Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Protein-digesting and milk-clotting enzymes found in PINEAPPLE fruit juice and stem tissue. Enzymes from the two sources are distinguished as fruit bromelain and stem bromelain. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
A viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by MORBILLIVIRUS. It may be acute, subacute, or chronic with the major lesions characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the entire digestive tract. The disease was declared successfully eradicated worldwide in 2010.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of gram-negative bacteria pathogenic to CHICKENS; TURKEYS, and guinea fowls. It causes disease in a wide variety of organs and tissues including JOINTS, tendon sheaths and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A protozoan, previously also considered a fungus. Characteristics include sporangia that are stalked and multilobed. It is widely used in biomedical research.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Centrifugation using a rotating chamber of large capacity in which to separate cell organelles by density-gradient centrifugation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
In a study the mushroom species, this species was shown to have hemagglutinins. The species showed activity towards rat ... The agglutination of both species showed that both extracts have more than one hemagglutinin. Fungi portal List of Gymnopilus ... erythrocytes while Lentinus squarrosulus showed activity towards guinea pig and mouse erythrocytes. ...
The vaccine will show efficacy if it is able to reduce the number of influenza cases in all strains. In 2019-2020, a vaccine ... By vaccinating twice with hemagglutinins that have different "heads" but the same membrane-proximal "stalk", the immune system ... VaxInnate's Universal Flu Vaccine Candidate Shown Safe and Immunogenic in Phase I Clinical Study. Fierce Biotech. Johnson & ... which is responsible for HSV microbes entering in and out of cells showed as of May 1st, 2018 the same vaccine can be used in a ...
Screening and preliminary characterization of hemagglutinins in Vietnamese marine algae. J Appl Phycol 2009; 21(1): 89-97. Chai ... fraction of a methanol extract of Avrainvillea erecta exhibited hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity as strong as that shown ...
Phylogenetic trees built on each of the 8 segments show a consistent picture of 3 lineages, as illustrated by the HA tree shown ... The avian influenza hemagglutinin binds alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors, while human influenza hemagglutinins bind alpha 2-6 ... Figure 1 shows a diagramatic representation of the genetic relatedness of Asian H5N1 hemagglutinin genes from various isolates ... Research has shown that a highly contagious strain of H5N1, one that might allow airborne transmission between mammals, can be ...
Sharon, N.; Lis, H (2004). "History of lectins: From hemagglutinins to biological recognition molecules". Glycobiology. 14 (11 ... Achylectins, isolated from Tachypleus tridentatus, show specific agglutinating activity against human A-type erythrocytes. Anti ... studies that either have nothing to do with lectins or even show that avoiding wheat, barley and rye lead to less beneficial ... often express surface lectins known as adhesins and hemagglutinins that bind to tissue-specific glycans on host cell-surface ...
Analysis of the fatalities due to BPF showed hemorrhage in the skin, lungs, and adrenal glands. Histopathology showed ... "Implications of Haemophilus influenzae Biogroup aegyptius Hemagglutinins in the Pathogenesis of Brazilian Purpuric Fever". ... After the molecule had been injected into rabbits, they showed reactions similar to that of BPF patients. Further research is ... aegyptius Biogroup III then prompt antibiotic treatment preferably with rifampin has been shown to prevent progression to BPF. ...
Phylogenetic trees built on each of the 8 segments show a consistent picture of 3 lineages, as illustrated by the HA tree shown ... The avian influenza hemagglutinin binds alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors, while human influenza hemagglutinins bind alpha 2-6 ... Research has shown that a highly contagious strain of H5N1, one that might allow airborne transmission between mammals, can be ... Our analysis showed several new findings. First, all European, Middle Eastern, and African samples fall into a clade that is ...
This has been shown for lymphoma patients who received the antibody Rituxan. Patients who express the 158 V/V allele had a ... They bind viral ligands such as hemagglutinins and hemagglutinin neuraminidases, some bacterial ligands and cellular ligands ... Clinical studies have shown it to be well tolerated and some antitumor responses have been seen in patients with lung cancer, ... All coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients show depleted CD56bright NK cells, but CD56dim is only depleted in patients ...
The pretreatment of winged bean seeds is not required in tropical climate, but scarification of seeds has shown to enhance the ... They require cooking for two to three hours to destroy the trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinins that inhibit digestion. They ...
Among enzymes that have been shown to produce tofu are papain, and alkaline and neutral proteases from microorganisms. Papain, ... containing hemagglutinins, lipoxygenases, b-amylase, and β-conglycinin. The major soy protein components, in the two fractions ... of a decade-long study of soy-protein benefits showed only a minimal decrease in cholesterol levels, but it compared favorably ...
