A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders caused by lysosomal membrane transport defects that result in accumulation of free sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) within the lysosomes. The two main clinical phenotypes, which are allelic variants of the SLC17A5 gene, are ISSD, a severe infantile form, or Salla disease, a slowly progressive adult form, named for the geographic area in Finland where the kindred first studied resided.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
A family of SIALIC ACID binding proteins found in vertebrate species. They are transmembrane proteins which act as cell surface receptors for a variety of sialylated GLYCOCONJUGATES. While a subset of siglec protein subtypes are evolutionarily conserved between mammalian species, there are many others that are species specific.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A sialic acid binding lectin that was originally identified as an adhesion molecule for inflammatory MACROPHAGES and activated MONOCYTES. This protein is the largest known siglec subtype and contains 16 immunoglobulin C2-set domains. It plays a role in cell to cell interactions and interactions with BACTERIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.
A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-acetylneuraminic acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or glycoprotein.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
An enzyme that forms CMP-acylneuraminic acids, which donate the N-acylneuraminic acid residues to the terminal sugar residue of a ganglioside or glycoprotein. EC 2.7.7.43.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It contains a hemagglutinin.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A subcategory of mucins that contain SIALIC ACID.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and consisting of 2 serotypes: Human enterovirus 68 and Human enterovirus 70.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A hexosaminidase with specificity for terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminides.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
A heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive MUSCULAR ATROPHY and MUSCLE WEAKNESS beginning in the hands, the legs, or the feet. Most are adult-onset autosomal dominant forms. Others are autosomal recessive.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.

Gangliosides of human kidney. (1/2052)

Five gangliosides isolated from human kidney have been characterized. The two main fractions were shown to be typical extraneural gangliosides in having lactose as their neutral carbohydrate moiety. Their structures were identified as: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-8)AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer. The two main hexosamine-containing gangliosides are structurally related to human blood group substances of glycosphingolipid nature. The following structures are postulated: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1)Cer and AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)[Fuc(alpha1-3)]GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1-1) Cer. The third hexosamine-containing ganglioside belongs to a different series of glycolipids and was shown to have the structure of a major ganglioside of human brain: AcNeu(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc(beta1-4)[AcNeu(alpha2-3)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(beta1- 1)Cer. The fatty acid structure of different gangliosides was shown to resemble that of neutral glycolipids of human kidney with the nonhydroxy acids C16:0, C22:0, and C24:0 as major components.  (+info)

Acid-catalyzed lactonization of alpha2,8-linked oligo/polysialic acids studied by high performance anion-exchange chromatography. (2/2052)

Recent studies from many laboratories revealed remarkable structural, distributional, and functional diversities of oligo/polysialic acids (OSA/PSA) that exist in organisms ranging from bacteria to man. These diversities are further complicated by the fact that OSA/PSA spontaneously form lactones under even mildly acidic conditions. By using high performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with nitrate eluents, we found that lactonization of alpha2,8-linked OSA/PSA (oligo/poly-Neu5Ac, oligo/poly-Neu5Gc and oligo/poly-KDN) proceeds readily, and the lactonization process displays three discrete stages. The initial stage is characterized by limited lactonization occurring between two internal sialic acid residues, reflected by a regular pattern of lactone peaks interdigitated with non-lactonized peaks on HPAEC. In the middle stage, multiple lactonized species are formed from a molecule with a given degree of polymerization (DP), in which the maximum number of lactone rings formed equals DP minus 2. At the final stage, completely lactonized species become the major components, resulting in drastic changes in the physicochemical properties of the sample. Interestingly, the smallest lactonizable OSA are tetramer, trimer, and dimer at the initial, middle, and final stages, respectively. At any of the stages, OSA/PSA of higher DP lactonize more rapidly, but all the lactone rings rapidly open up when exposed to mild alkali. Lactonized OSA/PSA are resistant to both enzyme- and acid-catalyzed glycosidic bond cleavage. The latter fact was utilized to obtain more high DP oligo/poly(alpha2,8-Neu5Gc) chains from a polysialoglycoprotein. Our results should be useful in preparation, storage, and analysis of OSA/PSA. Possible biological significance and bioengineering potentials of lactonization are discussed.  (+info)

Carbohydrate on human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor. Impairment of function by removal of specific galactose residues. (3/2052)

Human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor protein containing 120 +/- 12 nmol of sialic acid and 135 +/- 13 nmol of galactose/mg of protein was digested with neuraminidase. The affinity of native factor VIII/von Willebrand factor and its asialo form for the hepatic lectin that specifically binds asialoglycoproteins was assessed from in vitro binding experiments. Native factor VIII/von Willebrand factor exhibited negligible affinity while binding of the asialo derivative was comparable to that observed for asialo-alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Incubation of asialo-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor with Streptococcus pneumoniae beta-galactosidase removed only 62% of the galactose but abolished binding to the purified hepatic lectin. When the asialo derivative was incubated with purified beta-D-galactoside alpha2 leads to 6 sialyltransferase and CMP-[14C]NeuAc, only 61% of the galactose incorporated [14C]NeuAc. From the known specificites of these enzymes, it is concluded that galactose residues important in lectin binding are present in a terminal Gal/beta1 leads to 4GlcNAc sequence on asialo-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor. The relative ristocetin-induced platelet aggregating activity of native, asialo-, and agalacto-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor was 100:38:12, respectively, while procoagulant activity was 100:100:103.  (+info)

Stable thiobarbituric acid chromophore with dimethyl sulphoxide. Application to sialic acid assay in analytical de-O-acetylation. (4/2052)

With dimethyl sulphoxide instead of butanol in the thiobarbituric acid assay for sialic acid, a non-fading chromophore with lambdamax. = 549 nm was produced in a homogeneous solution, allowing dilution of the test mixture in case of high colour yield. This test adapted well to studies on alkaline de-O-acetylation. Bovine and rat submaxillary mucins, and rabbit Tamm-Horsfall urinary sialoproteins contain O-acetyl isomers of neuramine acid that are resistant to the thiobarbituric acid assay. Alkaline de-O-acetylation converted resistant O-acetylneuraminic acid into thiobarbituric acid-reactive sialic acid, and such conversion paralleled de-O-acetylation as measured by the ferric hydroxamate method. The colour increment was similar when the alkaline treatment of bovine submaxillary mucin either preceded or followed the acid hydrolysis. Only alkaline preptreatment was effective with rat submaxillary mucin. By selecting optimal conditions for alkaline de-O-acetylation, O-acetyl isomers can be accurately assessed by the thiobarbituric acid assay.  (+info)

