. Ferrioxamine supplements have therefore been used in preenrichment and selection media to increase the bacterial growth rate while selectivity is maintained. We characterized the determinants involved in utilization of ferrioxamines B, E, and G by S. enterica serotype Typhimurium by performing siderophore cross-feeding bioassays. Transport of all three ferric siderophores across the outer membrane was dependent on the FoxA receptor encoded by the Fur-repressible foxA gene. However, only the transport of ferrioxamine G was dependent on the energy-transducing protein TonB, since growth stimulation of a tonB strain by ferrioxamines B and E was observed, albeit at lower efficiencies than in the parental strain. Transport across the inner membrane was dependent on the periplasmic binding protein-dependent ABC transporter complex comprising FhuBCD, as has been reported for other hydroxamate siderophores of enteric bacteria. The distribution of the foxA gene in the genus Salmonella, as indicated by DNA hybridization studies and correlated with the ability to utilize ferrioxamine E, was restricted to subspecies I, II, and IIIb, and this gene was absent from subspecies IIIa, IV, VI, and VII (formerly subspecies IV) and Salmonella bongori (formerly subspecies V). S. enterica serotype Typhimurium mutants with either a transposon insertion or a defined nonpolar frameshift (+2) mutation in the foxA gene were not able to utilize any of the three ferrioxamines tested. A strain carrying the nonpolar foxA mutation exhibited a significantly reduced ability to colonize rabbit ileal loops compared to the foxA+ parent. In addition, a foxA mutant was markedly attenuated in mice inoculated by either the intragastric or intravenous route. Mice inoculated with the foxA mutant were protected against subsequent challenge by the foxA+ parent strain. (+info)
The fhu genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum, specifying siderophore uptake proteins: fhuDCB are adjacent to a pseudogene version of fhuA. (5/930)A mutant of Rhizobium leguminosarum was isolated which fails to take up the siderophore vicibactin. The mutation is in a homologue of fhuB, which in Escherichia coli specifies an inner-membrane protein of the ferric hydroxamate uptake system. In Rhizobium, fhuB is in an operon fhuDCB, which specifies the cytoplasmic membrane and periplasmic proteins involved in siderophore uptake. fhuDCB mutants make vicibactin when grown in Fe concentrations that inhibit its production in the wild-type. Nodules on peas induced by fhuDCB mutants were apparently normal in N2 fixation. Transcription of an fhuDCB-lacZ fusion was Fe-regulated, being approximately 10-fold higher in Fe-depleted cells. Downstream of fhuB, in the opposite orientation, is a version of fhuA whose homologues in other bacteria specify hydroxamate outer-membrane receptors. This fhuA gene appears to be a pseudogene with stop codons and undetectable expression. (+info)
Multiple haem-utilization loci in Helicobacter pylori. (6/930)To identify genes responsible for the utilization of haem as an iron source in Helicobacter pylori, a siderophore synthesis mutant of Escherichia coli was transformed with an ordered cosmid library of H. pylori NCTC 11638. Four independent cosmids were found that were able to complement this mutant on iron-restrictive solid media containing different haem compounds as the sole source of iron. Hybridization experiments revealed that the four cosmids contained unrelated DNA fragments. No major differences were observed in the growth of the four transformants on iron-restrictive solid media to which different haem compounds had been added. None of the cosmids could confer the ability to use haem as an iron source to an E. coli aroB tonB mutant, which means that transport of iron and/or haem across the outer membrane requires a functional TonB protein. Further characterization of the cosmids revealed that one of them was also able to complement E. coli aroB hemA, indicating that the haem molecule is taken up as a whole by this haem-biosynthesis mutant. Expression of this haem-uptake system could not be repressed by excess iron. Another cosmid expressed two polypeptides in E. coli which were specifically immunoreactive with a polyclonal antiserum raised against whole cells of H. pylori. The production of these proteins appeared to be iron repressible. One of these proteins has the same molecular mass as a previously described 77 kDa haem-binding iron-repressible outer-membrane protein (IROMP) of H. pylori. (+info)
