Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Plant Vascular Bundle: A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Plant Root Cap: A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Flowering Tops: Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Endoreduplication: A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phthalimides: The imide of phthalic acids.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Antirrhinum: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain DEFICIENS PROTEIN.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.GlucuronidaseSulfanilamides: Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Isatis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that is an ingredient of the preparation PC-SPES that is used to treat PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.AGAMOUS Protein, Arabidopsis: A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Zeatin: An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
The apical embryo domain, gives rise to the shoot apical meristem and cotyledons. The second domain, the central embryo domain ... An end stage embryo has five major components including the shoot apical meristem, hypocotyl, root meristem, root cap, and ... It gives rise to the hypocotyl, shoot apical meristem, and cotyledons.[6]. basal cell. The large basal cell is on the bottom ... Between the cotyledons is where the shoot apical meristem lies. Stage IV, in the illustration above, indicates what the embryo ...
"MicroRNAs in the shoot apical meristem of soybean". Journal of Experimental Botany. 62 (8): 2495-2506. doi:10.1093/jxb/erq437. ... "Regulation of Small RNA Accumulation in the Maize Shoot Apex". PLoS Genetics. 5 (1): e1000320. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000320 ...
Traas J, Vernoux T (June 2002). "The shoot apical meristem: the dynamics of a stable structure". Philosophical Transactions of ... A primordium, the nascent leaf, forms at the least crowded part of the shoot meristem. The golden angle between successive ... A whorl can occur as a basal structure where all the leaves are attached at the base of the shoot and the internodes are small ... thus depleting auxin from another area on the meristem where a new leaf is to be initiated. This gives rise to a self- ...
Flowering Locus T protein moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem through plasmodesmata to initiate flowering. ... Jan Traas; Teva Vernoux (29 June 2002). "The shoot apical meristem: the dynamics of a stable structure". Philosophical ...
... take grows intercellularly in witches' broom shoots, including shoot apical meristems. The stroma are produced ... around the apex of the host shoots. Lumbsch TH, Huhndorf SM. (December 2007). "Outline of Ascomycota - 2007". Myconet. Chicago ...
Barton, M. K. (2010-05-01). "Twenty years on: The inner workings of the shoot apical meristem, a developmental dynamo". ... the shoot apical meristem, by controlling cell division and prolonging indeterminate growth. Subsequent gene expression studies ...
Plants produce both leaf and flower primordia cells at the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Primordium development in plants is ... Genes including STM (SHOOT MERISTEMLESS) and CUC (CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON) are involved in defining the borders of the newly ... These new leaves form near the top of the shoot and resemble knobby outgrowths or inverted cones. Flower primordia are the ... Transport and Gene Expression during Primordium Development Revealed by Live Imaging of the Arabidopsis Inflorescence Meristem ...
Key: 1. Endosperm 2. Zygote 3. Embryo 4. Suspensor 5. Cotyledons 6. Shoot Apical Meristem 7. Root Apical Meristem 8. Radicle 9 ... Dormancy of the radicle (seedling root) is broken during the first winter after dispersal while dormancy of the shoot bud is ... shoot) growth. The terms "double dormancy" and "two-year seeds" are used for species whose seeds need two years to complete ... reactivation of the metabolic pathways that lead to growth and the emergence of the radicle or seed root and plumule or shoot. ...
Shoot apical meristem gives rise to flowers and leaves while root apical meristem grows into roots. These components are ... which induces changes in the shoot apical meristem, a special set of growth tissues, to establish flowering (Turck et al. 2008 ... activates flowering by directing modification of DNA at the shoot apical meristem with florigen. Heading date 1 (Hd1) is a gene ... Tissue-Specific Epigenetic Modifications in Root Apical Meristem Cells of Hordeum vulgare. Zhang X, ed. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(7): ...
Apical dominance occurs because the shoot apical meristem produces auxin which prevents axillary buds from growing. The ... inhibited by auxin produced by the apical meristem, which is known as apical dominance. If the apical meristem is removed, or ... As the apical meristem grows and forms leaves, it leaves behind a region of meristematic cells at the node between the stem and ... Axillary buds do not become actively growing shoots on plants with strong apical dominance (the tendency to grow just the ...
The opening of axillary buds and subsequent shoot growth is stimulated by removing the apical meristem. The shoots are cut at ... Propagation of the plant is achieved by rooting axillary shoots. Stem sections root poorly. ... 15-25 cm long and only the apical leaf is kept. The basal area of the stem is mildly injured and dipped in 0.4% IBA rooting ...
Adventitious buds develop from places other than a shoot apical meristem, which occurs at the tip of a stem, or on a shoot node ... They may develop on roots or leaves, or on shoots as a new growth. Shoot apical meristems produce one or more axillary or ... Adventitious buds and shoots also may develop on mature tree trunks when a shaded trunk is exposed to bright sunlight because ... Shoots that develop from adventitious buds on roots are termed suckers. They are a type of natural vegetative reproduction in ...
