A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders caused by lysosomal membrane transport defects that result in accumulation of free sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) within the lysosomes. The two main clinical phenotypes, which are allelic variants of the SLC17A5 gene, are ISSD, a severe infantile form, or Salla disease, a slowly progressive adult form, named for the geographic area in Finland where the kindred first studied resided.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
A family of SIALIC ACID binding proteins found in vertebrate species. They are transmembrane proteins which act as cell surface receptors for a variety of sialylated GLYCOCONJUGATES. While a subset of siglec protein subtypes are evolutionarily conserved between mammalian species, there are many others that are species specific.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A sialic acid binding lectin that was originally identified as an adhesion molecule for inflammatory MACROPHAGES and activated MONOCYTES. This protein is the largest known siglec subtype and contains 16 immunoglobulin C2-set domains. It plays a role in cell to cell interactions and interactions with BACTERIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.
A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-acetylneuraminic acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or glycoprotein.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
An enzyme that forms CMP-acylneuraminic acids, which donate the N-acylneuraminic acid residues to the terminal sugar residue of a ganglioside or glycoprotein. EC 2.7.7.43.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It contains a hemagglutinin.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subcategory of mucins that contain SIALIC ACID.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and consisting of 2 serotypes: Human enterovirus 68 and Human enterovirus 70.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A hexosaminidase with specificity for terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminides.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
A heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive MUSCULAR ATROPHY and MUSCLE WEAKNESS beginning in the hands, the legs, or the feet. Most are adult-onset autosomal dominant forms. Others are autosomal recessive.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.

Gangliosides of human kidney. (1/2052)

Five gangliosides isolated from human kidney have been characterized. The two main fractions were shown to be typical extraneural gangliosides in having lactose as their neutral carbohydrate moiety. Their structures were identified as: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-8)AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer. The two main hexosamine-containing gangliosides are structurally related to human blood group substances of glycosphingolipid nature. The following structures are postulated: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1) Cer. The third hexosamine-containing ganglioside belongs to a different series of glycolipids and was shown to have the structure of a major ganglioside of human brain: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc(beta1-4)[AcNeu(alpha2-3)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1- 1)Cer. The fatty acid structure of different gangliosides was shown to resemble that of neutral glycolipids of human kidney with the nonhydroxy acids C16:0, C22:0, and C24:0 as major components.  (+info)

Acid-catalyzed lactonization of alpha2,8-linked oligo/polysialic acids studied by high performance anion-exchange chromatography. (2/2052)

Recent studies from many laboratories revealed remarkable structural, distributional, and functional diversities of oligo/polysialic acids (OSA/PSA) that exist in organisms ranging from bacteria to man. These diversities are further complicated by the fact that OSA/PSA spontaneously form lactones under even mildly acidic conditions. By using high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with nitrate eluents, we found that lactonization of alpha2,8-linked OSA/PSA (oligo/poly-Neu5Ac, oligo/poly-Neu5Gc and oligo/poly-KDN) proceeds readily, and the lactonization process displays three discrete stages. The initial stage is characterized by limited lactonization occurring between two internal sialic acid residues, reflected by a regular pattern of lactone peaks interdigitated with non-lactonized peaks on HPAEC. In the middle stage, multiple lactonized species are formed from a molecule with a given degree of polymerization (DP), in which the maximum number of lactone rings formed equals DP minus 2. At the final stage, completely lactonized species become the major components, resulting in drastic changes in the physicochemical properties of the sample. Interestingly, the smallest lactonizable OSA are tetramer, trimer, and dimer at the initial, middle, and final stages, respectively. At any of the stages, OSA/PSA of higher DP lactonize more rapidly, but all the lactone rings rapidly open up when exposed to mild alkali. Lactonized OSA/PSA are resistant to both enzyme- and acid-catalyzed glycosidic bond cleavage. The latter fact was utilized to obtain more high DP oligo/poly(alpha2,8-Neu5Gc) chains from a polysialoglycoprotein. Our results should be useful in preparation, storage, and analysis of OSA/PSA. Possible biological significance and bioengineering potentials of lactonization are discussed.  (+info)

Carbohydrate on human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor. Impairment of function by removal of specific galactose residues. (3/2052)

Human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor protein containing 120 +/- 12 nmol of sialic acid and 135 +/- 13 nmol of galactose/mg of protein was digested with neuraminidase. The affinity of native factor VIII/von Willebrand factor and its asialo form for the hepatic lectin that specifically binds asialoglycoproteins was assessed from in vitro binding experiments. Native factor VIII/von Willebrand factor exhibited negligible affinity while binding of the asialo derivative was comparable to that observed for asialo-alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Incubation of asialo-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor with Streptococcus pneumoniae beta-galactosidase removed only 62% of the galactose but abolished binding to the purified hepatic lectin. When the asialo derivative was incubated with purified beta-D-galactoside alpha2 leads to 6 sialyltransferase and CMP-[14C]NeuAc, only 61% of the galactose incorporated [14C]NeuAc. From the known specificites of these enzymes, it is concluded that galactose residues important in lectin binding are present in a terminal Gal/beta1 leads to 4GlcNAc sequence on asialo-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor. The relative ristocetin-induced platelet aggregating activity of native, asialo-, and agalacto-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor was 100:38:12, respectively, while procoagulant activity was 100:100:103.  (+info)

Stable thiobarbituric acid chromophore with dimethyl sulphoxide. Application to sialic acid assay in analytical de-O-acetylation. (4/2052)

With dimethyl sulphoxide instead of butanol in the thiobarbituric acid assay for sialic acid, a non-fading chromophore with lambdamax. = 549 nm was produced in a homogeneous solution, allowing dilution of the test mixture in case of high colour yield. This test adapted well to studies on alkaline de-O-acetylation. Bovine and rat submaxillary mucins, and rabbit Tamm-Horsfall urinary sialoproteins contain O-acetyl isomers of neuramine acid that are resistant to the thiobarbituric acid assay. Alkaline de-O-acetylation converted resistant O-acetylneuraminic acid into thiobarbituric acid-reactive sialic acid, and such conversion paralleled de-O-acetylation as measured by the ferric hydroxamate method. The colour increment was similar when the alkaline treatment of bovine submaxillary mucin either preceded or followed the acid hydrolysis. Only alkaline preptreatment was effective with rat submaxillary mucin. By selecting optimal conditions for alkaline de-O-acetylation, O-acetyl isomers can be accurately assessed by the thiobarbituric acid assay.  (+info)

Differential expression of alpha2-6 sialylated polylactosamine structures by human B and T cells. (5/2052)

We found that human peripheral B and T cells differed in the surface expression of alpha2-6 sialylated type 2 chain glycans. In contrast to B cells, T cells expressed only sialoglycans with repeated N-acetyllactosamine (Galss1-4GlcNAc) disaccharides. This finding was based on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies HB6, HB9 (CD24), HD66 (CDw76), FB21, and CRIS4 (CDw76) with the alpha2-6 sialylated model gangliosides IV6NeuAcnLc4Cer (2-6 SPG), VI6NeuAcnLc6Cer (2-6 SnHC), VIII6NeuAcnLc8Cer (2-6 SnOC), and X6NeuAcnLc10Cer (2-6 SnDC). We found that, in addition to their common requirement of an alpha2-6 bound terminal sialic acid for binding, the antibodies displayed preferences for the length of the carbohydrate backbones. Some of them bound mainly to 2-6 SPG with one N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) unit (HB9, HD66); others preferentially to 2-6 SnHC and 2-6 SnOC, with two and three LacNAc units, respectively (HB6 and FB21); and one of them exclusively to very polar alpha2-6 sialylated type 2 chain antigens (CRIS4) such as to 2-6 SnOC and even more polar gangliosides with three and more LacNAc units. These specificities could be correlated with the cellular binding of the antibodies as follows: whereas all antibodies bound to human CD 19 positive peripheral B cells, their reactivity with CD3 positive T cells was either nearly lacking (HD66, HB9), intermediate (about 65%: HB6, FB21) or strongly positive (CRIS4, 95%). Thus, the binding of the antibodies to 2-6 sialylated glycans with multiple lactosamine units appeared to determine their binding to T-cells.  (+info)

Amino acid substitutions in a conserved region in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN glycoprotein spike impair its neuraminidase activity in the globular domain. (6/2052)

The ectodomain of the paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein spike can be divided into two regions: a membrane-proximal, stalk-like structure and a terminal globular domain. The latter contains all the antibody recognition sites of the protein, as well as its receptor recognition and neuraminidase (NA) active sites. These two activities of the protein can be separated by monoclonal antibody functional inhibition studies and mutations in the globular domain. Herein, we show that mutation of several conserved residues in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN protein markedly decrease its NA activity without a significant effect on receptor recognition. Thus, mutations in the stalk, distant from the NA active site in the globular domain, can also separate attachment and NA. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that the NA activity of this protein is dependent on an intact stalk structure.  (+info)

Regulation of capsular polysialic acid biosynthesis by temperature in Pasteurella haemolytica A2. (7/2052)