The siderophore 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid is not required for virulence of Brucella abortus in BALB/c mice. (7/930)2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) is the only siderophore described for Brucella, and previous studies suggested that DHBA might contribute to the capacity of these organisms to persist in host macrophages. Employing an isogenic siderophore mutant (DeltaentC) constructed from virulent Brucella abortus 2308, however, we found that production of DHBA is not required for replication in cultured murine macrophages or for the establishment and maintenance of chronic infection in the BALB/c mouse model. (+info)
Environmental factors modulating antibiotic and siderophore biosynthesis by Pseudomonas fluorescens biocontrol strains. (8/930)Understanding the environmental factors that regulate the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds by disease-suppressive strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens is an essential step toward improving the level and reliability of their biocontrol activity. We used liquid culture assays to identify several minerals and carbon sources which had a differential influence on the production of the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL), pyoluteorin (PLT), and pyrrolnitrin and the siderophores salicylic acid and pyochelin by the model strain CHA0, which was isolated from a natural disease-suppressive soil in Switzerland. Production of PHL was stimulated by Zn2+, NH4Mo2+, and glucose; the precursor compound mono-acetylphloroglucinol was stimulated by the same factors as PHL. Production of PLT was stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+, and glycerol but was repressed by glucose. Pyrrolnitrin production was increased by fructose, mannitol, and a mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+. Pyochelin production was increased by Co2+, fructose, mannitol, and glucose. Interestingly, production of its precursor salicylic acid was increased by different factors, i.e., NH4Mo2+, glycerol, and glucose. The mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+ with fructose, mannitol, or glycerol further enhanced the production of PHL and PLT compared with either the minerals or the carbon sources used alone, but it did not improve siderophore production. Extending fermentation time from 2 to 5 days increased the accumulation of PLT, pyrrolnitrin, and pyochelin but not of PHL. When findings with CHA0 were extended to an ecologically and genetically diverse collection of 41 P. fluorescens biocontrol strains, the effect of certain factors was strain dependent, while others had a general effect. Stimulation of PHL by Zn2+ and glucose was strain dependent, whereas PLT production by all strains that can produce this compound was stimulated by Zn2+ and transiently repressed by glucose. Inorganic phosphate reduced PHL production by CHA0 and seven other strains tested but to various degrees. Production of PLT but not pyrrolnitrin by CHA0 was also reduced by 100 mM phosphate. The use of 1/10-strength nutrient broth-yeast extract, compared with standard nutrient broth-yeast extract, amended with glucose and/or glycerol resulted in dramatically increased accumulations of PHL (but not PLT), pyochelin, and salicylic acid, indicating that the ratio of carbon source to nutrient concentration played a key role in the metabolic flow. The results of this study (i) provide insight into the biosynthetic regulation of antimicrobial compounds, (ii) limit the number of factors for intensive study in situ, and (iii) indicate factors that can be manipulated to improve bacterial inoculants. (+info)
Enterobactin is a siderophore, a type of molecule that bacteria use to acquire iron from their environment. It is produced by many gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Klebsiella species. Enterobactin is a cyclic octadentate ligand, meaning it can bind to eight iron atoms at once, making it a very effective iron chelator. In the medical field, enterobactin is of interest because it can be used to treat iron overload disorders, such as hereditary hemochromatosis, where the body absorbs too much iron from the diet. It can also be used to treat bacterial infections caused by enterobacteria, as these bacteria rely on iron for their growth and survival. In addition, enterobactin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, making it a potential therapeutic agent for a variety of diseases.
