Shoulder Impingement Syndrome
Range of Motion, Articular
Brachial Plexus Neuritis
Cumulative Trauma Disorders
Low Back Pain
Myofascial Pain Syndromes
Physical Therapy Modalities
Recovery of Function
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
Muscle Stretching Exercises
Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Nerve Compression Syndromes
Spinal Cord Injuries
International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health
Severity of Illness Index
Activities of Daily Living
Reproducibility of Results
Diagnostic classification of shoulder disorders: interobserver agreement and determinants of disagreement. (1/514)OBJECTIVES: To assess the interobserver agreement on the diagnostic classification of shoulder disorders, based on history taking and physical examination, and to identify the determinants of diagnostic disagreement. METHODS: Consecutive eligible patients with shoulder pain were recruited in various health care settings in the Netherlands. After history taking, two physiotherapists independently performed a physical examination and subsequently the shoulder complaints were classified into one of six diagnostic categories: capsular syndrome (for example, capsulitis, arthritis), acute bursitis, acromioclavicular syndrome, subacromial syndrome (for example, tendinitis, chronic bursitis), rest group (for example, unclear clinical picture, extrinsic causes) and mixed clinical picture. To quantify the interobserver agreement Cohen's kappa was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to determine which clinical characteristics were determinants of diagnostic disagreement. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 201 patients with varying severity and duration of complaints. The kappa for the classification of shoulder disorders was 0.45 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.37, 0.54). Diagnostic disagreement was associated with bilateral involvement (odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% CI 1.0, 3.7), chronic complaints (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.7), and severe pain (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.3, 5.3). CONCLUSIONS: Only moderate agreement was found on the classification of shoulder disorders, which implies that differentiation between the various categories of shoulder disorders is complicated. Especially patients with high pain severity, chronic complaints and bilateral involvement represent a diagnostic challenge for clinicians. As diagnostic classification is a guide for treatment decisions, unsatisfactory reproducibility might affect treatment outcome. To improve the reproducibility, more insight into the reproducibility of clinical findings and the value of additional diagnostic procedures is needed. (+info)
Risk factors for neck and upper limb disorders: results from 24 years of follow up. (2/514)OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between different potential risk factors, related and not related to work, and disorders of the neck and upper extremities occurring up to 24 years later. METHODS: The study comprised 252 women and 232 men, Swedish citizens, 42-59 years of age and in a broad range of occupations. Information about potential risk factors was available from a former study conducted in 1969. Data on disorders of the neck, shoulder, and hand-wrist disorders were obtained retrospectively for the period 1970-93. RESULTS: Risk factors were found to differ between the sexes. Among women over-time work, high mental workload, and unsatisfactory leisure time were associated with disorders in the neck-shoulder region. Interaction was found between high mental workload and unsatisfactory leisure time. Neck symptoms earlier in life were associated with recurrent disorders. Hand and wrist disorders were associated mainly with physical demands at work. Among men blue collar work and a simultaneous presence of high mental workload and additional domestic workload predicted disorders in the neck-shoulder region. CONCLUSIONS: Factors related and not related to work were associated with disorders of the neck, shoulders, and hands and wrist up to 24 years later in life. These included factors related to working hours which previously have not been noted in this context. Interactions between risk factors both related and not related to work were commonly found. (+info)
The long-term course of shoulder complaints: a prospective study in general practice. (3/514)OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the long-term course of shoulder complaints in patients in general practice with special focus on changes in diagnostic category and fluctuations in the severity of the complaints. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: Four general practices in The Netherlands. METHOD: All patients (101) with shoulder complaints seen in a 5 month period were included. Assessment took place 26 weeks and 12-18 months after inclusion in the study with a pain questionnaire and a physical examination. RESULTS: A total of 51% of the patients experienced (mostly recurrent) complaints after 26 weeks and 41% after 12-18 months. Diagnostic changes were found over the course of time, mostly from synovial disorders towards functional disorders of the structures of the shoulder girdle, but also the other way round. Although 52 of the 101 patients experienced complaints in week 26, 62% of those patients considered themselves 'cured'. After 12-18 months, 51% of the 39 patients experiencing complaints felt 'cured'. CONCLUSION: Many patients seen with shoulder complaints in general practice have recurrent complaints. The nature of these complaints varies considerably over the course of time, leading to changes in diagnostic category. Because of the fluctuating severity of the complaints over time, feeling 'cured' or not 'cured' is also subject to change over time. (+info)
Attitudes toward management of patients with subacromial pain in Swedish primary care. (4/514)OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the attitudes among GPs and physiotherapists toward the diagnostic approach and management of patients with a common shoulder disorder. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent out to 188 GPs and 71 physiotherapists. The total response rate was 71.8%. The questions were based on a written case simulation with cues about history and symptoms. RESULTS: The results showed a unanimous opinion of the diagnosis. Rotator cuff tendinitis was marked as the most probable. The two groups showed similarities in the way that they would examine the patient. The GPs referred the patients to the physiotherapists significantly more often than the other way around. The most probable choice of treatment made by the GPs was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and by the physiotherapists, movement exercises together with ergonomics. Most treatment alternatives had at least 20% of the responders marking a neutral attitude, and few treatments were disregarded. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that in Swedish primary care GPs and physiotherapists have a uniform diagnostic approach towards patients with subacromial pain, but their choice of treatment reflects an uncertainty about the effectiveness of conservative treatments. The questioned pathogenesis of the suggested diagnosis and lack of research regarding the efficacy of conservative treatments could explain this uncertainty. (+info)
Alternative and effective treatment of shoulder ganglion cyst: ultrasonographically guided aspiration. (5/514)The therapeutic effect of ultrasonographically guided aspiration of a ganglion cyst of the shoulder is evaluated. Fifteen patients (nine male, six female) with chronic shoulder pain were enrolled in this study. Each patient was referred to rule out rotator cuff lesion. The ultrasonographic examination showed an anechoic cystic lesion in the shoulder region in every patient and abnormality of the rotator cuff in only four patients. Under ultrasonographic guidance, an 18 gauge needle was inserted into the cyst to aspirate the fluid. Initial sonographic imaging showed the cyst, which appeared as a localized fluid accumulation and was located between the deltoid muscle and the subscapularis tendon in seven patients, between the deltoid muscle and the biceps tendon in one patient, below the coracoacromial ligament in five patients, and over suprascapular notch area in one patient. The ganglion cysts ranged in size from 3.5 to 30 mm. The amount of aspirated fluid in each cyst varied from 0.4 to 12 ml (mean, 2.6 ml +/- 3.1) with a clear or light yellowish color and a jelly-like appearance. No major complications occurred during or after this procedure. The symptom (pain) was improved after sonographically guided aspiration in each patient. Follow-up study showed complete relief of pain in four patients, marked improvement in nine patients, and mild improvement but still persistent shoulder pain in two patients. Duration of follow-up study ranged from 2 to 24 months (mean, 6.4 months +/- 6.9). The success rate for sonographically guided aspiration was 86% on the basis of marked symptom improvement or relief. Ultrasonographically guided aspiration of shoulder ganglion cysts is an effective procedure in the management of shoulder pain caused by ganglion cysts. (+info)
Fish processing work: the impact of two sex dependent exposure profiles on musculoskeletal health. (6/514)OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of work tasks, physical exposure, and psychosocial factors on the risk of musculoskeletal disorders in men and women, in a defined industrial setting. METHODS: 116 male and 206 female fish industry workers were compared with 129 men and 208 women with more varied work. Physical and psychosocial work load as well as musculoskeletal complaints were recorded by a questionnaire. A physical examination was performed and an observation method was used for work evaluation. 196 male and 322 female former fish processing workers received a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: The women workers in the fish industry had worse working conditions than the men for repetitiveness, constrained neck postures, and psychosocial work environment. They also had higher prevalences of complaints of the neck and shoulder (prevalence odds ratio (POR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1 to 3.2), neck and shoulder and elbow and hand complaints (POR 2.9; 95% CI 1.8 to 4.7 and POR 2.8; 95% CI 1.6 to 4.7, respectively). The women more often than the men left the industry because of neck and upper limb complaints. Also, women in other work had a higher prevalence of complaints of the neck and shoulder (POR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1 to 5.1) than the men. The men in the fish processing industry had a higher prevalence of complaints of the neck and shoulder than the men in other work (POR 3.6; 95% CI 1.6 to 8.0). This difference was not shown up by the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: Despite superficially similar work, there were clear sex differences in physical exposure and psychosocial work environment. Work in the fish processing industry was associated with a high risk of neck and upper limb disorders in women, which was probably mainly due to their extremely repetitive work tasks; the corresponding men had less repetitive work and less disorders. Also, a healthy worker effect on neck and upper limb disorders was found. The advantage of a physical examination compared with a questionnaire is clearly shown. (+info)
No effect of bipolar interferential electrotherapy and pulsed ultrasound for soft tissue shoulder disorders: a randomised controlled trial. (7/514)OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of bipolar interferential electrotherapy (ET) and pulsed ultrasound (US) as adjuvants to exercise therapy for soft tissue shoulder disorders (SD). METHODS: Randomised placebo controlled trial with a two by two factorial design plus an additional control group in 17 primary care physiotherapy practices in the south of the Netherlands. Patients with shoulder pain and/or restricted shoulder mobility, because of a soft tissue impairment without underlying specific or generalised condition, were enrolled if they had not recovered after six sessions of exercise therapy in two weeks. They were randomised to receive (1) active ET plus active US; (2) active ET plus dummy US; (3) dummy ET plus active US; (4) dummy ET plus dummy US; or (5) no adjuvants. Additionally, they received a maximum of 12 sessions of exercise therapy in six weeks. Measurements at baseline, 6 weeks and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months later were blinded for treatment. OUTCOME MEASURES: recovery, functional status, chief complaint, pain, clinical status, and range of motion. RESULTS: After written informed consent 180 patients were randomised: both the active treatments were given to 73 patients, both the dummy treatments to 72 patients, and 35 patients received no adjuvants. Prognosis of groups appeared similar at baseline. Blinding was successfully maintained. At six weeks seven patients (20%) without adjuvants reported very large improvement (including complete recovery), 17 (23%) and 16 (22%) with active and dummy ET, and 19 (26%) and 14 (19%) with active and dummy US. These proportions increased to about 40% at three months, but remained virtually stable thereafter. Up to 12 months follow up the 95% CI for differences between groups for all outcomes include zero. CONCLUSION: Neither ET nor US prove to be effective as adjuvants to exercise therapy for soft tissue SD. (+info)
Association between musculoskeletal pain in Japanese construction workers and job, age, alcohol consumption, and smoking. (8/514)A cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted to determine the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in construction workers and identify associations between MSP and individual factors (i.e., job, age, alcohol consumption, and smoking). The prevalence of total hand/arm pain (T-HAP), total shoulder pain (T-SP), and total low-back pain (T-LBP) was 28.4%, 28.7%, and 53.2%, respectively. Risk factors for total pain and for relatively severe pain in the hand/arm (RS-HAP), shoulder (RS-SP), and low-back (RS-LBP) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed that musculoskeletal pain was significantly associated with age, and that the odds ratios (ORs) for relatively severe musculoskeletal pain increased almost linearly with age. Regarding job, compared with architects whose work is presumed to be sedentary, almost all ORs for T-HAP, T-SP, and T-LBP for non-sedentary construction jobs were significantly high. Current smokers of 20 cigarettes a day or more had significantly higher ORs for RS-HAP and RS-LBP than "never smokers". We suppose that 1) total and relatively severe pain were associated with age, 2) non-sedentary work was at higher risk of total MSP than sedentary work, and 3) heavy smoking contributed to RS-LBP. (+info)
The shoulder is a complex joint that consists of several bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, which work together to provide a wide range of motion and stability. Any disruption in this delicate balance can cause pain and dysfunction.