The capsular polysaccharide of Pasteurella haemolytica A2 consists of a linear polymer of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) with alpha(2-8) linkages. The production of this polymer is strictly regulated by the growth temperature and above 40 degrees C no production is detected. Analysis of the enzymatic activities directly involved in its biosynthesis reveals that Neu5Ac lyase, CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase and polysialyltransferase are involved in this regulation. Very low activities were found in P. haemolytica grown at 43 degrees C (at least 25 times lower than those observed when the growth temperature was 37 degrees C). The synthesis of these enzymes increased rapidly when bacteria grown at 43 degrees C were transferred to 37 degrees C and decreased dramatically when cells grown at 37 degrees C were transferred to 43 degrees C. These findings indicate that the cellular growth temperature regulates the synthesis of these enzymes and hence the concentration of the intermediates necessary for capsular polysaccharide genesis in P. haemolytica A2.  (+info)

Free sialic acid levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis. (8/2052)

The free and bound sialic acid content of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with positive evidence (by CSF culture) of pyogenic and tuberculous meningitis was determined. The free sialic acid content was significantly raised only in cases of pyogenic meningitis, but not in tuberculous or other types of the disease.  (+info)

The structurally similar polysialic acid capsules of group B meningococci and Escherichia coli K1 are poor immunogens, and attempts are currently being made to improve their immunogenicity by chemical modifications. An IgG monoclonal antibody to these polysialic acid capsules was used for the study of the presence of structurally similar components in tissue glycoproteins to investigate the reasons for the poor immunogenicity and to evaluate potential dangers in active or passive immunization. By immunoblotting polysialic acid was detected outside the brain in newborn rat kidney, heart, and muscle. It appeared in immunoblots as one component and with similar mobility to the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM. Specificity studies of the antibody and endosialidase treatment showed that the polysialic acid glycans detected were composed of chains as long as eight sialic acid residues or more. The polysialic acid was not detected in the corresponding tissues of the adult animal. These results ...
Alkaline borohydride-reduced keratan sulphate (KS) chains derived from bovine femoral head cartilage were fractionated by lectin affinity chromatography with Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) into binding and non-binding populations. Analysis of the SNA-binding and non-binding KS chains using 600 MHz 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy showed that the former population contained alpha(2-6)-N-acetylneuraminic acid residues and the latter contained primarily alpha(2-3)-N-acetylneuraminic acid residues as chain terminators. Both populations contained a similar proportion of alpha(2-3)-N-acetylneuraminic acid residues within their protein-linkage regions, and similar sulphation and fucosylation levels. Analysis of these two fractions by gel-permeation chromatography (g.p.c.) on a TSK-30 XL column showed them to have the same size distributions. It was concluded from the n.m.r. spectra and g.p.c. data that the populations differed primarily in the mode of linkage of the chain-terminating sialic acids. ...
Matthies S, Stallforth P, Seeberger PH (2015) Total Synthesis of Legionaminic Acid as Basis for Serological Studies J Am Chem Soc 137, 2848-2851. ...
Most adenoviruses use the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) as a major cellular receptor. We have shown recently that adenovirus types 8, 19a, and 37, which are the major causes of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, use sialic acid rather than CAR as a major cellular receptor. The predicted isoelectric point of the receptor-interacting knob domain in the adenovirus fiber protein is unusually high (9.0-9.1) in type 8, 19a, and 37. The pKa of sialic acid is low, 2.6, implying a possible involvement of charge in fiber knob-sialic acid interactions. Here we show that (i) positively charged adenovirus knobs require sialic acid for efficient cell membrane interactions; (ii) viral and knob interactions with immobilized sialic acid or cell-surface sialic acid are sensitive to increased ionic strength; (iii) negatively charged molecules such as sulfated glycosaminoglycans inhibit the binding of virions to target cells in a nonspecific, charge-dependent manner; and that (iv) the ability of adenovirus knobs ...
Alkaline borohydride-reduced keratan sulphate (KS) chains derived from bovine femoral head cartilage were fractionated by lectin affinity chromatography with Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) into binding and non-binding populations. Analysis of the SNA-binding and non-binding KS chains using 600 MHz 1H n.m.r. spectroscopy showed that the former population contained alpha(2-6)-N-acetylneuraminic acid residues and the latter contained primarily alpha(2-3)-N-acetylneuraminic acid residues as chain terminators. Both populations contained a similar proportion of alpha(2-3)-N-acetylneuraminic acid residues within their protein-linkage regions, and similar sulphation and fucosylation levels. Analysis of these two fractions by gel-permeation chromatography (g.p.c.) on a TSK-30 XL column showed them to have the same size distributions. It was concluded from the n.m.r. spectra and g.p.c. data that the populations differed primarily in the mode of linkage of the chain-terminating sialic acids.. ...
Iwata, Y., Suzuki, O. and Wakabayashi, S. (2013), Decreased surface sialic acid content is a sensitive indicator of muscle damage. Muscle Nerve, 47: 372-378. doi: 10.1002/mus.23632 ...
Psychiatric disorders are a group of human diseases that impair higher cognitive functions. Whole-genomic analyses have recently identified susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Among the genes reported to be involved in psychiatric disorders, a gene encoding a polysialyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of polysialic acid (polySia or PSA) on cell surfaces has attracted attention for its potential role in emotion, learning, memory, circadian rhythm, and behaviors. PolySia is a unique polymer that spatio-temporally modifies neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and is predominantly found in embryonic brains, although it persists in areas of the adult brain where neural plasticity, remodeling of neural connections, or neural generation is ongoing, such as the hippocampus, subventricular zone, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. PolySia is thought to be involved in the regulation of cell-cell interactions; however, recent evidence suggests that it is
Tumor cells of various origins feature increased expression of sialic acid sugars on membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids and their secretion into the tumor microenvironment. Sialic acids are synthesized in and expressed by essentially every vertebrate cell, and are involved in multiple different physiologic processes. However, hypersialylation of tumor cells relative to their untransformed normal counter parts specifically benefits tumor cell growth and correlates with a poor prognosis for patients with cancer (1, 2). Sialic acids comprise a family of more than 50 carbohydrates that share a nine-carbon backbone (C1-9) to which specific chemical modifications are enzymatically attached inside the cell. The most common sialic acid derivate found in mammals is N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) which bears an acetyl group on the fifth carbon atom (C5). In general, sialic acids terminate the outer end of glycans (sialoglycans), where they are enzymatically linked to other carbohydrates, such as the ...
View more ,Naturally occurring sialic acids can be O-acetylated at any one of four hydroxyl groups, located at position C-4, -7, -8, and -9. This modification, which is found in nearly all animals expressing sialic acids and certain bacteria, is known to be involved in regulating a variety of biological events. One of the more important processes that appear to be heavily influenced by O-acetylation is cancer development. The present review outlines some of the more recent advances towards understanding the role and regulation of sialic acid O-acetylation in human colorectal cancer, basalioma and melanoma. Even though great strides have been made towards identifying and characterising the biological role of O-acetylated sialic acids, detailed information concerning the transferase activity responsible for this modification remains vague. The 7(9)-O- and 4-O-specific acetyltransferases were identified in bovine and horse submandibular glands, respectively, over 30 years ago, however despite the ...
N-Acetyl-Neuraminic Acid | C11H19NO9 | CID 439197 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
PolySia expression and function have been extensively studied in the nervous system, but the distribution and role of polySia in the immune compartment is still undefined. Herein we demonstrated the presence of polySia on human NK cells and its absence on other immune subsets, a finding that is in accord with two earlier reports (26, 27). NK cells up-regulated the expression of polySia and its scaffold NCAM upon activation by IL-2 treatment. This coregulation suggested that the heightened polySia signals were due to an up-regulation of both scaffold and glycan, rather than solely attributable to expanded polySia chain length. In support of this conclusion, a comparison of DP on resting and activated cells showed that upon activation total polySia was increased and the DP became more homogenous, tending toward small- to medium-length chains. To our knowledge, this is the first elucidation of polySia DP on primary human cells. The DP values we observed were slightly larger than analogous ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuraminidase-dependent degradation of polysialic acid is required for the lamination of newly generated neurons. AU - Sajo, Mari. AU - Sugiyama, Hiroki. AU - Yamamoto, Hideaki. AU - Tanii, Takashi. AU - Matsuki, Norio. AU - Ikegaya, Yuji. AU - Koyama, Ryuta. PY - 2016/1/5. Y1 - 2016/1/5. N2 - Hippocampal granule cells (GCs) are generated throughout the lifetime and are properly incorporated into the innermost region of the granule cell layer (GCL). Hypotheses for the well-regulated lamination of newly generated GCs suggest that polysialic acid (PSA) is present on the GC surface to modulate GC-to-GC interactions, regulating the process of GC migration; however, direct evidence of this involvement is lacking. We show that PSA facilitates the migration of newly generated GCs and that the activity of N-acetyl-α-neuraminidase 1 (NEU1, sialidase 1) cleaves PSA from immature GCs, terminating their migration in the innermost GCL. Developing a migration assay of immature GCs in vitro, ...