... isolated portions of the HA stalk that include the FI6 epitope and have already been shown to stimulate broad, but not ... "A neutralizing antibody selected from plasma cells that binds to group 1 and group 2 influenza A hemagglutinins". Science ... A Neutralizing Antibody Selected from Plasma Cells That Binds to Group 1 and Group 2 Influenza A Hemagglutinins GenBank ...
Proteopedia shows more than 800 three-dimensional molecular models of lectins, fragments of lectins and complexes with ... "Studies on hemagglutinins from Maackia amurensis seeds." Kawaguchi T, Matsumoto I, Osawa T, J Biol Chem. 1974 May 10;249(9): ...
It was shown experimentally that although pigs transmitted PPV for only about 2 weeks after exposure, the pens in which they ... to remove naturally occurring hemagglutinins) and kaolin (to remove or reduce nonantibody inhibitors of HA). Trypsin also has ...
This has been shown for lymphoma patients who received the antibody Rituxan. Patients who express the 158 V/V allele had a ... They bind viral ligands such as hemagglutinins and hemagglutinin neuraminidases, some bacterial ligands and cellular ligands ... Uterine NK cells have shown no significant difference in women with recurrent miscarriage compared with controls. However, ... Clinical studies have shown it to be well tolerated and some antitumor responses have been seen in patients with lung cancer, ...
TEM images can show individual virus particles and quantitative image analysis can be used to determine virus concentrations. ... "The Single Radial Immunodiffusion Assay Highlights Small Antigenic Differences Among Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins". Journal ... PCR cycles that show statistically significant increases in the product) from multiple samples that include an internal ... gently removing the excess with water will show uncolored the location of dead cells). Plaque formation can take 3-14 days, ...
This was shown in a mouse model of renal cancer, in which the anti-tumor effect of SeV was suppressed by reducing the number of ... Arnon TI, Lev M, Katz G, Chernobrov Y, Porgador A, Mandelboim O (September 2001). "Recognition of viral hemagglutinins by NKp44 ... It has been shown that F protein alone can trigger IL-6 production in DC in a fusion-independent manner. SeV has been known to ... One study shows that the SeV variant adapted for growth in LLC-MK2 cells and the SeV variant adapted for growth in embryonated ...
Palese and Adolfo García-Sastre showed that most negative-strand RNA viruses counteract that antiviral response with protein ... Protective Monoclonal Antibodies against H3 Influenza Viruses following Sequential Immunization with Different Hemagglutinins ...
... s generally show high efficacy, as measured by the antibody production in animal models or vaccinated people. ... May 1993). "A common neutralizing epitope conserved between the hemagglutinins of influenza A virus H1 and H2 strains". Journal ... In 2020, a Phase II human trial of the pill form of the vaccine showed that it was well tolerated and provided similar immunity ... "Study of Flu-Related Deaths in Children Shows Healthy Children at Risk". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC ...
Molecular Docking of Broad-Spectrum Antibodies on Hemagglutinins of Influenza A Virus. Le KP ... The results show that while the hydrogen bond is important for Ab/Fab binding to H3, the H5-Ab/Fab system may need cation-pi ... Molecular Docking of Broad-Spectrum Antibodies on Hemagglutinins of Influenza A Virus.. Le KP1, Do PC1, Amaro RE2, Le L1,2.. ... Broad-spectrum antibodies show a promising potential to overcome the resistance of influenza viruses. In silico studies on ...
Hemagglutinins, Viral / chemistry * Hemagglutinins, Viral / metabolism* * Hexosaminidases * Influenza A virus / immunology* * N ... Neuraminidase is essential for fowl plague virus hemagglutinin to show hemagglutinating activity Virology. 1995 Sep 10;212(1): ... Thus, the neuraminidase is essential for FPV HA to show hemagglutinating activity. ... and mutants in which oligosaccharides not adjacent to the receptor binding site were deleted needed VCNA treatment to show ...
Individuals who show signs of dementia (do not pass the Mini-cog test under Appendix 1a: Recruitment Screening Log) or ...
A participant will be considered a responder if he or she did not receive a blood transfusion from Week 5 through Week 26 (EOT) and did not receive treatment for primary cold agglutinin disease (CAgD) beyond what is permitted per protocol. Additionally, the participants hemoglobin (Hgb) level must meet the following criterion: Hgb increase greater than or equal to (,=) 1.5 gram per deciliter (g/dL) from baseline (defined as the last Hgb value before administration of the first dose of study drug) at treatment assessment endpoint ...
Show 82 Study Locations Sponsors and Collaborators. Ipsen. Investigators. Layout table for investigator information. ...
Ultimately, the predictive biomarkers will be the foundation for a simple, rapid, inexpensive test to quickly show protection ...
Binding of hemagglutinins is indicated in relative fluorescence units (RFU). Binding is shown to sialylated glycans present in ... Glycan numbers indicated on the x-axes correspond to glycan structures shown in Figure 3. H5N12.3.4, novel H5N1 virus clade 2.3 ...