Some common causes of shoulder pain include:
1. Rotator cuff injuries: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, providing stability and mobility. Injuries to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
2. Bursitis: Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joints and reduce friction between the bones, muscles, and tendons. Inflammation of the bursae (bursitis) can cause pain and swelling in the shoulder.
3. Tendinitis: Tendinitis is inflammation of the tendons, which connect the muscles to the bones. Tendinitis in the shoulder can cause pain and stiffness.
4. Dislocations: A dislocation occurs when the ball of the humerus (upper arm bone) is forced out of the shoulder socket. This can cause severe pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
5. Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition that affects the joints, including the shoulder. It can cause pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
6. Frozen shoulder: Also known as adhesive capsulitis, frozen shoulder is a condition where the connective tissue in the shoulder joint becomes inflamed and scarred, leading to pain and stiffness.
7. Labral tears: The labrum is a cartilage ring that surrounds the shoulder socket, providing stability and support. Tears to the labrum can cause pain and instability in the shoulder.
8. Fractures: Fractures of the humerus, clavicle, or scapula (shoulder blade) can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
9. Rotator cuff tears: The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that provide stability and support to the shoulder joint. Tears to the rotator cuff can cause pain and weakness in the shoulder.
10. Impingement syndrome: Impingement syndrome occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff become pinched or compressed as they pass through the shoulder joint, leading to pain and inflammation.
These are just a few examples of common shoulder injuries and conditions. If you're experiencing shoulder pain or stiffness, it's important to see a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.
There are two main types of shoulder dislocations:
1. Shoulder dislocation: This occurs when the ball at the top of the humerus is forced out of its socket in the scapula.
2. Multidirectional instability (MDI): This occurs when the connections between the humerus, scapula, and collarbone (clavicle) are loose or unstable, causing the shoulder to dislocate in multiple directions.
Symptoms of a shoulder dislocation may include:
* Severe pain in your shoulder
* Swelling and bruising around your shoulder
* Difficulty moving your arm or putting weight on it
* A visible deformity in your shoulder
If you suspect that you have a shoulder dislocation, it's important to seek medical attention right away. Your doctor may perform an X-ray or other imaging tests to confirm the diagnosis and determine the severity of the dislocation. Treatment options for a shoulder dislocation may include:
* Reduction: This is a procedure where your doctor manipulates the bones back into their proper position.
* Immobilization: Your arm may be immobilized in a sling or brace to allow the joint to heal.
* Physical therapy: After the initial injury has healed, physical therapy can help improve range of motion and strength in your shoulder.
In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair any damage to the surrounding tissues or to realign the bones. It's important to follow your doctor's recommendations for treatment and rehabilitation to ensure proper healing and prevent future complications.
There are several different types of pain, including:
1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.
The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:
1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.
It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.
There are several types of neck pain, including:
* Acute neck pain: This is a sudden onset of pain in the neck, often caused by an injury or strain.
* Chronic neck pain: This is persistent pain in the neck that lasts for more than 3 months.
* Mechanical neck pain: This is pain caused by misalignment or degeneration of the spinal bones and joints in the neck.
* Non-mechanical neck pain: This is pain that is not caused by a specific structural problem, but rather by factors such as poor posture, muscle strain, or pinched nerves.
Neck pain can be treated with a variety of methods, including:
* Medications such as pain relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs
* Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
* Chiropractic care to realign the spine and relieve pressure on nerves
* Massage therapy to relax muscles and improve circulation
* Lifestyle changes such as improving posture, losing weight, and taking regular breaks to rest and stretch.
It is important to seek medical attention if neck pain is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or legs.
There are several types of bursitis, including:
1. Subacromial bursitis: This type occurs on the underside of the acromion (a bony projection on the shoulder blade) and is common among athletes who throw or perform repetitive overhead motions.
2. Retrocalcaneal bursitis: This type affects the heel of the foot and is caused by excessive standing or walking, poorly fitting shoes, or injury to the ankle or heel.
3. Prepatellar bursitis: This type affects the front of the kneecap and can be caused by direct trauma, repetitive kneeling, or inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Olecranal bursitis: This type affects the elbow and is often caused by repetitive flexion and extension of the arm.
5. Trochanteric bursitis: This type affects the thigh bone and is common among older adults or those with hip arthritis.
Bursitis can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests like X-rays or ultrasound, and aspiration of fluid from the affected bursa. Treatment options for bursitis depend on the severity of the condition and may include rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and physical therapy exercises to improve range of motion and strength. In severe cases or those that do not respond to conservative treatment, surgical drainage or removal of the affected bursa may be necessary.
Treatment for shoulder impingement syndrome may include rest, physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medications, and corticosteroid injections. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove bone spurs or inflamed tissue.
Symptoms of shoulder impingement syndrome may include:
* Pain in the shoulder, especially when lifting the arm or performing overhead activities
* Stiffness and limited mobility in the shoulder joint
* Crepitus (a grinding or cracking sensation) when moving the shoulder
* Weakness or fatigue in the shoulder muscles
* Decreased range of motion in the shoulder joint.
Diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs, and patient history. Treatment is tailored to the individual case and may involve a combination of non-surgical and surgical interventions.
In conclusion, shoulder impingement syndrome is a common condition that can cause pain, stiffness, and limited mobility in the shoulder joint. Treatment options range from rest and physical therapy to surgery, and are tailored to the individual case. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
There are many different types of chronic pain, including:
1. Musculoskeletal pain: This type of pain affects the muscles, bones, and joints, and can be caused by injuries, arthritis, or other conditions.
2. Nerve pain: This type of pain is caused by damage or irritation to the nerves, and can be burning, stabbing, or shooting in nature.
3. Chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS): This is a chronic pain condition that typically affects one limb and is characterized by burning, aching, or shooting pain.
4. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage or irritation to the nerves, and can be burning, stabbing, or shooting in nature.
5. Cancer pain: This type of pain is caused by cancer or its treatment, and can be severe and debilitating.
6. Postoperative pain: This type of pain is caused by surgery and can vary in severity depending on the type of procedure and individual's response to pain.
7. Pelvic pain: This type of pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including endometriosis, adhesions, or pelvic inflammatory disease.
8. Headache disorders: This type of pain can include migraines, tension headaches, and other types of headaches that are severe and recurring.
Chronic pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to work, sleep, and participate in activities they enjoy. It can also lead to feelings of frustration, anxiety, and depression.
There are many treatment options for chronic pain, including medication, physical therapy, and alternative therapies like acupuncture and massage. It's important to work with a healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses the underlying cause of the pain and helps improve function and quality of life.
1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative condition that causes the breakdown of cartilage in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Gout: A condition caused by the buildup of uric acid in the joints, leading to sudden and severe attacks of pain, inflammation, and swelling.
4. Bursitis: Inflammation of the bursae, small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joints and reduce friction between tendons and bones.
5. Tendinitis: Inflammation of the tendons, which connect muscles to bones.
6. Synovitis: Inflammation of the synovial membrane, a thin lining that covers the joints and lubricates them with fluid.
7. Periarthritis: Inflammation of the tissues around the joints, such as the synovial membrane, tendons, and ligaments.
8. Spondyloarthritis: A group of conditions that affect the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to inflammation and pain in these areas.
9. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A condition that affects children and causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
10. Systemic lupus erythematosus: An autoimmune disease that can affect many parts of the body, including the joints.
These are just a few examples of the many types of joint diseases that exist. Each type has its own unique symptoms and causes, and they can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, injury, infection, or age-related wear and tear. Treatment options for joint diseases can range from medication and physical therapy to surgery, depending on the severity of the condition and its underlying cause.
Tendinopathy can affect any tendon in the body but is most common in the tendons of the shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips, knees, and ankles. Symptoms may include pain, stiffness, swelling, redness, warmth, and limited mobility in the affected area.
Tendinopathy can be caused by a variety of factors such as:
1. Overuse or repetitive strain injuries: Tendons can become inflamed or degenerated due to repetitive movements, especially in sports or occupations that involve repetitive arm or leg movements.
2. Age-related wear and tear: As we age, our tendons can become less flexible and more prone to injury or degeneration.
3. Trauma or acute injuries: Tendon injuries can occur from sudden or severe impacts, such as falls or direct blows to the affected area.
4. Systemic diseases: Certain systemic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout, can affect tendons and cause inflammation or degeneration.
5. Poor posture or biomechanics: Poor posture or biomechanics can place excessive stress on tendons, leading to inflammation or degeneration over time.