... is produced in the leaves, and acts in the shoot apical meristem of buds and growing tips. It is known to be graft- ... At the shoot apical meristem, the FT protein interacts with a transcription factor (FD protein) to activate floral identity ... Specifically, arrival of FT at the shoot apical meristem and formation of the FT/FD heterodimer is followed by the increased ... and induction of flowering at the shoot apical meristem. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the signal is initiated by the production of ...
... is the physiological process in the plant by which the shoot apical meristem becomes competent to develop ...
Floral induction involves physiological processes in the plant that result in the shoot apical meristem becoming competent to ... with floral buds developing more rapidly on older shoots and floral primoridia emerging from mid-January to February. The ...
In the shoot, the shoot apical meristems regularly produce new lateral organs (leaves or flowers) and lateral branches. In the ...
During this phase, the cotyledons are tightly closed and form the apical hook to protect the shoot apical meristem from damage ... The apical meristems start growing and give rise to the root and shoot. The first "true" leaves expand and can often be ... The opening of the cotyledons exposes the shoot apical meristem and the plumule consisting of the first true leaves of the ... The plumule is the part of a seed embryo that develops into the shoot bearing the first true leaves of a plant. In most seeds, ...
A flower develops on a modified shoot or axis from a determinate apical meristem (determinate meaning the axis grows to a set ... 2006). "The transcription factor FLC confers a flowering response to vernalization by repressing meristem competence and ... shoots). The transition to flowering is one of the major phase changes that a plant makes during its life cycle. The transition ... a combination of genes normally responsible for forming new shoots. The most primitive flowers are thought to have had a ...
... with flowers sprouting in inflorescences produced from the shoot apical meristem. The flowers are very variable in color, from ...
Plant process by which the shoot apical meristem changes its anatomy to generate a flower or inflorescence in lieu of new nodes ... Anatomical changes begin at the edge of the meristem, generating first the outer whorls of the flower - the calyx and the ...
Apical meristems, located at the shoot tip and axillary buds on the stem, allow plants to increase in length, surface, and mass ... Sassafras The shoots and stem bark are sometimes used to make root beer. Shallot Also a member of the onion family, the edible ... In North America, these include the shoots of common milkweed, Solomon's seal, wood sorrel (usually eaten with the leaves), ... The edible portion is the rapidly emerging stems that arise from the crowns in the Bamboo The edible portion is the young shoot ...
A flower develops on a modified shoot or axis from a determinate apical meristem (determinate meaning the axis grows to a set ... a combination of genes normally responsible for forming new shoots.[29] The most primitive flowers are thought to have had a ... interact in a combinatorial manner to determine the developmental identities of the organ primordia within the floral meristem ... "The transcription factor FLC confers a flowering response to vernalization by repressing meristem competence and systemic ...
The formation of flowers is triggered by regularly spaced local auxin accumulation at the surface of the shoot apical meristem ... auxin is transported directionally from the shoot to the root tip (i.e. downwards). See also "Uneven distribution of auxin" and ...
True leaves, however, are formed post-embryonically (i.e. after germination) from the shoot apical meristem, which is ... Cotyledons are formed during embryogenesis, along with the root and shoot meristems, and are therefore present in the seed ... They are also capable of surviving if the seedling is clipped off, as meristem buds remain underground (with epigeal plants, ... the meristem is clipped off if the seedling is grazed). The tradeoff is whether the plant should produce a large number of ...
1692983 The shoot apical meristem: the dynamics of a stable structure. Jan Traas and Teva Vernoux : Philos Trans R Soc Lond B ...
... influenced by the distribution of photosynthate from its needles and the hormonal gradients controlled by the apical meristems ... The general short-term effect of nitrogen fertilization on coniferous seedlings is to stimulate shoot growth more so than root ... Apical growth totalling about 340 m, 370 m, 420 m, 450 m, 500 m, 600 m, and 600 m was made by the tree in the years 1955 ... Apical growth of the stem was slow from 1926 through 1936 when the tree was competing with herbs and shrubs and probably shaded ...
mutants lacking an embryonic shoot apical meristem (SAM), shoot meristemless (stm), wuschel (wus) and zwille/pinhead (zll/pnh) ... Somatic embryogenesis from Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem mutants.. Mordhorst AP1, Hartog MV, El Tamer MK, Laux T, de Vries ...
... in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Throughout the life of a plant, the SAM produces stem tissues and lateral organs, and also ... Shoot apical meristem maintenance: the art of a dynamic balance Trends Plant Sci. 2003 Aug;8(8):394-401. doi: 10.1016/S1360- ... The aerial structure of higher plants derives from cells at the tip of the stem, in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Throughout ... and on factors that prevent meristem cells from differentiating prematurely. The terminating floral meristem incorporates the ...