Ferrichrome is a type of iron-chelating compound that is found in some bacteria and fungi. It is thought to play a role in the transport of iron within these organisms, as well as in the acquisition of iron from the environment. In the medical field, ferrichrome has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, a condition in which the body does not have enough iron to produce healthy red blood cells. Some studies have suggested that ferrichrome may be more effective than other iron supplements at increasing iron levels in the body and improving symptoms of anemia. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the safety and efficacy of ferrichrome as a treatment for anemia.
In the medical field, "iron" refers to a mineral that is essential for the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. Iron is also important for the proper functioning of the immune system, metabolism, and energy production. Iron deficiency is a common condition that can lead to anemia, a condition in which the body does not have enough red blood cells to carry oxygen to the body's tissues. Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and pale skin. Iron supplements are often prescribed to treat iron deficiency anemia, and dietary changes may also be recommended to increase iron intake. However, it is important to note that excessive iron intake can also be harmful, so it is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any iron supplements.
In the medical field, ferric compounds refer to compounds that contain the ferric ion (Fe3+), which is a form of iron. Ferric compounds are commonly used in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia, a condition in which the body does not have enough iron to produce healthy red blood cells. There are several types of ferric compounds that are used in medical treatment, including ferrous sulfate (also known as iron sulfate), ferrous fumarate, ferrous gluconate, and ferric carboxymaltose. These compounds are typically administered orally or intravenously, and they work by providing the body with the iron it needs to produce red blood cells. Ferric compounds can also be used to treat other conditions, such as iron overload disorders, where the body has too much iron. In these cases, ferric compounds may be used to remove excess iron from the body through a process called chelation therapy. It is important to note that ferric compounds can have side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and dark stools. It is also important to follow the recommended dosage and to speak with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about taking ferric compounds.
Catechols are a class of organic compounds that contain a catechol group, which is a hydroxybenzene group with two hydroxyl (-OH) groups attached to a benzene ring. Catechols are found naturally in many plants and animals, and they are also synthesized in the body as part of various metabolic processes. In the medical field, catechols are often used as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents. They have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease, improving blood flow, and protecting against oxidative stress. Catechols are also used in the production of a variety of pharmaceuticals and medical devices, including drugs for treating high blood pressure, heart disease, and Parkinson's disease. They are also used in the manufacturing of dyes, pigments, and other industrial chemicals.
Hydroxamic acids are a class of organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) and an amine group (-NH2) attached to a carbonyl group (-CO-). They are commonly used in the medical field as chelating agents, which means they can bind to metal ions and help remove them from the body. One example of a hydroxamic acid used in medicine is ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), which is used to treat heavy metal poisoning. EDTA is a strong chelating agent that can bind to and remove toxic metal ions such as lead, mercury, and cadmium from the body. Hydroxamic acids are also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma. One example of a hydroxamic acid used in cancer treatment is hydroxycarbamide, which is used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In addition to their use as chelating agents and cancer treatments, hydroxamic acids have also been studied for their potential use in the treatment of other conditions, such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.
Oxazoles are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. They are commonly used in the medical field as pharmaceuticals, particularly as antifungal agents, antiviral agents, and anti-inflammatory agents. Some examples of oxazole-containing drugs include fluconazole (an antifungal), oseltamivir (an antiviral), and celecoxib (an anti-inflammatory). Oxazoles are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs and as corrosion inhibitors in various industrial applications.
Deferoxamine is a medication used to treat iron overload, a condition in which there is too much iron in the body. It works by binding to iron in the blood and removing it from the body through the kidneys. Deferoxamine is typically administered as an intravenous infusion and is used to treat conditions such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, and hemochromatosis. It may also be used to prevent iron overload in people who receive frequent blood transfusions. Deferoxamine can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and low blood pressure.
Polyketides are a class of natural products that are biosynthesized by microorganisms, plants, and animals. They are a diverse group of compounds that are characterized by their polyketide backbone, which is composed of repeating units of acetyl-CoA. In the medical field, polyketides have been found to have a wide range of biological activities, including antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Some examples of polyketides with medical applications include the antibiotic erythromycin, the antifungal drug nystatin, and the anticancer drug taxol. Polyketides are also of interest to researchers because of their unique chemical structures, which can serve as a starting point for the development of new drugs. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of polyketide synthases (PKSs), which are enzymes that biosynthesize polyketides, as a tool for the production of novel bioactive compounds.