There are several types of tendinopathy, including:
1. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, often caused by repetitive strain or acute injury.
2. Tendinosis: Degenerative changes in a tendon, often due to age-related wear and tear or chronic overuse.
3. Tendon rupture: A complete tear of a tendon, which can be caused by acute trauma or degenerative changes.
4. Tennis elbow: A common condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons on the outside of the elbow, often caused by repetitive gripping or twisting motions.
5. Golfer's elbow: A similar condition to tennis elbow, but affecting the tendons on the inside of the elbow.
6. Achilles tendinopathy: Inflammation or degeneration of the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscles to the heel bone.
7. Patellar tendinopathy: Inflammation or degeneration of the tendon that connects the patella (kneecap) to the shinbone.
Treatment for tendinopathy depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Rest and avoidance of aggravating activities.
2. Physical therapy to improve strength, flexibility, and biomechanics.
3. Anti-inflammatory medications or injections.
4. Orthotics or bracing to support the affected area.
5. Surgery in severe cases, such as when there is a complete tear of the tendon.
Types of Shoulder Fractures:
1. Humeral Fractures: These are fractures that occur in the upper arm bone (humerus). They can be classified into diaphyseal fractures (fractures in the shaft of the humerus), metaphyseal fractures (fractures at the ends of the humerus), and subtrochanteric fractures (fractures between the upper and lower ends of the humerus).
2. Scapular Fractures: These are fractures that occur in the shoulder blade (scapula). They can be classified into avulsion fractures (fractures where a small piece of bone is pulled away from the main body of the scapula) and stress fractures (fractures that occur due to repetitive trauma or overuse).
3. Clavicular Fractures: These are fractures that occur in the collarbone (clavicle). They can be classified into midshaft fractures (fractures in the middle of the clavicle) and distal fractures (fractures at the end of the clavicle).
Causes of Shoulder Fractures:
1. Trauma: Trauma is the most common cause of shoulder fractures. This can include falls, car accidents, sports injuries, and direct blows to the shoulder.
2. Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis is a condition that causes bones to become weak and brittle, making them more susceptible to fractures.
3. Overuse: Overuse injuries can also cause shoulder fractures, especially in athletes who participate in sports that involve repetitive movements of the shoulder joint.
Symptoms of Shoulder Fractures:
1. Pain: The most common symptom of a shoulder fracture is pain. The pain may be severe and worsen with movement or weight-bearing activities.
2. Swelling and bruising: There may be swelling and bruising around the affected area.
3. Limited mobility: A shoulder fracture can cause limited mobility in the arm and shoulder, making it difficult to move the arm or perform everyday activities.
4. Deformity: In some cases, a shoulder fracture may cause a visible deformity, such as a bone that is visibly out of place.
Diagnosis of Shoulder Fractures:
1. X-rays: X-rays are the most common diagnostic tool for shoulder fractures. They can help to identify the type and severity of the fracture.
2. CT scans: CT scans may be used in some cases to provide a more detailed view of the fracture.
3. MRI scans: MRI scans may be used to evaluate soft tissue injuries, such as ligament sprains or tears.
Treatment of Shoulder Fractures:
1. Immobilization: The affected arm is immobilized in a sling or brace for several weeks to allow the fracture to heal.
2. Medication: Pain medication, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, may be prescribed to manage pain and inflammation.
3. Physical therapy: Once the fracture has healed, physical therapy may be recommended to improve strength, flexibility, and range of motion in the shoulder.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to realign the bones or repair damaged soft tissue. Common surgical procedures for shoulder fractures include:
a. Shoulder joint replacement: This is a procedure where the damaged joint is replaced with an artificial one.
b. Osteotomy: This is a procedure where the surgeon cuts and realigns the bone to improve its alignment.
c. Internal fixation: This is a procedure where the surgeon uses screws, plates, or rods to hold the bones in place while they heal.
d. External fixation: This is a procedure where the surgeon attaches a device to the outside of the arm and shoulder to hold the bones in place while they heal.
It's important to note that the specific treatment plan will depend on the severity and type of fracture, as well as the individual's overall health and medical history. A healthcare professional should be consulted for proper evaluation and treatment.
Hemiplegia can cause a range of symptoms including weakness, paralysis, loss of sensation, and difficulty with movement and coordination on one side of the body. The affected side may also experience muscle spasticity or rigidity, causing stiffness and limited mobility.
Depending on the severity and location of the damage, hemiplegia can be classified into different types:
1. Left hemiplegia: This type affects the left side of the body and is caused by damage to the left hemisphere of the brain.
2. Right hemiplegia: This type affects the right side of the body and is caused by damage to the right hemisphere of the brain.
3. Mixed hemiplegia: This type affects both sides of the body and is caused by damage to both hemispheres of the brain or other areas of the brainstem.
4. Progressive hemiplegia: This type progressively worsens over time and is often associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis.
Treatment for hemiplegia typically focuses on physical therapy, occupational therapy, and rehabilitation to improve mobility, strength, and function. Medications such as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, and pain relievers may also be prescribed to manage symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the brain or spinal cord.
In summary, hemiplegia is a condition characterized by paralysis or weakness on one side of the body, often caused by damage to the brain or spinal cord. Treatment options vary depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.
Postoperative pain is typically managed with pain medication, which may include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or other types of medications. The goal of managing postoperative pain is to provide effective pain relief while minimizing the risk of complications such as addiction, constipation, or nausea and vomiting.
In addition to medication, other techniques for managing postoperative pain may include breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. It is important for patients to communicate with their healthcare provider about the severity of their pain and any side effects they experience from medication, in order to provide effective pain management and minimize complications.
Postoperative pain can be categorized into several different types, including:
* Acute pain: This type of pain is intense but short-lived, typically lasting for a few days or weeks after surgery.
* Chronic pain: This type of pain persists for longer than 3 months after surgery and can be more challenging to manage.
* Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage to nerves and can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
* Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs and can be referred to other areas of the body, such as the back or abdomen.
Brachial plexus neuritis is a condition that affects the brachial plexus, a network of nerves that runs from the spine down to the shoulder and arm. It occurs when the nerves in this region become inflamed or damaged, leading to pain and weakness in the arm and hand.
The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, infection, or compression of the nerves. It is more common in young adults and may be associated with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, thyroid disease, or Lyme disease.
Symptoms of brachial plexus neuritis may include pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the arm and hand. The condition can also cause difficulty with gripping or grasping objects, and may affect fine motor skills such as writing or buttoning a shirt.
Treatment for brachial plexus neuritis typically involves physical therapy, pain management, and addressing any underlying medical conditions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve compression or damage to the nerves. With appropriate treatment, most people with brachial plexus neuritis are able to recover significant function in their arm and hand over time.
Musculoskeletal pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, making it difficult to perform daily activities and enjoy leisure time. It can also lead to sleep disturbances, mood changes, and decreased productivity. Treatment options for musculoskeletal pain vary depending on the underlying cause but may include physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle modifications such as exercise and stress management.
The term "cumulative" refers to the gradual buildup of damage over time, as opposed to a single traumatic event that causes immediate harm. The damage can result from repetitive motions, vibrations, compressive forces, or other forms of stress that accumulate and lead to tissue injury and inflammation.
Some common examples of CTDs include:
1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: A condition that affects the wrist and hand, caused by repetitive motion and compression of the median nerve.
2. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, often caused by repetitive motion or overuse.
3. Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa, a fluid-filled sac that cushions joints and reduces friction between tissues.
4. Tennis elbow: A condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons on the outside of the elbow, caused by repetitive gripping or twisting motions.
5. Plantar fasciitis: Inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot, caused by repetitive strain and overuse.
6. Repetitive stress injuries: A broad category of injuries caused by repetitive motion, such as typing or using a computer mouse.
7. Occupational asthma: A condition caused by inhaling allergens or irritants in the workplace, leading to inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
8. Hearing loss: Damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve caused by exposure to loud noises over time.
9. Vibration white finger: A condition that affects the hands, causing whiteness or loss of blood flow in the fingers due to exposure to vibrating tools.
10. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and arm.
It's important to note that these conditions can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, ability to work, and overall well-being. If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
Source: "Pain, Referred." Taber's Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017.
The causes of LBP can be broadly classified into two categories:
1. Mechanical causes: These include strains, sprains, and injuries to the soft tissues (such as muscles, ligaments, and tendons) or bones in the lower back.
2. Non-mechanical causes: These include medical conditions such as herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, and spinal stenosis.
The symptoms of LBP can vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
* Pain that may be localized to one side or both sides of the lower back
* Muscle spasms or stiffness
* Limited range of motion in the lower back
* Difficulty bending, lifting, or twisting
* Sciatica (pain that radiates down the legs)
* Weakness or numbness in the legs
The diagnosis of LBP is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI.
Treatment for LBP depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include:
* Medications such as pain relievers, muscle relaxants, or anti-inflammatory drugs
* Physical therapy to improve strength and flexibility in the lower back
* Chiropractic care to realign the spine and relieve pressure on the joints and muscles
* Injections of corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery may be considered for severe or chronic cases that do not respond to other treatments.
Prevention strategies for LBP include:
* Maintaining a healthy weight to reduce strain on the lower back
* Engaging in regular exercise to improve muscle strength and flexibility
* Using proper lifting techniques to avoid straining the lower back
* Taking regular breaks to stretch and move around if you have a job that involves sitting or standing for long periods
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques such as meditation or deep breathing.
There are many different types of back pain, including:
1. Lower back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine and can be caused by strained muscles or ligaments, herniated discs, or other factors.
2. Upper back pain: This type of pain occurs in the thoracic spine and can be caused by muscle strain, poor posture, or other factors.
3. Middle back pain: This type of pain occurs in the thoracolumbar junction and can be caused by muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
4. Lower left back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine on the left side and can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
5. Lower right back pain: This type of pain occurs in the lumbar spine on the right side and can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle strain, herniated discs, or other factors.
There are many different causes of back pain, including:
1. Muscle strain: This occurs when the muscles in the back are overstretched or torn.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the soft tissue between the vertebrae bulges out and puts pressure on the surrounding nerves.