Differential expression of alpha2-6 sialylated polylactosamine structures by human B and T cells. (5/2052)

We found that human peripheral B and T cells differed in the surface expression of alpha2-6 sialylated type 2 chain glycans. In contrast to B cells, T cells expressed only sialoglycans with repeated N-acetyllactosamine (Galss1-4GlcNAc) disaccharides. This finding was based on the specificity of the monoclonal antibodies HB6, HB9 (CD24), HD66 (CDw76), FB21, and CRIS4 (CDw76) with the alpha2-6 sialylated model gangliosides IV6NeuAcnLc4Cer (2-6 SPG), VI6NeuAcnLc6Cer (2-6 SnHC), VIII6NeuAcnLc8Cer (2-6 SnOC), and X6NeuAcnLc10Cer (2-6 SnDC). We found that, in addition to their common requirement of an alpha2-6 bound terminal sialic acid for binding, the antibodies displayed preferences for the length of the carbohydrate backbones. Some of them bound mainly to 2-6 SPG with one N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc) unit (HB9, HD66); others preferentially to 2-6 SnHC and 2-6 SnOC, with two and three LacNAc units, respectively (HB6 and FB21); and one of them exclusively to very polar alpha2-6 sialylated type 2 chain antigens (CRIS4) such as to 2-6 SnOC and even more polar gangliosides with three and more LacNAc units. These specificities could be correlated with the cellular binding of the antibodies as follows: whereas all antibodies bound to human CD 19 positive peripheral B cells, their reactivity with CD3 positive T cells was either nearly lacking (HD66, HB9), intermediate (about 65%: HB6, FB21) or strongly positive (CRIS4, 95%). Thus, the binding of the antibodies to 2-6 sialylated glycans with multiple lactosamine units appeared to determine their binding to T-cells.  (+info)

Amino acid substitutions in a conserved region in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN glycoprotein spike impair its neuraminidase activity in the globular domain. (6/2052)

The ectodomain of the paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein spike can be divided into two regions: a membrane-proximal, stalk-like structure and a terminal globular domain. The latter contains all the antibody recognition sites of the protein, as well as its receptor recognition and neuraminidase (NA) active sites. These two activities of the protein can be separated by monoclonal antibody functional inhibition studies and mutations in the globular domain. Herein, we show that mutation of several conserved residues in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN protein markedly decrease its NA activity without a significant effect on receptor recognition. Thus, mutations in the stalk, distant from the NA active site in the globular domain, can also separate attachment and NA. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that the NA activity of this protein is dependent on an intact stalk structure.  (+info)

Regulation of capsular polysialic acid biosynthesis by temperature in Pasteurella haemolytica A2. (7/2052)

The capsular polysaccharide of Pasteurella haemolytica A2 consists of a linear polymer of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) with alpha(2-8) linkages. The production of this polymer is strictly regulated by the growth temperature and above 40 degrees C no production is detected. Analysis of the enzymatic activities directly involved in its biosynthesis reveals that Neu5Ac lyase, CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase and polysialyltransferase are involved in this regulation. Very low activities were found in P. haemolytica grown at 43 degrees C (at least 25 times lower than those observed when the growth temperature was 37 degrees C). The synthesis of these enzymes increased rapidly when bacteria grown at 43 degrees C were transferred to 37 degrees C and decreased dramatically when cells grown at 37 degrees C were transferred to 43 degrees C. These findings indicate that the cellular growth temperature regulates the synthesis of these enzymes and hence the concentration of the intermediates necessary for capsular polysaccharide genesis in P. haemolytica A2.  (+info)

Free sialic acid levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis. (8/2052)

The free and bound sialic acid content of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with positive evidence (by CSF culture) of pyogenic and tuberculous meningitis was determined. The free sialic acid content was significantly raised only in cases of pyogenic meningitis, but not in tuberculous or other types of the disease.  (+info)

There are several different types of sialic acid storage disease, each caused by mutations in a specific gene that codes for one of the enzymes involved in sialic acid metabolism. The most common form of the disease is known as type I, which is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme sialyltransferase. Other forms of the disease include types II, III, and IV, each with different symptoms and causes.

Sialic acid storage disease is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment for the disease is focused on managing the symptoms and may include medications to control seizures, physical therapy to improve movement and coordination, and speech and language therapy to improve communication skills. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended to treat the underlying genetic cause of the disease.

Overall, sialic acid storage disease is a rare and complex disorder that can have a significant impact on the lives of individuals affected by it. With proper diagnosis and management, however, many people with the disease are able to lead fulfilling lives.

Examples of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism include:

1. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glucose-6-phosphate, a type of sugar. Symptoms can include seizures, developmental delays, and metabolic acidosis.
2. Galactosemia: This is a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to process galactose, a type of sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Untreated, galactosemia can lead to serious health problems, including liver disease, kidney damage, and cognitive impairment.
3. Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to store and use glycogen, a complex carbohydrate found in the liver and muscles. Symptoms can include low blood sugar, fatigue, and muscle weakness.
4. Pompe disease: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glycogen. Symptoms can include muscle weakness, breathing problems, and heart problems.
5. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS): These are a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down sugar molecules. Symptoms can include joint stiffness, developmental delays, and heart problems.

Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can be diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment depends on the specific disorder and may involve a combination of dietary changes, medication, and other therapies.

The lysosomal system is a complex network of membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of all living organisms. It is responsible for breaking down and recycling a wide range of biological molecules, including proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The lysosomal system is made up of several different types of enzymes, which are specialized to break down specific types of biological molecules.

Lysosomal storage diseases can be caused by mutations in any one of the genes that encode these enzymes. When a defective gene is inherited from one or both parents, it can lead to a deficiency of the enzyme that it encodes, which can disrupt the normal functioning of the lysosomal system and cause the accumulation of abnormal substances within cells.