In line with our recent studies, demonstrating that interaction between sialic acid residues and SIGLEC11 contributes to decreased inflammation and neurotoxicity in vitro (Wang & Neumann, 2010; Shahraz et al, 2015), we now provide further insights into the in vivo effects of polysialic acid. SIGLEC11 and oligoSia and polySia were detected in the neuroretina of human post‐mortem donors. In comparison with the human retina, the murine retina showed a more speckled and more even distribution of sialic acids as reported before for rodent retinas (Bartsch et al, 1990; Sawaguchi et al, 1999).. We carefully assessed the immunomodulatory potential of polySia avDP20 in the laser coagulation mouse model in humanized transgenic mice expressing SIGLEC11 on microglia and tissue macrophages. Laser coagulation damage induces AMD‐relevant pathomechanisms including choroidal neovascularization preceded by Iba1‐positive cell accumulation at the RPE/choroid (Eter et al, 2008; Liu et al, 2013; Lückoff et al, ...
Catalyzes the removal of terminal sialic acid residues from viral and cellular glycoconjugates. Cleaves off the terminal sialic acids on the glycosylated HA during virus budding to facilitate virus release. Additionally helps virus spread through the circulation by further removing sialic acids from the cell surface. These cleavages prevent self-aggregation and ensure the efficient spread of the progeny virus from cell to cell. Otherwise, infection would be limited to one round of replication. Described as a receptor-destroying enzyme because it cleaves a terminal sialic acid from the cellular receptors. May facilitate viral invasion of the upper airways by cleaving the sialic acid moities on the mucin of the airway epithelial cells. Likely to plays a role in the budding process through its association with lipid rafts during intracellular transport. May additionally display a raft-association independent effect on budding. Plays a role in the determination of host range restriction on replication and
Using sialic acid analogues to define the molecular basis of complement resistance mediated by sialylation of neisseria gonorrhoeae lipopolysaccharide and to design novel therapeutics
Endosialidase (endo-N-acetylneuraminidase) is a tailspike enzyme of bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic Escherichia coli K1, which specifically recognizes and degrades polySia (polysialic acid). polySia is also a polysaccharide of the capsules of other meningitis- and sepsis-causing bacteria, and a post-translational modification of the NCAM (neural cell-adhesion molecule). We have cloned and sequenced three spontaneously mutated endosialidases of the PK1A bacteriophage and one of the PK1E bacteriophage which display lost or residual enzyme activity but retain the binding activity to polySia. Single to triple amino acid substitutions were identified, and back-mutation constructs indicated that single substitutions accounted for only partial reduction of enzymic activity. A homology-based structural model of endosialidase revealed that all substituted amino acid residues localize to the active site of the enzyme. The results reveal the importance of non-catalytic amino acid residues for ...
Endosialidase (endo-N-acetylneuraminidase) is a tailspike enzyme of bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic Escherichia coli K1, which specifically recognizes and degrades polySia (polysialic acid). polySia is also a polysaccharide of the capsules of other meningitis- and sepsis-causing bacteria, and a post-translational modification of the NCAM (neural cell-adhesion molecule). We have cloned and sequenced three spontaneously mutated endosialidases of the PK1A bacteriophage and one of the PK1E bacteriophage which display lost or residual enzyme activity but retain the binding activity to polySia. Single to triple amino acid substitutions were identified, and back-mutation constructs indicated that single substitutions accounted for only partial reduction of enzymic activity. A homology-based structural model of endosialidase revealed that all substituted amino acid residues localize to the active site of the enzyme. The results reveal the importance of non-catalytic amino acid residues for ...
All cells are decorated on their surfaces with a complex array of oligosaccharides (glycans) that are attached to membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids or which make up the different components of soluble extracellular materials such as mucus and which are involved in the initial interactions of viruses or other pathogens with cells or mucosal surfaces (1). The chemical diversity of these glycans contributes to their complex functional roles in controlling cell-cell, cell-pathogen, and cell-environment interactions. Linear and branched glycoconjugates of vertebrate cells are often terminated in sialic acids (Sias). Sias have critical roles in maintaining a variety of cell functions due to their abundance as exposed terminal sugars, where they are involved in highly specific and regulated cellular lectin interactions (2, 3). They have also been exploited by many different pathogens as well as by nonpathogenic microbes for host recognition and attachment, including playing a role as receptors for ...
Sialic Acid Analysis from SGS - a powerful technique to help you identify and quantify sialic acid species in your biopharmaceutical product.
Hydrolysis of alpha-(2->3)-, alpha-(2->6)-, alpha-(2->8)- glycosidic linkages of terminal sialic acid residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid and synthetic substrates ...
[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/CXXXX/C-6008-25.pdf]N-AcetyIneuraminic Acid, Sialic acid; NANA; Neu5Ac, 25mg
Thanks everyone, so glad I come here. I will tell him about the lupron shot. My Uncle does not complain but we know he is very tired and he is losing the strength in his arms (he is a commercial builder). The doctor asked him if he was reading the Snuffy Myers book when he asked about Intermittent. I told him he is going to have to wait until he can approach that question again.. ...
I received and email from someone that is putting together a PSA on scams and is looking for scam victims to interview. If you fit the following criteria, please contact me so I can get you in touch with her as soon as possible ...
In previous studies, we have shown that the highly sialylated renal anti-adhesin Podocalyxin (PC) is expressed in the developing brain [13], [14 ...
Abstract: Isoforms of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) carrying the linear homopolymer of alpha 2,8-linked sialic acid (polysialic acid, PSA) have emerged as particularly attractive candidates for promoting plasticity in the nervous system. The large negatively charged PSA chain of NCAM is postulated to be a spacer that reduces adhesion forces between cells allowing dynamic changes in membrane contacts. Accumulating evidence also suggests that PSA-NCAM-mediated interactions lead to activation of intracellular signaling cascades that are fundamental to the biological functions of the molecule. An important role of PSA-NCAM appears to be during development, when its expression level is high and where it contributes to the regulation of cell shape, growth or migration. However, PSA-NCAM does persist in adult brain structures such as the hippocampus that display a high degree of plasticity where it is involved in activity-induced synaptic plasticity. Recent advances in the field of ...
Objective- In view of the possible link between serum sialic acid and cardiovascular disease in the general population, we investigated whether serum total and lipid-associated sialic concentrations are elevated in NIDDM patients compared with normal subjects. We also investigated how sialic acid levels relate to glycemic control, blood pressure, microalbuminuria, retinopathy, and serum lipid levels.. Research Design and Methods- We selected 20 NIDDM patients at random and matched them for age and sex with 20 normal subjects. The patients also had a similar BMI as the control subjects. A first morning blood sample was taken for sialic acid, glucose, fructosamine, and lipid analysis, as was a first morning urine sample for assessment of microalbuminuria. Retinopathy was assessed by fundoscopy.. Results- Both total and lipid-associated sialic acid levels were elevated in the NIDDM patients compared with control subjects (mean ± SD, total: 0.74 ± 0.11 vs. 0.60 ± 0.22 g/L, P , 0.02; ...
Fibrinogen-bound sialic acid levels were determined in 75 normal controls and 80 patients with liver disease. Patients with abnormal fibrin monomer polymerisation (FMP) had sialic acid levels significantly higher than controls or patients with normal FMP. Enzymatic removal of sialic acid from the abnormal fibrinogens corrected the abnormal FMP and thrombin-clotting times to the range of desialated controls. The accelerating effects of calcium ions, protamine sulphate and Polybrene were largely abolished by desialation, suggesting that these cations accelerate FMP by neutralising the negativity charged sialic acid residues. ...
Lindberg and colleagues report on a fascinating observation that serum sialic acid level predicts cardiovascular (and noncardiovascular) mortality. The studys classical design of measuring a factor and relating it to subsequent mortality was greatly strengthened by its large community-based sample. However, this study raises several concerns. First, it is unclear whether any hypothesis about sialic acid had been set out by the investigators 20 years ago or whether this was part of the series of protein measurements that was done without a particular hypothesis. Second, because the measurement of sialic acid was done in the 1960s, another sialated protein may have been measured. Third, many more risk factors for coronary disease are known now than were known 20 years ago; for example, the only lipid measured in that study was total cholesterol. Thus, the relation of other lipids and lipoproteins to sialic acid could not be determined. Also, no data on cigarette smoking were provided. Fourth, ...
Calcium is essential for the maintenance of contraction in the heart, and it has been suggested that the glycoprotein matrix on the external surface of cardiac cells is a critical factor in the supply of activator calcium to the beating heart. Sialic acid residues are important calcium-binding sites in the matrix and treatment with neuraminidase, an enzyme which cleaves sialic acid from oligosaccharide chains, has been reported to abolish spontaneous contraction in cultured heart cells, without causing general breakdown in the plasma membrane. However, we report here that in intact, electrically stimulated guinea pig atrial preparations, neuraminidase treatment produces no significant changes in resting tension or force of contraction. It is also without effect on the response to calcium removal and replacement, and inotropic or toxic concentrations of cardiac glycosides. In these experiments, up to 79% of the total tissue sialic acid was removed, and electron microscopy studies showed that this