3. Structural problems: This includes conditions such as scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis, which can cause back pain due to the abnormal curvature of the spine.
4. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as arthritis, inflammatory myopathies, and ankylosing spondylitis can cause back pain due to inflammation and joint damage.
5. Infections: Infections such as shingles, osteomyelitis, and abscesses can cause back pain by irritating the nerves or causing inflammation in the spine.
6. Trauma: Traumatic injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and compression fractures can cause back pain due to damage to the vertebrae, muscles, and other tissues.
7. Poor posture: Prolonged sitting or standing in a position that puts strain on the back can lead to back pain over time.
8. Obesity: Excess weight can put additional strain on the back, leading to back pain.
9. Smoking: Smoking can reduce blood flow to the discs and other tissues in the spine, leading to degeneration and back pain.
10. Sedentary lifestyle: A lack of physical activity can lead to weak muscles and a poor posture, which can contribute to back pain.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms with your back pain:
1. Numbness or tingling in the legs or feet
2. Weakness in the legs or feet
3. Loss of bladder or bowel control
4. Fever and chills
5. Severe headache or stiff neck
6. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
These symptoms could indicate a more serious condition, such as a herniated disc or spinal infection, that requires prompt medical treatment.
Symptoms of myofascial pain syndrome include:
* Pain in specific areas of the body, such as the neck, back, or limbs
* Pain that is worse with movement or activity
* Muscle stiffness and limited range of motion
* Trigger points, which are areas of hypersensitivity within the muscle that can cause pain when stimulated
* Poor posture or gait
* Decreased strength and endurance
Treatment for myofascial pain syndrome typically involves a combination of physical therapy, pain management strategies, and self-care techniques. Physical therapy may include stretching exercises, myofascial release techniques, and other modalities to help relieve pain and improve range of motion. Pain management strategies may include medication, injections, or alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. Self-care techniques can also be helpful, such as heat or cold applications, relaxation techniques, and good posture.
The prognosis for myofascial pain syndrome varies depending on the severity of the condition and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, with appropriate treatment and self-care, many people are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. However, in some cases, the condition can be challenging to treat and may require ongoing management.
Overall, myofascial pain syndrome is a common and often misunderstood condition that can cause significant pain and disability. With proper diagnosis and treatment, however, many people are able to find relief and improve their quality of life.
1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.
Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.
1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
4. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, which can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area.
5. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
7. Sprains and strains: Injuries to the ligaments or muscles, often caused by sudden twisting or overstretching.
8. Back pain: Pain in the back that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as muscle strain, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis.
9. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, leading to an increased risk of fractures.
10. Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward.
These are just a few examples of musculoskeletal diseases, and there are many more conditions that can affect the muscles, bones, and joints. Treatment options for these conditions can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy and medication to surgical interventions. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your musculoskeletal system.
The causes of abdominal pain are numerous and can include:
1. Gastrointestinal disorders: Ulcers, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and appendicitis.
2. Infections: Urinary tract infections, pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
3. Obstruction: Blockages in the intestines or other hollow organs.
4. Pancreatic disorders: Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.
5. Kidney stones or other kidney disorders.
6. Liver disease: Hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer.
7. Hernias: Inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, and hiatal hernia.
8. Splenic disorders: Enlarged spleen, splenic rupture, and splenectomy.
9. Cancer: Colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, and liver cancer.
10. Reproductive system disorders: Ectopic pregnancy, ovarian cysts, and testicular torsion.
The symptoms of abdominal pain can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:
* Localized or generalized pain in the abdomen
* Cramping or sharp pain
* Difficulty breathing or swallowing
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Fever and chills
* Abdominal tenderness or guarding (muscle tension)
Abdominal pain can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:
1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans
3. Blood tests and urinalysis
4. Endoscopy and laparoscopy
Treatment for abdominal pain depends on the underlying cause, but may include:
1. Medications such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and pain relievers
2. Surgery to repair hernias or remove tumors
3. Endoscopy to remove blockages or treat ulcers
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy
5. Lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.
Intractable pain can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, sleep, and overall well-being. Treatment for intractable pain often involves a combination of medications and alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy.
Some common symptoms of intractable pain include:
* Chronic and persistent pain that does not respond to treatment
* Pain that is severe and debilitating
* Pain that affects daily activities and quality of life
* Pain that is burning, shooting, stabbing, or cramping in nature
* Pain that is localized to a specific area of the body or widespread
* Pain that is accompanied by other symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, or depression.
Intractable pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Nerve damage or nerve damage from injury or disease
* Inflammation or swelling in the body
* Chronic conditions like arthritis, fibromyalgia, or migraines
* Infections such as shingles or Lyme disease
* Cancer or its treatment
* Neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease.
Managing intractable pain can be challenging and may involve a multidisciplinary approach, including:
* Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or muscle relaxants
* Alternative therapies such as physical therapy, acupuncture, or cognitive behavioral therapy
* Lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, stress management techniques, and a healthy diet
* Interventional procedures such as nerve blocks or spinal cord stimulation.
It is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for managing intractable pain. With the right combination of medications and alternative therapies, many people are able to manage their pain and improve their quality of life.
There are several types of joint instability, including:
1. Ligamentous laxity: A condition where the ligaments surrounding a joint become stretched or torn, leading to instability.
2. Capsular laxity: A condition where the capsule, a thin layer of connective tissue that surrounds a joint, becomes stretched or torn, leading to instability.
3. Muscular imbalance: A condition where the muscles surrounding a joint are either too weak or too strong, leading to instability.
4. Osteochondral defects: A condition where there is damage to the cartilage and bone within a joint, leading to instability.
5. Post-traumatic instability: A condition that develops after a traumatic injury to a joint, such as a dislocation or fracture.
Joint instability can be caused by various factors, including:
1. Trauma: A sudden and forceful injury to a joint, such as a fall or a blow.
2. Overuse: Repeated stress on a joint, such as from repetitive motion or sports activities.
3. Genetics: Some people may be born with joint instability due to inherited genetic factors.
4. Aging: As we age, our joints can become less stable due to wear and tear on the cartilage and other tissues.
5. Disease: Certain diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, can cause joint instability.
Symptoms of joint instability may include:
1. Pain: A sharp, aching pain in the affected joint, especially with movement.
2. Stiffness: Limited range of motion and stiffness in the affected joint.
3. Swelling: Swelling and inflammation in the affected joint.
4. Instability: A feeling of looseness or instability in the affected joint.
5. Crepitus: Grinding or crunching sensations in the affected joint.
Treatment for joint instability depends on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Rest and ice: Resting the affected joint and applying ice to reduce pain and swelling.
2. Physical therapy: Strengthening the surrounding muscles to support the joint and improve stability.
3. Bracing: Using a brace or splint to provide support and stability to the affected joint.
4. Medications: Anti-inflammatory medications, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, to reduce pain and inflammation.
5. Surgery: In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or reconstruct the damaged tissues and improve joint stability.
There are several types of tendon injuries, including:
1. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, often caused by repetitive strain or overuse.
2. Tendon rupture: A complete tear of a tendon, which can be caused by trauma or degenerative conditions such as rotator cuff tears in the shoulder.
3. Tendon strain: A stretch or tear of a tendon, often caused by acute injury or overuse.
4. Tendon avulsion: A condition where a tendon is pulled away from its attachment point on a bone.
Symptoms of tendon injuries can include pain, swelling, redness, and limited mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the severity of the injury and may include rest, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. Preventive measures such as proper warm-up and cool-down exercises, stretching, and using appropriate equipment can help reduce the risk of tendon injuries.
The exact cause of ganglion cysts is unknown, but they may be caused by a defect in the joint or tendon that allows the sac to form. They can also be inherited, as some people are more prone to developing ganglion cysts based on their genetic makeup.
Ganglion cysts can be diagnosed with a physical examination and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options for ganglion cysts include:
* Watchful waiting: If the cyst is not causing any symptoms, doctors may choose to monitor it closely without treatment.
* Aspiration: A needle can be inserted into the cyst to drain the fluid and collapse the sac. This is a simple and relatively painless procedure that can be done in a doctor's office or clinic.
* Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the cyst. This is usually performed if the cyst is causing symptoms or if other treatments have not been effective.
It's important to note that ganglion cysts can come back after treatment, so it's possible that they may need to be monitored and treated again in the future. It's also important to seek medical attention if a ganglion cyst becomes inflamed or infected, as this can lead to complications such as infection or nerve damage.
* Endometriosis: a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing pain, inflammation, and bleeding.
* Adenomyosis: a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, causing pain, inflammation, and heavy bleeding.
* Fibroids: noncancerous growths in the uterus that can cause pain, bleeding, and infertility.
* Ovarian cysts: fluid-filled sacs on the ovaries that can cause pain, bloating, and irregular periods.
* Ectopic pregnancy: a pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which can cause severe pain and bleeding.
* Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): an infection of the reproductive organs that can cause pain, fever, and infertility.
* Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a condition that affects the large intestine and can cause abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
* Interstitial cystitis: a chronic bladder condition that can cause pain and frequency of urination.
* Prostatitis: inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause painful urination, fever, and infertility.
Pelvic pain can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment options for pelvic pain depend on the underlying cause and can include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
The word "arthralgia" comes from the Greek words "arthron," meaning joint, and "algos," meaning pain. It is often used interchangeably with the term "joint pain," but arthralgia specifically refers to a type of pain that is not caused by inflammation or injury.
Arthralgia can manifest in different ways, including:
1. Aching or dull pain in one or more joints
2. Sharp or stabbing pain in one or more joints
3. Pain that worsens with movement or weight-bearing activity
4. Pain that improves with rest
5. Pain that is localized to one joint or multiple joints
6. Pain that is accompanied by stiffness or limited range of motion
7. Pain that is worse in the morning or after periods of rest
8. Pain that is triggered by certain activities or movements
The diagnosis of arthralgia typically involves a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as diagnostic tests such as X-rays, blood tests, or imaging studies. Treatment for arthralgia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle modifications, or other interventions.