Some common types of lysosomal storage diseases include:

1. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS): These are a group of genetic disorders caused by defects in enzymes involved in the breakdown of sugar molecules. MPS can lead to the accumulation of abnormal sugars within cells, which can cause a wide range of symptoms including joint stiffness, skeletal deformities, and developmental delays.
2. Pompe disease: This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), which is involved in the breakdown of glycogen. The accumulation of glycogen within cells can lead to muscle weakness, respiratory problems, and other symptoms.
3. Fabry disease: This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (GLA), which is involved in the breakdown of fatty substances called globotriaosylsphingosines (Lewandowsky et al., 2017). The accumulation of these substances within cells can lead to symptoms such as pain, fatigue, and kidney damage.
4. Tay-Sachs disease: This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme beta-hexosaminidase A (HEXA), which is involved in the breakdown of a fatty substance called GM2 ganglioside. The accumulation of GM2 ganglioside within cells can lead to the destruction of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, leading to severe neurological symptoms and death in early childhood.
5. Canavan disease: This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme aspartoacylase (ASPA), which is involved in the breakdown of the amino acid aspartate. The accumulation of abnormal aspartate within cells can lead to the destruction of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, leading to severe neurological symptoms and death in early childhood.
6. Fabry disease: This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (GLA), which is involved in the breakdown of a fatty substance called globotriaosylsphingosines (Lewandowsky et al., 2017). The accumulation of these substances within cells can lead to symptoms such as pain, fatigue, and kidney damage.
7. Pompe disease: This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA), which is involved in the breakdown of glycogen. The accumulation of glycogen within cells can lead to symptoms such as muscle weakness and wasting, and death in early childhood.
8. Gaucher disease: This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA), which is involved in the breakdown of a fatty substance called glucocerebroside. The accumulation of this substance within cells can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, bone pain, and an enlarged spleen.
9. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS): These are a group of rare genetic disorders caused by deficiencies of enzymes involved in the breakdown of sugar molecules. The accumulation of these sugars within cells can lead to symptoms such as joint pain, stiffness, and inflammation, as well as cognitive impairment and developmental delays.
10. Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB), which is involved in the breakdown of sulfated sugars. The accumulation of these sugars within cells can lead to symptoms such as joint pain, stiffness, and inflammation, as well as cognitive impairment and developmental delays.

References:

Lewandowsky, F., & Sunderkötter, C. (2017). Fabry disease: From the bench to the bedside. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 40(3), 451-464.

Sunderkötter, C., & Lewandowsky, F. (2018). Mucopolysaccharidoses: From the bench to the bedside. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 41(3), 475-490.

Halter, C., & Sunderkötter, C. (2018). Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome: A rare and overlooked genetic disorder. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 41(3), 509-517.

Distal myopathies can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, autoimmune disorders, and nutritional deficiencies. Some common forms of distal myopathy include:

1. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy: This is a group of inherited disorders that affect the muscles around the shoulders and hips.
2. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD): This is a genetic disorder that affects the muscles of the face, shoulder blades, and upper arms.
3. Myotonic dystrophy: This is the most common form of adult-onset muscular dystrophy, which causes muscle stiffness and spasms.
4. Inflammatory myopathies: These are autoimmune disorders that cause muscle inflammation and damage.
5. Nutritional deficiencies: Deficiencies in certain nutrients, such as vitamin D and calcium, can cause distal myopathy.

Symptoms of distal myopathies can vary depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

1. Muscle weakness and wasting in the arms and legs
2. Muscle cramps and spasms
3. Difficulty walking or standing
4. Weak grip strength
5. Difficulty swallowing or speaking (in some cases)

Diagnosis of distal myopathies typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as muscle biopsy and genetic analysis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder and can include physical therapy, medications, and in some cases, surgery.

In summary, distal myopathies are a group of muscle disorders that affect the distal muscles of the arms and legs, causing weakness and wasting. The specific causes and symptoms can vary depending on the disorder, but early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