In a study the mushroom species, this species was shown to have hemagglutinins. The species showed activity towards rat ... The agglutination of both species showed that both extracts have more than one hemagglutinin. Fungi portal List of Gymnopilus ... erythrocytes while Lentinus squarrosulus showed activity towards guinea pig and mouse erythrocytes. ...
Finally, we used the trend channel to outlook the future of hemagglutinins for the next half a century. As our study covers ... we used the fast Fourier transform to determine the mutation periodicity of the hemagglutinins. Then we estimated our position ... the conclusions will be valid for years until the number of hemagglutinins in Protein Databank is significantly increased. ... almost all the full-length amino-acid sequences of hemagglutinins from various influenza A viruses, ...
Botulinum toxin serotype C, (BoNT/C1) has been shown to cleave both syntaxin and SNAP-25. BoNT/B, D, F and G act on vesicle- ... Hemagglutinins are lectins, that is to say proteins which are distinguished by a high affinity for certain sugars. Because of ... The hemagglutinins of the botulinum toxin complexes, which likewise bind to membrane-associated sugars, are thus able in a ... The complexes (i.e. molecular weight greater than about 150 kD) are believed to contain non-toxin hemagglutinins and a non- ...
... data not shown). Recombinant H1, H3, and H7 hemagglutinins were used as coating antigens in all ELISA tests. ... Shi Y, Zhang W, Wang F, Qi J, Wu Y, Song H, Structures and receptor binding of hemagglutinins from human-infecting H7N9 ... Studies have shown that the GMT of convalescent-phase NAbs against A(H1N1)pdm09virus is 1:101.1 at 21-42 days after symptom ... Laboratory tests showed that some patients had liver or renal damage (Table 2). Major radiographic findings included pneumonia ...
As the study shows, for bird viruses to infect people, their hemagglutinins must change so that they can attach to the human ... Meanwhile, the current outbreak of bird flu in Asia shows little sign of abating. On Wednesday, two children died of bird flu, ... Attachment involves spike-like molecules called hemagglutinins (HA) that project from the viruses and bind to particular ... Bird viruses usually dont infect humans because human and bird virus hemagglutinins interact with different cell receptors. ...
I had to believe them until one day the chef proudly brought out the can of livio oil th show me. And there on the tin in ... Hemagglutinins, substances that promote blood clotting and depress growth, are found in the protein portion of the seed, ... If you can show that using canola as a "dietary oil of choice" leads to longer, healthier, lives, please publish here. ... A current showing of a well-made documentary called: Broken Brain also presents "the greater context" with many references to ...
It has been shown that both viruses belong to the group but are nonetheless sufficiently distinguishable from the other members ... Hemagglutinins were prepared for both agents, a fact extending the knowledge of cross-hemagglutination in the group. ... By CF test, all viruses showed pronounced overlap, with the exception of two strains of Caraparu virus which were sharply ... The viruses are immunologically related among themselves and have failed to show any antigenic overlap with other groups of ...
Recombinant versions of these H1 + H3 cross-reactive antibodies showed broad binding to hemagglutinins (HAs) from previously ... APB monocytes also showed a greater LPS-induced increase in CD40 expression. Together, our data show significant, selective ... We show that the resulting biases in both V(D)J usage and N/P addition lengths, which are found in na ve and antigen ... Here, we show that this is due to reduced quantities of vaccine-specific antibodies, rather than a lack of antibody avidity or ...
Complete sequence analysis shows that the hemagglutinins of the H1 and H2 subtypes of human influenza virus are closely related ...
The mannose-specific hemagglutinins were shown to be similar to the galactophilic ones in (a) being glycoproteins of very low ... these two types of bacterial hemagglutinins are like most of the plant, contrasted with the animal, hemagglutinins. The ... Mannose-binding hemagglutinins in extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.. Gilboa-Garber N, Mizrahi L, Garber N. ... Mannose-binding hemagglutinins were found in the extracts of a pyocyanin-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which contain ...
00:42:55.04 remember very early on, I showed you a cross section. 00:42:58.05 that showed that), interact one-to-one with the. ... 00:20:14.15 timescale and about numbers of hemagglutinins needed. 00:20:20.29 could only be answered in that way. And the ... 00:20:55.07 Im about to show you, but never infects. And you can. 00:20:59.22 also show that is never disrupts a membrane, ... 00:23:33.08 shown here. And of course, since this is a fivefold peg in. 00:23:36.19 a sixfold hole, its arms have to be ...