* Headaches or migraines
* Dental problems (e.g., toothache, abscess)
* Eye problems (e.g., conjunctivitis, styes)
* Infections (e.g., colds, flu)
* Injuries or trauma
* Neurological disorders (e.g., trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy)
The types of facial pain include:
* Constant pain: Pain that is present all the time and does not change in intensity.
* Intermittent pain: Pain that comes and goes and may be triggered by specific activities or stimuli.
* Sharp pain: Pain that is sudden and stabbing.
* Dull pain: Pain that is ongoing and aching.
* Throbbing pain: Pain that is pulsing or beating, often with a rhythmic pattern.
The causes of facial pain can vary depending on the location and severity of the pain. Some common causes include:
* Muscle tension or spasm
* Nerve irritation or compression
* Inflammation or infection
* Injury or trauma to the face
* Neurological disorders (e.g., trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy)
* Dental problems (e.g., toothache, abscess)
The diagnosis of facial pain is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for facial pain depends on the underlying cause and may include medications (e.g., pain relievers, antibiotics), lifestyle changes (e.g., avoiding triggers), or surgical intervention (e.g., to remove a tumor).
1. A ruptured Achilles tendon occurs when the tendon that connects the calf muscle to the heel bone is stretched too far and tears.
2. A ruptured appendix occurs when the appendix suddenly bursts, leading to infection and inflammation.
3. A ruptured aneurysm occurs when a weakened blood vessel bulges and bursts, leading to bleeding in the brain.
4. A ruptured eardrum occurs when there is sudden pressure on the eardrum, such as from an explosion or a blow to the head, which causes it to tear.
5. A ruptured ovarian cyst occurs when a fluid-filled sac on the ovary bursts, leading to pain and bleeding.
Symptoms of rupture can include sudden and severe pain, swelling, bruising, and bleeding. Treatment for rupture depends on the location and severity of the injury and may include surgery, medication, or other interventions.
Acute pain is different from chronic pain, which is persistent and ongoing, lasting more than 3 months. Acute pain is typically treated with medication, physical therapy, or other forms of therapy aimed at managing the underlying cause. In some cases, acute pain may be a symptom of an underlying condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.
Here are some examples of acute pain:
1. Post-surgical pain: Pain that occurs after surgery is a common example of acute pain. This type of pain is usually managed with pain medication and subsides as the body heals.
2. Injury pain: Pain that occurs as a result of an injury, such as a sprain or strain, is another example of acute pain. This type of pain is often treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) and may also be managed with pain medication.
3. Headache pain: Some types of headaches, such as tension headaches or migraines, are examples of acute pain. These types of headaches are typically treated with over-the-counter pain medication and may also involve lifestyle changes such as avoiding triggers or practicing relaxation techniques.
4. Menstrual cramps: Cramps that occur during menstruation are a common example of acute pain. This type of pain is often managed with over-the-counter pain medication and may also be treated with heat or cold therapy.
5. Childbirth pain: Pain that occurs during childbirth is another example of acute pain. This type of pain is typically managed with breathing techniques, relaxation methods, and medical pain management options such as epidural anesthesia.
In summary, acute pain is a type of pain that is sudden and lasts for a limited period of time, often resolving once the underlying cause is treated or heals. It can be managed with a variety of techniques, including medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
Definition: Inflammation of the joints, particularly those near the ends of the bones (peri-articular), often accompanied by pain and stiffness.
Synonyms: Periartritis, Peri-arthritis.
1. Periarthritis of the shoulder (PAS): A condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons and bursae around the shoulder joint, resulting in pain and limited mobility.
2. Periarthritis of the knee (PAK): A condition similar to PAS but affecting the knee joint instead.
1. Overuse or repetitive strain injury.
2. Trauma or injury to the affected joint.
3. Infections such as bacterial or viral infections.
4. Autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis.
5. Crystal-induced arthritis caused by deposits of uric acid, calcium pyrophosphate, or other crystals in the joints.
1. Pain and tenderness in the affected joint, especially when moving or bearing weight.
2. Swelling, redness, and warmth around the joint.
3. Limited range of motion and stiffness.
4. Morning stiffness that lasts for hours or even days.
5. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite (in severe cases).
1. Physical examination to assess joint pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
2. Imaging tests like X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.
3. Blood tests to check for infection, inflammation, or autoimmune disorders.
1. Rest and avoidance of activities that aggravate the condition.
2. Physical therapy exercises to improve range of motion and strengthen the affected joint.
3. Anti-inflammatory medications, such as NSAIDs or corticosteroids, to reduce pain and inflammation.
4. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or biologic agents to slow the progression of the condition.
5. Surgery to repair or replace damaged joints in severe cases.
The prognosis for osteoarthritis depends on several factors, including age, severity of symptoms, and overall health. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with osteoarthritis can manage their symptoms and maintain an active lifestyle. However, the condition can worsen over time, and joint replacement surgery may be necessary in severe cases.
1. Maintain a healthy weight to reduce stress on the joints.
2. Engage in regular exercise, such as swimming or cycling, to improve joint mobility and strengthen the surrounding muscles.
3. Use assistive devices like canes or walkers to support affected joints during daily activities.
4. Practice good posture and body mechanics to reduce strain on the joints.
5. Manage stress through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises.
6. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, which can worsen symptoms and slow down recovery.
7. Eat a balanced diet rich in nutrients that support joint health, such as omega-3 fatty acids, glucosamine, and chondroitin.
8. Get enough sleep to help reduce inflammation and promote healing.
9. Consider alternative therapies like acupuncture or massage to complement medical treatment.
10. Stay informed about new treatments and advancements in osteoarthritis research to make informed decisions about your care.
The symptoms of RSD can vary in severity and may include:
* Severe pain that is disproportionate to the original injury
* Swelling and inflammation in the affected limb
* Redness and warmth of the skin
* Limited mobility and stiffness in the affected joints
* Abnormalities in sensation, such as increased sensitivity to touch or temperature changes
* Weakness or wasting of muscles in the affected limb
RSD can be difficult to diagnose, as it mimics other conditions such as nerve damage or infection. Treatment options for RSD include pain medication, physical therapy, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve symptoms.
While there is no cure for RSD, early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected. It is important for individuals with RSD to work closely with their healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for their specific needs.
The thoracic outlet is a narrow passageway between the scalene muscles and the first and second ribs. It contains several important structures, including the brachial plexus nerves, the subclavian artery and vein, and the phrenic nerve. When these structures are compressed or irritated, it can cause symptoms in the arm and hand.
TOS is relatively rare, but it can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Congenital defects, such as a narrow thoracic outlet or abnormal development of the rib cage.
2. Trauma, such as a fall onto the shoulder or a direct blow to the chest.
3. Repetitive movements, such as typing or using a computer mouse.
4. Poor posture or body mechanics.
5. Muscle imbalances or weakness in the neck and shoulder muscles.
6. Ganglion cysts or other soft tissue masses that compress the nerves or blood vessels.
7. Fractures or dislocations of the clavicle or shoulder blade.
8. Tumors or other abnormal growths in the chest or neck.
9. Inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or thyroiditis.
Symptoms of TOS can vary depending on the location and severity of the compression. They may include:
1. Pain in the shoulder or arm, which can be exacerbated by movement or activity.
2. Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the hand or fingers.
3. Difficulty coordinating movements or performing fine motor tasks.
4. Weakness or fatigue in the muscles of the shoulder and arm.
5. Decreased grip strength or dexterity.
6. Pain or tingling that radiates down the arm or into the hand.
7. Swelling or redness in the neck or shoulder.
8. Difficulty swallowing or breathing, in severe cases.
TOS can be difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to those of other conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or a heart attack. A thorough physical examination and medical history are important for making an accurate diagnosis. Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI may also be used to help identify any underlying structural abnormalities or nerve compression. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) may also be performed to assess nerve function and determine the extent of nerve damage.
Treatment for TOS depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Conservative treatments may include:
1. Rest and avoidance of activities that exacerbate the symptoms.
2. Physical therapy to improve posture, strength, and range of motion.
3. Anti-inflammatory medications or pain relievers to reduce swelling and relieve pain.
4. Muscle relaxants to reduce muscle spasm and tension.
5. Injections of steroids or local anesthetics to reduce inflammation and relieve pain.
6. Surgery may be necessary in severe cases, such as when there is significant nerve compression or instability of the shoulder joint.
It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of TOS, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.
Paraplegia is classified into two main types:
1. Complete paraplegia: Total loss of motor function in both legs and pelvis.
2. Incomplete paraplegia: Some degree of motor function remains in the affected limbs.
Symptoms of paraplegia can include weakness, paralysis, numbness, or tingling sensations below the level of the spinal cord injury. Loss of bladder and bowel control, sexual dysfunction, and changes in sensation (such as decreased sensitivity to touch and temperature) are also common.
Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, neurological tests such as reflexes and muscle strength, and imaging studies like X-rays or MRIs to determine the underlying cause of paraplegia. Treatment depends on the specific cause of the condition and may include medications, rehabilitation therapy, and assistive devices such as braces, canes, or wheelchairs.
There are several types of nerve compression syndromes, including:
1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, commonly caused by repetitive motion or injury.
2. Tarsal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the posterior tibial nerve in the ankle, similar to carpal tunnel syndrome but affecting the lower leg.
3. Cubital tunnel syndrome: Compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow, often caused by repetitive leaning or bending.
4. Thoracic outlet syndrome: Compression of the nerves and blood vessels that pass through the thoracic outlet (the space between the neck and shoulder), often caused by poor posture or injury.
5. Peripheral neuropathy: A broader term for damage to the peripheral nerves, often caused by diabetes, vitamin deficiencies, or other systemic conditions.
6. Meralgia paresthetica: Compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in the thigh, commonly caused by direct trauma or compression from a tight waistband or clothing.
7. Morton's neuroma: Compression of the plantar digital nerves between the toes, often caused by poorly fitting shoes or repetitive stress on the feet.
8. Neuralgia: A general term for pain or numbness caused by damage or irritation to a nerve, often associated with chronic conditions such as shingles or postherpetic neuralgia.
9. Trigeminal neuralgia: A condition characterized by recurring episodes of sudden, extreme pain in the face, often caused by compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve.