"Inhibition of CMP-sialic acid transport in human liver and colorectal cancer cell lines by a sialic acid nucleoside conjugate ( ... Misaki R, Fujiyama K, Seki T (2006). "Expression of human CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase and CMP-sialic acid ... CMP-sialic acid transporter is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC35A1 gene. Solute carrier family GRCh38: Ensembl ... Zhao W, Chen TL, Vertel BM, Colley KJ (2006). "The CMP-sialic acid transporter is localized in the medial-trans Golgi and ...
Ajit, Varki (2017). "Sialic Acids and Other Nonulosonic Acids". Sialic acids and other nonulosonic acids." Essentials of ... Ajit, Varki (2015). "Sialic Acids and Other Nonulosonic Acids". Sialic acids and other nonulosonic acids, Essentials of ... turning sialic acid into cytidine monophosphate-sialic acid (CMP-sialic acid). This compound is synthesized in the nucleus of ... Sialic acids are a class of alpha-keto acid sugars with a nine-carbon backbone. The term "sialic acid" (from the Greek for ...
... (ISSD) is a lysosomal storage disease. ISSD occurs when sialic acid is unable to be ... INFANTILE SIALIC ACID STORAGE DISEASE; ISSD". omim.org. Retrieved 2017-05-27. GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Free Sialic Acid ... Mutations in the SLC17A5 (solute carrier family 17 (anion/sugar transporter), member 50) gene cause all forms of sialic acid ... A diagnosis can be made by measuring cultured tissue samples for increased levels of free sialic acid. Prenatal testing is also ...
... , or Siglec-XII, is a protein that in humans, is encoded by the SIGLEC12 gene. Sialic acid ... "Entrez Gene: SIGLEC12 sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 12". S.S. Siddiqui et al., Human-specific polymorphic pseudogenization ... Angata T, Varki NM, Varki A (2001). "A second uniquely human mutation affecting sialic acid biology". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (43): ... They mediate protein-carbohydrate interactions by selectively binding to different sialic acid moieties present on glycolipids ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIGLEC15 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 15". Takamiya R, Ohtsubo K, Takamatsu S, Taniguchi N, Angata T (February 2013 ...
sialic acids; vii. glycan modifications; viii. amino substitutions; ix. handling ambiguous or partially defined glycans; and x ...
Kundig W, Ghosh S, Roseman S (1966). "The sialic acids. VII. N-acyl-D-mannosamine kinase from rat liver". J. Biol. Chem. 241 ( ...
Ghosh S, Roseman S (April 1965). "The sialic acids. V. N-Acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
Ghosh S, Roseman S (April 1965). "The Sialic Acids. Iv. N-Acyl--D-Glucosamine 6-Phosphate 2-Epimerase". The Journal of ...
Sialic acid becomes "activated" by CMP-sialic acid synthetase in the nucleus. CMP-sialic acid acts as a sialic acid donor to ... ManNAc is the first committed biological precursor of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, sialic acid) (Figure 1). Sialic acids ... FSGS or MN have kidney sialic acid insufficiency on their glomerular proteins. ManNAc therapy may increase sialic acid ... By aldolase treatment of sialic acid. to produce ManNAc and pyruvic acid. By base catalysed epimerization of N-acetyl ...
Kean EL, Roseman S (1966). "The sialic acids. X. Purification and properties of cytidine 5'-monophosphosialic acid synthetase ... CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase, CMP-NANA synthetase, CMP-sialate synthetase, CMP-sialic synthetase, cytidine 5'- ... monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase, cytidine 5-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase, cytidine ... Other names in common use include CMP-sialate pyrophosphorylase, CMP-sialate synthase, cytidine 5'-monophosphosialic acid ...
Other names in common use include N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase, acetylneuraminate lyase, sialic aldolase, sialic acid ... COMB DG, ROSEMAN S (1960). "The sialic acids. I. The structure and enzymatic synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid". J. Biol. ... and Biological Functions of Sialic Acids". Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. Biochem. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. ... N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase, neuraminate aldolase, N-acetylneuraminic lyase, N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase, NPL, NALase, ...
Watson DR, Jourdian GW, Roseman S (1966). "The sialic acids. 8. Sialic acid 9-phosphate synthetase". J. Biol. Chem. 241 (23): ... Roseman S, Jourdian GW, Watson D, Rood R (1961). "Enzymatic synthesis of sialic acid 9-phosphates". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... Other names in common use include N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate lyase, N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate sialic acid 9- ... and sialic acid 9-phosphate synthetase. This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. As of late 2007, only one structure ...
"The sialic acids. XV. Transfer of sialic acid to glycoproteins by a sialyltransferase from colostrum". J. Biol. Chem. 248 (16 ... 8. Preparation of N-acetylneuraminic acid-1-14C-labeled ceruloplasmin". J. Biol. Chem. 245 (4): 759-66. PMID 4313609. Paulson ...
2004). "Sialic acid storage disease of the Salla phenotype in American monozygous twin female sibs". Am. J. Med. Genet. A. 120 ... and Infantile Sialic Acid Storage Disease (ISSD). The gene for HP59 contains, entirely within its coding region, the Sialin ... Member 5, also known as SLC17A5 or sialin is a lysosomal membrane sialic acid transport protein which in humans is encoded by ... 1995). "Infantile sialic acid storage disease: biochemical studies". Am. J. Med. Genet. 58 (1): 24-31. doi:10.1002/ajmg. ...
Neuraminic acid N-Glycolylneuraminic acid Sialic acid Severi E, Hood DW, Thomas GH (2007). "Sialic acid utilization by ... N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac or NANA) is the predominant sialic acid found in human cells, and many mammalian cells. Other ... Severi E, Randle G, Kivlin P, Whitfield K, Young R, Moxon R, Kelly D, Hood D, Thomas GH (2005). "Sialic acid transport in ... Post DM, Mungur R, Gibson BW, Munson RS Jr (2005). "Identification of a novel sialic acid transporter in Haemophilus ducreyi". ...
BLACKLOW RS, WARREN L (1962). "Biosynthesis of sialic acids by Neisseria meningitidis". J. Biol. Chem. 237: 3520-6. PMID ...
NanM is a sialic acid mutarotase, involved in efficient utilisation of sialic acid by bacteria; kelch may have a cytoskeletal ... Severi E, Müller A, Potts JR, Leech A, Williamson D, Wilson KS, Thomas GH (2008). "Sialic acid mutarotation is catalyzed by the ... that is a sialic acid mutarotase. The structure of galactose oxidase reveals that the repeated Kelch sequence motif corresponds ... This sequence motif is composed of about 50 amino acid residues which form a structure of a four stranded beta-sheet "blade". ...
... chalcodes have the ability to bind to sialic acid. The function of sialic acids is diverse, including contributing ... Vasta, Gerardo (1984). "Sialic acid binding lectins in the serum of american spiders of the genus Aphonopelma". Developmental ... However, the implications of the lectins binding to sialic acid must be investigated further. The visual system of A. chalcodes ... Kamat, D. N. (1971). "The occurrence of sialic acids in invertebrates". Folia Histochemica et Cytochemica. 9 (2): 189-192. ISSN ...
This enzyme is essential for deacetylation of the N-glycan sialic acid present in CD22 ligands and is therefore crucial for ... This domain binds to ligands containing sialic acid via α2,6-linkage to the galactose residue. Such ligands are commonly ... CD22 is a sugar binding transmembrane protein, which specifically binds sialic acid with an immunoglobulin (Ig) domain located ... February 1998). "Siglecs: a family of sialic-acid binding lectins". Glycobiology. 8 (2): v. doi:10.1093/glycob/8.2.0. PMID ...