Characterisation of three shoot apical meristem mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... The shoot apical meristem of dicotyledonous plants is highly regulated both structurally and functionally, but little is known ... In contrast, clv1 mutant plants show near wild-type organ phenotypes, more subtle changes in shoot apical meristem structure ... In all cases, the fasciations are associated with shoot apical meristem enlargement and altered floral development. While all ...
A fate map of the Arabidopsis embryonic shoot apical meristem Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... We have mapped the fate of cells in the Arabidopsis embryonic shoot apical meristem by irradiating seed and scoring the ... The histological analysis of cell number in the shoot apical meristem, in combination with the sector analysis have been used ... Sections through the dry seed embryo indicate that the embryonic shoot apical meristem contains approximately 110 cells in the ...
... Pfeiffer, Anne ... Here, we dissect how light and metabolic signals are integrated to overcome stem cell dormancy at the shoot apical meristem. We ... Metabolic signals, on the other hand, are transduced to the meristem through activation of the TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) kinase ... TOR kinase acts as a central integrator of light and metabolic signals and a key regulator of stem cell activation at the shoot ...
The shoot apical meristem (SAM) provides a stable environment for the maintenance of stem cells. All cells inside the SAM ... Centering the organizing center in the Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristem by a combination of cytokinin signaling and ...
67%). Shoot apical meristems from three-day old seedlings were evaluated for their potency of shoot induction on varied 6- ... Key words: Direct organogenesis, finger millet, root induction, shoot apical meristems. ... Highest shoot induction was observed in medium supplemented with 1.75 mg/l BAP in GBK-043050 (3.00) whereas GBK-043094 (1.28) ... Maximum number of shoots (84.33%) was observed in variety GBK-043128 while GBK-043094 had the least germination efficiency (62 ...
Paul Tarr, who carried the shoot apical meristem work forward by investigating the involvement of the plant hormones auxin and ... Live Imaging of Cellular Differentiation in Shoot Apical Meristems and in Cellulose Synthesis. Elliot Meyerowitz is George W. ... Alignment between PIN1 polarity and microtubule orientation in the shoot apical meristem reveals a tight coupling between ... who worked on the live imaging of growing shoot apical meristems and computational modeling of cell behaviour and cell- cell ...
Diversity of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture and Its Relationship to Plant Morphology. Addie M. Thompson, Jianming Yu ... Diversity of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture and Its Relationship to Plant Morphology. Addie M. Thompson, Jianming Yu ... Diversity of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture and Its Relationship to Plant Morphology. Addie M. Thompson, Jianming Yu ... The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and controls initiation of all aerial plant organs. In ...
Using biosensors for PI4P and PI(4,5)P2, the two most abundant PIPs at the plasma membrane, we reveal that meristem functions ... In contrast, high PIP levels are signatures for organ-meristem boundaries. Interestingly, this pattern echoes that of cortical ... Conversely, we find that katanin mutant meristems, with increased isotropy of microtubule arrays and slower response to ... Transcription factors, microRNA, hormones, peptides and forces have been involved in meristem function. Whereas ...
SHOOT ORGANIZATION Genes Regulate Shoot Apical Meristem Organization and the Pattern of Leaf Primordium Initiation in Rice. Jun ... SHOOT ORGANIZATION Genes Regulate Shoot Apical Meristem Organization and the Pattern of Leaf Primordium Initiation in Rice ... SHOOT ORGANIZATION Genes Regulate Shoot Apical Meristem Organization and the Pattern of Leaf Primordium Initiation in Rice ... SHOOT ORGANIZATION Genes Regulate Shoot Apical Meristem Organization and the Pattern of Leaf Primordium Initiation in Rice ...
Receptor Kinase Shoot Apex Shoot Apical Meristem Leucine Rich Repeat Chromatin Modification ... Therefore, shoot apical meristems were harvested at the end of the night when presumably plants are in a stable environment to ... Genes up-regulated in the shoot apical meristem by hetero-grafting with rootstocks. The MapMan functional categories [12, 13] ... Our objective was to study the effects of grafting on gene expression in the shoot apical meristem of grapevine Vitis vinifera ...
peripheral zone, shoot apical meristem, STM gene, Arabidopsis, FLORAL MERISTEMS, LEAF DEVELOPMENT, AUXIN TRANSPORT, WUSCHEL, ... shoot apical meristem,STM gene,Arabidopsis,FLORAL MERISTEMS,LEAF DEVELOPMENT,AUXIN TRANSPORT,WUSCHEL,FATE,ACTS,PCR,ASYMMETRIC- ... Mutations in the TORNADO2 gene affect cellular decisions in the peripheral zone of the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis ... "Mutations in the TORNADO2 Gene Affect Cellular Decisions in the Peripheral Zone of the Shoot Apical Meristem of Arabidopsis ...