10. Neuropathic pain: Pain that occurs as a result of damage or dysfunction of the nervous system, often accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness.
1. The star quarterback suffered a serious athletic injury during last night's game and is out for the season.
2. The athlete underwent surgery to repair a torn ACL, one of the most common athletic injuries in high-impact sports.
3. The coach emphasized the importance of proper technique to prevent athletic injuries among his team members.
4. After suffering a minor sprain, the runner was advised to follow the RICE method to recover and return to competition as soon as possible.
There are several different types of spinal cord injuries that can occur, depending on the location and severity of the damage. These include:
1. Complete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is completely severed, resulting in a loss of all sensation and function below the level of the injury.
2. Incomplete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is only partially damaged, resulting in some remaining sensation and function below the level of the injury.
3. Brown-Sequard syndrome: This is a specific type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects one side of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.
4. Conus medullaris syndrome: This is a type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects the lower part of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis in the legs and bladder dysfunction.
The symptoms of spinal cord injuries can vary depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may include:
* Loss of sensation in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Weakness or paralysis in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Difficulty walking or standing
* Difficulty with bowel and bladder function
* Numbness or tingling sensations
* Pain or pressure in the neck or back
Treatment for spinal cord injuries typically involves a combination of medical and rehabilitative therapies. Medical treatments may include:
* Immobilization of the spine to prevent further injury
* Medications to manage pain and inflammation
* Surgery to relieve compression or stabilize the spine
Rehabilitative therapies may include:
* Physical therapy to improve strength and mobility
* Occupational therapy to learn new ways of performing daily activities
* Speech therapy to improve communication skills
* Psychological counseling to cope with the emotional effects of the injury.
Overall, the prognosis for spinal cord injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the age and overall health of the individual. While some individuals may experience significant recovery, others may experience long-term or permanent impairment. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of a spinal cord injury are present.
There are several types of headaches, including:
1. Tension headache: This is the most common type of headache and is caused by muscle tension in the neck and scalp.
2. Migraine: This is a severe headache that can cause nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
3. Sinus headache: This type of headache is caused by inflammation or infection in the sinuses.
4. Cluster headache: This is a rare type of headache that occurs in clusters or cycles and can be very painful.
5. Rebound headache: This type of headache is caused by overuse of pain medication.
Headaches can be treated with a variety of methods, such as:
1. Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
2. Prescription medications, such as triptans or ergots, for migraines and other severe headaches.
3. Lifestyle changes, such as stress reduction techniques, regular exercise, and a healthy diet.
4. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture or massage, which can help relieve tension and pain.
5. Addressing underlying causes, such as sinus infections or allergies, that may be contributing to the headaches.
It is important to seek medical attention if a headache is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, confusion, or weakness. A healthcare professional can diagnose the cause of the headache and recommend appropriate treatment.
There are different types of OP, including:
1. Erb's Palsy: A condition that occurs when the nerves in the neck are damaged during delivery, leading to weakness or paralysis of the arm and shoulder muscles.
2. Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy (BPBP): A condition that occurs when the nerves in the upper group of the brachial plexus (a network of nerves in the neck and shoulder) are damaged during delivery, leading to weakness or paralysis of the arm and hand muscles.
3. Posterior Cord Syndrome: A condition that occurs when the nerves in the lower back are damaged during delivery, leading to weakness or paralysis of the legs, bladder, and bowel function.
4. Central Cord Syndrome: A condition that occurs when the nerves in the spinal cord are damaged during delivery, leading to weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the trunk, arms, and legs.
The symptoms of OP can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include:
* Weakness or paralysis of specific muscle groups
* Difficulty with movement and coordination
* Loss of sensation in certain areas of the body
* Bladder and bowel dysfunction
* Decreased reflexes
OP can be diagnosed through a physical examination, nerve conduction studies, and imaging tests such as MRI or EMG. Treatment for OP typically involves physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other supportive measures to help improve muscle strength and function. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the affected nerves or to repair damaged tissue.
Preventing OP is important, and this can involve:
* Proper use of obstetric forceps or vacuum extraction during delivery
* Avoiding excessive traction or pressure on the baby's head or body during delivery
* Monitoring fetal heart rate and using appropriate interventions if there are signs of distress
* Encouraging a safe and healthy pregnancy and delivery, with proper prenatal care and avoiding risk factors such as smoking, alcohol use, and high blood pressure.
1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.
Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory
Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.
The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:
* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke
Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.
There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:
* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet
In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.
Complex regional pain syndrome
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List of signs and symptoms of diving disorders
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Lawrence Bittaker and Roy Norris
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Neck and shoulder pain: Treatments, prevention, and causes
The Sleeper Stretch for Shoulder Rotation and Pain Relief
Shoulder pain: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
'Taping' for Shoulder Pain - Post...
Back, neck, and shoulder pain in Finnish adolescents: national cross sectional surveys | The BMJ
Prevent Shoulder Pain: 3 Exercises for Seniors - SilverSneakers
Chiropractic Research - Treating Shoulder Pain in Spinal Cord Injured Patients
A Not So Simple Case Of Shoulder Pain
Hyperacidity And Left Shoulder And Neck Pain (page 6 of 9)
Radiating Neck Pain in the Shoulders - LoseTheBackPain.com
5 Shoulder Stretches & Exercises To Relieve Tightness & Pain | mindbodygreen
Occupational risk factors for shoulder pain: a systematic review | Occupational & Environmental Medicine
BFM: The Business Station - Podcast Shoulder Pain Across All Ages
A Gentle Shoulder Workout Without Any Overhead Pressing That's Great for People With Shoulder Pain | SELF
Effectiveness of passive physical modalities for shoulder pain: systematic review by the Ontario protocol for traffic injury...
Common Causes of Frozen Shoulder & Shoulder Pain
The SHIFT Show - Helping Shoulder Pain and Labral Tears in Gymnasts with Mike Scaduto on Stitcher
When Should I See a Doctor for Shoulder Pain? | Sharp HealthCare
Shoulder Pain Treatment Options, Part 2 | McLaren Health Care Video Library
Shoulder pain // Middlesex Health
Shoulder Pain - Earthing Institute
What causes a sharp pain on the upper left back shoulder blade?
Day 18 neck and shoulder pain (Fasting: Water Only) 8/12/2010 1669267
Virtual Health Talk: Neck, Back, and Shoulder Pains - ACERA
Responsiveness of the numeric pain rating scale in patients with shoulder pain and the effect of surgical status - PubMed
Shoulder Pain Bundle - Essentials Package - Vive Health
Implementation of neck/shoulder exercises for pain relief among industrial workers: A randomized controlled trial | BMC...
SHOULDER PAIN | Completewellness
Shoulder Pain & MRI
- A group of four muscles and their tendons, called the rotator cuff, give the shoulder its wide range of motion. (medlineplus.gov)
- Swelling, damage, or bone changes around the rotator cuff can cause shoulder pain. (medlineplus.gov)
- The most common cause of shoulder pain occurs when rotator cuff tendons become trapped under the bony area in the shoulder. (medlineplus.gov)
- Learn exercises to stretch and strengthen your rotator cuff tendons and shoulder muscles. (medlineplus.gov)
- Pearls of wisdom on a variety of shoulder pathologies, from rotator cuff tendinopathy to AC joint disruption. (bmj.com)
- A lot of us tend to be stronger in our pectorals (chest muscles) and biceps than in our rotator cuff (a group of four small muscles that stabilize the shoulder joint) and back muscles . (self.com)
- For instance, strengthening the rotator cuff can help alleviate shoulder pain and discomfort by ensuring the shoulder is properly stabilized as it moves. (self.com)
- The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- He delves into the reasons behind shoulder pain and injuries in gymnastics and overhead sports, unraveling the complexities of labral tears, rotator cuff issues, and instability problems. (stitcher.com)
- Practice good posture to keep your shoulder muscles and tendons in their right positions. (medlineplus.gov)
- Because it is a ball-and-socket joint made up of several moving parts (bones, tendons and muscles), your shoulder tends to be particularly vulnerable to injury. (sharp.com)
- Shoulder pain may arise from the shoulder joint itself or from any of the many surrounding muscles, ligaments or tendons. (middlesexhealth.org)
- To remain in a stable or normal position, the shoulder must be anchored by muscles, tendons, and ligaments. (nih.gov)
- Soft tissue rheumatic disorders, also called soft tissue rheumatism (STR), are a constellation of syndromes that involve tissues around joints, e.g. muscles, tendons and ligaments, causing pain and movement limitation (2). (who.int)
- My husband suffers from pain in his shoulders, hips, and back which we believe is osteoarthritis. (earthinginstitute.net)
- Massage therapy has been studied for several types of pain, including low-back pain, neck and shoulder pain, pain from osteoarthritis of the knee, and headaches. (nih.gov)
- The small amount of research that's been done on massage therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee suggests that it may have short-term benefits in relieving knee pain. (nih.gov)
- Of 6 studies that evaluated massage therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee (408 total participants), 5 found that it provided short-term pain relief. (nih.gov)
- The diagnosis of shoulder osteoarthritis (OA) is made on the basis of the history, physical examination, and standard radiographs. (medscape.com)
- Current research suggests that electromagnetic field therapy can relieve pain and improve function in patients with various musculoskeletal pain conditions and some osteoarthritis conditions, although the data is mixed. (nih.gov)
- A 2020 review of 15 studies (985 participants) found that electromagnetic therapy reduced pain and improved stiffness and physical function but not overall quality of life in people with osteoarthritis in their knees, hands, neck, or ankles. (nih.gov)
