A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in fish and other aquatic animals and in a variety of mammals, including man. Its organisms probably do not belong to the normal intestinal flora of man and can cause diarrhea.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.
A triglyceride that is used as an antifungal agent.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A ubiquitously expressed folic acid transporter that functions via an antiporter mechanism which is coupled to the transport of organic phosphates.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)
A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that binds to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN inside the CELL NUCLEUS and participates in their export into CYTOPLASM. It is also associated with the regulation of APOPTOSIS and microtubule assembly.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by telangiectatic ERYTHEMA of the face, photosensitivity, DWARFISM and other abnormalities, and a predisposition toward developing cancer. The Bloom syndrome gene (BLM) encodes a RecQ-like DNA helicase.
A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.

The virulence plasmid-encoded impCAB operon enhances survival and induced mutagenesis in Shigella flexneri after exposure to UV radiation. (1/922)

Upon exposure to UV radiation, Shigella flexneri SA100 displayed survival and mutation frequencies comparable to those of Escherichia coli AB1157, which contains a functional UmuDC error-prone DNA repair system. Survival of SA100 after UV irradiation was associated with the presence of the 220-kb virulence plasmid, pVP. This plasmid encodes homologues of ImpA and ImpB, which comprise an error-prone DNA repair system encoded on plasmid TP110 that was initially identified in Salmonella typhimurium, and ImpC, encoded upstream of ImpA and ImpB. Although the impB gene was present in representatives of all four species of Shigella, not all isolates tested contained the gene. Shigella isolates that lacked impB were more sensitive to UV radiation than isolates that contained impB. The nucleotide sequence of a 2.4-kb DNA fragment containing the imp operon from S. flexneri SA100 pVP was 96% identical to the imp operon from the plasmid TP110. An SA100 derivative with a mutation in the impB gene had reduced survival following UV irradiation and less UV-induced mutagenesis relative to the parental strain. We also found that S. flexneri contained a chromosomally encoded umuDC operon; however, the umuDC promoter was not induced by exposure to UV radiation. This suggests that the imp operon but not the umuDC operon contributes to survival and induced mutagenesis in S. flexneri following exposure to UV radiation.  (+info)

Interleukin-8 controls bacterial transepithelial translocation at the cost of epithelial destruction in experimental shigellosis. (2/922)

In shigellosis, the network of cellular interactions mediated by a balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines or chemokines is clearly tipped toward acute destructive inflammation of intestinal tissues by the bacterial invader. This work has addressed the role played by interleukin-8 (IL-8) in a rabbit model of intestinal invasion by Shigella flexneri. IL-8, which is largely produced by the epithelial cells themselves, appears to be a major mediator of the recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the subepithelial area and transmigration of these cells through the epithelial lining. Neutralization of IL-8 function by monoclonal antibody WS-4 caused a decrease in the amount of PMNs streaming through the lamina propria and the epithelium, thus significantly attenuating the severity of epithelial lesions in areas of bacterial invasion. These findings are in agreement with our previous work (31). In contrast to the PMNs, the bacteria displayed increased transepithelial translocation, as well as overgrowth in the lamina propria and increased passage into the mesenteric blood. By mediating eradication of bacteria at their epithelial entry site, although at the cost of severe epithelial destruction, IL-8 therefore appears to be a key chemokine in the control of bacterial translocation.  (+info)

The mxi-Spa type III secretory pathway of Shigella flexneri requires an outer membrane lipoprotein, MxiM, for invasin translocation. (3/922)

Invasion of epithelial cells by Shigella flexneri is mediated by a set of translocated bacterial invasins, the Ipa proteins, and its dedicated type III secretion system, called Mxi-Spa. We show here that mxiM, part of the mxi-spa locus in the S. flexneri virulence plasmid, encodes an indispensable type III secretion apparatus component, required for both Ipa translocation and tissue culture cell invasion. We demonstrated that mature MxiM, first identified as a putative lipoprotein, is lipidated in vivo. Consistent with features of known lipoproteins, MxiM (i) can be labeled with [3H]palmitate and [2-3H]glycerol, (ii) is associated with the cell envelope, (iii) is secreted independently of the type III pathway, and (iv) requires an intact lipoprotein modification and processing site for full activity. The lipidated form of MxiM was detected primarily in the outer membrane, where it establishes a peripheral association with the inner leaflet. Through analysis of subcellular Ipa distribution in a mxiM null mutant background, MxiM was found to be required for the assembly and/or function of outer, but not inner, membrane regions of Mxi-Spa. This function probably requires interactions with other Mxi-Spa subunits within the periplasmic space. We discuss implications of these findings with respect to the function of MxiM and the structure of Mxi-Spa as a whole.  (+info)

Adaptive immune response to Shigella flexneri 2a cydC in immunocompetent mice and mice lacking immunoglobulin A. (4/922)

Shigella flexneri cydC, which is deficient in cytochrome bd, was rapidly cleared from the lungs of intranasally inoculated mice and was Sereny negative, yet it induced 93% protection against challenge with wild-type S. flexneri. Mice that lack immunoglobulin A (IgA) were fully protected, suggesting that IgA may not be required for adaptive immunity in this model system.  (+info)

Rupture of the intestinal epithelial barrier and mucosal invasion by Shigella flexneri. (5/922)

Invasion of the intestinal barrier by Shigella flexneri involves complex interactions with epithelial and phagocytic cells. Major perturbation of the signals that maintain epithelial integrity permits mucosal invasion, leading to tissue destruction. Expression of this invasive phenotype depends on the secretion of Ipa proteins (invasins), which can trigger entry of the pathogen into epithelial cells by causing massive rearrangement of the host cell cytoskeleton and cause macrophage apoptotic death by direct interaction of IpaB with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-converting enzyme. This results in the killing of defense cells and in the release of IL-1beta. In vivo, bacteria translocate through the epithelial barrier, essentially via M cells of the follicle-associated epithelium in the colonic and rectal mucosa. Apoptotic death of macrophages in subepithelial tissues allows bacterial survival and triggers inflammation, which destabilizes epithelial structures and facilitates further bacterial entry. Once they are intracellular, bacteria multiply within the cytoplasm and move from cell to cell by an actin-dependent process.  (+info)

Enteropathogenic E. coli, Salmonella, and Shigella: masters of host cell cytoskeletal exploitation. (6/922)

Bacterial pathogens have evolved numerous strategies to exploit their host's cellular processes so that they can survive and persist. Often, a bacterium must adhere very tightly to the cells and mediate its effects extracellularly, or it must find a way to invade the host's cells and survive intracellularly. In either case, the pathogen hijacks the host's cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton provides a flexible framework for the cell and is involved in mediating numerous cellular functions, from cell shape and structure to programmed cell death. Altering the host cytoskeleton is crucial for mediating pathogen adherence, invasion, and intracellular locomotion. We highlight recent advances in the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri. Each illustrates how bacterial pathogens can exert dramatic effects on the host cytoskeleton.  (+info)

Safety and immunogenicity of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a O-specific polysaccharide conjugates in children. (7/922)

O-specific polysaccharide conjugates of shigellae were safe and immunogenic in young adults, and a Shigella sonnei conjugate conferred protection [1-3]. Shigellosis is primarily a disease of children; therefore, the safety and immunogenicity of S. sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a conjugates were studied in 4- to 7-year-old children. Local and systemic reactions were minimal. The first injection of both conjugates elicited significant rises in geometric mean levels of serum IgG only to the homologous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (S. sonnei, 0.32-8.25 ELISA units [EU]; S. flexneri 2a, 1.15-20.5 EU; P<.0001). Revaccination at 6 weeks induced a booster response to S. flexneri 2a LPS (20.5-30.5 EU, P=.003). Six months later, the geometric mean levels of IgG anti-LPS for both groups were higher than the prevaccination levels (P<.0001). Similar, but lesser, rises were observed for IgM and IgA anti-LPS. The investigational Shigella conjugates were safe and immunogenic in children and merit evaluation of their efficacy.  (+info)

A comparative study of the actin-based motilities of the pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri and Rickettsia conorii. (8/922)

Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, and Rickettsia conorii are three bacterial pathogens that are able to polymerize actin into 'comet tail' structures and move within the cytosol of infected cells. The actin-based motilities of L. monocytogenes and S. flexneri are known to require the bacterial proteins ActA and IcsA, respectively, and several mammalian cytoskeleton proteins including the Arp2/3 complex and VASP (vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein) for L. monocytogenes and vinculin and N-WASP (the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) for S. flexneri. In contrast, little is known about the motility of R. conorii. In the present study, we have analysed the actin-based motility of this bacterium in comparison to that of L. monocytogenes and S. flexneri. Rickettsia moved at least three times more slowly than Listeria and Shigella in both infected cells and Xenopus laevis egg extracts. Decoration of actin with the S1 subfragment of myosin in infected cells showed that the comet tails of Rickettsia have a structure strikingly different from those of L. monocytogenes or S. flexneri. In Listeria and Shigella tails, actin filaments form a branching network while Rickettsia tails display longer and not cross-linked actin filaments. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that the two host proteins, VASP and (&agr;)-actinin colocalized with actin in the tails of Rickettsia but neither the Arp2/3 complex which we detected in the Shigella actin tails, nor N-WASP, were detected in Rickettsia actin tails. Taken together, these results suggest that R. conorii may use a different mechanism of actin polymerization.  (+info)