Lipocalins are a family of small, soluble proteins that are characterized by their ability to bind and transport small hydrophobic molecules, such as retinoids, fatty acids, and steroids. They are found in a variety of organisms, including humans, and play important roles in many biological processes. In the medical field, lipocalins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some lipocalins have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of diseases. Additionally, lipocalins have been used as diagnostic markers for certain conditions, such as liver disease and cancer. Overall, lipocalins are an important class of proteins that have a wide range of biological functions and potential medical applications.
Phenols are a class of organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to an aromatic ring. In the medical field, phenols are commonly used as antiseptics and disinfectants due to their ability to kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They are also used as topical anesthetics and as ingredients in certain medications. Phenols can be found naturally in many plants and fruits, such as cloves, cinnamon, and citrus fruits. They are also used in the production of a variety of consumer products, including soaps, shampoos, and cleaning agents. However, some phenols can be toxic and can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and other health issues if they are not used properly. Therefore, it is important to follow proper safety guidelines when handling and using phenols in the medical field.
Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are proteins that are located on the outer surface of the cell membrane of bacteria. They play important roles in the survival and pathogenicity of bacteria, as well as in their interactions with the environment and host cells. OMPs can be classified into several categories based on their function, including porins, which allow the passage of small molecules and ions across the outer membrane, and lipoproteins, which are anchored to the outer membrane by a lipid moiety. Other types of OMPs include adhesins, which mediate the attachment of bacteria to host cells or surfaces, and toxins, which can cause damage to host cells. OMPs are important targets for the development of new antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents, as they are often essential for bacterial survival and can be differentially expressed by different bacterial strains or species. They are also the subject of ongoing research in the fields of microbiology, immunology, and infectious diseases.
Hydroxybenzoates are a group of organic compounds that are commonly used as preservatives in a variety of medical and personal care products. They are derivatives of benzoic acid, which is a naturally occurring compound found in many fruits and vegetables. Hydroxybenzoates are used as preservatives because they have antimicrobial properties, which means they can inhibit the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms that can cause spoilage or infection. They are often used in combination with other preservatives, such as parabens, to provide additional protection against microbial growth. In the medical field, hydroxybenzoates are used in a variety of products, including topical creams, ointments, and gels, as well as in some oral medications. They are also used in some medical devices, such as catheters and wound dressings, to prevent infection. It is important to note that while hydroxybenzoates are generally considered safe for use in medical products, they can cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some people. As with any medical product, it is important to follow the instructions for use and to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience any adverse reactions.
FMN Reductase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of flavin mononucleotide (FMN), a cofactor involved in various cellular processes. FMN Reductase catalyzes the reduction of FMN to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which is another important cofactor used in many metabolic reactions. In the medical field, FMN Reductase is of interest because it is involved in the metabolism of several drugs and toxins, including the antibiotic rifampicin and the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene. Mutations in the gene encoding FMN Reductase have been associated with certain genetic disorders, such as Friedreich's ataxia, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of coordination and balance. In addition, FMN Reductase has been studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Lipocalin 1, also known as clusterin, is a protein that is found in many different tissues in the human body, including the liver, brain, and blood vessels. It is a member of a larger family of proteins called lipocalins, which are characterized by their ability to bind and transport small molecules, such as lipids and hormones. In the medical field, lipocalin 1 is known to play a number of important roles. For example, it has been implicated in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism, the clearance of damaged cells and debris from the body, and the response to injury and inflammation. It has also been studied in the context of a number of different diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Lipocalin 1 is often measured in blood tests as a marker of liver function and as a potential predictor of certain diseases. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of a variety of conditions.