- A 2018 review of 12 studies (385 participants) that looked at people with osteoarthritis in various areas of the body, including knees (10 studies), neck (2 studies), and hands (1 study), found that treatment with electromagnetic therapy reduced pain and improved function in people with knee and hand osteoarthritis but not neck osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
- But it also means they're more vulnerable to injuries, and shoulder injuries can be tough to heal. (silversneakers.com)
- At the same time, the shoulders are also the least stable joints, and are vulnerable to injuries, like strain, repetitive injuries and dislocation. (bfm.my)
- The impact of shoulder injuries in rugby: what can we control? (bmj.com)
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of passive physical modalities for the management of soft tissue injuries of the shoulder. (nih.gov)
- In general, younger patients tend to have sports injuries which result in repeated dislocations, while older patients tend to suffer from frozen shoulder or tendon tears. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- For severe injuries, some patients may require shoulder replacement surgery instead, in which an artificial joint will be implanted. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- In this informative podcast episode, Mike Scaduto DPT, TPI, C-PS, a physical therapist specializing in shoulder treatment, joins the discussion to shed light on common shoulder injuries in gymnasts and baseball players. (stitcher.com)
- We go over comprehensive treatment strategies, including strengthening exercises, progressions, manual therapy techniques, flexibility training, and personalized strength conditioning programs for athletes recovering from shoulder injuries. (stitcher.com)
- What are the main causes of shoulder injuries? (stitcher.com)
- I went through the change three years ago and could not sleep a full night without waking up multiple times from pain of past injuries and a noisy living environment. (earthinginstitute.net)
- If you are recovering from tendinitis, continue to do range-of-motion exercises to avoid frozen shoulder . (medlineplus.gov)
- Keep your shoulders strong and help yourself avoid injury with these three simple exercises. (silversneakers.com)
- Your move: Prioritize exercises that keep your shoulders strong and help prevent shoulder pain. (silversneakers.com)
- Do these exercises at least a couple of times per week, and you'll start to notice your shoulders open up as your posture improves. (silversneakers.com)
- That's why I've created a number of effective and feel-good shoulder stretches and exercises for B The Method, a fitness method I founded. (mindbodygreen.com)
- Plus, since many of these shoulder-opening moves are full-body exercises, they connect to other muscles needed to keep your posture straight and spine healthy. (mindbodygreen.com)
- If traditional shoulder exercises like the overhead press cause shoulder pain or discomfort, you're probably not going to want to target that muscle group often. (self.com)
- This four-move shoulder workout is ideal for people with shoulder issues: The routine doesn't include any overhead pressing-a movement that commonly bugs folks with sensitive shoulders-and focuses instead on those exercises that may even help alleviate some of your shoulder pain. (self.com)
- Additionally, if you'd like, you can keep doing other upper-body exercises , like bicep curls and triceps extensions, as part of your routine as well, as long as they don't bug your shoulders. (self.com)
- Shoulder exercises you need to be doing. (stitcher.com)
- Sudden left shoulder pain can sometimes be a sign of a heart attack . (medlineplus.gov)
- I keep waking up with this terrible pain in my left shoulder. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- Mr Y is a 60-year-old who had a torn tendon in his left shoulder. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- I have a left shoulder that has been seriously injured three times in my life, and I attach three or four grounding patches to it each night as I sleep and by the next morning 90-95% of the pain is gone. (earthinginstitute.net)
- I was playing sport when I started to get a sharp pain under my left shoulder blade. (healthtap.com)
- Sharp pain left shoulder right under shoulder blade. (healthtap.com)
- I have sharp pain under left shoulder blade every few hours for only 5-10 seconds. (healthtap.com)
- The most common signs are neck pain and stiffness , but some people may not have any symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Mrs X is a 50-year-old who came to me complaining of right shoulder pain and stiffness for the past 3 months. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- She tried to live with the pain and stiffness but the final straw came when she couldn't put on her bra. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- However, the stiffness in your shoulder will worsen, making movement more difficult. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- The surgery involves putting a small camera into the shoulder and releasing all the tight connective tissues responsible for the stiffness. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- Cases were defined as those who recently suffered from shoulder pain, tenderness or stiffness with duration not exceeding 12 months (52 cases). (who.int)
- According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons , shoulder pain is one of the most common physical complaints. (sharp.com)
Cause shoulder pain1
- Various diseases and conditions affecting structures in your chest or abdomen, such as heart disease or gallbladder disease, also can cause shoulder pain. (middlesexhealth.org)
- Need to 'stabilize' your shoulder rehabilitation skills? (bmj.com)
- You may have pain when lifting the arm above your head or moving it forward or behind your back. (medlineplus.gov)
- You'll feel a stretch in the back of your shoulder, arm, or upper back. (healthline.com)
- You can place a towel under your elbow or upper arm to deepen the stretch in the back of your shoulder. (healthline.com)
- To study changes in pain of the back and neck in adolescents between 1985 and 2001 and pain of the neck, shoulder, and lower back between 1991 and2001. (bmj.com)
- Pain in the back and neck, neck and shoulder, or lower back, at least weekly. (bmj.com)
- Prevalence of pain in the back and neck was greater in the 1990s than in the 1980s and increased steadily from 1993 to 1997. (bmj.com)
- Pain of the neck and shoulder and pain of the lower back was much more common in 1999 than in 1991 and in 2001 than in 1999. (bmj.com)
- pain in the lower back affected 8% of girls and 7% of boys in 14 year olds, 14% of girls and 11% of boys in 16 year olds, and 17% of boysand 13% of girls in 18 year olds. (bmj.com)
- Pain in the neck, shoulder, and lower back is becoming morecommon in Finnish adolescents. (bmj.com)
- Pain in the neck and shoulder and in the back in adolescence has not been considered as a widespread problem, and only a few studies have been published. (bmj.com)
- A survey in the early 1980s found that more than 20% of Finnish 11-17 year olds had back or neck pain. (bmj.com)
- 1 In the 1990s, population surveys confirmed that back pain, particularly in the lower back, was common in children and adolescents. (bmj.com)
- 5 A Finnish population survey in 1991 found 15% of 12-18 year olds had pain in the neck-shoulder at least once a week, and 8% had pain in the lower back. (bmj.com)
- Among adults, back pain can be disabling and lead to economic loss. (bmj.com)
- 8 Most people experience pain of the back, neck, and shoulder at some time, although few have pain over long periods. (bmj.com)
- it may be a risk factor for chronic pain of the lower back in early adulthood. (bmj.com)
- 7 These two recent longitudinal studies consider the increase in back and neck-shoulder pain in adolescents from a public health point of view. (bmj.com)
- We studied changes in back and neck-shoulder pain in Finnish adolescents from 1985 to 2001. (bmj.com)
- Your shoulders should be down and back. (silversneakers.com)
- Slowly raise both arms out to the sides to shoulder level, or as high as you comfortably can without arching your lower back or letting your shoulders creep up to your ears. (silversneakers.com)
- From here, pull your hands apart and raise your arms as high as you comfortably can without arching your lower back or letting your shoulders creep up to your ears. (silversneakers.com)
- Around 5 PM the chest oppression along with labored breathing, short cough with occassional clearing of the throat and back pain behind the chest started. (abchomeopathy.com)
- Jesse is the co-founder and visionary CEO of The Healthy Back Institute®, the world-leading source of natural back pain solutions. (losethebackpain.com)
- His mission as a former back pain sufferer is to help others live pain free without surgery and pharmaceuticals. (losethebackpain.com)
- Swedish insurance data show that in 1994 about 18% of total paid sick leave for musculoskeletal disorders was spent on neck-shoulder problems, which meant that the costs of paid sick leave for neck-shoulder pain were almost equal to those of low back pain. (bmj.com)
- This is highlighted by recent writings on low back pain  and knee arthroscopy . (bmj.com)
- Common symptoms include a dull ache deep in the shoulder that makes it difficult to reach behind your back or raise your arm to comb your hair. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- I've also used the patches to relieve the pain of a bum knee, back pain, headaches, sore throats, pain in my hands, and to prevent leg cramps. (earthinginstitute.net)
- What causes a sharp pain on the upper left back shoulder blade? (healthtap.com)
- I am having a sharp pain in the upper left back pain around the shoulder blade. (healthtap.com)
- 16 y.o. fem Sharp pain when taking deep breath in upper middle back between shoulder blade & spine. (healthtap.com)
- Hurts on the right side front and especially the back near shoulder blade. (healthtap.com)
- Upper right back below shoulder blade hurts when i take a deep breath? (healthtap.com)
- I have sharp stapping pain on my right back/side an when i take a deep breath it will shoot all the way up to my shoulder blade an its very uncomforta? (healthtap.com)
- I've had sharp pain in my back under my right shoulder blade when lying down for a few months. (healthtap.com)
- I am nearing the end of a probable 21 day fast, am very weak and experiencing aching pain radiating from back of neck down shoulders. (curezone.org)
- Several evaluations of massage for low-back pain have found only weak evidence that it may be helpful. (nih.gov)
- The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, in a 2016 evaluation of nondrug therapies for low-back pain, examined 20 studies that compared massage to usual care or other interventions and found that there was evidence that massage was helpful for chronic low-back pain but the strength of the evidence was low. (nih.gov)
- A 2015 review of 25 studies with a total of 3,096 participants found that in both acute and chronic low-back pain, there were short-term improvements in pain after massage therapy. (nih.gov)
- However, because the quality of the studies was low, the investigators who conducted the review concluded that they had "very little confidence" that massage is an effective treatment for low-back pain. (nih.gov)
- Clinical practice guidelines (guidance for health care providers) issued by the American College of Physicians in 2017 included massage therapy as an option for treating acute/subacute low-back pain but did not include massage therapy among the options for treating chronic low-back pain. (nih.gov)
- Frozen shoulder is a condition where the connective tissues around the shoulder joint contract. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- Frozen shoulder normally develops slowly, going through three stages. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- On its own, frozen shoulder can take about 2 years to get better. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- You may experience a pain in your neck that is severe or intense enough that it causes headaches or dizziness as a result. (losethebackpain.com)
- Most people recover within 3 months after the injury, however, some may have residual neck pain and headaches. (nih.gov)
- Magnets and magnetic therapy have been used to treat different types of pain, such as arthritis or headaches, for hundreds of years. (nih.gov)