The intent of this research project was to purify the Shigella flexneri virulence plasmid without the use of ultra-centrifugation. The ultra-centrifugation is the most commonly used technique; however the PFGE has proven to isolate the plasmid with the similar efficiency without decreasing quality of the DNA sample. Once the plasmid was purified, the construction of a library of the plasmid was started. A library of this particular bacterial plasmid will help greatly in identifying the genes responsible for the maintenance of this plasmid. This particular plasmid is of great interest because it is primarily responsible for the pathogenic characteristics of the bacteria. The S. flexneri virulence plasmid is a highly stable single copy plasmid that is approximately 230kb in size. The stability of the plasmid is essential for the bacterias ability to cause disease. The identification of the stability genes encoded in the Shigella flexneri virulence plasmid would greatly increase our ability to ...
The intent of this research project was to purify the Shigella flexneri virulence plasmid without the use of ultra-centrifugation. The ultra-centrifugation is the most commonly used technique; however the PFGE has proven to isolate the plasmid with the similar efficiency without decreasing quality of the DNA sample. Once the plasmid was purified, the construction of a library of the plasmid was started. A library of this particular bacterial plasmid will help greatly in identifying the genes responsible for the maintenance of this plasmid. This particular plasmid is of great interest because it is primarily responsible for the pathogenic characteristics of the bacteria. The S. flexneri virulence plasmid is a highly stable single copy plasmid that is approximately 230kb in size. The stability of the plasmid is essential for the bacterias ability to cause disease. The identification of the stability genes encoded in the Shigella flexneri virulence plasmid would greatly increase our ability to ...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 19274103. PLoS ONE 2009;4(3):e4713. BACKGROUND: Shigella, an enteroinvasive bacteria induces a major inflammatory response responsible for acute rectocolitis in humans. However, early effect of Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) infection upon the human mucosa and its microenvironement, in particular the enteric nervous system, remains currently unknown. Therefore, in this study, we sought to characterize ex vivo the early events of shigellosis in a model of human colonic explants. In particular, we aimed at identifying factors produced by S. flexneri and responsible for the lesions of the barrier. We also aimed at determining the putative lesions of the enteric nervous system induced by S. flexneri.. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first showed that, following 3 h of infection, the invasive but not the non-invasive strain of S. flexneri induced significant desquamation of the intestinal epithelial barrier and a reduction of epithelial height. These changes were ...
Shigella flexneri invades colonic epithelial cells by pathogen-induced phagocytosis. The three proposed effectors of S. flexneri internalization are invasion plasmid antigens B (IpaB), IpaC, and IpaD, which are encoded on the pathogens 230-kb virulence plasmid and translocated to the extracellular milieu via the Mxi-Spa translocon. To date, there are no definitive functional data for any purified Ipa protein. Here, we describe the first characterization of highly purified recombinant IpaC, which elicits numerous epithelial cell responses related to events that take place during pathogen invasion. 125I-labeled IpaC binds cultured Henle 407 intestinal cells with an apparent dissociation constant in the low micromolar range. Moreover, incubation of epithelial cells with IpaC results in general changes in cellular phosphoprotein content, demonstrating this proteins ability to influence cellular protein kinase activities. These results contrast dramatically with those seen for recombinant IpaD, ...
Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative bacterium that is a significant cause of bacillary dysentery. Shigella uses its type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into human intestinal cells to alter their functions to promote pathogen entry. The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) consists of a basal body, an extracellular needle, and a tip complex. As a part of the tip complex, invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD) controls secretion by acting as an environmental sensor for triggering recruitment of the first translocator protein, IpaB, to the bacterial surface. This work extends this knowledge to show that subsequent contact with the host cell triggers T3SS induction and the formation of an IpaB/IpaC translocon pore within the membrane of the host cell. While IpaB is recruited to the TTSA needle tip IpaD senses bile salt in the Shigella environment, IpaC remains within the bacterial cytoplasm. Upon adding liposomes containing cholesterol and sphingolipids, IpaC is recruited to ...
Genome sequence of Shigella flexneri strain SP1, a diarrheal isolate that encodes an extended-spectrum β-lactamase ESBL. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The IcsA autotransporter protein is a major virulence factor of the human intracellular pathogen Shigella flexneri. IcsA is distributed at the poles in the outer membrane (OM) of S. flexneri and interacts with components of the host actin-polymerization machinery to facilitate intracellular actin-based motility and subsequent cell-to-cell spreading of the bacterium. We sought to characterize the biochemical properties of IcsA in the bacterial OM. Chemical cross-linking data suggested that IcsA exists in a complex in the OM. Furthermore, reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation of differentially epitope-tagged IcsA proteins indicated that IcsA is able to self-associate. The identification of IcsA linker-insertion mutants that were negatively dominant provided genetic evidence of IcsA-IcsA interactions. From these results, we propose a model whereby IcsA self-association facilitates efficient actin-based motility.
FARFAN U, Mauricio et al. Molecular characterization of resistance mechanisms to chloramphenicol in Shigella flexneri strains isolated from Chilean children with acute diarrhea. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2002, vol.130, n.3, pp.275-280. ISSN 0034-9887. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872002000300005.. Background: Chloramphenicol is one of the therapeutic options for shigellosis, but resistance to this antimicrobial is increasing. Aim: To characterize molecular mechanisms conferring resistance to chloramphenicol (CmR) in Shigella flexneri strains isolated from Chilean children with acute diarrhea. Material and methods: Thirty one Shigella filexneri strains, including 22 with the CmR phenotype were analyzed. Strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by plate dilution and for the presence of an internal fragment of the cat gene encoding for chloramphenicol o-acetyl-transferase, by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. Results: All CmR strains had a minimal inhibitory ...
Mucin glycoproteins are secreted in large amounts by the intestinal epithelium and constitute an efficient component of innate immune defenses to promote homeostasis and protect against enteric pathogens. In this study, our objective was to investigate how the bacterial enteropathogen Shigella flexneri, which causes bacillary dysentery, copes with the mucin defense barrier. We report that upon in vitro infection of mucin-producing polarized human intestinal epithelial cells, virulent S. flexneri manipulates the secretion of gel-forming mucins. This phenomenon, which is triggered only by virulent strains, results in accumulation of mucins at the cell apical surface, leading to the appearance of a gel-like structure that favors access of bacteria to the cell surface and the subsequent invasion process. We identify MUC5AC, a gel-forming mucin, as a component of this structure. Formation of this gel does not depend on modifications of electrolyte concentrations, induction of trefoil factor expression,
Biochemical Test of Shigella flexneri -Basic Characteristics Properties (Shigella flexneri) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Gas Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Variable Motility Non-Motile MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape … Read more Biochemical Test of Shigella flexneri. ...
Shigella flexneri is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of causing dysentery, a condition that afflicts many around the world, especially in developing countries. There are several aspects of Shigella pathogenesis that are not well understood, including a number of genetic and cellular changes that allow Shigella to adapt to stresses encountered while invading and replicating within the eukaryotic cytosol. It was the goal of this research to examine the roles of iscSUA and suf, gene systems predicted to encode for iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis proteins, in Shigella surviving exposure to oxidative stress agents and during Shigella invasion and plaque formation in a human colon cell line. An S. flexneri strain containing a deletion mutation in the iscSUA genes (UR022) was created and an earlier constructed S. flexneri strain containing a deletion mutation in the entire suf operon (UR011) was verified. Both mutant strains were less resistant to hydrogen
Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery. Fifteen serotypes have been recognized up to now. The genesis of new S. flexneri serotypes is commonly mediated by serotype-converting bacteriophages. Untypeable or novel serotypes from natural infections had been reported worldwide but have not been generated in laboratory. A new S. flexneri serotype-serotype 1 d was generated when a S. flexneri serotype Y strain (native LPS) was sequentially infected with 2 serotype-converting bacteriophages, SfX first and then SfI. The new serotype 1 d strain agglutinated with both serotype X-specific anti-7;8 grouping serum and serotype 1a-specific anti- I typing serum, and differed from subserotypes 1a, 1b and 1c. Twenty four S. flexneri clinical isolates of serotype X were all converted to serotype 1 d by infection with phage SfI. PCR and sequencing revealed that SfI and SfX were integrated in tandem into the proA-yaiC region of the host chromosome. These findings suggest a new S. flexneri
Shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery in humans by invading epithelial cells of the colon. Cell invasion occurs via bacterium-directed phagocytosis, a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy of solar disinfection of Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella Typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae. AU - Berney, M.. AU - Weilenmann, H. U.. AU - Simonetti, A.. AU - Egli, T.. PY - 2006/10/1. Y1 - 2006/10/1. N2 - Aims: To determine the efficacy of solar disinfection (SODIS) for enteric pathogens and to test applicability of the reciprocity law. Methods and Results: Resistance to sunlight at 37°C based on F99 values was in the following order: Salmonella Typhimurium , Escherichia coli , Shigella flexneri , Vibrio cholerae. While F90 values of Salm. Typhimurium and E. coli were similar, F99 values differed by 60% due to different inactivation curve shapes. Efficacy seemed not to be dependent on fluence rate for E. coli stationary cells. Sensitivity to mild heat was observed above a temperature of 45°C for E. coli, Salm. Typhimurium and Sh. flexneri, while V. cholerae was already susceptible above 40°C. Conclusions: Salmonella Typhimurium was the most resistant and ...
Many gram-negative bacterial pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, are able to translocate bacterial proteins, dubbed effectors, across the host cell plasma membrane into the host cell cytosol using a syringe-like structure, the type three secretion apparatus (T3SA). While some bacteria use their T3SA to modulate their phagosomal environment (Salmonella spp.), establish pedestal structure to form microcolonies on the plasma membrane (Enteropathogenic Escherichi coli) or lyse their entry vacuole (Shigella spp.), they all have in common a tightly regulated activity of their T3SA. However, the tracking of the activity of the T3SA in infected cells and tissue has been difficult to perform. Using the property of MxiE-dependent promoters that are upregulated when the T3SA is active, we have recently designed a transcription-based secretion activity reporter (TSAR) that allows the following of the activity of the S. flexneri T3SA in real-time in tissue culture cells and in vivo using fast maturing GFP
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Shigella species are commonly pathogenic to humans, causing severe gastroenteritis (bacillary dysentery). In healthy adults, dysentery is a self-limiting disease, but it can be fatal to infants and young children, causing over 1 million deaths a year. We have completed the genome sequence of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a strain 2457T, which has been the subject of extensive molecular pathogenesis and genetics research. The 2457T genome was compared with other Enterobacterial pathogens, including another recently sequenced S. flexneri 2a strain, 301.. Whole-genome shotgun libraries of strain 2457T were constructed in M13Janus (insert size ~2.0 kbp) and pBlueScript KS- (insert size ~5 kbp). Clones were sequenced using dye terminator chemistry, collecting 66,219 reads on ABI377 and 3700 instruments (final coverage 7.2X). A whole-genome optical map of XhoI sites was prepared to aid the ordering of contigs during assembly and to confirm the endpoints and lengths of inversions in the strain ...
This study documents the presence of type 1 fimbriae on Shigella and confirms these mannose-sensitive adherence structures to be bona fide components of the Shigella surface. While laboratory-passaged Shigella strains and lyophilized clinical isolates failed to express type 1 fimbriae, 6 of 20 recent clinical isolates, including 4 Shigella flexneri strains, 1 Shigella boydii strain, and 1 Shigella dysenteriae strain, produced type 1 fimbriae as detected by mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA) and electron microscopy. Optimal production of a predominantly Fim+ population required serial passage every 48 to 72 h in unshaken brain heart infusion broth at 37 degrees C. Fim+ Shigella cultures were capable of reversibly switching to a non-MSHA, afimbriated phase during serial aerobic cultivation on tryptic soy agar plates. The amino acid sequence of S. flexneri type 1 FimA contained 18 substitutions compared to that of Escherichia coli fimbrillin. Indirect immunoelectron microscopy suggested the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in Shigella flexneri subserotype 1c isolates from China. AU - Qiu, S.. AU - Xu, X.. AU - Wang, Y.. AU - Yang, G.. AU - Wang, Z.. AU - Wang, H.. AU - Zhang, L.. AU - Liu, N.. AU - Chen, C.. AU - Liu, W.. AU - Li, J.. AU - Su, W.. AU - Jia, L.. AU - Wang, L.. AU - Jin, H.. AU - Keim, Paul S. AU - Yuan, Z.. AU - Huang, L.. AU - Song, H.. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - We report here on the first identification of Shigella flexneri subserotype 1c in China. We also report the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and third-generation cephalosporins in this subserotype 1c for the first time. Isolates of seven strains circulating in China yielded three new sequence types and seven pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, thus demonstrating the existence of high genetic diversity within the isolates. Overall, the seven isolates showed reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin; one isolate was ciprofloxacin ...
购买Shigella flexneri group (3)4兔多克隆抗体(ab78644),Shigella flexneri group (3)4抗体经Agg验证,产品出库一年都在质保范围内。中国现货速达。
TEM-1 hyperproduction in two ampicillin-sulbactam-resistant Shigella flexneri strains was studied. In both strains the blaTEM gene was encoded as a single copy on a large conjugatively transferable plasmid. A single G--,T transversion at position 1 of the -10 consensus sequence was identified to be the mechanism of TEM-1 hyperproduction. ...
The O antigen of the Shigella flexneri lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important virulence determinant and immunogen. We have isolated S. flexneri mutants which produce a semi-rough LPS by using an O-antigen-specific phage, Sf6c. Western immunoblotting was used to show that the LPS produced by the semi-rough mutants contained only one O-antigen repeat unit. Thus, the mutants are deficient in production of the O-antigen polymerase and were termed rfc mutants. Complementation experiments were used to locate the rfc adjacent to the rfb genes on plasmid clones previously isolated and containing this region (D. F. Macpherson, R. Morona, D. W. Beger, K.-C. Cheah, and P. A. Manning, Mol. Microbiol 5:1491-1499, 1991). A combination of deletions and subcloning analysis located the rfc gene as spanning a 2-kb region. Insertion of a kanamycin resistance cartridge into a SalI site in this region inactivated the rfc gene. The DNA sequence of the rfc region was determined. An open reading frame spanning the ...
The virulence gene icsA of Shigella flexneri encodes an invasion protein crucial for host colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Within the intergenic region virA-icsA, we have discovered a new gene that encodes a non-translated antisense RNA (named RnaG), transcribed in cis on the complementary strand of icsA. In vitro transcription assays show that RnaG promotes premature termination of transcription of icsA mRNA. Transcriptional inhibition is also observed in vivo by monitoring the expression profile in Shigella by real-time polymerase chain reaction and when RnaG is provided in trans. Chemical and enzymatic probing of the leader region of icsA mRNA either free or bound to RnaG indicate that upon hetero-duplex formation an intrinsic terminator, leading to transcription block, is generated on the nascent icsA mRNA. Mutations in the hairpin structure of the proposed terminator impair the RnaG mediated-regulation of icsA transcription. This study represents the first evidence of transcriptional ...
Nature. 2012 May 20;486(7402):276-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11079. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
ARGs are widespread and cause problems when present in pathogens [26]. Over the past decade, MDR Shigella has been reported in many countries [27]. However, only a few studies have described the prevalence of Shigella in animals worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the epidemiology of S. flexneri in cows in northwest China. During a 2-year survey, 54 S. flexneri isolates were obtained. Unfortunately, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis does not effectively distinguish between closely related strains in a superfamily, such as Shigella and E. coli [28], and conventional biochemical and serological techniques are also insufficient. Therefore, PFGE was utilized to analyze the molecular characteristics of these isolates, to determine the relatedness among isolates and to study the molecular epidemiology in specific geographical regions. The clustering results allowed us to analyze the epidemiological trends of S. flexneri. Characterization of these isolates will be helpful for clinical ...