Thiazoles are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with one nitrogen atom and two sulfur atoms. They are commonly used in the medical field as pharmaceuticals, particularly as diuretics, antihistamines, and anti-inflammatory agents. Some examples of thiazole-based drugs include hydrochlorothiazide (a diuretic), loratadine (an antihistamine), and celecoxib (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug). Thiazoles are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs and as corrosion inhibitors in various industrial applications.
In the medical field, oligopeptides are short chains of amino acids that typically contain between two and 50 amino acids. They are often used in various medical applications due to their unique properties and potential therapeutic effects. One of the main benefits of oligopeptides is their ability to penetrate the skin and reach underlying tissues, making them useful in the development of topical treatments for a variety of conditions. For example, oligopeptides have been shown to improve skin elasticity, reduce the appearance of wrinkles, and promote the growth of new skin cells. Oligopeptides are also used in the development of medications for a variety of conditions, including osteoporosis, diabetes, and hypertension. They work by interacting with specific receptors in the body, which can help to regulate various physiological processes and improve overall health. Overall, oligopeptides are a promising area of research in the medical field, with potential applications in a wide range of therapeutic areas.
Streptonigrin is an antineoplastic drug that was developed in Japan and is used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer. It works by inhibiting the growth and division of cancer cells, and it is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to increase its effectiveness. Streptonigrin is administered intravenously, usually in a hospital setting, and the dosage and duration of treatment depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health. Side effects of streptonigrin can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, and low blood cell counts, among others. It is important for patients receiving streptonigrin to be closely monitored by their healthcare provider for any potential side effects or complications.
Transferrin is a plasma protein that plays a crucial role in the transport of iron in the bloodstream. It is synthesized in the liver and transported to the bone marrow, where it helps to regulate the production of red blood cells. Transferrin also plays a role in the immune system by binding to and transporting iron to immune cells, where it is used to produce antibodies. In the medical field, low levels of transferrin can be a sign of iron deficiency anemia, while high levels may indicate an excess of iron in the body.
2,2'-Dipyridyl is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a chelating agent. It is a bidentate ligand that can bind to metal ions, such as iron, copper, and zinc, and form stable complexes. In the medical field, 2,2'-Dipyridyl is used to treat iron overload disorders, such as hereditary hemochromatosis, where the body absorbs too much iron from the diet. It works by binding to iron ions in the bloodstream and removing them from the body through the urine. 2,2'-Dipyridyl is also used in research to study the role of metal ions in various biological processes, such as enzyme activity and cell signaling.
Iron radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of iron that are used in medical imaging and treatment. These isotopes are typically produced by bombarding iron targets with high-energy particles, such as protons or neutrons. The resulting radioisotopes have a short half-life, meaning that they decay quickly and emit radiation that can be detected by medical imaging equipment. Iron radioisotopes are used in a variety of medical applications, including: 1. Diagnostic imaging: Iron radioisotopes can be used to create images of the body's organs and tissues. For example, iron-59 is often used to study the liver and spleen, while iron-62 is used to study the bone marrow. 2. Radiation therapy: Iron radioisotopes can also be used to treat certain types of cancer. For example, iron-59 is used to treat liver cancer, while iron-62 is used to treat multiple myeloma. 3. Research: Iron radioisotopes are also used in research to study the metabolism and distribution of iron in the body. Overall, iron radioisotopes play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, and are a valuable tool in the field of nuclear medicine.
Peptide synthases are enzymes that synthesize peptides, which are chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. These enzymes are responsible for the biosynthesis of many important peptides in the body, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and antimicrobial peptides. There are several types of peptide synthases, including ribosomes, which are the primary site of protein synthesis in cells, and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), which are responsible for the synthesis of many bioactive peptides. NRPSs are often found in bacteria and fungi and are involved in the production of antibiotics, toxins, and other secondary metabolites. In the medical field, peptide synthases are of great interest because of their role in the synthesis of many important peptides and their potential as targets for the development of new drugs. For example, researchers are exploring the use of NRPS inhibitors as potential treatments for bacterial infections and cancer.