- The prevalence of shoulder pain in the general population may be as high as 6%-11% under the age of 50 years, increasing to 16%-25% in elderly people. (bmj.com)
- Studies have shown a higher prevalence of pain in the shoulder (18-20%) compared to other parts of the body (3). (who.int)
- In a national survey conducted in Lebanon in 2009 on musculoskeletal disorders, the shoulder was the most affected site with 14.3% total prevalence (7). (who.int)
- Referred cervical and thoracic pain may present with similarities to pathological local structures internal or external to the joint capsule (Ponappan et al. (bmj.com)
- Treatment may include pain medications, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, muscle relaxants, and a cervical collar (usually worn for 2 to 3 weeks). (nih.gov)
- Pain from angina can feel like pressure or squeezing in the chest. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Call 911 or your local emergency number if you have sudden pressure or crushing pain in your shoulder, especially if the pain runs from your chest to the left jaw, arm or neck, or occurs with shortness of breath, dizziness , or sweating . (medlineplus.gov)
- Sort of chest inflammation (pains) with oppressed breathing. (abchomeopathy.com)
- Reverse the movement and return to start, pressing your chest upward and stretching your shoulders at the end. (mindbodygreen.com)
- So when we head to the gym to do upper-body lifts like overhead and chest presses, we end up performing those moves with our shoulders in subpar positioning. (self.com)
- Shoulder pain accompanied by difficulty breathing or a sense of tightness in the chest may be a symptom of a heart attack and requires immediate medical attention. (middlesexhealth.org)
- Both women and men who have a heart attack often have chest pain. (nih.gov)
- These symptoms can happen together with chest pain or without any chest pain. (nih.gov)
- This pain suggests a new disease burden of degenerativemusculoskeletal disorders in future adults. (bmj.com)
- A previous study on shoulder pain mapping showed specific pain patterns for common shoulder disorders. (bvsalud.org)
- Disabilities due to spinal disorders and pain syndromes in adults. (nih.gov)
- The reasons for this are multifactorial, including the aging of the population and an increased awareness that, like the hip and knee, the shoulder is not immune to developing arthritis. (medscape.com)
- Although the first shoulder replacement was performed in 1893, the field of shoulder arthroplasty did not come into the mainstream until the 1970s, lagging behind hip and knee arthroplasty. (medscape.com)
- Instability, tightness, or loss of internal rotation in the shoulders are also issues often found in athletes who frequently use the overhead arm motion, such as baseball, tennis, and volleyball players. (healthline.com)
Doctor for shoulder pain2
- Below are five potential causes of simultaneous neck and shoulder pain, along with suitable treatments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Other treatments include exercise and medicines to reduce pain and swelling. (nih.gov)
- This program will fund research to identify specific, reproducible characteristics of pain conditions (biomarker signatures) that can be used to select patients for participation in clinical research to test novel, non-opioid pain treatments. (nih.gov)
- Novel treatments can then be tested through program-funded prospective clinical studies or through the Early Phase Pain Investigation Clinical Network (EPPIC-Net) . (nih.gov)
- About 23% of the study group had tenderness or pain in the hand/wrist area upon palpation or manipulation during the physical examinations. (cdc.gov)
- If you're working with a physical therapist, they may put their hand on your shoulder blade to help guide the movement. (healthline.com)
- Quick caveat: If your shoulder pain is bad enough that it disrupts your activities of daily living (say, it hurts to put on a shirt or wash your hair) or stops you from participating in things you enjoy (like sports), check in with a doctor or physical therapist before trying this routine. (self.com)
Right shoulder pain1
- 13 year old male right hand dominant baseball pitcher presented to sports medicine clinic for right shoulder pain. (amssm.org)
- Taking ibuprofen or acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) may help reduce inflammation and pain. (medlineplus.gov)
- 10 Also, in a one year follow up of 10-12 year olds, musculoskeletal pain symptoms, especially neck pain, were common. (bmj.com)
- Understanding the symptoms associated with radiating neck pain in the shoulders and the potential diagnosis options will help you get the most out of your treatment for this type of pain so that you can make a full recovery. (losethebackpain.com)
- Massage therapy, with or without aromatherapy (the use of essential oils) has been used to attempt to relieve pain, anxiety, and other symptoms in people with cancer. (nih.gov)
- Symptoms such as neck pain may be present directly after the injury or may be delayed for several days. (nih.gov)
Risk factors for shoulder3
- The number of epidemiological studies reporting on potential risk factors for shoulder pain has greatly increased in the past decade. (bmj.com)
- Since 1990 many additional papers on risk factors for shoulder pain have been published. (bmj.com)
- The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for shoulder STRDs among Lebanese adults aged ≥ 15 years. (who.int)
- There is no research that extensively studies the relationship between sleep posture and pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- However, people may want to modify their sleep posture to see if it helps reduce their neck pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Your shoulders also play an important role in your ability to stand or sit up with good posture, says SilverSneakers fitness expert David Jack. (silversneakers.com)
- Strengthening backside muscles, like the rhomboids (which retract your shoulder blades), can make a difference too, since that helps pull the shoulder into correct positioning and counteracts the ill-effects of poor posture. (self.com)
- Consultant orthopaedic surgeon Dr Chan Kin Yuen from OSC Orthopaedic Specialist Centre joins us to discuss shoulder pain and problems commonly encountered across various age groups. (bfm.my)
- Passive physical modalities are commonly used to treat shoulder pain. (nih.gov)
- The Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) is commonly used to assess pain. (nih.gov)
- Magnetic therapy devices are marketed widely, and they are most commonly used for pain, inflammatory conditions, and wound healing. (nih.gov)
- Contrary to popular belief, however, 'an acute shoulder injury is not the most common cause of shoulder visits to the orthopedic surgeon,' says Dr. Myer. (sharp.com)
- Pain is a major factor in many acute and chronic health conditions. (nih.gov)
- 13. Evidence-based position paper on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine professional practice for persons with acute and chronic pain. (nih.gov)
- 3. Generalised and regional soft tissue pain syndromes. (nih.gov)
- Magnetic therapy using PEMF has been approved by the FDA for specific conditions, including treatment of fractures that do not heal with standard medical treatment and post-operative pain and edema in superficial soft tissues. (nih.gov)
Treatment for shoulder1
- Often, the first treatment for shoulder problems is RICE. (nih.gov)
Experience neck pain1
- Some people may also experience neck pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- It can help relieve general pain, tightness, and imbalances due to sitting for long periods, repetitive motions, and daily activities. (healthline.com)
- Good news: One way to help reverse the effects of all of those tech habits, like tightness and pain, is to incorporate more shoulder-opening moves into your daily routine. (mindbodygreen.com)
- If you are experiencing low-grade pain, Dr. Myer says it may be appropriate to wait a few days to see how you respond to rest, ice, activity modification and over-the-counter medicines, if medically safe for you. (sharp.com)
Called referred pain2
- People with sudden, unexplained neck and shoulder pain may be having a cardiac event, and they should seek emergency medical attention. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Go to the hospital emergency room if you have just had a severe injury and your shoulder is very painful, swollen, bruised, or bleeding. (medlineplus.gov)
- It may also be wise for you to consult a sports injury professional or a general practitioner with sports injury experience, as they will be able to advise you properly on mobility, strengthening and rehabilitation of the injury in your neck that is causing the radiating neck pain in the shoulders. (losethebackpain.com)
- Choose a rehabilitate program that is going to allow you to overcome the injury, the pinched or trapped nerve and the pain associated with the entire ordeal. (losethebackpain.com)
- Mr Y was very puzzled when the ultrasound scan showed a torn tendon as he couldn't remember sustaining any injury to his shoulder. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- How long does it take to recover from a shoulder injury? (stitcher.com)
- In fact, Dr. Jonathan Myer , an orthopedic surgeon affiliated with Sharp Grossmont Hospital , says that an estimated 25 percent of us will have a shoulder injury at some point in our lives. (sharp.com)
- It's not uncommon to have a patient that has pre-existing degenerative disease who sustains a seemingly minor injury, which causes significant pain and disability. (sharp.com)
- Shoulder injury pain gone. (earthinginstitute.net)
- These characteristics can be used to define pain levels objectively as well as to predict the development of chronic pain from either injury or various diseases. (nih.gov)
Surround the shoulder1
- Building strength in those muscles that surround the shoulder muscle is vital. (self.com)
- Pain Med;18(7): 1382-1393, 2017 Jul 01. (bvsalud.org)
- A 2021 review of 7 studies (576 participants) on the use of static magnets for various types of pain-including diabetic neuropathy, sciatica, fibromyalgia, plantar heel pain, pelvic pain, neck and shoulder pain, or forearm and wrist pain-had mixed results. (nih.gov)
- I explained that there was a bone spur in his shoulder and it would cut into the tendon whenever he raised his arm. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- Kinesio® Taping is a method of using therapeutic taping to alleviate pain arising from muscular-skeletal problems. (post-polio.org)
- Kiss your pain goodbye when you sign up to receive our free, LIVE PAIN FREE email newsletter, which is always full of the latest and most powerful, pain relieving information from the world's leading pain relief experts. (losethebackpain.com)
- After spending the entire day hovering over your computer or cellphone, your shoulders are probably begging for a bit of relief. (mindbodygreen.com)
- A 2016 review of 4 studies conducted in the United States (519 participants) found that massage could provide short-term relief of neck pain if massage sessions were long enough and frequent enough. (nih.gov)
- Two of the studies that showed pain relief (149 participants) involved the use of essential oils (aromatherapy massage). (nih.gov)
- Magnetic therapy using static magnets involves placing magnets near or on the body for the purpose of pain relief or healing. (nih.gov)
- Research studies do not conclusively support the use of static magnets for pain relief. (nih.gov)
- The review concluded that pain relief was not further increased when electromagnetic therapy was used along with other physical therapies such as hot packs, therapeutic ultrasound, or transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS). (nih.gov)
- Not all shoulder problems need to be solved by surgery. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- Dr Tan Chyn Hong , an orthopaedic surgeon practising at Mount Elizabeth Novena Hospital, explains how many shoulder problems can be effectively treated with minimally invasive surgery. (mountelizabeth.com.sg)
- Gradual onset shoulder problems are a little trickier, however. (sharp.com)
- Health care providers diagnose shoulder problems by using your medical history, a physical exam, and imaging tests. (nih.gov)
- Also, lift up from your low abdominals and pelvic floor to ease up pressure on the shoulders. (mindbodygreen.com)