LOOI LIANG SHENG (2016-12-15). EPIGENETIC TIMING CONTROL OF WUSCHEL COORDINATES SHOOT APICAL MERISTEM AND FLORAL DEVELOPMENT IN ... EPIGENETIC TIMING CONTROL OF WUSCHEL COORDINATES SHOOT APICAL MERISTEM AND FLORAL DEVELOPMENT IN ARABIDOPSIS. ...
Mechanical Signaling and Pattern Formation in the Arabidopsis Shoot Apical Meristem, Elliot Meyerowitz, Division of Biology and ... UPSC Cutting-Edge Seminar: Mechanical Signaling and Pattern Formation in the Arabidopsis Shoot Apical Meristem. Date: 2017-09- ... Title: Mechanical Signaling and Pattern Formation in the Arabidopsis Shoot Apical Meristem ...
A shoot system meristem (PO:0006079) formed at the apex of the shoot axis (PO:0025029), including those originating from an ... A shoot system meristem (PO:0006079) formed at the apex of the shoot axis (PO:0025029), including those originating from an ... meristema apical del epiblasto (epiblastema) (Spanish, exact). 茎頂分裂組織 (Japanese, exact) ...
Axillary buds are themselves complete shoot meristems from which branches are produced (cf. lateral roots described above). ... A vegetative meristem gives rise to leaves or other organs, for example thorns and tendrils. ... Shoot apical meristems are minute yet complex structures that are ensheathed within new developing leaves or bracts. ... 7.1 - Axial growth: root, shoot and leaf development. Back to top 7.1.2 - Shoot apical meristems. Shoot apical meristems are ...
Analysis of ambient temperature-responsive transcriptome in shoot apical meristem of heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive broccoli ...
... the root cap lies the apical meristem, a tissue of actively dividing cells. Some of the cells produced by the apical meristem ... Figure 3: Apical meristems. (Left) The shoot apical meristem of Hypericum uralum appears at the topmost aspect of the stem. ... As the plant matures, apical meristems in the shoots produce new buds and leaves, and apical meristems in the roots are the ... science/apical-meristem", "shareUrl": "https://www.britannica.com/science/apical-meristem", "title": "Apical meristem" ," ...
Shoot apical meristem, organ polarity and vascular development. 156. SPL. A. thaliana. Z. mays. O. sativa. S. lycopersicum. ... Shoot apical meristem and vascular patterning. Plants exhibit a long period of organogenesis and give rise to new leaves ... Similarly, downregulation of five HD-Zip genes by overexpression of miR165 resulted in loss of SAM (shoot apical meristem), ... The transcripts of miR165 and miR166 are detected in shoot apical meristem, leaf primordial and vascular tissues in Arabidopsis ...
A phosphoinositide map at the shoot apical meristem in Arabidopsis thaliana (BMC Biol.) March 2, 2018. /in Plant Science ... P2 to map PIP dynamics at the shoot apical meristem. The authors observed a relatively low abundance of PI4P and PI(4,5)P2 in ... To investigate a functional role for this pattern, the authors examined both PIP and meristem mutants. Their results suggest a ...
... ... The second section describes the meristem-specific transcript profiling analyses of two maize leaf developmental mutants, ... redundantly and non-cell autonomously to direct recruitment of leaf founder cell-initials in a lateral domain of the shoot apex ...
The apical embryo domain, gives rise to the shoot apical meristem and cotyledons. The second domain, the central embryo domain ... An end stage embryo has five major components including the shoot apical meristem, hypocotyl, root meristem, root cap, and ... It gives rise to the hypocotyl, shoot apical meristem, and cotyledons.[6]. basal cell. The large basal cell is on the bottom ... Between the cotyledons is where the shoot apical meristem lies. Stage IV, in the illustration above, indicates what the embryo ...
An apical hypoxic niche sets the pace of shoot meristem activity *Daan A. Weits ... Rights & permissionsfor article An apical hypoxic niche sets the pace of shoot meristem activity . Opens in a new window. ... WUSCHEL acts as an auxin response rheostat to maintain apical stem cells in Arabidopsis *Yanfei Ma ... Rights & permissionsfor article WUSCHEL acts as an auxin response rheostat to maintain apical stem cells in ,i,Arabidopsis,/i ...
Our main objective is to understand control of shoot apical meristem (SAM) differentiation. Meristem provides a… ... Our main objective is to understand control of shoot apical meristem (SAM) differentiation. Meristem provides a reservoir of ... Gene Networks Controlling Floral Evocation in Legume Shoot Apical Meristem. Legumes, such as pea, chickpea, lupin and soybean, ... Gene Networks Controlling Floral Evocation in Legume Shoot Apical Meristem. *Molecular Control of Male Germ Line Initiation and ...

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