B-lymphocyte antigen CD22 is a member of the recently described sialoadhesin family of immunoglobulin-like cell-surface glycoproteins that bind glycoconjugates terminating in sialic acid. One prominent ligand for CD22 is the highly glycosylated leukocyte surface protein CD45. Using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, we characterized the interaction of recombinant mouse CD22 with native CD45 purified from rat thymus (CD45-thy). By in situ desialylation and resialylation of immobilized CD45-thy, we show that mouse CD22 binds to the sialoglycoconjugate NeuGc alpha 2-6Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc carried on CD45-thy N-glycans. Previous studies have shown that the sialic acid-binding site lies within the two membrane-distal domains of CD22 (domains 1 and 2), which are V-set and C2-set immunoglobulin superfamily domains, respectively. To further localize the binding site, we have made 42 single amino acid substitutions throughout both domains. All 12 mutations that abrogated binding to CD45-thy without disrupting
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Purpose Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a metabolic disease characterized by the impairment of glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Sialic acid (SA) is a component of glycolipid and glycoproteins found in hormone and enzymes in serum and tissues and high serum SA levels are observed in diabetic patients. ...
We have generated two transgenic mice strains (one is overexpressing the mutated key enzyme of the sialic acid biosynthesis, which leads to high sialic acid levels and one has a defect in the sialic acid biosynthesis). Both strains will be compared with wild-type animals. We plan to analyse O-GlcNAc, sialic acid, sialic acid binding proteins and sialic acid-dependent differentiation markers in all organs over the whole lifespan and quantify age-dependent muscle performance in vivo. The outcome of metabolic sialic acid engineering will be analysed in embryonic stem cells (differentiation) and neuronal cells (neurite outgrowth e.g. regeneration). We also plan to analyse the involvement of sialylation and O-GlcNAcylation on the function of endothelial cells. After metabolic engineering we will analyse their barrier capacity and age-related impact on neuronal cells by real-time cell analysis. Since high levels of glucose induce glycation of proteins, we will analyse the function of an artificial ...
We have generated two transgenic mice strains (one is overexpressing the mutated key enzyme of the sialic acid biosynthesis, which leads to high sialic acid levels and one has a defect in the sialic acid biosynthesis). Both strains will be compared with wild-type animals. We plan to analyse O-GlcNAc, sialic acid, sialic acid binding proteins and sialic acid-dependent differentiation markers in all organs over the whole lifespan and quantify age-dependent muscle performance in vivo. The outcome of metabolic sialic acid engineering will be analysed in embryonic stem cells (differentiation) and neuronal cells (neurite outgrowth e.g. regeneration). We also plan to analyse the involvement of sialylation and O-GlcNAcylation on the function of endothelial cells. After metabolic engineering we will analyse their barrier capacity and age-related impact on neuronal cells by real-time cell analysis. Since high levels of glucose induce glycation of proteins, we will analyse the function of an artificial ...
Sialic acids are essential molecule with high structural diversity. metastasis and growth, microbiome biology, and pathology. It allows molecular mimicry in pathogens which allows them to flee sponsor immune responses. Sialic acidity offers discovered part in therapeutics Recently. In this section weve highlighted the (i) variety of sialic acidity, (ii) their event in the varied existence forms, (iii) sialylation and disease, and (iv) sialic acidity and therapeutics. (((((((pathogen C [78] and murine hepatitis S pathogen [81], respectively. 3.1. acetyltransferases can be found: (a) acetyl-CoA:sialate 7 [9]-((((((NeuD can be thought to enter the standard PSA biosynthetic pathway via NeuA/NeuS [164]; light-green discontinuous arrow: LPS can be exposed for the external membrane. Asterisk: LPS sialyltransferase; NanC, Neu5Ac-specific porin; Kps, PSA capsule export program; SatABCD, Neu5Ac ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter; SiaPQM, Neu5Ac Capture (tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic) ...
The hemolymph of the Japanese beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, contains a lectin with a specificity for β-D-galactose 1 . This lectin, which can be purified by affinity and ion-exchange chromatography, is composed of two isolectins, Allo A-I and Allo A-II. The material provided by EY Laboratories is a mixture of the two isolectins, with Allo A-II being the predominant isolectin. Allo A is active between pH 5-9. Allo A has a greater binding affinity for β-D-galactose than RCA-I and it does not bind to α-D-galactose 2. Immobilized Allo A-II binds most strongly with α2,6 sialylated complex-type oligosaccharides, but free N-acetylneuraminic acid up to 2M does not displace such glycoconjugates, nor does α2,3-link sialic acid react with the lectin 3 . In spleen cell activation studies the Allo A lectin has been shown to be as mitogenic as Con A and more mitogenic than PHA-L. In the production of Interleukin-2 (Il-2), at a concentration of 0.5 µg/ml, Allo A had higher Il-2 units production than Con ...
Variations of serum sialic acid level in liver cirrhosis. Saatea Arif, Najeeb-ul-Haq, Ruhila Hanif, A. Sattar Khan, Jamil-ur-Rehman, Taufeeq Ahmed Mufti. Comparison of students performance under composite scheme and split scheme of first professional MBBS. examination. Tehseen Iqbal, Naila Hamid, Hamid Javaid ...
Artemin (ARTN) is a neurotrophic factor from the GDNF family ligands (GFLs) that is involved in development of the nervous system and neuronal differentiation and survival. ARTN signals through a complex receptor system consisting of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored co-receptor GFL receptor α, GFRα3. We found that ARTN binds directly to neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and that ARTN-induced neuritogenesis requires NCAM expression and activation of NCAM-associated signaling partners, thus corroborating that NCAM is an alternative receptor for ARTN. We designed a small peptide, artefin, that could interact with GFRα3 and demonstrated that this peptide agonist induces RET phosphorylation and mimics the biological functions of ARTN - neuroprotection and neurite outgrowth. Moreover, artefin mimicked the binding of ARTN to NCAM and required NCAM expression and activation for its neurite elongation effect, thereby suggesting that artefin represents a binding
In human serum, at least two molecular species of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) with molecular weights of 110,000-130,000 and 150,000-180,000, respectively, can be identified by Western blotting. Both are characterized by the absence of epitopes for monoclonal antibodies KD11 and MG5, which specifically recognize intracellular domains of the human NCAM transmembrane isoforms, NCAM-140 and NCAM-180. In contrast to the Mr 110,000-130,000 molecule also detectable in serum samples from healthy blood donors, the Mr 150,000-180,000 molecule appears to be tumor associated. The only difference between these two species is shown to be the presence of long chains of α-(2,8)-linked N-acetylneuraminic acids, which are characteristic for the so-called embryonic NCAM form. After treatment with endoneuraminidase N, the Mr 150,000-180,000 molecule can no longer be discriminated from the Mr 110,000-130,000 molecule in Western blotting as well as gel and anion exchange chromatography experiments. The ...
Langley, K. und Gratzl, Manfred (1991): Neural Cells adhesion Molecule NCAM in neural and endocrine cells. In: Gratzl, Manfred und Langley, K. (Hrsg.): Markers for Neural and Endocrine Cells : molecular and cell biology, diagnostic applications. Winheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag. S. 133-178 [PDF, 6MB] ...
Paper: Significance Of Serum Lipid Peroxides, Total And Lipid-Bound Sialic Acid As Markers For Liver Diseases , Author: Thanaa Hamed, Mahasen Abdel Sattar, Fauna Abd El- Salam*, Sherif Abou El Dahab**, and Amal Idris , Year: 2000 , Faculty of Medicine, Benha University
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Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged ...
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged ...
Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for men and women worldwide, causing 3.9 million (45% of all deaths) each year in Europe alone [1]. CVD encompasses a wide array of diseases such as heart attack, stroke and coronary artery disease. Assessing CVD risk can be complex, due to the multitude of factors to consider. Taken together, these factors form risk assessments such as QRISK, giving a percentage chance of mortality in a given time frame [2]. While QRISK gives good insight into broad CVD risk factors, it may not be entirely accurate [3]. Therefore, biomarkers that could be used to improve the prediction of CVD mortality are of interest. These would not replace assessments such as QRISK but rather be used in conjunction for more accurate risk management. Sialic acid (Neu5Ac) has previously been identified as a biomarker for CVD [4]. Neu5Ac content can be affected by several other factors separate from CVD, as such five di-O-acetylated derivatives of Neu5Ac have been ...
Diabetes is estimated to affect over 25 million individuals in the U.S., and 285 million people worldwide, said Jane J. Kim, M.D., a -participating researcher from the Department of Pediatrics at the University of California, San Diego in La Jolla, CA. Our study for the first time links human-specific sialic acid changes to insulin and glucose metabolism and therefore opens up a new perspective in understanding the causes of diabetes.. The researchers studied two groups of mice that lacked CMAH. They found they could not produce a type of sialic acid called NeuSGc. The second group of mice were normal. When the mice were given a high fat diet, leading them to become obese. Only the mice lacking the ability to produce sialic acid on the cell surface from absence of NeuSGc developed impaired insulin production.. Gerald Weissmann, M.D., Editor-in-Chief of the FASEB Journal wonders if humans lack the CMAH enzyme for a reason related to survival. Perhaps it is a defense against bacteria or ...
In N-acetylneuraminic acid, apart from O9 and O8, a possible glycosylation site is the O4 position. For example, gangliosides HLG-2 and HPG-7 are considered to be potential lead compounds for carbohydrate-based drug development to treat neural disorders. However, the construction of their α(1 → 4) fucosyl sialic acid and α(2 → 4) linkages between sialic acids is difficult because of the regioselec ...
Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
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No data available that match "sialic acids"


