Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.
A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.
Devices used to protect and restrain infant and child automotive passengers.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
The non-profit, non-governmental organization which collects, processes, and distributes data on hospital use. Two programs of the Commission are the Professional Activity Study and the Medical Audit Program.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A general concept referring to the organization and administration of nursing activities.
A game played by two or four players with rackets and an elastic ball on a level court divided by a low net.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
The degree to which the blood supply for BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS is free of harmful substances or infectious agents, and properly typed and crossmatched (BLOOD GROUPING AND CROSSMATCHING) to insure serological compatibility between BLOOD DONORS and recipients.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Unlawful act of taking property.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
A eukaryotic initiation factor that interacts with the 40S initiation complex and promotes the hydrolysis of the bound GTP. The hydrolysis of GTP causes the release of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-3 from the 40S subunit and the subsequent joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to the 40S complex to form the functional 80S initiation complex
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The means of interchanging or transmitting and receiving information. Historically the media were written: books, journals, newspapers, and other publications; in the modern age the media include, in addition, radio, television, computers, and information networks.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.
Used as a support for ion-exchange chromatography.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
A type of MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING that uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and therefore can obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than the minutes required in traditional MRI techniques. It is used in a variety of medical and scientific applications.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Tick-borne flavivirus infection occurring in the Kyasanur Forest in India.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising bird poxviruses. The type species is FOWLPOX VIRUS. Transmission is mechanical by ARTHROPODS.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

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Will vaccinated people need a Covid-19 booster shot? WHOs chief scientist Soumya Swaminathan says its too early to tell as ... Will vaccinated people need a Covid-19 booster shot? WHOs chief scientist Soumya Swaminathan says its too early to tell as " ... Will We Need Covid Booster Shots?. Duration: 02:07 6/22/2021. ... Will We Need Covid Booster Shots?. QuickTake UP NEXT. * Olympic ...
Will vaccinated people need a Covid-19 booster shot? WHOs chief scientist Soumya Swaminathan says its too early to tell as ... Will vaccinated people need a Covid-19 booster shot? WHOs chief scientist Soumya Swaminathan says its too early to tell as " ... Will We Need Covid Booster Shots?. Duration: 02:07 6/22/2021. ... Will We Need Covid Booster Shots?. QuickTake UP NEXT. * Netflix ...
A new UK hospital is researching a coronavirus booster shot which the public, the govt has indicated, may be asked to take come ... UK Expands Trials on Third Jab Coronavirus Vax Booster Shots. 131 Getty Images. Oliver JJ Lane. 15 Jun 2021. ... That the government was preparing for a third wave of shots was underlined in May when the UK authorised the Johnson & Johnson ... But in tandem with that widely-publicised goal, the government has also made clear that is believes a third shot and possibly ...
Companies are working on coronavirus booster shots, as some early studies suggest antibody levels against Covid-19 wane with ... Covid-19 Booster Shots: When Might You Need One and Why?. Experts say coronavirus boosters are likely ... Companies are working on coronavirus booster shots, as some early studies suggest antibody levels against Covid-19 wane with ... time, making boosters more necessary. We explore what that means for individual consumers. Illustration: Laura Kammermann/The ...
Regarding vaccine boosters, he said there is no clear indication a booster is needed, it may become necessary for patients ... He said that those who have had one shot of the vaccine but not both that are required will not be protected against the Delta ... Rusk County deputies arrest man, juvenile who allegedly shot at people in another vehicle. ...
... health officials are exploring COVID-19 booster shot options as Delta variant spreads. ... Health officials explore COVID-19 booster vaccine shots as Delta variant spreads ... health officials are exploring whether they will need booster shots in the future. ... "So, we want to be ahead of this booster question. Were making plans now, should we need them soon," said Dr. Rochelle Walensky ...
That presents yet another argument against delivering booster shots to people so soon, since those shots could be used to ... Heres Why You Probably Wont Need A Booster Shot Against The Delta Variant Anytime Soon. * ... Heres Why You Probably Wont Need A Booster Shot Against The Delta Variant Anytime Soon. In the US, 99.5% of COVID-19 deaths ... "Americans who have been fully vaccinated do not need a booster shot at this time," reads an unusual joint statement from the ...
... are sounding the alarm about the need for plans for booster shots. ... say plans for COVID-19 booster shots must start now. Some worry nursing homes could see cases return before a booster is ... US health agencies to decide on COVID-19 booster shots. Questions about how long the immunity from vaccines will last continue ... Some long-term care advocates are concerned that because the need for a booster shot will be based on evidence that the vaccine ...
Many public health scientists say its too soon for a booster when the vaccines work, and much of the world still hasn't ... Pfizer wants to give you a booster shot-but experts say its too soon. Many experts say its too soon for a booster when the ... Is it time to start thinking about booster shots? Pfizer seems to think so. In a private meeting with top US scientists and ... If those countries also begin offering booster shots, "this will require an additional 800 million doses of vaccine," said WHO ...
... government scientists to study an experimental booster shot that targets a concerning new variant of the… ... a combined booster shot that mixes its current COVID-19 vaccine with the experimental shot, and an extra booster shot on top of ... Moderna is developing booster shot for new coronavirus variants, increases vaccine production target Back to video ... Share this Story: Moderna is developing booster shot for new coronavirus variants, increases vaccine production target * Copy ...
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Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin said he had received a booster shot and urged city residents to follow suit. "In view of the ... Russian health authorities on Thursday launched booster coronavirus vaccinations for people immunized more than six months ago ... Moscow health authorities on Thursday started offering booster shots with the domestically produced, two-shot Sputnik V vaccine ... The Health Ministrys guidelines indicated that the booster shots will be rolled out until at least 60% of the population has ...