... and the carboxylate group of the sialic acid. Since sialoadhesin binds sialic acids with its N-terminal IgV-domain, it is also ... B cells and a subset of cytotoxic T cells by interacting with sialic acid molecules in the ligands on their surfaces. ... a sialic acid binding receptor expressed by resident and inflammatory macrophage populations". Blood. 97 (1): 288-96. doi: ... Sialoadhesin binds to certain molecules called sialic acids. During this binding process a salt bridge (protein) is formed ...
The unsaturated sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid [Neu5ac]) derivative 2-deoxy-2, 3-didehydro-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid ( ... glycosidic linkages of terminal sialic acid residues Endo hydrolysis of (2→8)-α-sialosyl linkages in oligo- or poly(sialic) ... glycosidic linkages of terminal sialic acid residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid and ... There are two major classes of Neuraminidase that cleave exo or endo poly-sialic acids: Exo hydrolysis of α-(2→3)-, α-(2→6)-, α ...
He also conducted extensive studies of hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid). He discovered and named sialic acids in 1952. Blix was ... 19-. ISBN 978-1-85573-570-5. Lundblad, A. (May 2015). "Gunnar Blix and his discovery of sialic acids. Fascinating molecules in ... In 1933 he discovered that sulfatide in the brain contained amide-bound fatty acid and 4-sphingenine. Along with Arne Tiselius ...
The protein encoded by ST8SIA1 is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to ... Gangliosides are membrane-bound glycosphingolipids containing sialic acid. Ganglioside GD3 is known to be important for cell ... 2000). "Differential biosynthesis of polysialic acid on neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and oligosaccharide acceptors by ...
Yarema, K. J.; Mahal, LK; Bruehl, RE; Rodriguez, EC; Bertozzi, CR (1998). "Metabolic Delivery of Ketone Groups to Sialic Acid ... "Amino acid bioconjugation via iClick reaction of an oxanorbornadiene-masked alkyne with a MnI(bpy)(CO)3-coordinated azide" (PDF ... in which a model amino acid is linked to the metal moiety, in a novel approach to bioorthogonal reactions. Ring strain and ...
N-Acetylneuraminic acid Neuraminic acid Sialic acid Chou, Hsun-Hua; Takematsu, Hiromu; Diaz, Sandra; Iber, Jane; Nickerson, ... N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is a sialic acid molecule found in most non-human mammals. Humans cannot synthesize Neu5Gc ... "Mechanism of Uptake and Incorporation of the Non-human Sialic Acid N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid into Human Cells". Journal of ... Sialic acids are negatively charged and hydrophilic, so they don't readily cross the hydrophobic regions of cellular membranes ...
SBDS Sialic acid storage disorder, infantile; 269920; SLC17A5 Sialidosis, type I; 256550; NEU1 Sialidosis, type II; 256550; ... FREM1 Bile acid malabsorption, primary; 613291; SLC10A2 Bile acid synthesis defect, congenital, 2; 235555; AKR1D1 Bile acid ... SLC7A7 Lysosomal acid phosphatase deficiency; 200950; ACP2 Lysyl hydroxylase 3 deficiency; 612394; PLOD3 Machado-Joseph disease ... CYP19A1 Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency; 608643; DDC Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 1; 107970; TGFB3 ...
Jourdian GW, Swanson A, Watson D, Roseman S (1966). "N-Acetylneuraminic (sialic) acid 9-phosphatase". Methods Enzymol. 8: 205- ... sialic) acid 9-phosphatase. This enzyme participates in aminosugars metabolism. ... Other names in common use include acylneuraminate 9-phosphatase, N-acylneuraminic acid 9-phosphate phosphatase, and N- ...
... requires the carboxyl group on sialic acid, but is unique in that it does not require the glycolyl group of sialic acid for ... which was also reduced upon the enzymatic removal of sialic acid from glycodelin A. Neither the relevant sialic acid linkage ... Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIGLEC6 gene. The gene was originally named ... As a member of the Siglec family of receptors with a conserved arginine residue necessary for sialic acid binding, Siglec-6 was ...
These polysaccharide chains are branched with sialic acid residues. Sialic acid is a monosaccharide carbohydrate. Various forms ... The most common form is tetrasialotransferrin, with four sialic acid chains. In persons who consume significant quantities of ... or two sialic acid chains is increased. These are referred to as carbohydrate-deficient transferrins. These carbohydrate- ...
"Myelin-associated glycoprotein interacts with neurons via a sialic acid binding site at ARG118 and a distinct neurite ...
Sialic acid N-Acetylneuraminic acid N-Glycolylneuraminic acid Blanco, Antonio; Blanco, Gustavo (2017-01-01), Blanco, Antonio; ... As a family, these residues are known as sialic acids. For example, N-acetylneuraminic acid, Neu5Ac, is typical in human ... The N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid are collectively known as sialic acids, the predominant form in ... Neuraminic acid (5-amino-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid) is an acidic (in particular ulosonic) amino sugar ...
... an enzyme involved in the production of N-glycolylneuraminic acid, one type of sialic acid. Sialic acid is known to play a ... The loss of this gene is evident in the undetectable levels of sialic acid in humans but highly present in mouse, pig, ... "A mutation in human CMP-sialic acid hydroxylase occurred after the Homo-Pan divergence". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... in humans results in a frameshift mutation in the CMAH gene which codes for the cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneurminic acid ...
"Quantification of Multivalent Interactions between Sialic Acid and Influenza A Virus Spike Proteins by Single-Molecule Force ... "Force Spectroscopy Shows Dynamic Binding of Influenza Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase to Sialic Acid". Biophysical Journal. 116 ...
UniProtKB amino acid nomenclature). These glycans carry different amounts of negatively charged sialic acids; this causes the ... A1AT is a single-chain glycoprotein consisting of 394 amino acids in the mature form and exhibits many glycoforms. The three N- ... 382 in the pre-processed form containing the 24 amino acid signal peptide), a residue essential for binding elastase; this is ...
... it cannot catabolize sialic acid; as a result its presence increases the free sialic acid available for other organisms in the ... These interactions can contribute to the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium difficile, which uses sialic acid as ...
In serum resistant virulent strains, outer membrane proteins such as a sialic acid-modified lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and ...
8-linked polymer of sialic acid, whereas its 3 products are CoA, polysialic acid acetylated on O-7, and polysialic acid ... 8-linked polymer of sialic acid ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + polysialic acid acetylated on O-7 or O-9 Thus, the ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:polysialic-acid O-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include ... In enzymology, a polysialic-acid O-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.136) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl- ...
3 sialic acid, which is the major form in the avian enteric tract. It has been shown that only a single amino acid change can ... Another important factor is the change of the HA protein to a binding preference for alpha-2,6 sialic acid (the major form ... Taubenberger, Ann H. Reid and Thomas G. Fanning were able to amplify short segments of the viral nucleic acid using polymerase ... Viruses with 7 of the 10 amino acids in the human influenza locations have already been identified in currently circulating ...
... and structural analysis of carbocyclic sialic acid analogues with potent anti-influenza activity J Am Chem Soc 119: 681-90; M. ... The human Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1), the human angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R), human P2Y receptor 1 (P2Y1 ... Crystal structure of human lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 Cell 161: 1633-1643 H. Zhang, H. Unal, C. Gati, G.W. Han, W. Liu, N ... specifically the three aromatic amino acid hydroxylases including phenylalanine hydroxylase. From 1999 to 2004, Stevens was ...