Conalbumin is a type of albumin, which is a type of protein found in the blood plasma. It is also known as albumin B or albumin C. Conalbumin is synthesized in the liver and is one of the most abundant proteins in the blood, making up about 50-60% of the total protein content. Conalbumin plays a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood, transporting hormones and other molecules, and serving as a carrier for various ions and nutrients. It is also involved in the immune response and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In the medical field, the measurement of conalbumin levels can be used as a diagnostic tool to assess liver function and detect certain diseases, such as liver cirrhosis, kidney disease, and malnutrition. Abnormal levels of conalbumin can also be an indicator of other health conditions, such as inflammation, infection, and cancer.
Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are a group of proteins that are produced in response to inflammation or tissue injury in the body. They are synthesized by the liver and other tissues in response to cytokines, which are signaling molecules that are released by immune cells in response to infection, injury, or other stressors. APPs play a variety of roles in the body's response to injury or infection. Some of the most well-known APPs include C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and haptoglobin. These proteins have a number of functions, including: 1. Inflammation: APPs can help to recruit immune cells to the site of injury or infection, and can also help to activate these cells. 2. Antimicrobial activity: Some APPs, such as CRP and SAA, have direct antimicrobial activity against bacteria and other pathogens. 3. Clearance of damaged cells: APPs can help to clear damaged or necrotic cells from the body, which can help to prevent the spread of infection. 4. Modulation of the immune response: APPs can help to modulate the immune response by regulating the production of cytokines and other immune molecules. Overall, APPs play an important role in the body's response to injury or infection, and their levels can be used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and monitor certain medical conditions.
Citrates are a group of compounds that contain the citric acid ion (C6H8O7^3-). In the medical field, citrates are commonly used as anticoagulants to prevent blood clots from forming. They are often used in patients who are undergoing dialysis or who have a condition called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which makes it difficult to use heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant. Citrates are also used to treat certain types of kidney stones, as they can help to neutralize the acidic environment in the urinary tract that can contribute to the formation of stones. In addition, citrates are sometimes used as a source of calcium in patients who cannot tolerate other forms of calcium supplementation. Citrates can be administered orally or intravenously, and they are usually well-tolerated by most people. However, like all medications, they can cause side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking citrates, and to report any side effects that you experience.
Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) are a class of proteins found in the periplasmic space of bacteria. They are responsible for the transport of various molecules across the bacterial cell membrane, including sugars, amino acids, and metal ions. PBPs are typically composed of two domains: an N-terminal ligand-binding domain and a C-terminal membrane-anchoring domain. The ligand-binding domain binds to specific molecules, while the membrane-anchoring domain anchors the protein to the bacterial cell membrane. PBPs play a crucial role in bacterial metabolism and are often targets for antibiotics.
Hydrogen cyanide is a highly toxic gas that is not naturally present in the human body. It is a colorless, odorless gas that can be produced by the breakdown of certain substances, such as tobacco smoke and certain chemicals. In the medical field, hydrogen cyanide is known to cause a condition called cyanide poisoning, which occurs when the body is exposed to high levels of the gas. Cyanide poisoning can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, dizziness, confusion, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, and nausea. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, coma, and death. Hydrogen cyanide is also used in some medical treatments, such as in the treatment of certain types of cancer. It is typically administered in a controlled and monitored setting, and its use is carefully monitored to minimize the risk of adverse effects.
Hemin is a naturally occurring iron-containing porphyrin compound that is found in red blood cells. It is the primary component of hemoglobin, the protein responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. In the medical field, hemin is used as a medication to treat a rare genetic disorder called porphyria, which is characterized by the accumulation of toxic byproducts of heme metabolism in the body. Hemin is also used in the treatment of certain types of anemia, such as acute intermittent porphyria, and as a supplement to increase iron levels in people with iron deficiency anemia. Hemin has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in other conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and infectious diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential uses and side effects.
