Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Presumed Consent: An institutional policy of granting authority to health personnel to perform procedures on patients or to remove organs from cadavers for transplantation unless an objection is registered by family members or by the patient prior to death. This also includes emergency care of minors without prior parental consent.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Tissue Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Donor Selection: The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.United States Health Resources and Services Administration: A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Directed Tissue Donation: Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.Principle-Based Ethics: An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.United StatesLiving Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Value-Based Purchasing: Purchasers are provided information on the quality of health care, including patient outcomes and health status, with data on the dollar outlays going towards health. The focus is on managing the use of the health care system to reduce inappropriate care and to identify and reward the best-performing providers. (from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/meyerrpt.htm accessed 11/25/2011)Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.End Stage Liver Disease: Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.Transplants: Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Posthumous Conception: Conception after the death of the male or female biological parent through techniques such as the use of gametes that have been stored during his or her lifetime or that were collected immediately after his or her death.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Facial Transplantation: The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Commission on Professional and Hospital Activities: The non-profit, non-governmental organization which collects, processes, and distributes data on hospital use. Two programs of the Commission are the Professional Activity Study and the Medical Audit Program.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.Insurance, Accident: Insurance providing coverage for physical injury suffered as a result of unavoidable circumstances.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sperm Banks: Centers for acquiring and storing semen.Cold Ischemia: The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
  • If we weigh the damage to the interests of the deceased, and her friends, and relatives if their wishes are overridden against the damage done to would be recipients and their friends and relatives if they fail to get the organs they need to keep them alive, where should the balance of our moral concern lie? (bmj.com)
  • To maintain listings of potential organ recipients, the Department of Health and Human Services contracts the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) . (medscape.com)
  • UNOS maintains the lists of potential recipients divided by organ and ABO blood type. (medscape.com)
  • Sometimes, a deceased-donor organ (specifically the liver) may be divided between two recipients, especially an adult and a child. (wikidoc.org)
  • Sometimes, a deceased-donor organ (specifically the liver) may be divided between two recipients, especially an adult and a child.But it is not usually preferred, because the transplantations of whole organs are more useful. (statemaster.com)
  • UNOS is a community that manages data for every US transplant, facilitates every organ matching/placement process using UNOS-developed data technology, and brings together medical professional, recipients, and donor families to develop policy. (wordpress.com)
  • Advances in immunosuppressive therapy have put increasing pressure on the supply of donor organs, and medical personnel sometimes find themselves having to determine who among the potential recipients should receive a lifesaving graft. (britannica.com)
  • Choosing organ recipients amidst such shortages has been called "a grim calculus. (blogspot.com)
  • Because recipients who live closest to the donated organs get a leg up on the national wait list, New Yorkers are at a massive disadvantage. (pressconnects.com)
  • A risk-benefit analysis must be carried out so that the organs can be allocated to suitable recipients. (europa.eu)
  • Baseline hemodynamics profiles in organ recipients should be collected and immunosuppressants should be provided. (wolterskluwer.com)
  • MP of thoracic organs also offers an exciting platform to further investigate downregulation of the innate and adaptive immunity prior to reperfusion of the allograft in recipients. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Many recipients are so overjoyed about a second chance at life, that they compete in the annual winter and summer World Transplant Games, a series of Olympic-style events for athletic people who have received a major organ. (empowher.com)
  • The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ that serves two functions: exocrine - it produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes endocrine - it produces several important hormones Anatomy The pancreas is a retroperitoneal organ located posterior to the stomach on the posterior abdominal wall. (statemaster.com)
  • Next, the liver and pancreas usually are resected en bloc and then separated on the back table. (baldforbieber.com)