No data available that match "sialic acids"


  • Unlike closely related hemagglutinin neuraminidase RBPs from other genera of the Paramyxoviridae , SosV-RBP and other pararubulavirus RBPs lack many of the stringently conserved residues required for sialic acid recognition and hydrolysis. (pnas.org)
  • WGA was shown to bind to sialic acid residues attached to galactose at the α-2,3 position in the glycocalyx on the apical membrane. (ebscohost.com)
  • Amino acid residues (circles) are given as their single-letter designations, and where applicable the charge is also indicated. (asm.org)
  • Enzymatic removal of sialic acids results in the removal of galactose residues from the EPS upon subsequent treatment with b-galactosidase, indicating a linkage between galactose and sialic acid at the terminus of glycan chains. (wur.nl)
  • This work indicates the importance of sialic acids in the protection of penultimate sugar residues of glycoproteins in EPS, and provides basis for future research in the composition of EPS from biofilms and granular sludge. (wur.nl)
  • Through the use of site-directed mutagenesis to eliminate the single N-linked glycosylation site of DAF and of a chimeric receptor protein in which the O-glycosylated domain of DAF was replaced by a region of the HLA-B44 molecule, a role in EV70 binding for the sialic acid residues of DAF was excluded, suggesting the existence of at least one additional, sialylated EV70-binding factor at the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • Further, we demonstrate that critical sialic acid residues for EV70 binding do not reside in either the N-linked or O-linked glycosylation domains of DAF, implicating additional factors in EV70 attachment and entry. (asm.org)
  • Amino acid residues 283-297 from sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9) form a cyclic peptide ligand targeting vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1). (mdpi.com)
  • All influenza virus attachment requires terminal sialic acid residues and two major linkages between sialic acid (Neu5Ac) and the penultimate galactose (Gal) residues of carbohydrate side chains are found in nature, Neu5Ac(α2,3)-Gal and Neu5Ac(α2,6)-Gal. (dcu.ie)
  • Here we investigate the role of sialic acid residues in the assembly of C5b-7 intermediates on erythrocyte cell membranes. (rupress.org)
  • Disruption of sialic acid residues within the endothelial glycocalyx using neuraminidase perfusion decreased endothelial glycocalyx depth and increased apparent solute permeability to albumin in the same vessels in a timedependent manner, with changes in all three true vessel wall permeability coefficients (hydraulic conductivity, reflection coefficient, and diffusive solute permeability). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • These novel technologies expand the range of techniques that permit direct studies of the structure of the endothelial glycocalyx and dependent microvascular functions in vivo, and demonstrate that sialic acid residues within the endothelial glycocalyx are critical regulators of microvascular permeability to both water and albumin. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Plasmodium falciparum takes advantage of two broadly defined alternate invasion pathways when infecting human erythrocytes: one that depends on and the other that is independent of host sialic acid residues on the erythrocyte surface. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • Quantification of free and total sialic acid excretion by LC-MS/MS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A LC-MS/MS method for quantification of FSA and total sialic acid (TSA) in urine is developed and validated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The total sialic acid concentrations are highest in colostrum, reaching levels of 5.04 mmol liter −1 , and they subsequently decrease by almost 80% after 3 months ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Sialylation of biotherapeutics can also be important, and we present a plate-based streamlined workflow for quantitation of total sialic acid. (biopharminternational.com)
  • For quantitative determination of free and total sialic acid (NANA) and evaluation of drug effects on sialic acid. (bioassaysys.com)
  • I'm interested in receiving more information about Gly-SA™ Total Sialic Acid Quantitation Kit (48-ct) [GS48-SAQ]. (prozyme.com)
  • I'm interested in receiving a price quotation for Gly-SA™ Total Sialic Acid Quantitation Kit (48-ct) [GS48-SAQ]. (prozyme.com)
  • The most common member of this group is N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac or NANA) found in animals and some prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common Sias are N -acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N -glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). (pnas.org)
  • The most common sialic acid derivate found in mammals is N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) which bears an acetyl group on the fifth carbon atom (C5). (aacrjournals.org)
  • EV70 and CVA24v are both known to use 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) for cell attachment, thus providing a putative link between the glycan receptor specificity and cell tropism and disease. (ebscohost.com)
  • Note that the numbers in panel A indicate the relative carbon atoms in Neu5Ac and each of the succeeding ulosonic acids. (asm.org)
  • Sialic acids comprise a large family of nine-carbon monosaccharides called neuraminic acids, the most common of which is N -acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), for which the name of sialic acid is also used. (asm.org)
  • We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. (nih.gov)
  • A ) Sialic aciduria was determined by quantification of the levels of urinary Neu5Ac excretion and compared with known causes of sialic aciduria. (jci.org)
  • B ) As part of the diagnostics of sialic aciduria, quantification of Neu5Ac levels in fibroblasts was performed, showing normal levels in contrast to known causes (all n = 1). (jci.org)
  • The most common sialic acid in humans is a mono-N-acetylated version termed Neu5Ac. (biochemj.org)
  • Produces N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid (KDN). (mybiosource.com)
  • Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) cleaves off sialic acid from cellular receptors of hemagglutinin (HA) to enable progeny escape from infected cells. (nih.gov)
  • Viral infections are initiated by attachment of the virus to host cell surface receptors, including sialic acid-containing glycans. (ebscohost.com)
  • It's not absolute that there are no sialic acid receptors of those types in other species. (virology.ws)
  • Recent findings indicate that the ability of these two receptors to bind sialic acids might be important to induce tolerance to self-antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • More than 55 genes, encoding receptors, enzymes, and transporters, are known to be involved in sialic acid biology. (springer.com)
  • Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SA-alpha-2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract, explain Ramona Trebbien of the Technical University of Denmark in Copenhagen and co-authors there and at the University of Copenhagen. (thepigsite.com)
  • To understand the molecular basis of coronavirus attachment to oligosaccharide receptors, we determined cryo-EM structures of coronavirus OC43 S glycoprotein trimer in isolation and in complex with a 9-O-acetylated sialic acid. (pdbj.org)
  • Many viruses, including the related feline calicivirus, use terminal sialic acids (SA) as receptors for infection. (asm.org)
  • Western blot analysis of extracted pharyngeal cell membrane proteins identified three potential sialic acid-containing receptors for the M protein. (asm.org)
  • 1. Influenza virus binds to cell receptors via sialic acid (SA)-linked glycoproteins. (hkmj.org)
  • Within the sialic acid-dependent (SAD) and sialic acid-independent (SAID) invasion pathways, several alternate host receptors are used by P. falciparum based on its particular invasion phenotype. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • Sialic acids are a class of alpha-keto acid sugars with a nine-carbon backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialic acids (Sias) are nine-carbon sugars typically found as outermost units on the mammalian cellular glycocalyx and on secreted glycoproteins ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Over four decades ago, specific tumor characteristics were ascribed to the increased expression of sialic acid sugars on the surface of cancer cells, and this led to the definition of sialic acids as potential therapeutic targets. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor cells of various origins feature increased expression of sialic acid sugars on membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids and their secretion into the tumor microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sialic acids, a subset of nine carbon acidic sugars, often exist as the terminal sugars of glycans on either glycoproteins or glycolipids on the cell surface. (mdpi.com)
  • These amino sugars act as sialic acid precursor molecules and therefore are metabolized to the corresponding sialic acid species and expressed on glycoconjugates. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Schauer, R. (2004) Sialic acids: fascinating sugars in higher animals and man. (springer.com)
  • Structures of sialic acids and related keto sugars. (asm.org)
  • FTIR analysis shows upon selective removal of sialic acids a decrease in carbohydrates, extension of the protein side chain, and exposure of penultimate sugars. (wur.nl)
  • A novel agglutinin with specificity for sialic acid sequence of sugars in thyroglobulin is identified in the hemolymph of Scylla serrata . (springer.com)
  • Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon amino sugars that are prevalent in mucus rich environments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SIALIC ACID is a general name for nine carbon acidic sugars with N- or O-substituted derivatives. (bioassaysys.com)
  • The most common member of these sugars is N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA). (bioassaysys.com)
  • Recent experiments have demonstrated the presence of sialic acid in the cancer-secreted extracellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The investigation reported in this thesis includes a comparative study of the sialic acid content of numerous avian egg whites, the distribution of sialic acid in the constituents of the chicken egg and an attempt to correlate the presence of sialic acid in the structural elements of the egg to their properties with emphasis on those structural elements and properties which exhibit changes during the incubation of intact infertile eggs. (unl.edu)
  • No correlation was found between the presence of sialic acid and the stability of yolk membranes as determined by alkaline incubation. (unl.edu)
  • the presence of sialic acid inhibits the generation of C5b6, but once the membrane attack pathway is initiated, sialic acid enhances complement lysis. (rupress.org)