Part of the outer membrane protein assembly complex, which is involved in assembly and insertion of beta-barrel proteins into the outer membrane. Constitutes, with BamD, the core component of the assembly machinery.
In this study, we provide the first evidence that bacteria such as the enteropathogen Shigella flexneri control the epigenetic of their host by altering the activity of a chromatin reader, the HP1 protein. In an in vivo model of rectocolitis, we showed that the non‐invasive-albeit proinflammatory-mxiD Shigella mutant promotes pronounced HP1γ phosphorylation in the colon when compared to wild‐type Shigella. A phosphoproteome analysis of Toll‐like receptor‐activated macrophages reported that LPS caused major dynamic changes in the cell phosphorylation state, with sub‐data analysis indicating multiple phosphorylation sites on HP1γ, including S83 (Weintz et al, 2010). In the context of our in vivo model of colonic infection, one can reasonably conceived that bacterial challenge might directly-through LPS release-or indirectly initiated proinflammatory signaling cascade(s), leading to increase HP1γ phosphorylation at multiple residues, including the S83 residue monitored in our study. As ...
In this study, we provide the first evidence that bacteria such as the enteropathogen Shigella flexneri control the epigenetic of their host by altering the activity of a chromatin reader, the HP1 protein. In an in vivo model of rectocolitis, we showed that the non‐invasive-albeit proinflammatory-mxiD Shigella mutant promotes pronounced HP1γ phosphorylation in the colon when compared to wild‐type Shigella. A phosphoproteome analysis of Toll‐like receptor‐activated macrophages reported that LPS caused major dynamic changes in the cell phosphorylation state, with sub‐data analysis indicating multiple phosphorylation sites on HP1γ, including S83 (Weintz et al, 2010). In the context of our in vivo model of colonic infection, one can reasonably conceived that bacterial challenge might directly-through LPS release-or indirectly initiated proinflammatory signaling cascade(s), leading to increase HP1γ phosphorylation at multiple residues, including the S83 residue monitored in our study. As ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
On the 230-kilobase-pair (kb) virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri 2a strain YSH6000, at least seven separate genetic determinants have been identified. One of them, an approximately 4-kb region, virG, that is required for the Sereny reaction, was extensively studied to examine the role of the virG region. The phenotype of a VirG- mutant (M94) of YSH6000 in the cytoplasm of cultured MK cells was characterized by a kinetic study of the invading shigellae. The observed phenotype of M94 in the cytoplasm indicated that the virG locus is not required for multiplication of the invading shigellae, but is essential for their spread to adjacent cells. The DNA region necessary for the VirG function was localized to a 3.6-kb DNA sequence on the 230-kb plasmid. A 130-kilodalton polypeptide was confirmed to be the virG product. External labeling of bacteria with 125I indicated that the 130-kilodalton virG protein is exposed on the bacterial surface. The nucleotide sequence of 4,472 bp, which contains the ...
We identified 3 atypical Shigella flexneri varieties in China, including 92 strains with multidrug resistance, distinct pulse types, and a novel sequence type. Atypical varieties were prevalent mainly in developed regions, and 1 variant has become the dominant Shigella spp. serotype in China. Improved surveillance will help guide the prevention and control of shigellosis ...
Background We have previously shown that the enterotoxin SigA which resides on the she pathogenicity island (PAI) of S. flexneri 2a is an autonomously secreted serine protease capable of degrading casein. We have also demonstrated that SigA is cytopathic for HEp-2 cells and plays a role in the intestinal fluid accumulation associated with S. flexneri infections. Methods/Principal Findings In this work we show that SigA binds specifically to HEp-2 cells and degrades recombinant human aII spectrin (a-fodrin) in vitro, suggesting that the cytotoxic and enterotoxic effects mediated by SigA are likely associated with the degradation of epithelial fodrin. Consistent with our data, this study also demonstrates that SigA cleaves intracellular fodrin in situ, causing its redistribution within cells. These results strongly implicate SigA in altering the cytoskeleton during the pathogenesis of shigellosis. On the basis of these findings, cleavage of fodrin is a novel mechanism of cellular intoxication for ...
Serological researches on serum and mucus in Shigellosis, Salmonellosis and other bacterial enteric infectious diseases during the period of 1 October 1962 through 31 December 1962 are summarized as follows: The cross Latex agglutination test Shigella flexneri v-x and Shigella flexneri v-y infected cases using both standard strains showed that the Latex agglutinin titers against Shigella flexneri v-y strain were higher than against Shigella flexneri v-x strain. The agglutinin titers of serum and mucus against Escherichia coli, E. aerogenes, Citrobacter, A. liquefaciens isolated from the feces of the gastroenteritis patients were mostly low except the agglutinin titer against A. liquefaciencs. The Latex agglutinin titers of serum and mucus against pathogenic halophilic vibrio-like bacilli were generally low in both serum and mucus. These strains were isolated from the feces of patients suffering from food-poisoning. (Author)
A year-long community-based study of diarrhoeal diseases was conducted in Canto Grande, a periurban community in Lima, Peru. In 109 (34%) houses out of 323 that were visited, at least one individual was detected with shigellosis. The frequency of the 161 shigella isolates obtained was as follows: 117 S. flexneri (73%), 21 S. boydii (13%), 15 S. dysenteriae (9%), and 8 S. sonnei (5%). Using a non-radioactive ipaH gene probe as a molecular epidemiological tool, a total of 41 S. flexneri strains were shown to be distributed in 25 intra-family comparisons by pairs (icp). Further subdivision, based on a comparison of the serotype, plasmid profile, antibiotic resistances and ipaH hybridization patterns indicated that Group I, with 11 icp (44%), had strains that were identical. Group II with 8 icp (32%), had strains that were different and Group III with 6 icp (24%), had strains with the same serotype and identical ipaH profiles but with differences in other markers. This data indicates that a diversity of
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens utilize type III secretion systems (TTSSs) for subverting the normal cellular functions of their target eukaryotic cells. The type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) functions like a syringe to inject proteins through an external needle and into a target cells membrane and cytosol. The TTSA basal body spans the bacterial inner and outer membranes, and the external needle is topped with a tip complex that controls the secretion and delivery of translocator and effector proteins. The needle is formed by the polymerization of ~120 copies of a small acidic protein that is conserved among diverse pathogens. At the tip of the needle, a tip complex is assembled by tip proteins into a ring-like structure which serves as a platform for the assembly of the translocon by translocator proteins. We use NMR spectroscopy to understand how the needle is assembled and how the tip complex is assembled on top of the needle. We determined the solution structures of the BsaL ...
Invasive bacterial pathogens such as Shigella flexneri force their uptake into non-phagocytic host cells. Upon internalization, they rupture the endocytic vacuole and escape into the host cell cytoplasm. Recent studies applying fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based methods to track host-pathogen interactions have provided insights into the process of bacterial infection at the single cell level. We have previously reported that the vacuolar escape of invasive bacteria into the host cellular cytosol can be tracked by fluorescence microscopy using a FRET CCF4/β-Lactamase reporter assay. Here, we show that our vacuolar rupture assay can also be analyzed by flow cytometry constituting an important alternative to data acquisition by microscopy. Whereas analysis of our assay by fluorescence microscopy offers precise spatiotemporal resolution, flow cytometry analysis represents a high-throughput method that allows efficient and fast quantification of a large number of events and can further
BioAssay record AID 201598 submitted by ChEMBL: The relative ability of compound to promote the growth of Shigella flexneri SA 240, a strain lacking the ability to synthesize siderophores was measured as zone stimulation at concentration of 50 uM; NA=No activity.
Shigella flexneri ATCC ® 12022™ Designation: CDC 3591-52 TypeStrain=False Application: Media testing Enteric Research Emerging infectious disease research
Shigella flexneri ATCC ® 700930™ Designation: 2457T TypeStrain=False Application: Emerging infectious disease and enteric research
Heine SJ, Diaz-McNair J, Martinez-Becerra F, Choudhari S, Clements JD, Picking WL, Pasetti MF. Evaluation of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of orally delivered Shigella type III secretion system proteins IpaB and IpaD . Vaccine. 2013 Jun 19;31(28):2919-29.. Martinez-Becerra F, Kismann J, McNair J, Pasetti MF*, Picking, WL*. Broadly protective Shigella vaccine based on Type III secretion apparatus proteins. Infect Immun. 2012 Mar 80(3):1222-31. *shared senior/corresponding authors.. Ramirez K, Ditamo Y, Rodriguez L, Picking WL, van Roosmalen ML, Leenhouts K, Pasetti MF. Neonatal mucosal immunization with a non-living, non-genetically modified L. lactis vaccine carrier induces systemic and local Th1-type immunity and protects against lethal bacterial infection. Mucosal Immunol. 2010 Mar;3(2):159-71.. Pasetti MF, Ramirez K., Resendiz-Albor A., Ulmer J, Barry EM, Levine MM. Sindbis-virus measles Sindbis virus-based measles DNA vaccines protect cotton rats against respiratory measles; ...
GF ID IpgD #=GF AC PF05925.13 #=GF DE Enterobacterial virulence protein IpgD #=GF AU Moxon SJ;0000-0003-4644-1816 #=GF SE Pfam-B_1987 (release 9.0) #=GF GA 20.70 20.70; #=GF TC 20.70 20.80; #=GF NC 20.60 20.20; #=GF BM hmmbuild HMM.ann SEED.ann #=GF SM hmmsearch -Z 47079205 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq #=GF TP Family #=GF RN [1] #=GF RM 12356723 #=GF RT Conversion of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) into PtdIns(5)P by the S.flexneri #=GF RT effector IpgD reorganizes host cell morphology. #=GF RA Niebuhr K, Giuriato S, Pedron T, Philpott DJ, Gaits F, Sable J, #=GF RA Sheetz MP, Parsot C, Sansonetti PJ, Payrastre B; #=GF RL EMBO J 2002;21:5069-5078. #=GF DR INTERPRO; IPR008108; #=GF DR SO; 0100021; polypeptide_conserved_region; #=GF CC This family consists of several enterobacterial IpgD like #=GF CC virulence factor proteins. In the Gram-negative pathogen #=GF CC Shigella flexneri, the virulence factor IpgD is translocated #=GF CC directly into eukaryotic cells and acts as a potent inositol #=GF CC 4-phosphatase ...
Oct. 11, 2017 - Studies from Dr. Feng Shaos laboratory reveals a novel ubiquitination and degradation mechanism used by an enteric bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri to counteract cell-autonomous innate immune defense. The work entitled
Steeb, Benjamin; Claudi, Beatrice; Burton, Neil A; Tienz, Petra; Schmidt, Alexander; Farhan, Hesso; Mazé, Alain; Bumann, Dirk (2013). Parallel Exploitation of Diverse Host Nutrients Enhances Salmonella Virulence. PLoS Pathogens, 9(4):e1003301.. Schmutz, Christoph; Ahrne, Erik Lennart; Kasper, Christoph Alexander; Tschon, Therese; Sorg, Isabel; Dreier, Roland Felix; Schmidt, Alexander; Arrieumerlou, Cecile (2013). Systems-level overview of host protein phosphorylation during Shigella flexneri infection revealed by phosphoproteomics. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, 12(10):2952-2968.. Kiefer, P; Schmitt, U; Vorholt, J A (2013). eMZed: an open source framework in Python for rapid and interactive development of LC/MS data analysis workflows. Bioinformatics, 29(7):963-964. ...
Despite recent improvements in sanitation and the provision of clean water around the world, dysentery remains a major worldwide public health burden that most frequently affects children in low-income countries.. Now, a team led by Dr Thomas Connor from the School of Biosciences and Professor Nick Thomson from The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute have used the latest genomic techniques to reveal more about the bacteria Shigella flexneri, known as a leading cause of the disease.. Published in the academic journal eLife, the team sequenced the DNA of Shigella flexneri from samples taken from Africa, Asia, South and Central America along with samples from historical collections dating back to 1913. They discovered that the bacteria is able to persist in the local environment, enabling it to colonise regions for tens or hundreds of years.. More importantly, the work also showed that the bacteria can swap its serotype - a key part of its outer coating that is seen by the immune system - which could ...
Looking for online definition of Shigella flexneri in the Medical Dictionary? Shigella flexneri explanation free. What is Shigella flexneri? Meaning of Shigella flexneri medical term. What does Shigella flexneri mean?
Cable bacteria of the family Desulfobulbaceae form centimeter-long filaments comprising thousands of cells. They occur worldwide in the surface of aquatic sediments, where they connect sulfide oxidation with oxygen or nitrate reduction via long-distance electron transport. In the absence of pure cultures, we used single-filament genomics and metagenomics to retrieve draft genomes of 3 marine Candidatus Electrothrix and 1 freshwater Ca. Electronema species. These genomes contain ,50% unknown genes but still share their core genomic makeup with sulfate-reducing and sulfur-disproportionating Desulfobulbaceae, with few core genes lost and 212 unique genes (from 197 gene families) conserved among cable bacteria. Last common ancestor analysis indicates gene divergence and lateral gene transfer as equally important origins of these unique genes. With support from metaproteomics of a Ca. Electronema enrichment, the genomes suggest that cable bacteria oxidize sulfide by reversing the canonical sulfate ...
The Shigella bacteria cause bacillary dysentery, which remains a significant threat to public health. The genus status and species classification appear no longer valid, as compelling evidence indicates that Shigella, as well as enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, are derived from multiple origins of E …
Shigella is a major cause of dysentery across the world. Appropriate antibiotic treatment of shigellosis depends on resistance patterns. The present study was conducted to identify Shigella species and their antibiotic resistance patterns among dysenteric patients in Rezaei Hospital of Damghan. Isolation of Shigella species was conducted by specific culture medium and biochemical tests. The Shigella species were determined by specific antiserum with agglutination on slide. Then, susceptibility to different antibiotics, i. e. nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, tetracycline, co-trimoxazole and ceftriaxone, was tested. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out using the Kirby-Bauer standard method on Mueller-Hinton agar.In this study, 29 Shigella species were found in 91 stool samples of the patients. Determination of Shigella spp. by specific antiserum showed S. flexneri (group B) in 13 cases, S. dysenteriae (group A) in 10 cases, and S. sonnei (group D) in 6 cases, while no case of S.
BACKGROUND: Shigellosis is an acute, severe bacterial colitis that, in high-income countries, is typically associated with travel to high-risk regions (Africa, Asia, and Latin America). Since the 1970s, shigellosis has also been reported as a sexually transmitted infection in men who have sex with men (MSM), in whom transmission is an important component of shigellosis epidemiology in high-income nations. We aimed to use sophisticated subtyping and international sampling to determine factors driving shigellosis emergence in MSM linked to an outbreak in the UK.,br/, METHODS: We did a large-scale, cross-sectional genomic epidemiological study of shigellosis cases collected from 29 countries between December, 1995, and June 8, 2014. Focusing on an ongoing epidemic in the UK, we collected and whole-genome sequenced clinical isolates of Shigella flexneri serotype 3a from high-risk and low-risk regions, including cases associated with travel and sex between men. We examined relationships between ...
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the burden of bacillary dysentery in China, its cross-regional variations, trends in morbidity and mortality, the causative bacterial species and antimicrobial resistance patterns. METHODS: We extracted and integrated governmental statistics and relevant medical literature published from 1991 to 2000. Data were also collected from one general hospital each for the six provinces and Jin-an district, Shanghai, representative of six geographical regions and a modern city. FINDINGS: In 2000, 0.8-1.7 million episodes of bacillary dysentery occurred of which 0.5 to 0.7 million were treated at health-care facilities and 0.15-0.20 million patients were hospitalized. The highest morbidity and mortality rates were among the youngest and oldest age groups. Bacillary dysentery peaked during the summer months. The major causative species was Shigella flexneri (86%) and the predominant S. flexneri serotype was 2a (80%). About 74-80% of Shigella isolates remained susceptible to ...
Results: Twenty-five of the 263 isolates (9.5%) showed resistance to fosfomycin, and 18 (6.8%) were positive for fosA3. None of the isolates was positive for fosA or fosC2. Seventeen of the isolates carrying fosA3 (94%) were CTX-M producers (seven CTX-M-55, five CTX-M-14, and five CTX-M-123), while three (16.7%) were TEM producers (TEM-1).Sixteen (88.9%) fosA3-carrying isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. The replicon types of the 13 fosA3-carrying plasmids were IncF (n=13), IncHI2 (n=3), IncIl-Ir (n=2), and IncN (n=1 ...