Early alterations of the receptor-binding properties of H1, H2 and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins after their ... MDCK-SIAT1 Cells Show Improved Isolation Rates for Recent Human Influenza Viruses Compared to Conventional MDCK Cells. Ding ... Shown are the numbers of hemagglutination-positive samples (titer , 1) for each RBC type from MDCK- or MDCK-SIAT1-cultured A( ... The D190N mutation has been previously been reported in egg-passaged A(H1N1) viruses (9, 31, 33, 24) and had been shown to ...
We have previously showed that NKp46 and NCR1 recognize influenza virus hemagglutinins [17], [21], [43]. To compare the ... data not shown). Furthermore, as shown in Supplementary Figure S1, all treatments did not affect the integrity or the presence ... As shown in Figure 10, no TNF-α secretion was observed when NK derived from the Ncr1gfp/gfp mice were incubated with F. ... Finally, we show in vitro that the interaction of NK cells with F. nucleatum leads to an NCR1-dependent secretion of TNF-α. ...
Of particular note are two monoclonal antibodies, 1B2 and 1H5, that show broad reactivity to divergent H7 hemagglutinins. ... In addition, vaccinated animals also showed reduced nasal wash viral titers. In summary, both strategies showed efficacy in ... We show that sFcs drive BCR affinity selection by binding the Type-II FcR CD23, thus upregulating the inhibitory FcγRIIB on ... We show that cH5/1 HA is structurally different from native HA, displaying a 60° rotation between the stalk and head groups, ...
The thin line shows uninfected monocytes, and the thick line shows infected monocytes. The figure shows a representative result ... viral hemagglutinins have been identified as ligands that bind NKp46 and NKp44 (10), triggering lysis of infected cells. Some ... When ELISA plates were not coated with vimentin, NKp46 showed no binding to the plate (data not shown). The amount of bound ... Staining with an isotype control mAb showed minimal numbers of positive control or infected monocytes (data not shown). ...
The first could show the hemifusion and hemifusion delay predictions and the second could show the Ngamma and kgamma. There may ... For example, the proportion of hemagglutinins on a virus particle that insert into the cell membrane affects how fast fusion ... The first could show the hemifusion and hemifusion delay predictions and the second could show the Ngamma and kgamma. There may ... Except in the panel B, where we show hemifusion delays in seconds to illustrate effects of ksim, we show hemifusion delays as ...
The Preparation of Arbovirus Hemagglutinins by Sonication and Trypsin Treatment Pierre Ardoin, Delphine H. Clarke and Claude ... As shown by toxin neutralization (TN) tests in mice with toxic suspensions of rickettsiae, serum of 50% of 207 normal persons ... Montly flea indices showed an inverse correlation with rainfall in Pleiku. Published data on flea indices and reported cases of ... Statistical analysis showed no significant variation among the weights of stool samples measured in syringes of the same size. ...
PCR-45 results showed almost perfect type-specific agreement with LA (k = 0.862), 82% sensitivity and LOD at 10 copies. PCR-15 ... Influenza vaccination and infection not only induced the strongest antibody responses to the hemagglutinins of the viruses of ... The results of the study show that many risk reduction measures are not used in practice, and that some operators believe that ... No-PCR results on 40 samples showed good type-specific agreement with LA (k = 0.621) but sensitivity was 65% with lower limit ...
Recombinant versions of these H1 + H3 cross-reactive antibodies showed broad binding to hemagglutinins (HAs) from previously ... showed dominance of antigenic site B recognition over antigenic site A. A minority showed dominance of site A in 2006 but these ... It has been shown that T2 cells can give rise to mature B cells; however, whether T3 B cells represent a normal stage of B cell ... Here, we show that one of these mutations is located in a region of HA targeted by antibodies elicited in many middle-aged ...
Therefore, in this work, we first performed an in silico analysis of two strains isolated from subjects showing distinct ... Our results show genetic variability in the hemagglutinin genes. While CP3 possesses ... ... Our results show differences the hemagglutinin genes. While CP3 possesses one copy of hagA and two of hagC, H3 has no hagA and ... We previously showed that CP3 and H3 exhibit differences in virulence since H3 showed a lower resistance to cationic peptides ...
Complete sequence analysis shows that the hemagglutinins of the H0 and H2 subtypes of human influenza are closely related. ... Genetic relatedness of hemagglutinins of the H1 subtype of influenza A viruses isolated from swine and birds.Virology 129 1983 ... The node shown by the arrow at A indicates the hypothetical introductory virus in pigs that originated from birds. The HA ... Influenza virus hemagglutinins differentiate between receptor determinants bearing N-acetyl-, N-glycollyl-, and N,O- ...
Recombinant influenza H1, H5 and H9 hemagglutinins containing replaced H3 hemagglutinin transmembrane domain showed enhanced ... A) The 3D map is shown as a solid surface rendering. (B) The 3D map is shown as a wire mesh with docked coordinates of the H7 ... Hemagglutinins as uncleaved HA0. To determine the cleavage status of the HA1-HA2 cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA) ... S6 in the supplemental material). Schematics of apical and lateral projection images from HA molecules are shown in Fig. S6 in ...