  • Sialic acids are commonly part of glycoproteins, glycolipids or gangliosides, where they decorate the end of sugar chains at the surface of cells or soluble proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialic acid containing glycoproteins (sialoglycoproteins) bind selectin in humans and other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastatic cancer cells often express a high density of sialic acid-rich glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialic acid-rich oligosaccharides on the glycoconjugates (glycolipids, glycoproteins, proteoglycans) found on surface membranes help keep water at the surface of cells[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early work on EV70 receptor utilization indicated that sialic acid, a terminal, negatively charged sugar molecule commonly found on cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids, was required for viral hemagglutination of human erythrocytes ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Aldehydes can be selectively introduced into sialic acid containing glycoproteins by treatment with dilute sodium periodate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sialic acids are important components of glycoproteins and glycolipids essential for cellular communication, infection, and metastasis. (jci.org)
  • Many of these reports have focused on the adherence of streptococci to various glycoproteins, including fibronectin ( 30 , 31 , 40 , 49 ), plasminogen ( 34 ), and collagen ( 9 ) and on the interaction of the streptococcal capsular polysaccharide to hyaluronic acid binding proteins on epithelial cells ( 43 ). (asm.org)
  • 1. Although glycoproteins with less than 1% of sialic acid (fibrinogen, lipoproteins, gamma-globulins) interact electrostatically with chondromucoprotein to form insoluble complexes, interaction with glycoproteins containing larger amounts of sialic acid (orosomucoid, urine glycoprotein, seromucoid, fraction VI) was electrostatically impossible. (biochemj.org)
  • 2. The latter glycoproteins interacted with chondromucoprotein after mild acid hydrolysis or neuraminidase treatment, complex-formation being inversely related to their sialic acid content. (biochemj.org)
  • 4. These results are discussed in relation to the carbohydrate composition and biological activities of euglobulin fractions, and of complexes formed by adding chondromucoprotein to abnormal plasmas which may contain sialic acid-deficient glycoproteins owing to faulty carbohydrate metabolism. (biochemj.org)
  • Although sialic acids are present on the GP 3 , GP 4 and GP 5 envelope glycoproteins, only the M/GP 5 glycoprotein complex of PRRSV was identified as a ligand for sialoadhesin. (prolekare.cz)
  • Comparative serum glycoproteomics using lectin selected sialic acid glycoproteins with mass spectrometric analysis: application to pancreatic cancer serum. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • Sialic acid can "hide" mannose antigens on the surface of host cells or bacteria from mannose-binding lectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your search returned 16 sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 11 Biomolecules across 6 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Two members of the Siglec (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin) family, CD22 and Siglec-G have been shown to inhibit the BCR signal. (frontiersin.org)
  • Avril T, Wagner ER, Willison HJ, Crocker PR (2006) Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 7 mediates selective recognition of sialylated glycans expressed on Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides. (springer.com)
  • We determined the crystal structure of the globular head region of SosV-RBP, revealing that while the glycoprotein presents a classical paramyxoviral six-bladed β-propeller fold and structurally classifies in close proximity to paramyxoviral RBPs with hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) functionality, it presents a receptor-binding face incongruent with sialic acid recognition. (pnas.org)
  • Hemadsorption and neuraminidase activity analysis confirms the limited capacity of SosV-RBP to interact with sialic acid in vitro and indicates that SosV-RBP undergoes a nonclassical route of host-cell entry. (pnas.org)
  • For determination of TSA an enzymatic (neuraminidase) and a chemical (acid) hydrolysis were compared. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Values of SA analyzed after neuraminidase- or acid hydrolysis treatment were comparable. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In early work, the EV70 receptor on erythrocytes, responsible for its hemagglutinating activity, was shown to be sensitive to neuraminidase, implying an essential role for sialic acid in virus attachment. (asm.org)
  • The sialic acid content of the egg whites of 23 avian species has been determined by colorimetric assay after liberation of sialic acid by acid hydrolysis or by neuraminidase. (unl.edu)
  • Radioactive gangliosides were isolated and selectively degraded with bacterial neuraminidase and rat liver beta-galactosidase to Tay-Sachs ganglioside-(3)H. Radioactivity in the labeled product was confined to the N-acetyl-neuraminic acid portion of the molecule. (eurekamag.com)
  • After preincubation with neuraminidase, which released 90-100% of the sialic acid from the membranes of the synaptic vesicles and the nerve endings, the electron-dense deposits marked the reaction sites of sulphate with CIH. (biologists.org)
  • The method described allows the electron-microscopical demonstration of acid-resistant, neuraminidase-sensitive sialic acid in synaptic structures and the discrimination from sulphated mucopolysaccharides. (biologists.org)
  • The neuraminidase of 2007-2008 A(H1N1) viruses has an increased affinity for sialic acids as compared with the N1 of previously circulating viruses. (pasteur.fr)
  • Using site-directed mutagenesis analysis and an enzymatic assay on cells transiently expressing the viral neuraminidase, the amino acid changes that could account for the particular enzymatic properties of the neuraminidase of 2007-2008 A(H1N1) viruses were explored. (pasteur.fr)
  • The alpha-anomer is the form that is found when sialic acid is bound to glycans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. (jci.org)
  • Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9.5) in mice. (jci.org)
  • In general, sialic acids terminate the outer end of glycans (sialoglycans), where they are enzymatically linked to other carbohydrates, such as the monosaccharide galactose, by glycosidic bonds. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While the wild-type NA efficiently cleaves sialic acid from both α2-6- and α2-3-linked glycans, the mutant exhibits much reduced enzymatic activity toward both types of sialosides. (nih.gov)
  • As a terminal substitution on many glycans, sialic acid plays a critical role in a range of recognition events in biology. (springer.com)
  • Sialic acid (Sia) is a highly important constituent of glycoconjugates, such as N- and O-glycans or glycolipids. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Patient primary fibroblasts and serum showed a considerable decrease in the amount of N- and O-glycans terminating in sialic acid. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Sialic acids are components of cell-surface glycans and play important roles in cell-cell communication and host-pathogen interaction. (springer.com)
  • Sialic acids are a family of acidic monosaccharides that typically reside as terminal moieties on N- and O-linked glycans. (dcu.ie)
  • Recent advances in glycobiology and cancer research have defined the key processes underlying aberrant expression of sialic acids in cancer, and its consequences, more precisely. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Collectively, these novel insights provide further rationale for the design and development of therapeutic approaches that interfere with excessively high expression of sialic acids in cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In line with their vital role in many physiologic processes, several lines of evidence imply that aberrant expression of sialic acids confers major advantages to tumor cells, ranging from inhibition of apoptosis to resistance to cancer therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By modifying the expression of sialic acid on the cell surface, sialic acid-dependent interactions will consequently be influenced. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Via metabolic glycoengineering (MGE), the expression of sialic acid on the cell surface can be modulated. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Phylogeny of selected sialic acid aldolase (NanA), epimerase (NanE), and kinase (NanK) polypeptides involved in microbial sialic acid catabolism. (asm.org)
  • The cluster of genes encoding the enzymes N -acetylneuraminate lyase (NanA), epimerase (NanE), and kinase (NanK), necessary for the catabolism of sialic acid (the Nan cluster), are confined 46 bacterial species, 42 of which colonize mammals, 33 as pathogens and 9 as gut commensals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The catabolic pathway of sialic acid involves several steps beginning with NanA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The DSLA-100 assay kit is based on the oxidation of sialic acid with periodate and detection of the reaction product formyl pyruvic acid with thiobarbituric acid.The ESLA-100 assay kit is based on enzymatic digestion of sialic acid with NANA-aldolase (N-acetyl-neuraminic acid aldolase) and detection of the breakdown product pyruvate. (bioassaysys.com)
  • There are receptor families that specifically recognize sialoglycans such as selectins or sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Through investigation of the virion envelope-displayed SosV host-cell receptor binding protein, we provide a molecular-level rationale for how SosV undergoes a sialic acid-independent host-cell entry pathway, which contrasts the glycan reliance of related orthorubulaviruses, including mumps virus. (pnas.org)
  • Due to its position at the non-reducing termini of oligo-and polysaccharides, as well as its unique chemical characteristics, sialic acid is involved in a multitude of different receptor-ligand interactions. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Angata T, Hayakawa T, Yamanaka M, Varki A, Nakamura M (2006) Discovery of Siglec-14, a novel sialic acid receptor undergoing concerted evolution with Siglec-5 in primates. (springer.com)
  • We have shown recently that adenovirus types 8, 19a, and 37, which are the major causes of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, use sialic acid rather than CAR as a major cellular receptor. (diva-portal.org)
  • Human adenovirus type 26 uses sialic acid as a primary cellular receptor-structural insights for this phase 3 vaccine vector. (sciencemag.org)
  • The soluble sialoadhesin could bind PRRSV in a sialic acid-dependent manner and could neutralize PRRSV infection of macrophages, thereby confirming the role of sialoadhesin as an essential PRRSV receptor on macrophages. (prolekare.cz)
  • Human erythrocyte band 3 functions as a receptor for the sialic acid-independent invasion of Plasmodium falciparum. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • The possible impact of the sialic acid content and the activity of sialidase on stroke severity was also evaluated. (hindawi.com)
  • This study shows that low sialic acid erythrocyte concentrations with contemporary high sialic acid plasma levels and elevated sialidase activity can be considered as markers of ischemic stroke. (hindawi.com)
  • DAS181 (Fludase), a novel sialidase fusion protein that enzymatically removes sialic acids on respiratory epithelium, exhibits. (ebscohost.com)
  • Increased levels of sialic acid associated with a sialidase deficiency in I-cell disease (mucolipidosis II) fibroblasts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Increased sialidase activity mediates the release of sialic acid from intestinal tissue, which promotes the outgrowth of E. coli during inflammation. (uzh.ch)
  • Oral administration of a sialidase inhibitor and low levels of intestinal α2,3-linked sialic acid decrease E. coli outgrowth and the severity of colitis in mice. (uzh.ch)