Black Queen hypothesis
L-ornithine N5 monooxygenase
Robert Charles Hider
Iron in biology
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Suite of amphiphilic2
- Marinobactins are a class of newly discovered marine bacterial siderophores with a unique amphiphilic structure, suggesting that their functions relate to interactions with cell membranes. (princeton.edu)
- Many marine siderophores are amphiphilic and are produced in suites, wherein each member within a particular suite has the same iron(III)-binding polar head group which is appended by one or two fatty acids of differing length, degree of unsaturation, and degree of hydroxylation, establishing the suite composition. (ucsb.edu)
- On the basis of structural analysis, this suite of siderophores, the moanachelins, is amphiphilic and composed of two N-acetyl-N-hydroxy-D-ornithines, one N-acetyl-N-hydroxy-L-ornithine, and either a glycine or an L-alanine, appended with various saturated and unsaturated fatty acid tails. (ucsb.edu)
- We also investigated whether other chemically distinct siderophores (yersiniabactin and aerobactin) or the monomeric catechol 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate could provide protection against oxidative stress and found that only catecholate siderophores have this property. (nih.gov)
- In particular, gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of siderophores aerobactin ( iuc ) and salmochelin ( iro ) are associated with invasive disease and are common amongst hypervirulent K . pneumoniae clones that cause severe community-associated infections such as liver abscess and pneumonia. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the present study, we investigated whether the siderophores (enterobactin and salmochelin) produced by Salmonella enterica sv. (nih.gov)
- Using siderophore biosynthetic and siderophore receptor mutants we demonstrated that salmochelin and enterobactin protect S. Typhimurium against ROS (reactive oxygen species) in vitro and that siderophores must be intracellular to confer full protection. (nih.gov)
- We report the isolation and structural characterization of a suite of siderophores from marine bacterial isolate Vibrio sp. (ucsb.edu)
- In view of their very high affinity for ferric iron, functional studies of siderophores have been almost exclusively focused on their role in acquisition of iron from the host. (nih.gov)
- The affinity that marinobactins exhibit for membranes and the changes observed upon iron binding could provide unique biological advantages in a receptor-assisted iron acquisition process in which loss of the iron-free siderophore by diffusion is limited by the strong association with the lipid phase. (princeton.edu)
- The variation in the small side-chain amino acid is the first occurrence of variation in the peptidic head group structure of a set of siderophores produced by a single bacterium. (ucsb.edu)
- In response to iron-depleted aerobic conditions, bacteria often secrete low molecular weight, high-affinity iron(III)-complexing ligands, siderophores, to solubilize and sequester iron(III). (ucsb.edu)
- Here we use small and large unilamellar L-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles (SUVs and LUVs) as model membranes to examine the thermodynamics and kinetics of the membrane binding of marinobactins, particularly marinobactin E (apo-M E ) and its iron(III) complex, Fe-M E . Siderophore-membrane interactions are characterized by NMR line broadening, stopped-flow spectrophotometry, fluorescence quenching, and ultracentrifugation. (princeton.edu)
- This membrane association is shown to cause only a 2-fold decrease in the rate of iron(III) binding by apo-M E . However, upon the formation of the iron(III) complex Fe-M E , the membrane affinity of the siderophore decreased substantially (K x Fe-ME = 1.3 × 10 4 for SUVs and 9.6 × 10 3 for LUVs). (princeton.edu)
- Siderophore-membrane interactions are characterized by NMR line broadening, stopped-flow spectrophotometry, fluorescence quenching, and ultracentrifugation. (princeton.edu)
- However, upon the formation of the iron(III) complex Fe-ME, the membrane affinity of the siderophore decreased substantially (KxFe-ME = 1.3 × 104 for SUVs and 9.6 × 103 for LUVs). (princeton.edu)