Culture and immunomagnetic separation-polymerase chain reaction assays (IMS-PCR) were used to isolate and identify Shigella flexneri, S. dysenteriae type I and S. sonnei in faeces from 250 children up to 5 years and from their mothers (n = 143) selected at random from a large urban marginal community of Costa Rica. Children hospitalized because of severe diarrhoea (n = 110) were also studied. Only S. flexneri, mainly serotype 2a, and S. sonnei were found by culture. All specimens in which Shigella was cultured were also positive by the corresponding IMS-PCR. S. flexneri was isolated by culture from 1 (0.7%) mother and 4 (1.6%) community children. S. sonnei was found in 2 (0.8%) children. An additional 12 S. flexneri and four S. sonnei in the community children were found by IMS-PCR. In total, Shigella was cultured from 0.7% of mothers and 2.4% of children. By the IMS-PCR 2% of mothers and 8% of children were positive. S. flexneri was isolated by culture from 14 (12.7%) hospitalized children and ...
Annually 163 mio. people are affected by bacillary dysentery, an acute inflammatory bowel disease, caused by Shigella bacteria. Shigella have the ability to invade the colonic epithelium in humans, thereby causing an acute mucosal inflammation. The invasive phenotype is encoded on a virulence plasmid. The expression of the so-called invasion genes is controlled by a virulence factor VirF. The translation of the virF mRNA depends on the activity of a tRNA modifying enzyme - the tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT). TGT-mutants of Shigella are almost unable to penetrate host cells. In the first part of this work, the pathogenicity factor genes ipaA, ipgB2, ospD1, spa15, and ipgE, which are required at different points of the Shigella invasion mechanism, were cloned into several plasmid vectors and expressed in E. coli. In case of IpaA, OspD1, and IpgB2 only insoluble protein was obtained while in case of IpgE a purification protocol could be successfully established. Purified IpgE was identified ...
Diarrheal diseases afflict a significant number of the worlds population each year. Estimates of disease caused by Shigella spp. on a yearly basis worldwide range from 164.7 to 200 million people infected, with nearly 1.1 million deaths attributed to this pathogen. Destruction of the intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal inflammation is a consequence of the hosts polymorphonuclear leukocytes and a subsequent recruitment influx of chemokines and cytokines at the sites of Shigella invasion. Shigellosis is a highly communicable disease due in part to the rapid spread of the pathogen within certain populations, particularly in crowded communities and/or in environments with poor sanitary conditions. The primary means of human-to-human transmission of Shigella is by the fecal-oral route. Most cases of shigellosis are caused by the ingestion of fecal-contaminated food or water. Surveillance of food-borne illnesses caused by Shigella spp. continues in many countries, with many reporting to a central
The citrate cycle (TCA cycle, Krebs cycle) is an important aerobic pathway for the final steps of the oxidation of carbohydrates and fatty acids. The cycle starts with acetyl-CoA, the activated form of acetate, derived from glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation for carbohydrates and from beta oxidation of fatty acids. The two-carbon acetyl group in acetyl-CoA is transferred to the four-carbon compound of oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon compound of citrate. In a series of reactions two carbons in citrate are oxidized to CO2 and the reaction pathway supplies NADH for use in the oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic processes. The pathway also supplies important precursor metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate. At the end of the cycle the remaining four-carbon part is transformed back to oxaloacetate. According to the genome sequence data, many organisms seem to lack genes for the full cycle [MD:M00009], but contain genes for specific segments [MD:M00010 M00011 ...
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Background: Shigella flexneri is the major cause of bacillary dysentery in the developing countries. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen of S. flexneri plays an important role in its pathogenesis and also divides S. flexneri into 19 serotypes. All the serotypes with an exception for serotype 6 share a common O-antigen backbone comprising of N-acetylglucosamine and three rhamnose residues. Different serotypes result from modification of the basic backbone conferred by phage-encoded glucosyltransferase and/or acetyltransferase genes, or plasmid-encoded phosphoethanolamine transferase. Recently, a new site for O-acetylation at positions 3 and 4 of Rha(III), in serotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 5a and Y was shown to be mediated by the oacB gene. Additionally, this gene was shown to be carried by a transposon-like structure inserted upstream of the adrA region on the chromosome. Results: In this study, a novel bacteriophage Sf101, encoding the oacB gene was isolated and characterised from a serotype 7a ...
Hale, Thomas L. Genetic Basis of Virulence in Shigella Species. Dept. of Enteric Infections, Walter Reed Amry Institute of Research. Washington, D. C.: American Society for Microbiology, 1991. 206-224. 10 Nov. 2006 ,http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/reprint/55/2/206.pdf,. Hale, Thomas L., and Gerald T. Keusch. Shigella. GSBS At UTMB. The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at UTMB. 10 Nov. 2006 ,http://www.gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch022.htm,. Sivapalasingam, S. High Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance among Shigella Isolates in the United States Tested by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System from 1999 to 2002. PubMed Central. New York, NY: NYU School of Medicine, 2006. 17 Nov. 2006 ,http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=16377666#N0x84ceb98.0x92357c0#N0x84ceb98.0x92357c0,. Sureshbabu, Jaya, and Poothirikovil Venugopalan. Shigella Infection. EMedicine From WebMD. 12 Sept. 2006. WebMD. 10 Nov. 2006 ,http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic2085.htm,. ...
Despite a significant global burden of disease, there is still no vaccine against shigellosis widely available. One aim of the European Union funded STOPENTERICS consortium is to develop vaccine candidates against Shigella. Given the importance of translational vaccine coverage, here we aimed to characterise the Shigella strains being used by the consortium by whole genome sequencing, and report on the stability of strains cultured in different laboratories or through serial passage. We sequenced, de novo assembled and annotated 20 Shigella strains being used by the consortium. These comprised 16 different isolates belonging to 7 serotypes, and 4 derivative strains. Derivative strains from common isolates were manipulated in different laboratories or had undergone multiple passages in the same laboratory. Strains were mapped against reference genomes to detect SNP variation and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The genomes assembled into similar total lengths (range 4.14-4.83 Mbp) and had similar
General Information: This strain is an isolate from an epidemic in China in the 1950s. A leading cause of dysentery. This genus is named for the Japanese scientist (Shiga) who first discovered these organisms in the 1890s. They are closely related to the Escherichia group, and may be considered the same species. These organisms are human-specific pathogens that are transmitted via contaminated food and water and are the leading causes of endemic bacillary dysentery, causing over 160 million cases of infection and 1 million deaths yearly worldwide. The bacteria infect the epithelial lining of the colon, causing acute inflammation by entering the host cell cytoplasm and spreading intercellularly. This extremely virulent organisms that can cause an active infection after a very low exposure. Both the type III secretion system, which delivers effector molecules into the host cell, and some of the translocated effectors such as the invasion plasmid antigens (Ipas), are encoded on the plasmid. The ...
General Information: This strain is an isolate from an epidemic that took place in China in the 1950s. Causes dysentery. This genus is named for the Japanese scientist (Shiga) who first discovered these organisms in the 1890s. They are closely related to the Escherichia group, and may be considered the same species. These organisms are human-specific pathogens that are transmitted via contaminated food and water and are the leading causes of endemic bacillary dysentery, causing over 160 million cases of infection and 1 million deaths yearly worldwide. The bacteria infect the epithelial lining of the colon, causing acute inflammation by entering the host cell cytoplasm and spreading intercellularly. are extremely virulent organisms that can cause an active infection after a very low exposure. Both the type III secretion system, which delivers effector molecules into the host cell, and some of the translocated effectors such as the invasion plasmid antigens (Ipas), are encoded on the plasmid. The ...
Iron is an essential element in the metabolism of many organisms, including bacteria. In many pathogenic bacteria, the levels of iron present trigger the expression of many virulence genes. In Shigella, a gram-negative bacterium that causes dysentery in humans, the expression of a small regulatory RNA, ryhB, is blocked in the presence of iron. Studies have revealed that ryhB represses virB, a global regulator of virulence genes in Shigella. The icsP gene is under the direct control of VirB. icsP encodes an outer membrane protease that cleaves a protein necessary for the actin tail assembly of Shigella in vitro. In vivo, this actin tail enables the pathogenic Shigella to spread intracellularly. Because most of the iron is complexed inside host cells, the intracellular compartment is considered an iron-poor environment. The aim of this project is to determine whether iron levels influence the regulation of icsP through VirB. Based on previous studies done on ryhB, I hypothesize that ryhB regulates icsP
The rapid turnover and exfoliation of mucosal epithelial cells provides an innate defence system against bacterial infection. Nevertheless, many pathogenic bacteria, including Shigella, are able to surmount exfoliation and colonize the epithelium efficiently. Here we show that the Shigella flexneri effector OspE (consisting of OspE1 and OspE2 proteins), which is highly conserved among enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, Citrobacter rodentium and Salmonella strains, reinforces host cell adherence to the basement membrane by interacting with integrin-linked kinase (ILK). The number of focal adhesions was augmented along with membrane fraction ILK by ILK-OspE binding. The interaction between ILK and OspE increased cell surface levels of beta1 integrin and suppressed phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin, which are required for rapid turnover of focal adhesion in cell motility. Nocodazole-washout-induced focal adhesion disassembly was blocked by expression ...
The invasive bacteria Shigella species and entero-invasive E. coli (EIEC) can cause gastroenteritis, and share a similar invasive nature. From results of food related outbreaks, a few in-vitro and in-vivo experiments with a limited number of strains, it appears that the symptoms of infections with Shigella and EIEC are comparable, only EIEC has a higher infection dose. Shigella species and EIEC are not compared with each other in a large prospective study, to our knowledge. Little is known about the incidence and course of infection of EIEC. Infections with Shigella species are notifiable in the Netherlands and infections with EIEC are not, even though differences between them are not clear. Next to this, diagnostics poses a problem, because Shigella species and EIEC are genetically related, they are difficult to distinguish with commonly used molecular diagnostics. Culturing, extensive phenotypic identification and serotyping are needed for identification. These labor-intensive and not ...
According to director of Epidemiology of Neuquén Province, Dr. Rogelio Cali, the affected students and teachers presented with vomiting, profuse diarrhea (some with blood), abdominal pain, high fever and malaise. At least two child patients required hospitalization.. While the investigation is ongoing, the report notes the outbreak may be linked to the school cafeteria. We can not know if there was contaminated food or not, because the event happened on Friday and we went on Saturday. The food had to be collected the same day to take samples because there is already a superinfection.. The route of infection is hand-mouth. Shigella flexneri is an endemic bacterium, which circulates in the population throughout the year. As the temperature increases, the level of circulation increases. It occurs in places where cleaning is not taken care of, there is not a good handling of the food or the cold chain. When it occurs in closed establishments as it happened in this case, because it was a school, ...
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0760-3088, Xu, Xuebin, Yang, Chaojie, Yang, Xiaoxia, Wang, Jinyan, Yi, Shengjie, Li, Yongrui, Ma, Qiuxia, Wu, Fuli, Qiu, Shaofu and Song, Hongbin (2018) Characterization of a transferable plasmid-borne mcr-1 in a colistin resistant Shigella flexneri isolate.. Applied and environmental microbiology, Vol 84, Issue 8, e02655-17. Tansirichaiya, Supathep, Reynolds, Liam J., Cristarella, Gianmarco, Wong, Li Chin, Rosendahl, Kimie and Roberts, Adam ...
But onto the title of post. As someone who has spent most of his career* studying bacterial evolution, many evolutionary debates focus on those organisms, which are at most, ten percent of the earths biomass (eukaryotes). When one considers bacteria, there are single events that radically change an organisms ecology-whether one wants to call these hopeful monsters or not, I leave to the reader.. Ive posted before about the evolution of Shigella, which is nothing more than several pathogenic lineages of E. coli, so I wont revisit that topic in detail. For a commensal E. coli to become Shigella, a critical step is the acquisition of a virulence plasmid. This plasmid (a mini-chromosome roughly ~3% the size of the E. coli genome) confers various traits on the bacterium, including the ability to stick to certain tissue types, and to produce an enterotoxin that causes bloody diarrhea. These plasmid-bearing bacteria are not Shigella. They are facultative pathogens-they can cause disease, but dont ...
Quantitative PCR for Detection of Shigella Improves Ascertainment of Shigella Burden in Children with Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Low-Income ...
We are interested in the genomics of bacteria. Having sequenced E. coli K-12 we have now turned to large scale functional genomics of E. coli through DNA chip analysis of global gene expression and by phenotypic analysis of conditional knock-out mutations.. We are also interested in hypothesis driven comparative and evolutionary genomics by sequencing related strains. The first strain sequenced for comparison was E. coli O157:H7, the hamburger strain. Subsequent studies included other pathogenic strains of E. coli, as well as Yersinia pestis (plague), Shigella flexneri (dysentary), and Salmonella Typhi (typhoid fever). It turns out that many virulence determinants of the different pathogens are similar, so this approach will allow identification of a pathosphere of the virulence genes that make up the pathogenic potential of these bacteria. Other lab interests include bioinformatics, technology development, and genetic engineering/re-engineering of bacterial genomes.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of UV-irradiated bacteriophage T6 to kill extracellular bacteria in tissue culture infectivity assays. AU - Shaw, Denise R.. AU - Maurelli, Anthony T.. AU - Goguen, Jon D.. AU - Straley, Susan C.. AU - Curtiss, Roy. PY - 1983/1/14. Y1 - 1983/1/14. N2 - We have utilized lysis from without mediated by UV-inactivated bacteriophage T6 to eliminate extracellular bacteria in experiments measuring the internalization, intracellular survival and replication of Yersinia pestis within mouse peritoneal macrophages and of Shigella flexneri within a human intestinal epithelial cell line. The technique we describe has the following characteristics: (a) bacterial killing is complete within 15 min at 37°C, with a , 103-fold reduction in colony-forming units (CFU); (b) bacteria within cultured mammalian cells are protected from killing by UV-inactivated T6; (c) the mammalian cells are not observably affected by exposure to UV-inactivated T6. This technique has several advantages over the ...
ABSTRACT              Background and Objectives: The emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Shigella spp. is becoming a health concern worldwide. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance pattern and frequency of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes among Shigella isolates from patients in hospitals of Tehran, Iran.              Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ...
Aby zainfekować czyjś organizm, bakteria musi przechytrzyć jego układ odpornościowy. W tym celu przez kanały transportowe w błonie dostarczane są czynniki wirulencji. U niektórych bakterii kanały te tworzą coś w rodzaju strzykawki, przez co patogen zyskuje dostęp do wnętrza komórki gospodarza. Naukowcy ze Stowarzyszenia Maxa Plancka i Federalnego Instytutu Badań nad Materiałami i Testowania jako pierwsi odkryli, jakie podstawowe reguły rządzą konstrukcją kanałów. Do eksperymentów wykorzystano gatunek bakterii powodujący zatrucia pokarmowe (czerwonkę) - Shigella flexneri. Dotąd niewiele wiedziano o tym, jak bakterie tworzą swoje nanostrzykawki. Rąbka tajemnicy uchylili jednak specjaliści z Instytutu Biologii Zakaźnej Maxa Plancka w Berlinie, Instytutu Chemii Biofizycznej w Getyndze oraz Federalnego Instytutu Badań nad Materiałami i Testowania. Eksperymenty nad odtwarzaniem bakteryjnych mikrostruktur prowadzono w probówkach. Okazało się, że białka ...
Shigella antiseraSSI Diagnostica offers a wide range of Shigella antisera.Clinical relevanceShigella infections (shigellosis) can cause both bloo
In August 2014 staff at the Health Care Agency of Orange County (HCAOC) investigated an outbreak of Shigella among customers of True Food Kitchen, a…
Three hundred people are now suspected of having shigella in Grayson County, according to health officials.. According to local press reports, it started among students at Sherman ISD, spread to Denison ISD and then to people in Van Alstyne and Pottsboro.. One of the most recent confirmed cases is a 5-year-old girl at Bells elementary…. ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 14:145-155...David S. Guttman and Jean T. Greenberg...© 2001 The American Phytopathological Society...Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria require a type III secretion apparatus for pathogenesis, presumably to deliver Avr effector proteins directly into plant cells. To extend previous studies of Avr effectors that employed plasmids encoding Avr proteins, we developed a system that permits the int...