  • The New York Police Department later interviewed the families of 1,077 people whose bodies were raided for spines, bones, tendons, and other tissues. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • While the UAGA in every state permits the mother to donate fetal tissue for transplant research and therapy, eight states ban the experimental use of dead aborted fetuses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the video, Russo confirms that her affiliate is working with a for-profit biotech company, DaVinci Biosciences, to harvest the organs of aborted fetuses to sell nationally and internationally - and, just as other Planned Parenthood affiliates in California have confirmed on video their longtime relationships with fetal tissue procurement agencies, this is not a new relationship. (liveaction.org)
  • Why Don't More People Want to Donate Their Organs? (theatlantic.com)
  • If they died, their guardians could still decide to donate their organs, but it wasn't automatic - no heart icon on a driver's license that said to doctors, "this is what I want. (pressconnects.com)
  • This experimental option, not yet approved by the FDA, may lead to better ways to keep lungs (the most fragile of organs) stable during transplant. (nm.org)
  • However, if a patient is connected to a ventilator, allowing the heart to continue to beat and the lungs tp continue to pump air throughout the body, the organs remain healthy and viable for transplantation. (cnn.com)
  • This operation is usually performed for cystic fibrosis as both lungs need to be replaced and it is a technically easier operation to replace the heart and lungs en bloc. (wikidoc.org)
  • Even if the heart and lungs are not procured, the chest is opened so as to optimize exposure of the intraabdominal organs, especially the liver. (baldforbieber.com)
  • Rather than attempt to secure permission for organ donation from shocked and emotionally distraught family and friends, a two-step approach that exhibits appropriate respect for family and next of kin of the newly deceased might greatly expand the potential donor pool. (cmaj.ca)
  • Procurement agencies generally exceed the provisions of the statute and ask for consent from the next of kin/legal decision-maker even when there is a signed donor card or online organ donation registration, to be sure that the family/legal decision-maker is in support of donation. (uptodate.com)
  • A number of states adopted a revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (1987) stipulating that the next of kin/legal decision-maker need not consent to organ donation if the deceased made his or her wishes known in writing to a clinician prior to death. (uptodate.com)
  • The last potential type of sale involves a decedent's next of kin contracting for the sale of the decedent's organs or parts after the decedent's death. (highbeam.com)
  • A. In almost all states, your legal next of kin must sign consent for your organs to be used , even if you gave permission. (familydoctormag.com)
  • In the absence of legal consent via registration as an organ donor, organ procurement representatives are required to consult with next of kin for authorization to obtain organs from the deceased person. (britannica.com)
  • Some participants indicated that they wouldn't donate the organs of their next of kin if his or her heart were still beating, even if they were proclaimed brain-dead. (theatlantic.com)
  • They've created the country's first-ever centralized registry and are now working to emphasize the need for conversations surrounding organ donation to take place among next-of-kin. (liverfoundation.org)
  • There is the deceased individual and her friends and relatives on the one hand, and the potential organ or tissue recipient and her friends and relatives on the other. (bmj.com)
  • We must remember that while the organ donor may have a posthumous preference frustrated, (more of which anon) and her friends and relatives may be distressed and upset, the potential organ recipient stands to lose her very life and her friends and relatives will have grief to add to their distress. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Although in the UK the Human Tissue Act 2004 prioritises the wishes and consent of the potential organ donor over his or her relatives, it is almost inconceivable that organs would be retrieved from a deceased donor against the wishes of relatives. (bmj.com)
  • Under that standard, everyone is considered to be a potential organ donor unless they have affirmatively opted out, say, by signing a non-organ-donor card. (independent.org)
  • We demonstrate the economic (profit) incentive of hospitals and physicians to maintain a procurement system that relies upon altruistic (zero price) supply despite the shortage that such a system creates. (organselling.com)
  • One solution to the problem of sensibilities would, I have suggested, be to provide for the automatic or mandatory availability of donor organs. (bmj.com)
  • Xenotransplantation - Will It Bring the Solution to Organ Shortage? (worldwidescience.org)
  • The prospect of using living, nonhuman organs, and concerns over the infectiousness of pathogens either present in the tissues or possibly formed in combination with human genetic material, have prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue detailed guidance on xenotransplantation research and development since the mid-1990s. (harvard.edu)
  • 4. ANNA supports efforts to resolve the nursing shortage, including measures to assure appropriate funding to address the shortage of nursing faculty and the availability of nursing mentors for new graduates and nurses with little practice experience. (docplayer.net)
  • 4 National Organ Transplant Unit, Ministry of Health, Singapore. (lww.com)
  • To remedy this problem, a number of prominent physicians, ethicists, economists and others have mounted a campaign to suspend the prohibitions in the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) on the buying and selling of organs. (nih.gov)