Gray News) - Booster shots for the COVID-19 vaccine will be free if needed, a White House COVID-19 response team official said ... Vaccine manufacturers have previously said that their vaccines may need booster doses within about a year. ...
Booster shots are not a new phenomenon; we use them for other vaccines. We give booster shots of the measles, mumps, rubella ( ... How will boosters work?. Booster shots work like a wake-up call for your immune system. Vaccines stimulate the body to create ... Booster shots may also serve as a way to stimulate the body to recognise new variants of the coronavirus as well. ... Booster shots serve to "remind" the immune system how to recognise the specific pathogen causing the disease. It means your ...
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The FDA and CDC are telling Americans a COVID-19 vaccine booster will only happen when science demonstrates they are needed. ... As Pfizer Seeks Authorization For Booster Shot, CDC And FDA Say Its Not Time Yet ... Pfizer says getting a third shot within a year of the first two would increase immunity and protect against some of the most ... BioNTech have announced the companies are going to ask the Food and Drug Administration for authorization to provide a booster ...
The push for a booster shot from Pfizer - one that would be administered 6 to 12 months after your second shot - comes as the ... Its unclear if FDA approval would mean an immediate rollout of booster shots, but Dr. Doron emphasized that in her opinion, ... Still, local epidemiologists say theyll need to see harder data before confirming a booster shot is needed. In the meantime, ... The company says early studies show a booster shot can significantly increase a persons antibody levels. ...
Health Minister Nitzan Horowitz apparently jumped the gun on Sunday with an announcement that COVID booster shots were now ... Israel Government Disconnect on Vaccine Booster Shots. CoronavirusIsrael Government Disconnect on Vaccine Booster Shots. By ... The booster shots being discussed are supposed to be available to those deemed at risk for various reasons, including lowered ... Health Minister Nitzan Horowitz apparently jumped the gun on Sunday with an announcement that COVID booster shots were now ...
Three years! Pop that cork! Or if youre on my wine budget, unscrew that jug cap! My blog will be four in June. Though it cant decide whether it wants to go to grad school, enter the job market, or borrow some money to kick around in Europe for a year and maybe work at an English language radio station in Prague or something ...
Booster shots are expected to be important as the virus continues to mutate, similar to how the flu shot is altered every year ... Canada buys 65M Pfizer booster shots for protection against COVID-19 variants. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau says the deal with ... Canada has secured 35 million booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccine for next year, and another 30 million in the year after. ... The prime minister and Sophie Gregoire Trudeau were set to receive their first shots of AstraZeneca later in the day. ...
... will be giving Covid booster shots to a portion of the population. ... Some Portion of the U.S. Population Will Get Booster Shots, Dr. Scott Gottlieb Says By Emily DeCiccio, CNBC • Published July 15 ... Gottlieb noted that Israel is already offering booster shots to adults with severe pre-existing medical conditions, and that ... Scott Gottlieb said Thursday that Covid booster shots may become a reality for certain swaths of the population. Gottlieb made ...
Canada on Friday said that while booster COVID-19 shots may be needed, it has received no request from Pfizer to approve one, ... Canada on Friday said that while booster COVID-19 shots may be needed, it has received no request from Pfizer to approve one, ... It is possible that Canadians will need a subsequent vaccination, or booster shot, after we have reached sufficient levels of ... Canada says COVID-19 booster shots may be needed, closely monitoring variants. ...
Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin said he had received a booster shot and urged city residents to follow suit. "In view of the ... Russian health authorities on Thursday launched booster coronavirus vaccinations for people immunized more than six months ago ... Moscow health authorities on Thursday started offering booster shots with the domestically produced, two-shot Sputnik V vaccine ... The Health Ministrys guidelines indicated that the booster shots will be rolled out until at least 60% of the population has ...
... not if well need a booster shot for the COVID-19 vaccine. ... A lot is unknown about the need for a booster shot, as the ... Doctors in San Diego say its a matter of when, not if well need a booster shot for the COVID-19 vaccine. ... In separate interviews last month, the heads of both Pfizer and Moderna said their vaccines would probably need booster shots. ... "booster" shot.. "At some point, I think its very likely," said UC San Diego Chief of Infectious Diseases Dr. Davey Smith. " ...
... has told us the story of what the experimental gene altering depop-shots are doing to people. So far, there are... ... Pfizer is testing its experimental COVID-19 booster shot in combination with its 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in ... Moderna and Pfizer are both already developing "booster shots" for the COVID-19 experimental gene therapy. That means this ... "booster shots." They are doing this after knowingly engaging in putting out a product that is harming people. No justice has ...
There has been extensive media attention over the past week devoted to mixing of COVID-19 vaccines and booster injections. As ... Remember that a booster is not authorized at present, and consider that the current vaccine you have received remains highly ... The booster will likely be modified to target delta and other variants. Such an announcement is welcoming while also instilling ... Our focus needs to remain on vaccinating those who have been waiting, on the fence as to when to get the shot. Analysis by ...
"Americans who have been fully vaccinated do not need a booster shot at this time. FDA, CDC, and NIH are engaged in a science- ... Fully vaccinated Americans do not need a COVID-19 booster shot at this time, agencies say News ... CHICAGO (NewsNation Now) - Americans fully vaccinated against coronavirus "do not need a booster shot" at this time, the ... Pfizer to seek OK for 3rd vaccine dose; shots still protect The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Food and ...
Moderna says Covid vaccine is effective against new variants - but a booster shot is being developed. By Rhona Shennan ... While Moderna has said that its vaccine is effective against the new Covid-19 strains, a booster shot is in development (Photo ... we are advancing an emerging variant booster candidate against the variant first identified in the Republic of South Africa ...

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