  • Many bacteria are known to access sialic acid using sialidase enzymes. (biochemj.org)
  • When incubated with its cognate sialidase, NanS increased sialic acid release from mucin and oral epithelial cell surfaces, implying that this esterase improves sialic acid harvesting for this pathogen and potentially other members of the oral microbiome. (biochemj.org)
  • Furthermore, several modifiable cardiovascular risk factors were associated with serum sialic acid. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adams D, Wasserstein M. Free Sialic Acid Storage Disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Free sialic acid storage disorders result from defective free sialic acid transport out of lysosomes caused by pathogenic variants in SLC17A5 , encoding the lysosomal transport protein sialin. (nih.gov)
  • The free sialic acid storage disorders are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. (nih.gov)
  • More than 50 kinds of sialic acid are known, all of which can be obtained from a molecule of neuraminic acid by substituting its amino group of one of its hydroxyl groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sialic acid family includes many derivatives of the nine-carbon sugar neuraminic acid, but these acids rarely appear free in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. (drugbank.ca)
  • These enzymes can be used for chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialic acid derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • A second chapter is devoted to the finer aspects of the modern, up-to-date chemical synthesis of the all-important glycosides of N -acetylneuraminic acid, a class of sialic acid derivatives with a myriad of functions. (elsevier.com)
  • 2001) Diversity of sialic acids revealed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of heptafluorobutyrate derivatives. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition occurs through a metabolic mechanism in which ManBut is converted to unnatural sialic acid derivatives that effectively act as chain terminators during cellular PSA biosynthesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Binds to alpha-2,6-linked sialic acid. (uniprot.org)
  • Further analysis revealed that the M protein binds to the sialic acid moieties on mucin, and this interaction seems to be based on M-protein conformation rather than specific amino acid sequences. (asm.org)
  • We now demonstrate that in addition to DPP4, MERS-CoV binds to sialic acid (Sia). (eur.nl)
  • In contrast to animals, humans are genetically unable to produce the sialic acid variant N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans are genetically unable to produce the sialic acid N -glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), because of a mutation that occurred after our last common ancestor with great apes. (pnas.org)
  • As we discussed previously , attachment of all influenza A virus strains to cells requires sialic acids. (virology.ws)
  • However, there are a number of chemically different forms of sialic acids, and influenza virus strains vary in their affinity for them. (virology.ws)
  • Avian influenza virus strains preferentially bind to sialic acids attached to galactose via an alpha(2,3) linkage. (virology.ws)
  • In contrast, human influenza virus strains preferentially attach to sialic acids attached to galactose by an alpha(2,6) linkage. (virology.ws)
  • For example, highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses undergo limited replication in the human respiratory tract due to the presence of some cells with alpha(2,3) linked sialic acids. (virology.ws)
  • Consistent with this hypothesis, the results of studies of early influenza virus isolates from the 1918, 1957, and 1968 pandemics suggest that these viruses preferentially recognized alpha(2,6) linked sialic acids. (virology.ws)
  • Here, we extend these results to show that cell surface sialic acid is required for EV70 binding to nucleated cells susceptible to virus infection and that sialic acid binding is important in productive infection. (asm.org)
  • Conclusions- Total serum sialic acid levels were significantly elevated in a relatively small group of NIDDM patients and were correlated with hypertension and retinopathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At screening, blood samples were taken from nonfasting participants, and serum sialic acid levels were measured by automatic analyzer. (acpjc.org)
  • For it to become active to enter in the oligosaccharide biosynthesis process of the cell, a monophosphate nucleoside is added, which comes from a cytidine triphosphate, turning sialic acid into cytidine monophosphate-sialic acid (CMP-sialic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Knocking out a key gene in sialic acid metabolism, Cmas , inhibits synthesis of the activated form of sialic acid, cytidine monophosphate-sialic acid and decreases the formation of lung metastases in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • In the hippocampus, significant dose-response relations were observed between amount of sialic acid supplementation and mRNA levels of ST8SIA4 (P = 0.002) and GNE (P = 0.004), corresponding with proportionate increases in protein-bound sialic acid concentrations in the frontal cortex. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Objective- In view of the possible link between serum sialic acid and cardiovascular disease in the general population, we investigated whether serum total and lipid-associated sialic concentrations are elevated in NIDDM patients compared with normal subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A larger study of circulating sialic acid concentrations as a risk factor for the development or marker of diabetic angiopathy is therefore justified. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Addition of D(+) glucosamine (0-5mM) to the media of these cells increased the intracellularfree sialic acid concentrations from 74 to 137 nmol/mgprotein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Simple and direct procedures for measuring sialic acid concentrations find wide applications in research and drug discovery. (bioassaysys.com)
  • CMP-sialic acid transporter is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC35A1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, the contribution of some H. pylori virulence factors, the blood group antigen-binding adhesin BabA, the sialic acid-binding adhesin SabA, the neutrophil-activating protein HP-NAP, and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, to the activation of human neutrophils in terms of adherence, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst was investigated. (gu.se)
  • Sialic acids play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes via carbohydrate-protein interactions, including cell-cell communication, bacterial and viral infections. (mdpi.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Feeding a protein-bound source of sialic acid during early development enhanced learning and increased expression of 2 genes associated with learning in developing piglets. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This technology can be used as a tool for quantitative analysis of protein sialylation in diseases with determination of sialic acid linkage configuration. (springer.com)
  • A method, such as the one presented here, that can detect these subtle differences, α2,3 versus α2,6-linked sialic acids, at the glycosylation site of the resident protein can provide an important tool to better understand the role of sialic acids in such biological processes. (springer.com)
  • Here we report the use of gold nanoparticles functionalised with a sialic acid ligand diluted with a polyethylene glycol (PEG) ligand for the plasmonic detection of a soluble form of murine Siglec-E (mSiglec-E-Fc fusion protein) and, importantly, for the specific detection of the same Siglec expressed on the surface of mammalian cells. (jic.ac.uk)
  • The gold nanoparticles were functionalised with various ratios of sialic acid:PEG ligands and the optimum ratio for the detection of murine Siglec-E was established based on the plasmonic detection of the soluble pre-complexed recombinant form of murine Siglec-E (mSiglec-E-Fc fusion protein). (jic.ac.uk)
  • The optimum ratio for the detection of the fusion protein was found to be sialic acid:PEG ligands in a 50:50 ratio (glyconanoparticles 1). (jic.ac.uk)
  • Therefore the primary objective of this thesis was the generation and characterisation of recombinant antisialic acid antibodies.A single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) library was constructed from a chicken that was immunised with a novel synthetic sialic acid protein-conjugate (Neu5Gchumanserum albumin). (dcu.ie)
  • Blood samples were analysed for the glucose, C-reactive protein, and sialic acid. (dovepress.com)
  • First, it is unclear whether any hypothesis about sialic acid had been set out by the investigators 20 years ago or whether this was part of the series of protein measurements that was done without a particular hypothesis. (acpjc.org)
  • Second, because the measurement of sialic acid was done in the 1960s, another sialated protein may have been measured. (acpjc.org)
  • We found that sialic acid also plays a critical role in the adherence of an M6 streptococcal strain to the Detroit 562 human pharyngeal cell line and have identified α2-6-linked sialic acid as an important sialylated linkage for M-protein recognition. (asm.org)
  • The ability of the HA protein to differentiate sialic acid linkages makes it an interesting candidate for use in the characterization of glycoprotein's potentially facilitating the discrimination of alternate glycoforms of biopharmaceutical therapeutics and their subsequent purification. (dcu.ie)
  • The sulphate groups which were present at a concentration of 2.3 and 2.2 µmol/mg protein for the synaptic vesicle and nerve ending membrane preparations, respectively, were rendered soluble as methyl monosulphate by trans-esterification with acid/methanol and quantitatively removed from the structures. (biologists.org)
  • A rapid and nondestructive method for determining the distribution map of protein content (PC), carbohydrate content (CC) and sialic acid content (SAC) on EBN sample was proposed. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • In addition, many cancer-related antigens contain terminal sialic acids or altered sialylation patterns. (dcu.ie)
  • The recent discovery that human noroviruses (huNoVs) recognize sialic acids (SAs) in addition to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) pointed to a new direction in studying virus-host interactions during calicivirus infection. (nature.com)
  • However, efficient human to human transmission requires that the avian viruses recognize sialic acids with alpha(2,6) linkages. (virology.ws)
  • Siglecs are expressed on most cells of the immune system and can transmit immunosuppressive signals upon binding to sialic acid ligands. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Implications for sialic acid recognition by siglecs. (springer.com)
  • Using a combination of transcriptomic and functional genomic approaches, we identified a gene cluster dedicated to the uptake and metabolism of sialic acid. (asm.org)
  • Uptake of sialic acid by human erythrocyte. (ad-astra.ro)
  • Joziasse et al, "Branch Specificity of Bovine Colostrum CMP-Sialic Acid: Galβ1→4GlcNAc-R α2→6-Sialyltransferase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • However, the biological role of sialic acid catabolism in humans remains unclear. (jci.org)
  • Here, we present evidence that sialic acid catabolism is important for heart and skeletal muscle function and development in humans and zebrafish. (jci.org)