Our main project is on Type III Secretion Apparatus which is one of the most amazing biological devices. This apparatus which looks like a syringe can pass a whole protein molecule from a bacterial cell to a target eukaryotic cell. However, this apparatus is an organelle of pathogenic gram-negative bacterium such as Salmonella and Yersinia. So we are aiming at making this device safely available using E. coli. ...
nbsp;  Our main project is on Type III Secretion Apparatus which is one of the most amazing biological devices. This apparatus which looks like a syringe can pass a whole protein molecule from a bacterial cell to a target eukaryotic cell. However, this apparatus is an organelle of pathogenic gram-negative bacterium such as Salmonella and Yersinia. So we are aiming at making this device safely available using E. coli ...
Deciding between the original iPad mini and the iPad 4 was tedious due to a feature gap stemming from the notable hardware differences between the two. On the other hand, the choice between the iPad mini with Retina display (or the iPad mini 2, as its now called) was a no-brainer. Both came outfitted with essentially the same hardware- from the sensors to the A7/M7 chips to the cameras - so the decision came down to picking your preferred screen size.. That said, brain work is required to make an informed purchasing decision concerning the latest iPads. In case you missed it, Apples brought minor changes to the iPad mini 3 and the device got only like thirty seconds of stage time. Conversely, the iPad Air 2 is a much more substantial upgrade.. Here are ten iPad Air 2 features that the iPad mini 3 lacks which make the bigger model a better buy and arguably the right device to boost your tablet computing. ...
Last year, the overwhelming message of the iPad mini was simple: the iPad mini was smaller, but it was still an iPad. Tim Cook, Phil Schiller, and Jony Ive all reminded us over and over that Apple had to make hard choices to make the iPad mini - it had a lower-resolution screen and a weaker processor - but said that the iPads commonalities trumped their differences.. In many ways, that was true: Apples experience has always mattered more than its specs, and the iPad mini converted buyers and fans alike despite the compromises. But even for those who bought Apples tablet, there was one feature noticeably missing: a bright, beautiful, high-resolution Retina display. Without one, the Apple experience feels obfuscated in ways both literal and figurative.. This year, the iPad mini with Retina display really is every inch an iPad. Its no longer out of date, or worse in any way. It comes with the same A7 processor as the new iPad Air, the same storage and connectivity options, the same battery ...
Artwizz ScratchStopper Anti-Fingerprint MATT for iPad Mini. This special ScratchStopper protective film has a fat-resistant layer that makes fingerprints less visible and easier to remove. The film reduces the presence of oil and grease residues that your fingers may leave behind on the display screen. The film does not affect the usability of the iPad mini/iPad mini with Retina display. The film is matte with a slightly rubberized surface, which gives the touch screen a better grip, making it easier to use. The ScratchStopper protects your iPad mini / iPad mini with Retina display\s screen from scratches, dirt and fingerprints. The film is cut to the size of the display and covers it completely. Once applied the iPad mini/iPad mini with Retina display is perfectly protected and will operate as usual.
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Shigella flexneri at Who Named It? Griffen Jr, WO (2004). "Jacob: the other Flexner". Ann Surg. 239 (6): 808-817. doi:10.1097/ ... The bacteria species Shigella flexneri was named in recognition of Flexner. In addition, Flexner was the first to describe ...
Shigella flexneri use AI-2 to mediate virulence. The major virulence factor in Shigella is the plasmid vir B. The AI-2 ... Cell signaling Quorum sensing Day; Maurelli (2001). "Shigella flexneri LuxS Quorum-Sensing System Modulates virB expression but ... It is likely the high concentrations of AI-2 produced by normal gut flora effect the production of AI-2 in Shigella and its ...
Jankowski W, Mankowski T, Chojnacki T (1974). "Formation of polyprenol monophosphate glucose in Shigella flexneri". Biochim. ...
Clark, Christina S.; Maurelli, Anthony T. (May 2007). "Shigella flexneri Inhibits Staurosporine-Induced Apoptosis in Epithelial ... "The Tripartite Type III Secreton of Shigella flexneri Inserts Ipab and Ipac into Host Membranes". Journal of Cell Biology. 147 ... "Calpain Activation by the Shigella flexneri Effector VirA Regulates Key Steps in the Formation and Life of the Bacterium's ... By contrast, internalized Shigella avoids the endolysosome system by rapidly lysing its vacuole through the action of the T3SS ...
Oglesby AG, Murphy ER, Iyer VR, Payne SM (December 2005). "Fur regulates acid resistance in Shigella flexneri via RyhB and ydeP ... Murphy ER, Payne SM (July 2007). "RyhB, an iron-responsive small RNA molecule, regulates Shigella dysenteriae virulence". ...
"DNA supercoiling and environmental regulation of virulence gene expression in Shigella flexneri". Nature. 344 (6268): 789-792. ...
... and intercellular spreading of Shigella flexneri". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (37): 28893-901. doi:10.1074/jbc.M003882200. PMID ...
... and intercellular spreading of Shigella flexneri". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (37): 28893-901. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
"Activation of the CDC42 effector N-WASP by the Shigella flexneri IcsA protein promotes actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex and ... "Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is implicated in the actin-based motility of Shigella flexneri". The EMBO Journal. 17 ( ... and intercellular spreading of Shigella flexneri". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (37): 28893-901. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... and intercellular spreading of Shigella flexneri". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (37): 28893-901. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae. A study in China indicated that Shigella flexneri 2a was the most common serotype. ... The term is usually restricted to Shigella infections. Shigellosis is caused by one of several types of Shigella bacteria. ... There are several Shigella vaccine candidates in various stages of development that could reduce the incidence of dysentery in ... In addition, chronic arthritis secondary to S. flexneri infection, called reactive arthritis, may be caused by a bacterial ...
2003). "Complete genome sequence and comparative genomics of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a strain 2457T". Infection and ... 2002). "Genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 2a: insights into pathogenicity through comparison with genomes of Escherichia ... 2005). "Genome dynamics and diversity of Shigella species, the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery". Nucleic Acids Res. 33 ...
Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli". J Bacteriol. 177 (14): 4097-104. doi:10.1128/jb.177.14.4097-4104.1995. PMC 177142. ...
Yao X, Wang HL, Shi ZX, Yan XY, Feng EL, Yang BL, Huang LY (2003). "Identification of RanBMP interacting with Shigella flexneri ...
These pseudogenes are observed in organisms such as Shigella flexneri, Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia pestis. Over time, the ...
Actoclampin motors also propel such intracellular pathogens as Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Vaccinia and ...
Homologous RNA genes have been found in other species such as Shigella flexneri and Salmonella species. The molecular function ...
"GBPs Inhibit Motility of Shigella flexneri but Are Targeted for Degradation by the Bacterial Ubiquitin Ligase IpaH9.8". Cell ...
Hemolysin E (HlyE) is a novel pore-forming toxin of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Shigella flexneri. HlyE is ...
The IS128 RNA is a non-coding RNA found in bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. The RNA is 209 nucleotides ...
"SRL pathogenicity island contributes to the metabolism of D-aspartate via an aspartate racemase in Shigella flexneri YSH6000". ...
Schuch R, Maurelli AT (1999). "The Mxi-Spa Type III Secretory Pathway of Shigella flexneri Requires an Outer Membrane ...
Two basic forms are present in bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, some species of Rickettsia, Shigella flexneri and other ... Shigella flexneri and Rickettsia conorii". Journal of Cell Science. 112 (11): 1697-1708. PMID 10318762. Lambrechts A, Gevaert K ... L. monocytogenes and S. flexneri both generate a tail in the form of a "comet tail" that gives them mobility. Each species ... with Listeria and Shigella found to be the fastest. Many experiments have demonstrated this mechanism in vitro. This indicates ...
The two main examples of paracytophagy are the modes of cell-cell transmission of Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri ... Certain intracellular pathogens such as the bacterial species Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri can manipulate host ... and is also commonly observed in Shigella flexneri. Paracytophagy allows these intracellular pathogens to spread directly from ... In the case of Shigella, which also moves using an actin comet tail, the bacterial factor recruits host cell WASPs in order to ...
Found in the outer membrane of gram-negative enterobacteria such as Shigella flexneri, Yersinia pestis, Escherichia coli, and ...
The t44 gene is found between the map and rpsB genes in all species in the full alignment apart from Shigella flexneri. The ...
Zebrafish infected with a lethal dose of the antibiotic-resistant human pathogen Shigella flexneri were given Bdellovibrio as a ... Together, the researchers showed that Bdellovibrio could kill the Shigella, working synergistically with the zebrafishs' own ... "Injections of Predatory Bacteria Work Alongside Host Immune Cells to Treat Shigella Infection in Zebrafish Larvae". Current ...
Additionally, Congo red is used for the diagnostics of the Shigella flexneri serotype 2a, where the dye binds the bacterium's ... Furthermore, Congo red may also be used to induce expression of the type III secretion system of Shigella flexneri, bringing ...
Such phosphatase activity is shown for Shigella flexneri effector IpgD and two mammalian phosphatases - PtdIns(4,5)P2 4- ... P by the S.flexneri effector IpgD reorganizes host cell morphology. EMBO J. 2002 Oct 1;21(19):5069-78. PMID 12356723 ...
RNA is a bacterial non-coding RNA that is found between the abgR and ydaL genes in Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. It ...
Furthermore, from the evolutionary point of view, the members of genus Shigella (dysenteriae, flexneri, boydii, sonnei) are ... Lan, R.; Reeves, P.R. (2002). "Escherichia coli in disguise: molecular origins of Shigella". Microbes Infect. 4 (11): 1125-1132 ...
Kopā ar Shigella flexneri Shigella dyseneriae ir ļoti izplatītas jaunattīstības valstīs. Shigella dysenteriae spēj izraisīt ... Shigella dysenteriae Vikikrātuvē. Shigella dysenteriae ir gramnegatīvas nekustīgas nūjiņveidīgas baktērijas[1]. Ir bakteriālās ... Pirmā serotipa Shigella dysenteriae producē šigatoksīnu (ST), atšķiroties no citām Shigella pārstāvjiem, kuri producē ... Rezistence pret antibiotikām Shigella dysenteriae baktērijai parādās ātrāk nekā pārējiem Shigella pārstāvjiem. ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii *Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery. *Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii *Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery. *Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii (Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery) · Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris · യെഴ്സീനിയ ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii *Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery. *Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris ... Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. are other common bacterial pathogens. Campylobacter, Yersinia, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas spp ... Several vaccine candidates targeting ETEC or Shigella are in various stages of development.[27][28] ...
In the family Enterobacteriaceae of the class Gammaproteobacteria, the species in the genus Shigella (S. dysenteriae, S. ... flexneri, S. boydii, S. sonnei) from an evolutionary point of view are strains of the species Escherichia coli (polyphyletic), ... Lan, R; Reeves, PR (2002). "Escherichia coli in disguise: molecular origins of Shigella". Microbes and Infection / Institut ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii *Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery. *Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii *Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery. *Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris ...
"Shigella flexneri Interactions with the Basolateral Membrane Domain of Polarized Model Intestinal Epithelium: Role of ... For example, Shigella can secrete toxins that alter the host cytoskeleton and enter the basolateral side of enterocytes.[12] ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii *Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery. *Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris ... Some enterobacteria are important pathogens, e.g. Salmonella, or Shigella e.g. because they produce endotoxins. Endotoxins ... and Shigella. Other disease-causing bacteria in this family include Enterobacter and Citrobacter. Members of the ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii *Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery. *Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii *Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery. *Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii *Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery. *Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris ...
Shigella flexneri, Salmonella, Staphylococcus,[28] e rotavirus (os cales causan diarreas infantís). Antes do desenvolvemento ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii *Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery. *Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris ...
Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii *Shigellosis, Bacillary dysentery. *Proteus mirabilis/Proteus vulgaris ...
A03.0) Griža, ki jo povzroča Shigella dysenteriae. *(A03.1) Griža, ki jo povzroča Shigella flexneri ...
"Shigella - Shigellosis". Archived from the original on 24 July 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016. "How can Shigella infections be ... They typically do not produce gas from carbohydrates (with the exception of certain strains of S. flexneri) and tend to be ... "Symptoms Of Shigella Infection". About Shigella. Marler Clark. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 10 ... Currently, no licensed vaccine targeting Shigella exists. Several vaccine candidates for Shigella are in various stages of ...
M cells are exploited by several pathogenic gram-negative bacteria including Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and ...
The analysis of a group of four Escherichia coli and two Shigella flexneri strains revealed that the sequence stretches common ...
Activation of the CDC42 effector N-WASP by the Shigella flexneri IcsA protein promotes actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex and ...
The GlmY RNA gene is present in Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Yersinia pestis and Salmonella species, where it is found ...
"Shigella flexneri". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 623. Type strain of Shigella flexneri at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans. Several ... Bagamboula, C. F.; Uyttendaele, M.; Debevere, J. (2002). "Acid tolerance of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri". Journal of ... S. flexneri has about 4,084 known genes in the genome. The extensive similarity between E. coli and S. flexneri is proposed to ...
"Shigella flexneri". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 623. Type strain of Shigella flexneri at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans. Several ... Bagamboula, C. F.; Uyttendaele, M.; Debevere, J. (2002). "Acid tolerance of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri". Journal of ... S. flexneri has about 4,084 known genes in the genome. The extensive similarity between E. coli and S. flexneri is proposed to ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
... During August 29-September 1, 1994, an outbreak of ... Shigella flexneri 2a has been isolated from fecal specimens from at least 12 ill passengers. Antimicrobial susceptibility ...
Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative bacterium which causes the most communicable of bacterial dysenteries, shigellosis. ... Shigella flexneri infection: pathogenesis and vaccine development.. Jennison AV1, Verma NK. ... The hosts humoral response to S. flexneri also appears to be important in protecting the host, whilst the role of the cellular ... The pathogenesis of S. flexneri is based on the bacterias ability to invade and replicate within the colonic epithelium, which ...
To download a certificate of analysis for Shigella flexneri Castellani and Chalmers (9473), enter the lot number exactly as it ... To download a certificate of origin for Shigella flexneri Castellani and Chalmers (9473), enter the lot number exactly as it ... The certificate of origin for that lot of Shigella flexneri Castellani and Chalmers (9473) is not currently available online. ... The certificate of analysis for that lot of Shigella flexneri Castellani and Chalmers (9473) is not currently available online ...
Shigella flexneri ATCC ® 700930™ Designation: 2457T TypeStrain=False Application: Emerging infectious disease and enteric ... Shigella flexneri Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 700930™) Strain Designations: 2457T / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 2 ... of an IS1-like element into the virF gene is responsible for avirulence in opaque colonial variants of Shigella flexneri 2a.. ...
1983) Characterization of virulence plasmids and plasmid-associated outer membrane proteins in Shigella flexneri, Shigella ... Shigella Minicells as a Model System for Elucidating T3SS Structure.. S. flexneri is an important diarrheal pathogen that uses ... 1999) The tripartite type III secreton of Shigella flexneri inserts IpaB and IpaC into host membranes. J Cell Biol 147(3):683- ... Visualization of the type III secretion sorting platform of Shigella flexneri. Bo Hu, Dustin R. Morado, William Margolin, John ...
The S. flexneri cytotoxic genes have been localized to the ipa operon of shigellas virulence plasmid. ipaB, C and D deletion ... IpaB mediates macrophage apoptosis induced by Shigella flexneri.. Zychlinsky A1, Kenny B, Ménard R, Prévost MC, Holland IB, ... Shigella flexneri kills macrophages through apoptosis, involving the induction of host cell DNA fragmentation and ... Shigella can only cause damage if it escapes from the phagolysosome into the cytoplasm. ...