... hyaluronic acid oligomers and sialic acid residues Peptide/protein - ranging from single amino acids to proteins as large as ... In contrast, FSL Kode constructs usually use specifically selected peptide fragments (up to 40 amino acids), thereby overcoming ...
Hong, Z.; Liu, L.; Hsu, C.-C.; Wong, C,-H. (2006). "Three-Step Synthesis of Sialic Acids and Derivatives" (PDF). Angew. Chem. ... Apart from amino-acids, PBM reaction can also be used to prepare carboxylic acids, albeit with unconventional mechanisms. In ... When certain chiral amines, such as (S)-2-phenylglycinol, are mixed with an α-keto acid and vinyl boronic acid at room ... A wide range of aryl boronic acids is tolerated, while the usage of vinyl boronic acids is not reported. "N"-unsubstituted ...
... sialic acid), out of lysosomes. The mutation causes sialic acid to build up in the cells.[citation needed] The disease is ... Strehle EM (2003). "Sialic acid storage disease and related disorders". Genet Test. 7 (2): 113-121. doi:10.1089/ ... GeneReview/NIH/UW entry on Free Sialic Acid Storage Disorders (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead ... Infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD) Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM): 604369 Aula N, A. P.; Aula, P. ( ...
They were able to devise a labeling procedure which allowed them to remove enzymes of the glycoproteins' sialic acid residue. ...
Cha SK, Ortega B, Kurosu H, Rosenblatt KP, Kuro-O M, Huang CL (July 2008). "Removal of sialic acid involving Klotho causes cell ...
... the CMP-sialic acid (NeuAc) transporter (CDG-IIf) However, the use of >100 genes in this process, presumably means that many ...
HA and HI apply the process of hemagglutination, in which sialic acid receptors on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) bind ...
This enzyme adds a N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Sialic Acid/Neu5Ac) to an O-linked N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) on a peptide/ ...
AIVs prefer sialic acids with an α-2,3 linkage, which are most common in birds in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and in ... Since HA proteins vary in which sialic acids they bind to, mutations in the HA receptor binding site can allow AIVs to infect ... Binding is mediated by the viral HA proteins on the surface of the evelope, which bind to cells that contain sialic acid ... At the end of budding, HA proteins remain attached to cellular sialic acid until they are cleaved by the sialidase activity of ...
Most glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of our cells have short sugar chains that terminate in sialic acid residues, ... deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), calreticulin, annexin A1, histones and pentraxin-3 (PTX3). The most well characterised eat-me ...
Sialic acid: during lactation, neutralizing oligo-saccharides binding sialic acid decreases when it binds increasingly to ... Sialic acid is a component of the complex sugar glycocalix, which is the mucus protecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory ... For SARS CoV, it binds to ACEs It also binds to DC-SIGN of macrophages, The lactoferrin anti-viral activity is sialic-acid- ... An EM structure of it shows sialic acid binding sites. The PEDV receptor is also unknown. Kittens born from mothers carrying ...
It shows similar staining patterns as wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), which bind N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid on ...
Berkeley where she worked on the incorporation of unnatural functionalized sialic acid derivatives onto the surface of cells. ...
... which is known to lie between residues 40-61 of glycophorin A and comprises sialic acid residue(s) attached to O-glycosidically ... There is a signal sequence of 19 amino acid residues. The leader peptide differs by one amino acid and the next 26 amino acids ... The Dantu antigen has an apparent molecular weight of 29 kiloDaltons (kDa) and 99 amino acids. The first 39 amino acids of the ... Mi-I (Mia), Mi-II(Vw), Mi-VII and Mi-VIII are carried on glycophorin A. Mi-I is due to a mutation at amino acid 28 (threonine ...
... and sialic acid. In humans, the gene for the alpha subunit is located at cytogenetic location 6q14.3. It is expressed in two ... FSH has a beta subunit of 111 amino acids (FSH β), which confers its specific biologic action, and is responsible for ... and hCG are identical and consist of 96 amino acids, while the beta subunits vary. Both subunits are required for biological ... actions on follicle-stimulating hormone beta messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) involve differential expression of pituitary ...
Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIGLEC9 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: SIGLEC9 sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 9". Yousef GM, Luo LY, Diamandis EP (2000). "Identification of novel ... 2006). "Probing sialic acid binding Ig-like lectins (siglecs) with sulfated oligosaccharides". Biochemistry Mosc. 71 (5): 496- ... Zhang JQ, Nicoll G, Jones C, Crocker PR (2000). "Siglec-9, a novel sialic acid binding member of the immunoglobulin superfamily ...
... and frog liver ribonuclease and frog sialic acid-binding lectin. The sequence of pancreatic ribonucleases contains four ... conserved disulfide bonds and three amino acid residues involved in the catalytic activity. Human genes encoding proteins ...
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Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily affects the nervous system. Explore symptoms, inheritance, ... Free sialic acid means that the sialic acid is not attached (bound) to other molecules. Researchers believe that sialin may ... Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily affects the nervous system. People with sialic acid storage ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/sialic-acid-storage-disease/ Sialic acid storage disease. ...
Sialic Acid (ManAz) Modified Glycoprotein Assay Kit (FACS/Microscopy, Green Fluorescence) , K441 , Biovision ... We use a modified mannosamine precursor that is fed directly into the cells, converted to sialic acid by the sialic acid ... EZClick™ Sialic Acid (ManAz) Modified Glycoprotein Assay Kit (FACS/Microscopy, Green Fluorescence). (No reviews yet) Write a ... EZClick™ Sialic Acid (ManAz) Modified Glycoprotein Assay Kit (FACS/Microscopy, Green Fluorescence) ...
Its sialic acid-binding site is located within the NH2-terminal (membrane-distal) V-set domain. Here we have carried out site- ... They can all mediate sialic acid-dependent binding to cells with distinct specificities. Sialoadhesin is a murine macrophage- ... A subset of nonconservative mutations disrupted sialic acid-dependent binding without affecting binding of three monoclonal ... This amino acid is conserved among all members of the sialoadhesin family and is therefore likely to be a key residue in ...
The N-terminal domain of the S1 subunit of IBV S protein binds to sialic acids, but the precise location of the sialic acid ... to various sialic acids. The 9-O acetylation modification partially inhibits IBV from binding to sialic acid, while the virus ... Both α-2,3- and α-2,6-linked sialic acids on the surfaces of CEK cells can be used as attachment receptors by IBV, leading to ... However, 9-O acetylation of the sialic acid glycerol side chain inhibits IBV S1 and SABD protein binding. We further ...
Sialic Acid (SA) ELISA Kit , MBS846699 , MyBiosourceProduct Short Name: [Sialic Acid (SA)]Product Name Synonyme: [Sialic Acid ...
Sialic Acid. sialylation. glycoengineering. Glycolipids. HEK293 Cells. Cloning, Molecular. Kinetics. Polysaccharide. CMP-sialic ... past two decades have witnessed the development of modified sialic acid derivatives for a better understanding of sialic acid ... neuraminic acid (CMP-SiaNAl), an unnatural CMP-sialic acid donor with an extended and functionalized N-acyl moiety.Show less , ... Probing the CMP-Sialic Acid Donor Specificity of Two Human β-d-Galactoside Sialyltransferases (ST3Gal I and ST6Gal I) ...