  • In vitro, NPL activity and sialic acid catabolism were affected, with a cell-type-specific reduction of N-acetyl mannosamine (ManNAc). (jci.org)
  • In conclusion, we provide the first report to our knowledge of a human defect in sialic acid catabolism, which implicates an important role of the sialic acid catabolic pathway in mammalian muscle physiology, and suggests opportunities for monosaccharide replacement therapy in human patients. (jci.org)
  • Regulation of sialic acid catabolism opens new perspectives for the treatment of intestinal inflammation as manifested by E. coli dysbiosis. (uzh.ch)
  • Here we explore the evolution of the genes involved in the catabolism of sialic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We confirmed the predicted function of the sialic acid catabolism cluster in members the major intestinal pathogens Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, V. vulnificus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pestis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mawhinney, T. P. and Chance, D. L. (1994) Hydrolysis of sialic acids and O -acetylated sialic acids with propionic acid. (springer.com)
  • Our latest RUO kit, the Luna ® SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR Multiplex Assay Kit , enables high throughput workflows for real-time detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using hydrolysis probes. (neb.com)
  • By this treatment membrane-bound sialic acid was blocked as sialic acid methyl ester and partly split off by acid hydrolysis. (biologists.org)
  • Salla disease is a less severe form of sialic acid storage disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CMP-sialic acid is the activated form of sialic acid that is required for the biosynthesis of sialic acid-containing complex carbohydrates. (emdmillipore.com)
  • It is well known that erythrocytes have a large amount of sialic acid and could represent a model to investigate changes occurring in a pathology like stroke. (hindawi.com)
  • DESIGN: Piglets (n = 54) were allocated to 1 of 4 groups fed sow milk replacer supplemented with increasing amounts of sialic acid as casein glycomacropeptide for 35 d. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We found that sialic acid metabolism is upregulated in highly metastatic breast tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Predicted to have monosaccharide binding activity and sialic acid binding activity. (mcw.edu)
  • Also, we give an overview of the evolution of sialic acid biology in primates. (springer.com)
  • and that (iv) the ability of adenovirus knobs to interact with sialic acid correlates with the overall charge on the top surface of the respective knobs as predicted by homology modeling. (diva-portal.org)
  • Kit Contents: Sufficient reagent A, reagent B, buffer solution, stabilizer and standard serum for the measurement of sialic acid in serum. (eylabs.com)
  • Measurement of sialic acid, microalbumin, and waist to hip ratio along with the blood pressure is recommended for all type 2 diabetic patients to reduce the cardiovascular risk. (dovepress.com)
  • Monosaccharide and sialic acid analysis is applicable to all stages of biopharmaceutical development and manufacturing processes including cell line and clone selection, upstream and downstream process development and manufacturing in-process control, batch consistency and release. (thermofisher.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Sialic acid, a key component of both human milk oligosaccharides and neural tissues, may be a conditional nutrient during periods of rapid brain growth. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sialic acid accumulated in the cell is stored as free sialic acid as observed in Salla disease and infantile sialic acid storage disease or accumulates as bound to other glycopeptides or oligosaccharides as observed in sialidosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is accomplished by interaction of a glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), found on the surface of the viral lipid membrane with cell-surface oligosaccharides containing sialic acids. (dcu.ie)
  • The diagnosis of a free sialic acid storage disorder is suggested by significantly elevated free (i.e., unconjugated) sialic acid (referred to as N-acetylneuraminic acid, a negatively charged sugar) in urine and/or cerebrospinal fluid using the fluorimetric thiobarbituric acid assay, thin-layer chromatography, or mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • Urinary excretion of free sialic acid, measured by the fluorimetric thiobarbituric acid assay, thin-layer chromatography or mass spectrometry, is elevated about tenfold in individuals with Salla disease and about 100-fold in individuals with ISSD. (nih.gov)
  • BioAssay Systems sialic acid assay uses an improved Warren method, in which sialic acid is oxidized to formylpyruvic acid which reacts with thiobarbituric acid to form a pink colored product. (bioassaysys.com)
  • What is the difference between your two sialic acid assay kits? (bioassaysys.com)
  • Assay: Sialic Acid in human saliva. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Assay: Sialic Acid in rat tissue. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Assay: Sialic Acid in bovine brain gangliosides. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Assay: Sialic Acid in podocytes. (bioassaysys.com)
  • Below are the list of possible Sialic acid synthase products. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Sialic acid synthase (N-acetylneuraminate synthase) (N-acetylneuraminate-9-phosphate synthase) (N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphate synthase) (N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase). (mybiosource.com)
  • Mutations in the SLC17A5 gene cause all forms of sialic acid storage disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The importance of sialic acid biosynthesis in human physiology is well illustrated by the severe metabolic disorders in this pathway. (jci.org)
  • 1992) Nature and biosynthesis of sialic acids in the starfish Asterias rubens . (springer.com)
  • Sialic acids comprise a family of more than 50 carbohydrates that share a nine-carbon backbone (C1-9) to which specific chemical modifications are enzymatically attached inside the cell. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sialic acids are a group of monosaccharides with a nine-carbon backbone, commonly found in mammalian cells and pathogenic bacteria, and frequently described to protect EPS molecules and cells from attack by proteases or glycosidases. (wur.nl)
  • The present inventors have further found that even a tetraantennary N-type sugar chain having four α2,6-linked sialic acid molecules, which has previously been difficult to synthesize, can be prepared at high yields by one-pot synthesis comprising the elongation reaction of a biantennary sugar chain used as a starting material without performing purification after each enzymatic reaction. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • CMP substitutions preferentially inhibit polysialic acid synthesis. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Highlighted in orange is the donor-scavenging synthesis of sialic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Highlighted in pink is the de novo pathway for the synthesis of sialic acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS Our study revealed a progressive raise in serum sialic acid with increasing urinary albumin excretion rate in NIDDM patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • BACKGROUND: The main purpose for measuring urinary free sialic acid (FSA) is to diagnose sialic acid (SA) storage diseases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sialic acid storage disease (SASD) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by excessive urinary excretion of free sialic acid and an accumulation of free sialic acid in skin fibroblasts (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Urinary microalbumin was higher among diabetic subjects (28.9 ± 30.3 mg/L) compared with controls (8.4 ± 10.2 mg/L) and was significantly higher in diabetic patients with nephropathy (792.3 ± 803.9 mg/L). Serum sialic acid was higher in subjects with diabetic nephropathy (71.5 ± 23.3 mg/dL) compared to diabetics (66.0 ± 11.7 mg/dL) and controls (55.2 ± 8.3 mg/dL). (dovepress.com)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. (uniprot.org)
  • D ) Comparison of the amino acid sequences of NPL in human (Q9BXD5.1), zebrafish (CAP19481.1), mouse (NP_083025.1), dog (XP_005622466.1), chicken (NP_001026731.1, Xenopus (NP_001011207.1), and alpaca (XP_015101171.1), as well as 2 mutants. (jci.org)
  • This disorder is generally classified into one of three forms: infantile free sialic acid storage disease, Salla disease, and intermediate severe Salla disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The allelic disorders of free sialic acid metabolism - Salla disease, intermediate severe Salla disease, and infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD) ‒ are neurodegenerative disorders resulting from increased lysosomal storage of free sialic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Infantile sialic acid storage disease, Salla disease and intermediate severe Salla disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Reuter, G. and Schauer, R. (1994) Determination of sialic acids. (springer.com)
  • Determination of Sialic Acids in Liver and Milk Samples of Wild-type and CMAH Knock-out Mice. (jove.com)
  • Putative adhesion molecule that mediates sialic-acid dependent binding to cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Genome analysis gives a positive indication for putative production of sialic acids by the dominant bacteria Candidatus Accumulibacter. (wur.nl)
  • We found a putative sialic acid transporter associated with the Nan cluster in most species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sialin moves a molecule called free sialic acid, which is produced when certain proteins and fats are broken down, out of the lysosomes to other parts of the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interaction between complement proteins C5b-7 and erythrocyte membrane sialic acid. (rupress.org)
  • Our workflow delivers trace performance for monosaccharides and sialic acids without cumbersome and time consuming labeling protocols. (thermofisher.com)
  • The versatile Dionex ICS-6000 Hybrid HPIC System is a complete solution for the biopharma carbohydrate applications (monosaccharides, disaccharides, sialic acids, N - and O -linked oligosaccharide analysis, and more). (thermofisher.com)
  • Sialic acid in mammalian milks could play a role in cognitive development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sialic acid is widely distributed throughout mammalian tissues and fluids including serum. (bioassaysys.com)
  • The total bound sialic acid was substantially decreased in patients. (hindawi.com)
  • In the oncologic patients during the remission period the content of lipid-bound sialic acids in blood serum approached the normal level - 12.1 +/- 0.5 mg/100 ml. (curehunter.com)
  • This is the major sialic acid on epithelial cells of the duck gut. (virology.ws)
  • This is the major type of sialic acid present on human respiratory epithelial cells. (virology.ws)
  • Alpha(2,3) linked sialic acids are found on ciliated epithelial cells, which are a minor population within the human respiratory tract, and also on some epithelial cells in the lower tract. (virology.ws)
  • Epithelial cells of the pig trachea produce both alpha(2,3) and alpha(2,6) linked sialic acids. (virology.ws)

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