Shigella flexneri. Shigella flexneri 1235-66. Shigella flexneri serotype X (strain 2002017). Shigella flexneri 4c. 319. ... Shigella flexneri. Shigella flexneri 1235-66. Shigella flexneri serotype X (strain 2002017). Shigella flexneri 4c. Escherichia ... Shigella flexneri. Shigella flexneri 1235-66. Shigella flexneri serotype X (strain 2002017). Shigella flexneri 4c. Escherichia ... Shigella flexneri. ,p>This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section shows the unique identifier assigned by the ,span ...
The secreted Ipa complex of Shigella flexneri promotes entry into mammalian cells. R Ménard, M C Prévost, P Gounon, P ... The bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery in humans by invading coloncytes. Upon contact with ... The secreted Ipa complex of Shigella flexneri promotes entry into mammalian cells ... The secreted Ipa complex of Shigella flexneri promotes entry into mammalian cells ...
Shigella flexneri 2a. Shigella species are commonly pathogenic to humans, causing severe gastroenteritis (bacillary dysentery ... Shigella flexneri strain 2457T has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and is available as ATCC ... We have completed the genome sequence of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a strain 2457T, which has been the subject of extensive ... We have sequenced the large virulence plasmid pWR501 from Shigella flexneri serotype 5a, and it is available from Genbank with ...
Outbreak of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei enterocolitis in men who have sex with men, Quebec, 1999 to 2001. Can Commun ... S. flexneri causes approximately 18% of U.S. Shigella infections (1). The national incidence of S. flexneri infections ... The persistence of Shigella flexneri in the United States: increasing role of adult males. Am J Public Health 1988;78:1432--5. ... Shigella flexneri Serotype 3 Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men --- Chicago, Illinois, 2003--2004. ...
Crystal Structure of Putative Peptide Maturation Protein from Shigella flexneri. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3TV9/pdb ... Shigella flexneri. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: pmbA, S4517. Find proteins for A0A0H2W186 (Shigella flexneri) ...
Characterization of the rfc region of Shigella flexneri.. R Morona, M Mavris, A Fallarino, P A Manning ... Characterization of the rfc region of Shigella flexneri. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal ... The O antigen of the Shigella flexneri lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important virulence determinant and immunogen. We have ... A comparison of the S. flexneri rfc gene and protein product with other rfc and rfc-like proteins revealed that they have a ...
Shigella flexneri is an enteric pathogen that causes massive inflammation and destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. ... Neutrophil Antimicrobial Proteins Enhance Shigella Flexneri Adhesion and Invasion Cell Microbiol. 2010 Aug;12(8):1134-43. doi: ... Shigella flexneri is an enteric pathogen that causes massive inflammation and destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. ... mutant with a negative surface shows enhanced hyperinvasion compared with wild-type Shigella. We propose that Shigella evolved ...
Homologous recombination - Shigella flexneri 8401 (serotype 5b) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML ...
Metabolic pathways - Shigella flexneri 2002017 (serotype Fxv) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Hide module list ...
... Amir Saeed, ... Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative bacterium causing the diarrhoeal disease shigellosis in humans. The virulence genes ... A. castellanii in the absence or presence of wild type, IpaB mutant, or plasmid-cured strain S. flexneri was cultured at C and ... The aim of this study is to examine the role of invasion plasmid of S. flexneri on the interaction with A. castellanii at two ...
Expression of hydroxamate and phenolate siderophores by Shigella flexneri.. S M Payne, D W Niesel, S S Peixotto, K M Lawlor ... Expression of hydroxamate and phenolate siderophores by Shigella flexneri. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Background: The resistance of Shigella flexneri to antimicrobial agents can be associated to the presence of integrons that may ... MUNOZ A, Jeannette et al. Integrons and antimicrobial resistance gene cassettes in Shigella flexneri strains. Rev. méd. Chile [ ... Material and methods: In vitro susceptibility to 27 antimicrobials was studied in twenty four Shigella flexneri strains ... Aim: To study antimicrobial resistance and the presence of integrons and antimicrobial gene cassettes in Shigella flexneri ...
Antimicrobial Resistance in Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei in Hong Kong, 1986 to 1995 Yiu-wai Chu, Elizabeth T. S. ... Role of attP in Integrase-Mediated Integration of the Shigella Resistance Locus Pathogenicity Island of Shigella flexneri Sally ... β-Lactamases in Shigella flexneriIsolates from Hong Kong and Shanghai and a Novel OXA-1-Like β-Lactamase, OXA-30 L. K. Siu, J. ... Cloning of a Novel Gene for Quinolone Resistance from a Transferable Plasmid in Shigella flexneri 2b Mami Hata, Masahiro Suzuki ...
Shigella flexneri explanation free. What is Shigella flexneri? Meaning of Shigella flexneri medical term. What does Shigella ... Looking for online definition of Shigella flexneri in the Medical Dictionary? ... Shigella flexneri. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to Shigella flexneri: Salmonella ... Suggestion to supplement Shigella flexneri classification scheme with the subserovar Shigella flexneri 4c: phenotypic ...
Comparison of the invasion strategies used by Salmonella cholerae-suis, Shigella flexneri and Yersinia enterocolitica to enter ... Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella flexneri. Three animal cell lines (CHO, HEp-2 and MDCK) were examined for susceptibility ... Strains of Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia actively enter eukaryotic cells. Several techniques were used to ... flexneri, indicating that invasion is a microfilament-dependent event. The microtubule inhibitors, colchicine, vincristine and ...
... Doctoral dissertation, Harvard ... flexneri entry sites to promote efficient bacterial uptake. I also investigated the outer Shigella protein C (OspC) effectors ... Shigella species are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens acquired by fecal-oral spread. A common cause of bacillary dysentery ... Primarily, I examined the role of host small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) in S. flexneri entry. ARF6 functions in ...
We are studying the effect that it and the serotype-converting phages have on the virulence characteristics of S. flexneri. We ... have isolated and partially characterised several serotype-converting phages from different S. flexneri serotype strains. We ... Home » Research » Projects » Functional genomics of serotype-converting bacteriophages of Shigella flexneri ... We are studying the effect that it and the serotype-converting phages have on the virulence characteristics of S. flexneri. We ...
In vivo apoptosis in Shigella flexneri infections.. A Zychlinsky, K Thirumalai, J Arondel, J R Cantey, A O Aliprantis, P J ... In vivo apoptosis in Shigella flexneri infections.. A Zychlinsky, K Thirumalai, J Arondel, J R Cantey, A O Aliprantis, P J ... In vivo apoptosis in Shigella flexneri infections.. A Zychlinsky, K Thirumalai, J Arondel, J R Cantey, A O Aliprantis, P J ... In vivo apoptosis in Shigella flexneri infections. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Infection and ...
Atypical varieties were prevalent mainly in developed regions, and 1 variant has become the dominant Shigella spp. serotype in ... We identified 3 atypical Shigella flexneri varieties in China, including 92 strains with multidrug resistance, distinct pulse ... Suggestion to supplement Shigella flexneri classification scheme with the subserovar Shigella flexneri 4c: phenotypic ... Qiu S, Wang Z, Chen C, Liu N, Jia L, Liu W, Emergence of a novel Shigella flexneri serotype 4s evolved from serotype X variant ...
We report an outbreak of azithromycin-nonsusceptible Shigella flexneri 3a infection in Taiwan associated with men who have sex ... Borg ML, Modi A, Tostmann A, Gobin M, Cartwright J, Quigley C, et al. Ongoing outbreak of Shigella flexneri serotype 3a in men ... Azithromycin-Nonsusceptible Shigella flexneri 3a in Men Who Have Sex with Men, Taiwan, 2015-2016 On This Page ... Shigellosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) is a major public health concern worldwide (1,2). Shigella flexneri serotype ...
Solution structure of protein sf3929 from Shigella flexneri 2a. Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium target SfR81/Ontario ... Solution Structure of protein sf3929 from Shigella flexneri 2a. Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium target SfR81/Ontario ...
... the identification of all Shigella proteins responsible for enterotoxin activity is vital to our understanding of Shigella ... The Shigella Enterotoxins 1 and 2 (ShET1 and ShET2) have been shown to increase water accumulation in the rabbit ileal loop ... In the process, we also identified enterotoxins in addition to ShET1 and ShET2 encoded by S. flexneri. Through analysis of ... Previous literature has demonstrated that Shigella encodes enterotoxins, both chromosomally and on the 220 kilobase virulence ...
  • Shigella flexneri infection: pathogenesis and vaccine development. (nih.gov)
  • The inflammation produced by the host has been implicated in both the destruction of the colonic epithelium and in controlling and containing the Shigella infection. (nih.gov)
  • However, a recent analysis indicated an increase in Shigella infection among adult males ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The low inoculum required for Shigella infection (as few as 10--200 organisms) facilitates person-to-person transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we investigated how neutrophil degranulation affects virulence and show that exposure of Shigella to granular proteins enhances infection of epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Infection with virulent S. flexneri results in massive numbers of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid follicles. (asm.org)
  • We report an outbreak of azithromycin-nonsusceptible Shigella flexneri 3a infection in Taiwan associated with men who have sex with men. (cdc.gov)
  • Shigellosis is a major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries due to infection of Shigella species. (omicsonline.org)
  • In this study, we assessed the roles for T and NK cells in the control of primary S. flexneri infection, using an alymphoid mouse strain (Rag°γ c °) devoid of B, T, and NK cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using the mouse pulmonary model of Shigella infection, we showed that alymphoid Rag°γ c ° mice were highly susceptible to S. flexneri infection in comparison with wild-type (wt) mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Upon selective engraftment of Rag°γ c ° mice with polyclonal αβ T cells, but not with αβ T cells from IFN-γ°, S. flexneri infection could be subsequently controlled. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data demonstrate that both αβ T cells and NK cells contribute to the early control of S. flexneri infection through amplification of an inflammatory response. (jimmunol.org)
  • This cellular lymphocyte redundancy assures IFN-γ production, which is central to innate immunity against Shigella infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, at the expense of causing tissue destruction, the local acute inflammatory response to Shigella limits the infection at the intestinal level, thus allowing recovery from primary infection ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Shigella flexneri infection. (edu.au)
  • The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Among the genes we identified was the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) retanoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), a cytoplasmic sensor of foreign RNA that had not been previously known to play a role in S. flexneri infection. (harvard.edu)
  • The finding that RIG-I responds to S. flexneri infection during the IFNγ response extends the range of PRRs that are capable of recognizing this bacterium. (harvard.edu)
  • Infection of epithelial cells with S. flexneri induces a pro-survival state in the cell that results in apoptosis inhibition in the presence and absence of staurosporine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Given these findings, we next wanted to determine the important cellular changes that occur in epithelial cells upon infection with S. flexneri and subsequent exposure to STS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report that upon in vitro infection of mucin-producing polarized human intestinal epithelial cells, virulent S. flexneri manipulates the secretion of gel-forming mucins. (pasteur.fr)
  • Increased secretion of interleukin-8 and higher expression levels of the mucin glycoprotein Muc2 were observed in the enteroids following S. flexneri infection. (elsevier.com)
  • To determine the role of humoral mucosal immune response in protection against shigellosis, we have obtained a monoclonal dimeric immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody specific for Shigella flexneri serotype 5a lipopolysaccharide (mIgA) and used a murine pulmonary infection model that mimics the lesions occurring in natural intestinal infection. (rupress.org)
  • S. flexneri is a cytoplasmic free-living bacterium and its infection causes bacillary dysentery and gastrointestinal disorders in human. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • The present study comes from an accidental observation when they were studying the mechanism for GBPs-mediated antibacterial effect, in which they found that infection of host cells with S. flexneri induces rapid degradation of hGBP1. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • Mice lacking several IpaH9.8-targeted GBPs respond similarly as wild-type mice to ipaH9.8-positive infection, but are susceptible to ipaH9.8-deficient S. flexneri Δ ipaH9.8 . (nibs.ac.cn)
  • These findings emphasize the functional importance of IpaH9.8 degradation of GBPs in S. flexneri infection. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • The study for the first time identifies GBPs as the physiological substrate of the IpaH family of ubiquitin-ligase effectors during S. flexneri infection. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • In order to establish and maintain an infection, S. flexneri utilises a type three secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence factors called effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells, facilitating e.g. uptake into the host cell and escape from the endosome. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery or Marlow syndrome, in its most severe manifestation, is a foodborne illness caused by infection by bacteria of the genus Shigella. (icd.codes)
  • A protective vaccine has been sought to prevent morbidity and mortality due to Shigella infection. (yu.edu)
  • Immune mediators of innate resistance to S. flexneri infection were examined by evaluating the susceptibility of mice with targeted deletions in each of specific aspects of the immune system to primary infection. (yu.edu)
  • Mice vaccinated with SSW202 were used to study the mediators of specific immunity to S. flexneri infection. (yu.edu)
  • Depletion of all T lymphocytesin vaccinated mice or adoptive transfer of splenocytes from vaccinated mice to naive mice did not alter the susceptibility of these mice to S. flexneri infection, while passive transfer of serum from vaccinated mice to naive mice was able to transfer protection. (yu.edu)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that while interferon-{dollar}\gamma{dollar} is essential for innate resistance to Shigella infection, it is not required for specific immunity. (yu.edu)
  • Successful infection requires appropriate timing of virulence gene expression and the efficient acquisition of nutrients within the host;however, the sensing and acquisition of carbon sources and other nutrients by Shigella during infection is poorly understood. (grantome.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that SigA is immunogenic following infection with S. flexneri 2a. (edu.au)
  • Presently, fluoroquinolones emerged as the preferred agents for treatment of Shigella infection, however, the progressive increase in antimicrobial resistance further narrows the choice of effective antimicrobials. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis acquired from this study showed that five selected OMPs have great potential for vaccine development against S. flexneri infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • We combine advanced imaging and genetic techniques to visualize the frozen-hydrated diarrheal pathogen Shigella flexneri and reveal the intact type III secretion machine and its interaction with a host cell for the first time to our knowledge. (pnas.org)
  • The bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery in humans by invading coloncytes. (pnas.org)
  • Shigella flexneri is an enteric pathogen that causes massive inflammation and destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • We used the TSP of bacteriophage Sf6 to establish two applications for detecting Shigella flexneri ( S. flexneri ), a highly contagious pathogen causing dysentery. (mdpi.com)
  • The replication of the cytosolic bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri is significantly inhibited in IFNγ-stimulated cells, however the specific mechanisms that mediate this inhibition have remained elusive. (harvard.edu)
  • However, Shigella is an intracellular pathogen and therefore, T cell mediated immunity (T-CMI) is also expected to play an important role. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The enteric pathogen Shigella is one of the leading causes of moderate-to-severe diarrhea and death in young children in developing countries. (elsevier.com)
  • HP1γ functions as an epigenetic regulator of a series of innate immune genes and, as such, its phosphorylation status is targeted by the phosphothreonine lyase OspF from the bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri . (embopress.org)
  • Shigella uses its type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into human intestinal cells to alter their functions to promote pathogen entry . (okstate.edu)
  • S. flexneri is an intracellular bacterium that infects the epithelial lining of the mammalian intestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside of the colon, S. flexneri can penetrate the epithelium in three ways: 1) The bacterium can alter the tight junctions between the epithelial cells, allowing it to cross into the sub-mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. flexneri still in the lumen of the colon traverse the epithelial lining as the PMNs cross into the infected area. (wikipedia.org)