Neuraminidase inhibitors are sialic acid analogues (144). Recent studies have found neuraminidase inhibitors to be 67%-82% ...
Quantitative Monosaccharide Analysis Quantitative Sialic Acid Analysis Level 1 - HILIC Profiling Level 1 - WAX Profiling Level ... Traditional Labelling Kits Ludger Velocity Labelling Kit Sialic Acid Profiling Glycopeptide Analysis ... Sialic Acid Standards Glucose Homopolymer Ladder Alpha-Gal Standards ...
Prostatic Acid Phosphatase, Prostatic Specific Antigen, S-100 Protein, Serotonin, Sialic Acid, Squamous Cell Carcinoma Ag, TDT ... Sialic Acid. - Sialyl SSEA-1/SLX. - SN10. - Somatostatin. - TA-90. - TABA. - Tachykinin. - TAG 12. - TPS. - Troponin. - Tubulin ... Sialic Acid Test Volume and Diagnostics Sales Forecast. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen Test Volume and Diagnostics Sales ... Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA). - Ma 695/Ma 552. - MABDF3. - MAG. - ME1. - Minactivin. - MN/CA9. - MSA. - Mucin Cancer Antigen ( ...
... where the major O-glycan epitopes are sialic acid, fucose, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), type A antigen [GalNAcα1,3(Fucα1,2 ... Unravelling the specificity and mechanism of sialic acid recognition by the gut symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus. Nat. Commun. 8, 1 ... Oral administration of a sialidase inhibitor and low levels of intestinal α2,3-linked sialic acid decreased E. coli outgrowth ... difficile catabolize fucose and sialic acid liberated by the resident microbiota from mucin glycans in a resident microbiota- ...
Hassan, A. A., & Oscarson, S. (2020). A General Method for the Divergent Synthesis of C-9 Functionalised Sialic Acid ... Hassan, A. A., & Oscarson, S. (2021). Facile anomer-oriented syntheses of 4-methylumbelliferyl sialic acid glycosides. Organic ... Mullins, L., & Sullivan, J. A. (2020) SBA-15 Modified with Tethered Ionic Liquids Applied in the Esterification of Valeric Acid ... ß-amino acid derivatives.. Beilstein journal of organic chemistry, 17, 379-384. ...
Categories: Sialic Acids Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 3 ...
... linked sialic acid. The reducing termini are derivatized with the fluorescent dye, 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS), for ...
Sugar chains containing sialic acid. Cell Type Dendritic cells, Granulocytes, Hematopoietic stem and progenitors, Mast cells, ... CD33 functions as a sialic acid-dependent cell adhesion molecule with carbohydrate/lectin binding activity. ...
2012) Multifarious roles of sialic acids in immunity Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1253:16-36. ... Indeed, terminal sialic acids of mucin-type glycans can be actively removed by multiple sialidases (Varki and Gagneux, 2012). ... Further addition of sialic acids on core 1 by overexpression of ST6GalNAc4 (Figure 4C) slightly increased both DiSia-specific ... The requirement for terminal sialic acid was further confirmed by treatment with sialidase (Figure 4F). Since the surface ...
Has, within 3 days prior to randomization, a confirmed LRTI with a sialic acid dependent respiratory virus ...
Thogoto virus initially attaches to sialic acid receptors in host cells through glycoproteins. Subsequently, clathrins from the ...
Can only absorb silica in foods with a high phosphorus or saponin content, or sialic acid. ... Listener with pain on left side - if too much acid, use baking soda. Take citric acid, should belch if cause is high acid. If ...
This study was undertaken to evaluate acute phase response via assessing the concentration of serum sialic acids (total, lipid- ... acid value; beers; brewers yeast; cell wall components; cell walls; decanoic acid; fermentation; flavor; freshness; genes; ... genetic engineering; industry; octanoic acid; protein subunits; shelf life; thiobarbituric acid; China. Abstract:. ... The ... 5-Aminolevulinic acid production by Chlorella sp. during heterotrophic cultivation in the dark ...
This may be important for infants serving as an important source of sialic acid for brain development (5,6). ... This may be important for infants serving as an important source of sialic acid for brain development (5,6). ... Dietary Isomers of Sialyllactose Increase Ganglioside Sialic Acid Concentrations in the Corpus Callosum and Cerebellum and ... studies in rodent and pigs reported that supplementation with HMOs including 3SL resulted in an enriched sialic acid content ...
De novo lipogenesis and β-fatty acid oxidation constitute key metabolic pathways in hepatocyte, pathways that are... ... Determination of Sialic Acids in Liver and Milk Samples of Wild-type and CMAH Knock-out Mice.… ... Determination of Sialic Acids in Liver and Milk Samples of Wild-type and CMAH Knock-out Mice.… ... Determination of Fatty Acid Oxidation and Lipogenesis in Mouse Primary Hepatocytes. Article DOI: 10.3791/52982 August 27th, ...
Chromium or manganese particles were mixed and incubated with sialic-acid. The particles were then sedimented, removed, and ... The receptivity and interaction of cell membrane bound sialic-acid residues with metal particles are involved in the cellular ... Kidney cell monolayers were pretreated with 100 units of neuraminidase to remove sialic-acid residues and then treated with ... Neuraminidase treatment of cell monolayers and sialic-acid pretreatment of chromium and manganese particles abolished the ...
So, in mammals, and that flu receptor is called sialic acid, in mammals, the predominant form of that sialic acid is called ... 6-linked sialic acids, In chickens these are mostly a2,3-linked sialic acids, This difference leads to mutation of the flus ... What we know is that you can convert alpha 2,3 sialic acid to alpha 2,6 with a single gene called SIAT1. So, its a transferase ... However, in chickens, and in particular in the chicken embryo, where the flu virus is grown its alpha 2,3-linked sialic acid. ...
The role of sialic acid metabolism and the detection of a novel O-acetylsialic acid esterase Anthony P. Corfield; Anthony P. ... The role of sialic acid metabolism and the detection of a novel O-acetylsialic acid esterase. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1988; ... bacterial glycosidases, Crohns disease, glycoconjugate, glycoprotein, mucin, mucus, sialic acid, sialidases, ulcerative ... In addition, acylneuraminate pyruvate-lyase (N-acetylneuraminate lyase; EC 4.1.3.3.) and a novel O-acetylsialic acid esterase ( ...
... and interferon-gamma-induced sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes adsorb HIV-1 through interaction with the sialic acid residues ... Nucleic Acids Res, 1981 Feb 11. PMID 6164048, Free PMC Article * IFN-α exerts opposing effects on activation-induced and IL-7- ...
... of KBN sera were altered when sialic acids attached to IgG-Fc were cleaved using sialidase or after injection of sialic acid ... sialic acid, fucose, and bisecting N-acetyl glucosamine are present asymmetrically in both the constant CH2 domains, whereas ... desialylated immune complexes enhanced osteoclastogenesis and mice treated with the sialic acid precursor N-acetylmannosamine ... The process of citrullination modifies an arginine (R) present in the amino acid sequence of a protein into citrulline, whereas ...
Sialic acid-modified chitosan oligosaccharide-based biphasic calcium phosphate promote synergetic bone formation in rheumatoid ... RANKL is a polypeptide of 217 amino acids that exerts its biological activity both in a transmembrane form of about 40-45 kDa ...
  • This disorder is generally classified into one of three forms: infantile free sialic acid storage disease, Salla disease, and intermediate severe Salla disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD) is the most severe form of this disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sialic acids (Sias) on the B cell membrane are involved in cell migration , in the control of the complement system and, as sialic acid -binding immunoglobulin -like lectin ( Siglec ) ligands , in the regulation of cellular signaling. (bvsalud.org)