The hepatitis B surface antigen sequence was synthesized by chemical means and was shown to have antigenic activity by ... influenza hemagglutinins, fowl plague virus hemagglutinin, human histocompatibility antigen HLA-B7, human interferons, ...
  • The agglutination of both species showed that both extracts have more than one hemagglutinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method was developed using 12 proteins for which extensive immunochemical analysis has been carried out and subsequently was used to predict antigenic determinants for the following proteins: hepatitis B surface antigen, influenza hemagglutinins, fowl plague virus hemagglutinin, human histocompatibility antigen HLA-B7, human interferons, Escherichia coli and cholera enterotoxins, ragweed allergens Ra3 and Ra5, and streptococcal M protein. (pnas.org)
  • This approach shows that a substantial fraction of hemagglutinin molecules fail to contact the target-cell membrane and are permanently inactivated instead. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our results show genetic variability in the hemagglutinin genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The tepary bean lectin showed lower hemagglutination activity than Phaseolus vulgaris hemagglutinin (PHA-E) toward trypsinized human A and O type erythrocytes. (mdpi.com)
  • We compare it with the 1918 "Spanish Influenza" hemagglutinin, H1, and the 1968 "Hong Kong Influenza" hemagglutinin, H3, and show that despite its close overall structural similarity to H1, and its more distant relationship to H3, the H2 receptor binding site is closely related to that of H3 hemagglutinin. (rcsb.org)
  • We show that the human receptor adopts a very similar conformation in both human and avian hemagglutinin-receptor complexes. (rcsb.org)
  • It was shown that the receptor-binding site (RBS) of the hemagglutinin (HA) of avian viruses is evolutionally very stable. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HB36.5 original flu binder, shown as a four-bundle helix in yellow, bound to a monomer subunit of the trimer Hemagglutinin in purple. (igem.org)
  • Broad-spectrum antibodies show a promising potential to overcome the resistance of influenza viruses. (flutrackers.com)
  • In silico studies on broad-reactive antibodies and their interactions with hemagglutinins might shed light on the rational design of a universal vaccine. (flutrackers.com)
  • In this study, 11 broad-spectrum antibodies (or antigen-binding fragments) and 14 hemagglutinins of H3N2 and H5N1 strains were docked and analyzed to provide information about the construction of the scaffold for using universal antibodies against the influenza A virus. (flutrackers.com)
  • For example, the proportion of hemagglutinins on a virus particle that insert into the cell membrane affects how fast fusion occurs and how sensitive the virus is to attack by host immune-system proteins called antibodies. (elifesciences.org)
  • Using parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) as a vector, we now show that each of our two influenza virus hemagglutinins (HAs) can induce antibodies against multiple influenza viruses within the H1N1 subtype, and that both can protect pigs against infection with the A/swine/Alberta/25/2009-H1N1 influenza virus. (pork.org)
  • We show that the feedback (in the control of the antibody synthesis) by antibodies is due to neutralization of the main stimulus (of the immune system, i.e., free molecules of the antigen) by circulating antibodies. (lymenet.de)
  • In addition to verifying the optimal switching strategy, results showing how the immune response is affected by antigen growth rate, initial antigen concentration, and the number of antibodies required to eliminate an antigen are included. (lymenet.de)
  • That is, with little mutations some Hemagglutinins can be much less recognized by the antibodies. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some lineages, although genetically close, such as SI87 and BE89 in A and B, which only have one different amino acid, may not be antigenically close, as shown in C. This indicates that the antibodies produced against H3N2 in 1987 were not efficient against the 1989 virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: IgM capture ELISA for detection of IgM antibodies to dengue virus: comparison of 2 formats using hemagglutinins and cell culture derived antigens. (who.int)
  • Cardosa MJ, Tio PH, Nimmannitya S, Nisalak A, Innis B. IgM capture ELISA for detection of IgM antibodies to dengue virus: comparison of 2 formats using hemagglutinins and cell culture derived antigens. (who.int)
  • In this study, we calculated the amino-acid distribution rank of 1201 hemagglutinins from influenza A viruses dated from 1918 to 2004 in order to compare them with respect to subtypes, species and years. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Attachment involves spike-like molecules called hemagglutinins (HA) that project from the viruses and bind to particular receptors on the surface of cells in the body. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Bird viruses usually don't infect humans because human and bird virus hemagglutinins interact with different cell receptors. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • As the study shows, for bird viruses to infect people, their hemagglutinins must change so that they can attach to the human receptors in the cell. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • We calculated the amino-acid pair predictability and amino-acid distribution rank, which are developed by us over last several years and can numerically present the evolution of proteins in question, of 1217 full-length hemagglutinins from influenza A viruses. (thescipub.com)