  • When S. flexneri makes contact with the basolateral side of an epithelial cell, IpaC and IpaB are fused together to make a pore in the epithelial cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. flexneri can pass to neighboring epithelial cells by using its own outer membrane protein, IcsA, to activate the host's actin assembly machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathogenesis of S. flexneri is based on the bacteria's ability to invade and replicate within the colonic epithelium, which results in severe inflammation and epithelial destruction. (nih.gov)
  • The molecular mechanisms used by S. flexneri to cross the epithelial barrier, evade the host's immune response and enter epithelial cells have been studied extensively in both in vitro and in vivo models. (nih.gov)
  • Upon contact with epithelial cells, S. flexneri elicits localized plasma membrane projections sustained by long actin filaments which engulf the microorganism. (pnas.org)
  • These results indicate that a secreted factor can promote S. flexneri entry into epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • Invasive Shigella flexneri activates NF-kappa B through a lipopolysaccharide-dependent innate intracellular response and leads to IL-8 expression in epithelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • S. flexneri is then able to invade epithelial cells via the basolateral surface, and uses them as replication niche ( 9 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The entry of S. flexneri into epithelial cells is a multistep process that requires the secretion of effector proteins into the cytoplasm of target cells via type III secretion. (mcponline.org)
  • Shigella , the causative agent of the disease, is a Gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium that has the capacity to invade, disrupt, and cause inflammatory destruction of the intestinal epithelial barrier. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that Shigella -induced inflammation occurs partly in response to epithelial cell activation by intracellular and extracellular bacterial products, and partly as a consequence of the induction of apoptosis of phagocytic cells, such as macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Shigella entry into epithelial cells is considered a parasite induced internalization process requiring cytoskeletal rearrangements. (hu-berlin.de)
  • We therefore hypothesized a potential role of myr5 in the regulation of rho activity during Shigella entry into epithelial cells. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The primary effector for Shigella invasion of epithelial cells is IpaC, which is secreted via a type III secretion system. (ku.edu)
  • Invasion plasmid antigen C (IpaC) has been identified as the primary effector protein for Shigella invasion of epithelial cells. (ku.edu)
  • 1996 ). Rho-dependent membrane folding causes Shigella entry into epithelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • 1995 ). Invasion of epithelial cells by Shigella flexneri induces tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin by a pp60c-src-mediated signalling pathway. (biologists.org)
  • Shigella flexneri inhibits apoptosis in infected epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared to uninfected cells, Shigella- infected epithelial cells, both in the presence and absence of staurosporine, showed significant induced expression of JUN , several members of the inhibitor of apoptosis gene family, nuclear factor κB and related genes, genes involving tumor protein 53 and the retinoblastoma protein, and surprisingly, genes important for the inhibition of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Future characterization of these host factors is required to fully understand how S. flexneri inhibits apoptosis in epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A possible role of glycolipids in epithelial cell penetration by virulent Shigella flexneri 2a. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our data suggest that S. flexneri uses information about the available carbon sources to determine the attachment and initial steps in invasion of host epithelial cells. (grantome.com)
  • A mutation in cra markedly increased S. flexneri adherence to epithelial cells but limited cell-to-cell spread, pointing to a link between S. flexnei carbon metabolism and virulence. (grantome.com)
  • Conclusions This work shows that SigA binds to epithelial HEp-2 cells as well as being able to induce fodrin degradation in vitro and in situ, further extending its documented role in the pathogenesis of Shigella infections. (edu.au)
  • Shigella flexneri secretes an enterotoxic, SPATE family autotransporter (AT), SigA, which has cytopathic activity towards cultured epithelial cells. (edu.au)
  • The S. flexneri cytotoxic genes have been localized to the ipa operon of shigella's virulence plasmid. (nih.gov)
  • We have sequenced the large virulence plasmid pWR501 from Shigella flexneri serotype 5a, and it is available from Genbank with accession number AF348706 . (wisc.edu)
  • M. M. Venkatesan, M. B. Goldberg, D. J. Rose, E. J. Grotbeck, V. Burland and F. R. Blattner (2001) Complete DNA sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri . (wisc.edu)
  • The aim of this study is to examine the role of invasion plasmid of S. flexneri on the interaction with A. castellanii at two different temperatures. (hindawi.com)
  • Many of the genes for key Shigella virulence proteins are located on a 140-MDa plasmid and are conserved in all Shigella spp. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1989 ). Identification of icsA , a plasmid locus of Shigella flexneri that governs bacterial intra-and intercellular spread through interaction with F-actin. (biologists.org)
  • The intent of this research project was to purify the Shigella flexneri virulence plasmid without the use of ultra-centrifugation . (ccsu.edu)
  • The S . flexneri virulence plasmid is a highly stable single copy plasmid that is approximately 230kb in size . (ccsu.edu)
  • The identification of the stability genes encoded in the Shigella flexneri virulence plasmid would greatly increase our ability to identify a possibly treatment for shigellosis infections . (ccsu.edu)
  • A novel gene for quinolone resistance was cloned from a transferable plasmid carried by a clinical isolate of Shigella flexneri 2b that was resistant to fluoroquinolones. (asm.org)
  • This is the first report of a gene for quinolone resistance on the conjugative plasmid in Shigella . (asm.org)
  • To determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and related presence of mutations in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) among Shigella flexneri isolates obtained from Jiangsu Province, China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Health-care providers were asked to report all Shigella infections among Chicago residents to CDPH and to send Shigella isolates to the state public health laboratory for speciation. (cdc.gov)
  • the remaining two isolates were S. flexneri subtype 3b. (cdc.gov)
  • Seven closely related PFGE patterns were identified among the 11 S. flexneri subtype 3a isolates subtyped by PFGE. (cdc.gov)
  • We tested the 21 S. flexneri 3a isolates for antimicrobial resistance by using a custom-made 96-well Sensititer MIC panel (Trek Diagnostic Systems Ltd., West Grinstead, UK) and the Etest kit (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). (cdc.gov)
  • We also used the PulseNet pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol to analyze the isolates ( 9 ) and compared the PFGE patterns with those of 30 S. flexneri 3a isolates isolated in Taiwan during 2000-2011. (cdc.gov)
  • Clustering analysis of the PFGE patterns by using BioNumerics version 6.6 software (Applied Maths, Sint-Martens-Latem, Belgium) revealed that the 21 isolates were genetically distant from the 2000-2011 S. flexneri 3a isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • Patterns of seven isolates of S. flexneri 2b were the same. (asm.org)
  • Fifty-four S. flexneri isolates possessed four typical biochemical characteristics of Shigella . (researchsquare.com)
  • The present study aimed to develop an MLVA method for S. flexneri and the VNTR loci identified were tested on 242 S. flexneri isolates to evaluate their variability in various serotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The isolates were also analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to compare the discriminatory power and to evaluate the usefulness of MLVA as a tool for phylogenetic analysis of S. flexneri . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thirty-six VNTR loci were identified by exploring the repeat sequence loci in genomic sequences of Shigella species and by testing the loci on nine isolates of different subserotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We studied the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of rRNA genes (ribotypes) of 72 clinical isolates of Shigella flexneri representing eight serotypes to determine whether ribotyping could be used to distinguish S. flexneri strains and to compare the discriminating ability of the method with that of serotyping. (elsevier.com)
  • A total of 54 Shigella flexneri isolates, including six serotypes (1a, 2a, 2b, 4a, 6 and Xv), were collected from 837 fecal samples obtained from 2014 to 2016. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genes bla TEM - 1 , bla OXA - 1 , and bla CTX - M - 14 were detected in 19 cephalosporin-resistant S. flexneri 2a isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to analyze the relationships among S. flexneri isolates and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A total of 400 Shigella flexneri clinical isolates collected during 2012-2015 were identified by biochemical and serological methods, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was evaluated using the disc-diffusion method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides, the Gln517Arg alternation in gyrB was detected in 13 S. flexneri isolates and no mutations were identified in parE . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The majority of Shigella infections in the United States are caused by S. sonnei and affect young children and their caretakers. (cdc.gov)
  • since the 1970s, outbreaks of shigellosis attributable to S . flexneri and more recently S . sonnei have been reported among MSM in major cities in North America ( 3-- 5 ) , Europe ( 6 ), and Australia ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Different bacteria interact differently with FLA since Francisella tularensis, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella sonnei , and S. dysenteriae are able to grow inside A. castellanii . (hindawi.com)
  • Shigella sonnei - a species causing mild dysentery and also summer diarrhea in children. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vaccine strategies must consider the need for protection against four species of Shigella ( S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae , and S. boydii ) with over 45 different serotypes, and also enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), as cross-protection is not significant between the species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Simms I , Field N , Jenkins C , Childs T , Gilbart V L , Dallman T J , Mook P , Crook P D , Hughes G . Intensified shigellosis epidemic associated with sexual transmission in men who have sex with men - Shigella flexneri and S. sonnei in England, 2004 to end of February 2015. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • In 2014, sexual transmission between MSM might have accounted for 97%, 89%, and 43% of non-travel associated Shigella flexneri 3a and S. flexneri 2a, and S. sonnei diagnoses. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. dyssenteriae , and S. boydii ) are gram negative enteropathogen bacteria that are closely related to commensal Escherichia coli . (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, the etiology of the disease differs between low- and high-income countries, where S. flexneri and S. sonnei prevail, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Shigella flexneri , as well as S. dysenteriae , S. boydii , and S. sonnei , are the causative agents of shigellosis, an acute diarrheal disease common in developing countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genus Shigella consists of four subgroups differentiated according to their biochemical and serological properties: A ( S. dysenteriae ), B ( S. flexneri ), C ( S. boydii ), and D ( S. sonnei ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • S. dysenteriae (subgroup A), S. flexneri (subgroup B), S. boydii (subgroup C) and S. sonnei (subgroup D). S. dysenteriae is classified into 12 serological types, S. flexneri into 6, S. boydii into 18 and S. sonnei which is classified into two antigens, phase I (smooth S type) and phase II (rough R type), according to the S-R mutation of the O antigen. (abcam.cn)
  • The disease is transmitted by a group of Gram-negative intracellular enterobacteria known as Shigella flexneri, S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii. (bvsalud.org)
  • Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many infectious bacteria such as Shigella and Salmonella use type III secretion machines, also called injectisomes, to transfer virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. (pnas.org)
  • Shigella - a genus of nonmotile, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae), all of whose species produce dysentery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • shigellosis - bacillary dysentery caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our results indicate that the bacteria block apoptosis at multiple checkpoints along both pathways so that even if a cell fails to prevent apoptosis at an early step, Shigella will block apoptosis at the level of caspase-3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of the bacteria that can cause dysentery, bacteria called Shigella are most often responsible. (elifesciences.org)
  • One species of Shigella bacteria, called S. flexneri , causes far more cases of dysentry than other species of Shigella . (elifesciences.org)
  • s findings reveal that S. flexneri is more diverse than other Shigella bacteria, and suggest that the ability of strains to persist in local areas may have contributed to the species' long-term success. (elifesciences.org)
  • These results point towards the importance of the provision of clean water in the fight against S. flexneri , and underline the need for a greater understanding of how disease-causing bacteria colonize and interact with the local environment. (elifesciences.org)
  • Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative bacteria that has the ability to invade the epithelium of the colon and cause colon ulcers. (jidc.org)
  • Methodology: The ability of isolated Shigella flexneri from bloody diarrhea to cause colon ulcers was investigated by histopathological examination via oral administration of the bacteria to adult male albino Sprague-Dawley rats. (jidc.org)
  • The Shao laboratory has long been using S. flexneri as a model to study bacteria-host interaction, and made several novel and important discoveries. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • Early in 2008, the Shao laboratory reported the crystal structure of IpaH3 of S. flexneri , revealing a distinct class of ubiquitin ligases widely present in pathogenic and commensal bacteria. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • The majority of Enterobactericeae family bacteria, including Salmonella , E. coli and Shigella spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • S. flexneri is a gram negative, rod shaped bacteria that is very closely related to E. coli and Salmonella . (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • We will use proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of the intracellular bacteria to define the carbon metabolism genes expressed by intracellular S. flexneri. (grantome.com)
  • Such data are applicable to the design of therapeutics targeting intracellular S. flexneri, as well as to the design of vaccines based on antigens expressed when the bacteria are growing within host cells. (grantome.com)
  • The bacteria species Shigella flexneri was named in recognition of Flexner. (wikipedia.org)
  • The products necessary for Shigella entry include three secretory proteins: IpaB, IpaC, and IpaD. (pnas.org)
  • A comparison of the S. flexneri rfc gene and protein product with other rfc and rfc-like proteins revealed that they have a similarly low percentage of G + C content and have similar codon usage, and all have a high percentage of rare codons. (asm.org)
  • An attempt to identify the S. flexneri Rfc protein was unsuccessful, although proteins encoded upstream and downstream of the rfc gene could be identified. (asm.org)
  • During this process, cationic granular proteins bind to the Shigella surface causing increased adhesion which ultimately leads to hyperinvasion. (nih.gov)
  • A common cause of bacillary dysentery worldwide, particularly in developing countries, Shigella invade colonic mucosal cells and employ a repertoire of proteins secreted by a type III secretion system (T3SS) to manipulate host cytoskeleton and signaling pathways. (harvard.edu)
  • Finally, we showed that S. flexneri effector OspF affected the phosphorylation of several hundred proteins, thereby demonstrating the wide-reaching impact of a single bacterial effector on the host signaling network. (mcponline.org)
  • Using a two-hybrid screen in yeast and a co-purification assay in Shigella flexneri, we demonstrated that Spa15, which is encoded by an operon for components of the TTS apparatus, is associated in the cytoplasm with three proteins that are secreted by the TTS pathway, IpaA, IpgB1 and OspC3. (nih.gov)
  • It has been proposed that the IpaB-IpaC complex integrates into the host cell membrane, forming a channel by which other Shigella proteins gain entry into the host cell ( 33 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Solution NMR structures of proteins VPA0419 from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and yiiS from Shigella flexneri provide structural coverage for protein domain family PFAM 04175. (rostlab.org)
  • Shigella flexneri uses its type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) to inject host-altering proteins into targeted eukaryotic cells. (usu.edu)
  • In this study, a reverse vaccinology approach was employed to identify most conserved and immunogenic outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of S. flexneri 2a. (bvsalud.org)
  • mxiE regulates intracellular expression of factors secreted by the Shigella flexneri 2a type III secretion system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comparison of the invasion strategies used by Salmonella cholerae-suis, Shigella flexneri and Yersinia enterocolitica to enter cultured animal cells: endosome acidification is not required for bacterial invasion or intracellular replication. (nih.gov)