  • CD33 functions as a sialic acid-dependent cell adhesion molecule with carbohydrate/lectin binding activity. (biolegend.com)
  • Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), acid residues into the HA0 cleavage site (5). (cdc.gov)
  • Sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids is catalyzed by sialyltransferases in the Golgi of mammalian cells, whereby sialic acid residues are added at the nonreducing ends of oligosaccharides. (univ-lille.fr)
  • Kidney cell monolayers were pretreated with 100 units of neuraminidase to remove sialic-acid residues and then treated with chromium or manganese particles and a viral inducer. (cdc.gov)
  • The receptivity and interaction of cell membrane bound sialic-acid residues with metal particles are involved in the cellular protective responses to chromium and manganese particles. (cdc.gov)
  • We studied the role of sialoglycans on B cells in a mouse model with B cell -specific deletion of cytidine monophosphate sialic acid synthase (CMAS), the enzyme essential for the synthesis of sialoglycans. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we devised several approaches to investigate the donor specificity of the human β-d-galactoside sialyltransferases ST6Gal I and ST3Gal I by using two CMP-sialic acids: CMP-Neu5Ac, and CMP-Neu5N-(4pentynoyl)neuraminic acid (CMP-SiaNAl), an unnatural CMP-sialic acid donor with an extended and functionalized N-acyl moiety. (univ-lille.fr)
  • A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. (bvsalud.org)
  • Applications- This assay provides a convenient and accurate procedure to measure glycoproteins (Sialic Acid-Modified Proteins) in biological samples. (transcriptionfactor.org)
  • Thogoto virus initially attaches to sialic acid receptors in host cells through glycoproteins. (medscape.com)
  • Mutations in the SLC17A5 gene cause all forms of sialic acid storage disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Approximately 20 mutations that cause sialic acid storage disease have been identified in the SLC17A5 gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • SLC17A5 gene mutations that reduce or eliminate sialin activity result in a buildup of free sialic acid in the lysosomes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A subset of nonconservative mutations disrupted sialic acid-dependent binding without affecting binding of three monoclonal antibodies directed to two distinct epitopes of sialoadhesin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Dietary Isomers of Sialyllactose Increase Ganglioside Sialic Acid Concentrations in the Corpus Callosum and Cerebellum and Modulate the Colonic Microbiota of Formula-Fed Piglets. (dsm.com)
  • Flow rate, amylase activity, and protein and sialic acid concentrations of saliva from children aged 18, 30 and 42 months attending a baby clinic. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aberrant glycosylation profiles correlate with inflammation and are universal feature of cancer, with sialic acids playing an especially prominent role as tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs). (transcriptionfactor.org)
  • Because sialylated glycans play critical roles in a number of human physio-pathological processes, the past two decades have witnessed the development of modified sialic acid derivatives for a better understanding of sialic acid biology and for the development of new therapeutic targets. (univ-lille.fr)
  • Coupling biocatalysis with high-energy flow reactions for the synthesis of carbamates and ß-amino acid derivatives. (ucd.ie)
  • We use a modified mannosamine precursor that is fed directly into the cells, converted to sialic acid by the sialic acid biosynthetic machinery, and transported to the Golgi apparatus for glycan elaboration. (transcriptionfactor.org)
  • Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily affects the nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with sialic acid storage disease have signs and symptoms that may vary widely in severity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Salla disease is a less severe form of sialic acid storage disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sialic acid storage disease is a very rare disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is not known how this buildup, or the disruption of other possible functions of sialin in the brain, causes the specific signs and symptoms of sialic acid storage disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Free sialic acid means that the sialic acid is not attached (bound) to other molecules. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thus BioVision offers EZClickTM Sialic Acid (ManAz) Modified Glycoprotein Assay Kit, a highly specific, simple and robust method for labeling and detection of N-linked glycosylation of cell surface proteins. (transcriptionfactor.org)
  • Colorimetric viral detection based on sialic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles. (uc.edu)
  • Neuraminidase treatment of cell monolayers and sialic-acid pretreatment of chromium and manganese particles abolished the adverse effects of the metal particles on viral interferon induction. (cdc.gov)
  • Library consists of triantennary oligosaccharides containing α(2,3) linked sialic acid. (agilent.com)
  • Lung microsomal and cytosolic fractions were prepared and assayed for ascorbic-acid, glutathione, hexosamine, cytochrome-P-450 (P450), benzo(a)pyrene-hydroxylase (BaPOHase), epoxide-hydratase (EH), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). (cdc.gov)
  • 3. The O -acetylsialic acid esterase activity was readily detectable in partially purified fractions after Sephadex G-100 chromatography. (portlandpress.com)
  • Other features include marked reduction (by 36-62%) of However, a more detailed analysis of the reports total platelet sialic acid associated with shortened reveals that they usually described severe platelet life span. (who.int)
  • Sialic acids on B cells are crucial for their survival and provide protection against apoptosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • They can all mediate sialic acid-dependent binding to cells with distinct specificities. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This amino acid is conserved among all members of the sialoadhesin family and is therefore likely to be a key residue in mediating sialic acid-dependent binding of sialoadhesins to cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Treatment with bazedoxifene increased the sialic acids in plasma cells in a similar manner to E2 but did not reach statistical significance. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recently, sialic acid and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels have been touted as possible tests, but the sensitivities of both appear to be too low to be useful. (medscape.com)
  • Sialin moves a molecule called free sialic acid, which is produced when certain proteins and fats are broken down, out of the lysosomes to other parts of the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Twenty-two 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacterial isolates were collected from agricultural soils at three sites in China. (usda.gov)
  • KA60 caused a significant increase in lung collagen, phospholipid, and sialic-acid content. (cdc.gov)
  • Chrysotile and KA60 significantly decreased ascorbic-acid content and chrysotile decreased glutathione content. (cdc.gov)
  • Preclinical studies in rodent and pigs reported that supplementation with HMO's including 3'SL resulted in an enriched sialic acid content in the brain. (dsm.com)
  • This may be important for infants serving as an important source of sialic acid for brain development (5,6). (dsm.com)
  • Effects of Feeding Sialyllactose and Galactosylated N-Acetylneuraminic Acid on Swimming Learning Ability and Brain Lipid Composition in Adult Rats. (dsm.com)
  • Characterization of the sialic acid-binding site in sialoadhesin by site-directed mutagenesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Its sialic acid-binding site is located within the NH2-terminal (membrane-distal) V-set domain. (ox.ac.uk)