  • By analyzing hemagglutinins of potential H2 avian precursors of the pandemic virus, we show that the human receptor can be bound by avian hemagglutinins that lack the human-specific mutations of H2 and H3 pandemic viruses, Gln-226Leu, and Gly-228Ser. (rcsb.org)
  • These results show that both vaccines have the ability to induce broad immunity within the H1N1 subtype, with evidence of protection against one of these viruses in a direct vaccine:challenge. (pork.org)
  • The similarity between the two pandemic viruses is unusual, not only because they are separated by so many years, but also because genetic evidence has shown that the 2009 pandemic virus was not brand-new, but had already been circulating in humans-two circumstances that would have been expected to cause the viruses to diversify as they adapted. (blogspot.com)
  • Molecular Docking of Human-Like Receptor to Hemagglutinins of Avian Influenza A Viruses[J].Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
  • For the natural cytotoxicity receptors, viral hemagglutinins have been identified as ligands that bind NKp46 and NKp44 ( 10 ), triggering lysis of infected cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • 2001) Recognition of viral hemagglutinins by NKp44 but not by NKp30. (els.net)
  • In the larger study, which was conducted in the U.S. during the 2007-2008 flu season, the vaccine was shown to be 44.6% effective against all circulating strains of influenza, even though 96% of the viral isolates taken from the participants were not matched to the vaccine strains. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In contrast, the hemagglutinins in 24 seasonal flu strains dating from the 1930s through the 1950s, and 9 seasonal-vaccine strains from 1977 through 2007, differed from the pandemic strains by 30% to 58% of their amino-acid sequences. (blogspot.com)
  • The comparative analysis of rtx gene among 6 strains of L. pneumophila showed modularity in their structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Research shows that two clinical strains of E. aerogenes exhibited phenotypes of multiresistance to β-lactam antibiotics, fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and kanamycin. (kenyon.edu)
  • Both strains showed a porin pattern different from that of a susceptible strain. (kenyon.edu)
  • Nevertheless, the calculation results also showed that some newly-found virus strains of the H7N9 subtype have a high binding affinity for human receptors, suggesting that the H7N9 subtype might include strains with a high risk for infecting humans. (pku.edu.cn)
  • In three of our recent studies on the hemagglutinins from influenza A virus, we unintentionally noticed the periodicity of mutations in hemagglutinins similar to the periodicity of sunspot. (thescipub.com)
  • We then used the fast Fourier transform to determine the periodicity of mutations in the hemagglutinins. (thescipub.com)
  • We compare the periodicities of mutations in influenza A virus hemagglutinins with those of solar and galactic cosmic rays and find a main periodicity of the mutations identical to that of sunspot and neutron rate (11 years/circle). (thescipub.com)
  • Research has shown that a highly contagious strain of H5N1, one that might allow airborne transmission between mammals, can be reached in only a few mutations, raising concerns about a pandemic and bioterrorism . (wikipedia.org)
  • The complete genomic information (88% is coded) has not been entirely sequenced as of yet, however, there is some research that shows studies on mutations as well as show evidence of replication through plasmids. (kenyon.edu)
  • The data show that all avian HAs retain their strict binding preference to avian receptors, whereas swine H4 has a weak human receptor binding. (cdc.gov)
  • The results showed that the binding affinity of H7 for human receptors is lower than that of H1, which shows a strong ability to infect humans. (pku.edu.cn)
  • The purified trimers were shown to be active in a hemagglutination assay and also induced neutralizing humoral immune responses as shown by mouse immunization and hemagglutination inhibition assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutants which retained one of these oligosaccharides and mutants in which oligosaccharides not adjacent to the receptor binding site were deleted needed VCNA treatment to show hemadsorption. (nih.gov)
  • We show how Gln-226 in the avian H2 receptor binding site, together with Asn-186, form hydrogen bond networks through bound water molecules to mediate binding to human receptor. (rcsb.org)
  • We also show that Leu-226 in the receptor binding site of human virus hemagglutinins creates a hydrophobic environment near the Sia-1-Gal-2 glycosidic linkage that favors binding of the human receptor and is unfavorable for avian receptor binding. (rcsb.org)
  • The biofilm proteome showed major variations in the composition of outer membrane proteins and receptor or transport proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously showed that CP3 and H3 exhibit differences in virulence since H3 showed a lower resistance to cationic peptides compared with CP3, and a lower ability to induce proliferation in gingival epithelial cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present work shows the characterization of Phaseolus acutifolius variety latifolius, on which little research has been published, and provides detailed information on the corresponding lectin. (mdpi.com)
  • MALDI TOF analysis of Phaseolus acutifolius agglutinin (PAA) showed that this lectin is composed of monomers with molecular weights ranging between 28 and 31 kDa. (mdpi.com)
  • Eel serum lectins have been useful as anti-H hemagglutinins and also in lectin histochemistry as fucose-binding lectins (fucolectins), but their structures have not been determined. (xenbase.org)