- Collectively, the results of the present study identify additional functions for siderophores during host-pathogen interactions. (nih.gov)
- Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) activities include the production of phytohormones, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase as well as the solubilization of inorganic phosphate. (benthamscience.com)
- The role of these siderophores in sequestering Fe(III) released during basaltic rock weathering, as well as their potential role in the promotion of Mn(II) and Fe(II) oxidation, is of considerable interest. (elsevierpure.com)
- Researchers have discovered that natural compounds released from bacteria and fungi in soil, known as siderophores, can decrease the toxicity of asbestos fibers. (nih.gov)
- Plants, This research was part of an SRP Center project led by Willenbring bacteria, and fungi release siderophores to bind to iron in soil, while at Penn. (nih.gov)
- The conjugation of siderophores to antimicrobial molecules is an attractive strategy to overcome the low outer membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria. (ox.ac.uk)
- Self-assembling amphiphilic siderophores from marine bacteria. (ucsb.edu)
- in the uptake of siderophore-beta-lactam drug conjugates. (ox.ac.uk)
- To screen for additional siderophore-drug uptake systems, we overexpressed 28 of the 34 TBDRs of strain PAO1 and identified PfuA, OptE, OptJ, and the pyochelin receptor FptA as novel TBDRs conferring increased susceptibility to siderophore-drug conjugates. (ox.ac.uk)
- 1. Iron Uptake Oxidoreductase (IruO) Uses a Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Semiquinone Intermediate for Iron-Siderophore Reduction. (nih.gov)
- The research team examined the effect on iron uptake of 3 chemically different model chelators-the synthetic chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and two siderophores, desferriferrioxamine B (DFB) and azotochelin. (nih.gov)
- Rhizospheric microbes play significant role/s in improving the growth and yield of host plant [ 9 ] by imparting several beneficial effects, namely, N 2 fixation, increased nutrient uptake, siderophores, and secondary metabolite/s production [ 8 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The researchers measured the release of iron from asbestos fibers in the presence of natural soil concentration levels of a fungal and a bacterial siderophore and specific organic acids, which are also released by organisms to bind to iron. (nih.gov)
- They found that both fungal and bacterial siderophores removed iron from asbestos fibers. (nih.gov)
- They also discovered that the fungal siderophores were more effective than the bacterial siderophores in reducing ROS. (nih.gov)
- 12:50-1:10: Imaging bacterial and fungal infections using labeled siderophores. (nih.gov)
- Structure of synechobactins, new siderophores of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. (ucsb.edu)
- Based on this connection between iron and asbestos toxicity, researchers explored whether natural soil concentrations of siderophores, which have an affinity to bind to iron, can remove iron from asbestos and thus lower its toxicity. (nih.gov)
- Much of the iron in ocean water is strongly bound to natural organic chelators, such as siderophores, which bind and release iron in different ways. (nih.gov)
- Removal of iron by siderophores could potentially form the basis of a low-cost bioremediation strategy, which should be explored as a viable approach for managing asbestos-contaminated sites. (nih.gov)
- able to transport siderophore-drug molecules potentially decreases the likelihood of resistance emergence during therapy. (ox.ac.uk)
- They treated solutions containing asbestos with siderophores or organic acids, extracted samples from those solutions at regular intervals for up to 16 days, and measured the total dissolved iron. (nih.gov)
- In a joint research project with the company ASA Spezialenzyme, it was possible to develop a bacterial strain that produces siderophores in high yields. (biooekonomie.de)
- 9. Staphylococcus aureus heme and siderophore-iron acquisition pathways. (nih.gov)
- But when exposed to sunlight, the siderophore breaks down and releases an unbound form of iron that the phytoplankton readily take up to drive photosynthesis. (nih.gov)
- They came across the so-called siderophores (large iron carriers). (biooekonomie.de)