  • After noticing fluctuations in distribution rank along the time course, we used the fast Fourier transform to determine the mutation periodicity of the hemagglutinins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, using cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis, we show that recombinant H7 HA in vaccines formed macromolecular complexes consisting of variable numbers of HA subunits (range, 6 to 8). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In comparison, evaluation of one of the mRNA vaccines in a human STAT2-knockin transgenic immunocompetent mouse showed complete protection against congenital ZIKV transmission. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, it will not have an immediate impact on the situation currently unfolding in the Far East with the chicken flu known as H5, since, from our previous work, we know that the 1918 and the H5 hemagglutinins are quite different. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Most sera possessed nonspecific inhibitors for hemagglutinins of these viral types, but treatment of sera with filtrates from a psychrophylic Pseudomonas sp. (jimmunol.org)
  • Legume seeds are normally consumed after processing there by increasing the bioavailability of nutrients by inactivating trypsin, growth inhibitors and hemagglutinins [ 11 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • From the age of six months normal subjects show "naturally occurring" antibody to non-self ABO antigens. (dadamo.com)
  • These reagents are not always easily available and we have thus compared the AFRIMS format with another published format which uses cell culture derived antigens (culture fluid, CF, format) in order to determine if it is reasonable to use cell culture derived antigens in situations where hemagglutinins and normal human serum are difficult to obtain. (who.int)
  • In terms of rHA expression level, canine HA (H3N2) showed preference to the native signal peptide than ER retention signal peptide in the tested geminiviral vector system. (bvsalud.org)
  • The phylogenetic results showed that recent human isolates clustered disproportionally into several new H5 sublineages suggesting that their HAs have changed their receptor specificity. (nih.gov)
  • E. coli adhesins showed no blood group specificity, excepting 1 cancer isolate (HM44) with specificity for the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen, but they could be blocked by soluble plantain fiber. (nih.gov)
  • The mannose-specific hemagglutinins were shown to be similar to the galactophilic ones in (a) being glycoproteins of very low molecular weight (about 11 000 by SDS gel electrophoresis), (b) their tendency to aggregate, and (c) their ability to effect stronger agglutination of erythrocytes treated with papain than of untreated ones. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the extracts of T. infestans salivary glands, but not those of R. prolixus, showed a trypanolytic activity that was heat-inactivated and was not abolished by pre-incubation with any of the sugars or glycoproteins tested. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, the neuraminidase is essential for FPV HA to show hemagglutinating activity. (nih.gov)
  • The Hong Kong experience, however, showed that an animal virus with another HA subtype (H5) could directly infect humans and cause illness. (cdc.gov)
  • The highly sensitive AFRIMS format IgM capture ELISA for the diagnosis of dengue virus infections requires the use of mouse brain derived hemagglutinins and consequently also the use of 20% acetone extracted normal human serum to eliminate high background. (who.int)
  • In these properties, as well as in their relative resistance to heat and to proteolytic enzymes, these two types of bacterial hemagglutinins are like most of the plant, contrasted with the animal, hemagglutinins. (nih.gov)
  • After bacterial monoinfection, only the wt S. suis strain showed an invasive phenotype, whereas the mutant remained adherent. (asm.org)
  • We further show that both the mouse NCR1 and the human NKp46 bind directly to F. nucleatum and we demonstrate that this binding is sensitive to heat, to proteinase K and to pronase treatments. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We previously showed that human NK cells used the NKp46 receptor to lyse Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra-infected monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Ultimately, the predictive biomarkers will be the foundation for a simple, rapid, inexpensive test to quickly show protection against a pathogen or foreign agent after vaccination. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In contrast to the extracellular bacteria Vibrio cholerae , in which the rtx gene is highly conserved and flanking genes have lost synteny and similarity, the gene region coding for the Rtx toxin in the intracellular pathogen L. pneumophila shows a rapid evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The pMGA genes of the avian respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum encode a family of hemagglutinins that are subject to phase variation. (uab.edu)
  • Timing of mutation in influenza A virus hemagglutinins by means of amino-acid distribution rank and fast Fourier transform. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Therefore, an ability to control how often hemagglutinins insert into the membrane could allow the virus to adapt to host immune responses. (elifesciences.org)
  • Instead of a continuous change, the map showed that the virus tends to agglutinate in groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • The partial sequence obtained by LC/MS/MS of tryptic fragments from the PAA subunits showed 90-100% identity with subunits from genus Phaseolus lectins in previous reports. (mdpi.com)
  • ELISA and Far Western blotting showed that recombinant vimentin bound to a NKp46 fusion protein. (jimmunol.org)
  • optimized the flu binders and showed that HB80.4 was broadly binding, meaning it bound to multiple HAs with high affinity. (igem.org)
  • They also showed that HB36.5 bound preferentially to HA 1. (igem.org)
  • General Function Not Available Specific Function Hemagglutinins of uropathogenic E.coli mediate adherence to the upper urinary tract. (resfebertravel.com)
  • These data show that the acidic pH optimum of LLO results from an adaptive mutation that acts to limit cytolytic activity to acidic vesicles and prevent damage in the host cytosol, a strategy also used by host cells to compartmentalize lysosomal hydrolases. (rupress.org)
  • Mannose-binding hemagglutinins in extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (nih.gov)
  • Mannose-binding hemagglutinins were found in the extracts of a pyocyanin-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which contain galactose-specific hemagglutinins. (nih.gov)
  • Affinity chromatography with the immobilized PAA showed a high affinity to glycopeptides from thyroglobulin, which also has N -glycans with a high content of N -acetylglucosamine. (mdpi.com)
  • The hepatitis B surface antigen sequence was synthesized by chemical means and was shown to have antigenic activity by radioimmunoassay. (pnas.org)
  • Glycan numbers indicated on the x -axes correspond to glycan structures shown in Figure 3 . (cdc.gov)
  • Some studies have shown that membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) 3 on tumor cells are involved in the recognition of cellular targets by NKp46 and NKp30 ( 11 ), whereas others have found that HSPG do not bind to NKp30 ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • HI tests on treated sera were comparable to neutralization tests in diagnostic value, with 46% of patients with isolations of coxsackievirus types B1, B3 and B5 showing significant rises in homotypic antibody titers by both tests. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, we show that F. nucleatum is recognized by NCR1 and NKp46 directly and that this recognition leads to the secretion of TNF-α, a central cytokine critically involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal destruction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Collectively, we show that NCR1 and NKp46 play a critical role in the pathogenesis of F. nucleatum -mediated periodontitis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The results show that while the hydrogen bond is important for Ab/Fab binding to H3, the H5-Ab/Fab system may need cation-pi interaction for a strong interaction. (flutrackers.com)
  • Hybridizations were conducted at high stringency (1× SSC [1× SSC is 0.15 M NaCl plus 0.015 M sodium citrate], 68°C). The results are shown in Table 1 . (asm.org)
  • However, even though blood work can be used to help identify a food allergy, this blood work is not always conclusive, since food allergy tests can often show "false positive" results in which a food allergy is not actually present, and the immune system has reacted to some other non-food molecule. (whfoods.com)
  • The results show that the models are inadequate to explain the decisions. (statescale.cf)
  • citri mature biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and shown to consistently correlate with those deduced from the proteomic study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The species showed activity towards rat erythrocytes while Lentinus squarrosulus showed activity towards guinea pig and mouse erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to activating B cells to proliferate, it has been shown that RV N in the RNP complex induces potent T helper cell responses resulting in long-lasting and strong humoral immune responses against RV. (jove.com)
  • Under these conditions the vapors showed no measurable adverse effect on epithelial cell monolayers. (researchgate.net)
  • showed no measurable adv erse effect on epithel ial cell monolayers. (researchgate.net)
  • E. coli expressed hemagglutinins in 39% of Crohn's cases and 38% of cancers but only 4% of controls, and this correlated (P = 0.01) with adherence to the I407 and HT29 cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • Therapeutic strategies targeting regulation of NK cell receptor and ligand system have shown great promise for treatment of cancer and viral infectious diseases. (els.net)
  • In the present study researchers show, that in the absence of CD40L, CD4 + T cell-derived IL-21 induces differentiation of B cells into granzyme B (GzmB)-secreting cytotoxic cells. (immuneregulationnews.com)
  • Studies had shown that olive oil has a "better" effect than polyunsaturated oils on cholesterol levels and other blood parameters. (westonaprice.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that pMGA genes are transcribed when 12 GAA repeats are present but are not transcribed when the number of repeats is not 12. (uab.edu)
  • In a study the mushroom species, this species was shown to have hemagglutinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study from Tulane was widely reported in the news media to show that eating soybeans prevents heart attacks. (drmirkin.com)
  • That's not what the study showed. (drmirkin.com)
  • A new study shows for the first time that natural killer cells can contribute to the immune response against HIV. (immuneregulationnews.com)
  • Here investigators show that treatment of mouse plasmacytoid dendritic cells with transforming growth factor-β conferred regulatory effects on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase that were mechanistically separable from its enzymic activity. (immuneregulationnews.com)
  • When the epithelial cells were preinfected with SIV, the suilysin-negative mutant also showed an invasion capacity. (asm.org)