  • The lines of investigation presented here demonstrate the intricate ways in which S. flexneri both exploits and subverts host processes in order to survive in the intracellular environment. (harvard.edu)
  • Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular organism, and the causative agent of bacillary dysentery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri are two unrelated facultative intracellular pathogens which spread from cell to cell by using a similar mode of intracellular movement based on continuous actin assembly at one pole of the bacterium. (pasteur.fr)
  • When IpaH9.8 is absent or the recognition of GBPs is disrupted by point mutations in IpaH9.8, the GBPs translocate to intracellular S. flexneri to limit their survival. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • IcsA is distributed at the poles in the outer membrane (OM) of S. flexneri and interacts with components of the host actin-polymerization machinery to facilitate intracellular actin-based motility and subsequent cell-to-cell spreading of the bacterium. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • For primary macrophages, a macrophage cell line, and a fibroblast cell line, decreased intracellular S. flexneri persistence was observed in interferon-{dollar}\gamma{dollar} activated cells. (yu.edu)
  • The carbon and other nutrient sources present in the host cell cytoplasm and the pathways used by intracellular Shigella to obtain these sources are largely unknown. (grantome.com)
  • The first specific aim is to define the carbon and nutrient sources available to S. flexneri in the intracellular environment of the host. (grantome.com)
  • S. flexneri has about 4,084 known genes in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify host factors that restrict S. flexneri growth, we used whole genome microarrays to identify mammalian genes whose expression in S. flexneri-infected cells is controlled by IFNγ and IRF1. (harvard.edu)
  • Across the world, there are many different strains of S. flexneri , but it is not clear how these strains are related to each other, or how variable the genes that they carry are-known as genetic diversity. (elifesciences.org)
  • In our previous survey of S. flexneri isolated from 2001 to 2011, fluoroquinolone resistance profiles and the presence of QRDR genes encoding resistance to fluoroquinolone have been described, in this study, we wanted to assess the level of antimicrobial resistance and fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms including QRDR and PMQR genes of S. flexneri collected from patients between 2012 and 2015 in Jiangsu Province, China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Shigella are closely related to Escherichia coli, but can be differentiated from E.coli based on pathogenicity, physiology (failure to ferment lactose or decarboxylate lysine) and serology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of S. flexneri and Escherichia coli are nearly indistinguishable at the species level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains of Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia actively enter eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Ribot EM , Fair MA , Gautom R , Cameron DN , Hunter SB , Swaminathan B , Standardization of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols for the subtyping of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella , and Shigella for PulseNet. (cdc.gov)
  • Genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 2a: insights into pathogenicity through comparison with genomes of Escherichia coli K12 and O157. (kegg.jp)
  • While the Shigellae are, phylogenetically, Escherichia coli , they were originally classified as separate species based upon shared disease and biochemical phenotypes that marked them out as distinct from other E. coli strains-a distinction that is still reflected in their species nomenclature because of continued global medical importance. (elifesciences.org)
  • המובאת כאן היא שיטה פשוטה ליצירת ספריית ההכנסה transposon בצפיפות גבוהה ב- Escherichia coli או שיגלה flexneri באמצעות קוניוגציה. (jove.com)
  • 6 National Institute for Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. (cdc.gov)
  • Shigella species are commonly pathogenic to humans, causing severe gastroenteritis (bacillary dysentery). (wisc.edu)
  • Shigella boydii - a species found in feces of symptomatic individuals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shigella dysenteriae - a species causing dysentery in humans and in monkeys. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shigella species are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens acquired by fecal-oral spread. (harvard.edu)
  • Pazhani GP , Niyogi SK , Singh AK , Sen B , Taneja N , Kundu M , Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella species isolated from epidemic and endemic cases of shigellosis in India. (cdc.gov)
  • Edwardsiella tarda (40015042) as compared to untreated strain of Shigella species (40010000). (omicsonline.org)
  • This is different to other Shigella species, which appear to have spread between continents far more frequently over much shorter timescales. (elifesciences.org)
  • Laboratory testing was performed for eight cases and multiple pathogens were identified: Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Vibrio albensis (1), Vibrio species unidentified (1), Shigella flexneri serotype 1 (2), and norovirus (1). (lexblog.com)
  • The first Shigella species identified was S. dysenteriae , followed by S. flexneri at the end of the 19th century. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Shigella flexneri and related species are major sources of human diarrheal disease, affecting more than 100,000,000 people each year. (grantome.com)
  • Current research encompasses a variety of vaccine types, which despite disparity in their efficacy and safety in humans represent promising progress in S. flexneri vaccine development. (nih.gov)
  • Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative bacterium causing the diarrhoeal disease shigellosis in humans. (hindawi.com)
  • Although humans are the primary reservoir of Shigella spp. (mdpi.com)
  • The enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri invades the intestinal epithelium of humans. (mcponline.org)
  • The enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri invades the intestinal epithelium of humans, causing an acute mucosal inflammation called shigellosis or bacillary dysentery that is responsible for 1.1 million deaths annually ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Within a few hours of Shigella invasion in humans, Shigella -induced IL-8 production recruits an influx of inflammatory cells to the mucosa, consisting predominantly of neutrophils but also monocytes ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Shigella causes bacillary dysentery in humans, the only known host. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Shigella flexneri causes a self-limiting gastroenteritis in humans, characterized by severe localized inflammation and ulceration of the colonic mucosa. (ku.edu)
  • Shigella flexneri is an enteroinvasive bacterium responsible for bacillary dysentery in humans. (biologists.org)
  • Humans can acquire Shigella through contaminated food or water. (elifesciences.org)
  • Shigella flexneri ( S. flexneri ) is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis and shigellosis in humans. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The molecular architecture of the Shigella type III secretion machine and its sorting platform provide the structural foundation for further dissecting the mechanisms underlying type III secretion and pathogenesis and also highlight the major structural distinctions from bacterial flagella. (pnas.org)
  • In a guinea pig model for Shigella enterocolitis, we observed that the defective type III secretion mxiD Shigella flexneri strain caused more HP1γ phosphorylation in the colon than the wild‐type strain. (embopress.org)
  • Characterization of soluble complexes of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system ATPase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Shigella Spa33 is an essential C-ring component of type III secretion machinery. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A substrate-fusion protein is trapped inside the Type III Secretion System channel in Shigella flexneri . (bio-protocol.org)
  • I show here that ARF6 is required for efficient entry, and together with the host guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARF nucleotide binding site opener (ARNO) and the T3SS effector IpgD, constitutes a positive feedback loop that amplifies ARF6 activation at S. flexneri entry sites to promote efficient bacterial uptake. (harvard.edu)
  • This work identifies new cellular targets and activities of the Shigella effector IpgD and provides insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis dependent on secreted bacterial effectors. (harvard.edu)
  • The work entitled "Ubiquitination and degradation of GBPs by a Shigella effector to suppress host defense" is published in the journal Nature as Accelerated Article Preview . (nibs.ac.cn)
  • The Shigella virulence effector OspF directly interacts with HP1γ and causes its dephosphorylation at S83 by inactivating the Erk‐MSK1 nuclear signaling pathway. (embopress.org)
  • Guidelines for the control of shigellosis, including epidemics due to Shigella dysenteriae type 1 [cited 2013 Apr 12]. (cdc.gov)
  • Characterization of the rfc region of Shigella flexneri. (asm.org)
  • We present a characterization of the native T3SS ATPase, Spa47, from the cytoplasm of Shigella flexneri, demonstrating it to be in two distinct high-molecular-weight complexes with Spa33: MxiN and MxiK. (semanticscholar.org)
  • S. flexneri is a rod shaped, nonflagellar bacterium that relies on actin-based motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacterium is gram-negative, non-spore forming Shigella from serogroup B. There are 6 serotypes within this serogroup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative bacterium which causes the most communicable of bacterial dysenteries, shigellosis. (nih.gov)
  • S. flexneri is a non-motile, non-spore forming, non-lactose fermenting, Gram-negative , facultative anaerobic and rod shape bacterium, belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family. (omicsonline.org)
  • Shigella flexneri , a bacterium that causes dysentery, injects IpgD, a phosphoinositide phosphatase that generates the lipid phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI5P), into host cells, thereby activating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt survival pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • Shigella flexneri , an enteroinvasive Gram-negative bacterium, is responsible for the worldwide endemic form of bacillary dysentery. (jimmunol.org)
  • Upon contact or attachment to host cells, the Shigella invasins induce a phagocytic event which results in engulfment and internalization of the bacterium by the host cell ( 21 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Shigella is the enteroinvasive bacterium responsible for bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative bacterium that is a significant cause of bacillary dysentery . (okstate.edu)
  • S. flexneri belongs to group B. S. flexneri infections can usually be treated with antibiotics, although some strains have become resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • During 2003--2004, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) investigated an increase in reported Shigella flexneri serotype 3 infections among adult males. (cdc.gov)
  • S. flexneri causes approximately 18% of U.S. Shigella infections ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The national incidence of S. flexneri infections decreased 64% from 1989 to 2002 ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Thereby, most infections in developing countries are caused by Shigella flexneri ( S. flexneri ) strains, with serotype 2a as the most prominent [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In vivo apoptosis in Shigella flexneri infections. (asm.org)
  • During June 2015-May 2016, a total of 200 shigellosis cases were reported to the NDSS, of which 21 were domestically acquired S. flexneri 3a infections in northern and central Taiwan. (cdc.gov)
  • All 21 of the S. flexneri 3a infections were in men 22-44 years of age, including 17 self-reported MSM. (cdc.gov)
  • This phenomenon is unique to S. flexneri and does not occur with other enteric bacterial infections. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • In mouse infections, IpaH9.8 and its targeting of GBPs are critical for S. flexneri multiplication and causing mouse lethality. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • however the immune response and the mediators of protective immunity to Shigella infections have not been characterized. (yu.edu)
  • We have also demonstrated that SigA is cytopathic for HEp-2 cells and plays a role in the intestinal fluid accumulation associated with S. flexneri infections. (edu.au)
  • VacJ is a protein that is also needed by S. flexneri to exit the protrusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • I also investigated the outer Shigella protein C (OspC) effectors OspC1, OspC2, and OspC3, highly homologous T3SS effectors with potentially disparate functions. (harvard.edu)
  • 2KO6: Solution structure of protein sf3929 from Shigella flexneri 2a. (rcsb.org)
  • Recent reports have identified protein complexes consisting of either IpaB and IpaC ( 23 ) or IpaB, IpaC, and IpaD ( 43 ) in the growth medium of Shigella cultures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We found that RIG-I and its downstream signaling adaptor mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-but not cytosolic Nod-like receptors (NLRs)-are critically important for IFNγ-mediated S. flexneri growth restriction. (harvard.edu)
  • Thus, S. flexneri has developed a dedicated strategy to alter the mucus barrier by targeting key elements of the gel-forming capacity of mucins: gene transcription, protein glycosylation, and secretion. (pasteur.fr)
  • This process requires the asymmetrical expression of the ActA surface protein in L. monocytogenes and the IcsA (VirG) surface protein in S. flexneri. (pasteur.fr)
  • The resistance of Shigella flexneri to antimicrobial agents can be associated to the presence of integrons that may contain and express antimicrobial resistance gene cassettes. (scielo.cl)
  • To study antimicrobial resistance and the presence of integrons and antimicrobial gene cassettes in Shigella flexneri strains. (scielo.cl)
  • Bhattacharya D , Purushottaman SA , Bhattacharjee H , Thamizhmani R , Sudharama SD , Manimunda SP , Rapid emergence of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Shigella sp. (cdc.gov)
  • Increased incidence of antibiotic resistance in Shigella flexneri ( S. flexneri ), constitute a major public health concern. (omicsonline.org)
  • The constant emergence of antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Analyzing the epidemiological characteristics and resistance patterns of Shigella flexneri in calves is necessary for animal and human health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The high level of cephalosporin and/or fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella warns us of a potential risk to human and animal health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background We have previously shown that the enterotoxin SigA which resides on the she pathogenicity island (PAI) of S. flexneri 2a is an autonomously secreted serine protease capable of degrading casein. (edu.au)
  • First, S. flexneri crosses the colonic epithelium by transcytosis via M cells ( 3 , 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The pathogenesis of Shigella is attributed to the organism's ability to invade, replicate intracellularly, and spread intercellularly within the colonic epithelium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • By invading the colonic mucosa, Shigella spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have completed the genome sequence of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a strain 2457T, which has been the subject of extensive molecular pathogenesis and genetics research. (wisc.edu)
  • Shigella flexneri strain 2457T has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection ( ATCC ) and is available as ATCC 700930, both as a culture and as purified DNA from this strain. (wisc.edu)
  • On the third day of treatment, volunteers received a challenge of 10 3 colony-forming units of S. flexneri 2a strain 2457T. (ajtmh.org)
  • The 2457T genome was compared with other Enterobacterial pathogens, including another recently sequenced S. flexneri 2a strain, 301. (wisc.edu)
  • used a technique called whole genome sequencing to map the evolutionary relationships of over 300 S. flexneri samples collected from around the globe over the past 100 years. (elifesciences.org)
  • They then performed an unbiased genome-wide transposon mutant screen in S. flexneri and identified IpaH9.8 that is required and sufficient for hGBP1 degradation. (nibs.ac.cn)
  • The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9199) strain of S. flexneri was used in this experiment. (omicsonline.org)
  • the genus Shigella is named after Japanese physician Kiyoshi Shiga, who researched the cause of dysentery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella flexneri, an etiological agent of bacillary dysentery, causes apoptosis in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Shigella flexneri is the most common cause of bacterial dysentery in low-income countries. (elifesciences.org)
  • Once a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Europe and the US prior to the widespread provision of reliable sanitation systems and clean drinking water, bacterial dysentery caused by Shigella spp. (elifesciences.org)
  • In this study, our objective was to investigate how the bacterial enteropathogen Shigella flexneri, which causes bacillary dysentery, copes with the mucin defense barrier. (pasteur.fr)
  • IpaB mediates macrophage apoptosis induced by Shigella flexneri. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that ipaB is essential for S. flexneri to induce apoptosis in macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • Western blot analysis of the complex indicates that all of the major virulence antigens of Shigella , including IpaB, IpaC, and IpaD, and LPS are components of this macromolecular complex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mutation analyses combined with additional spectroscopic analyses confirm that conformational changes in IpaD induced by DOC binding contribute to the recruitment of IpaB to the S. flexneri TTSA needle tip. (usu.edu)
  • While IpaB is recruited to the TTSA needle tip IpaD senses bile salt in the Shigella environment , IpaC remains within the bacterial cytoplasm . (okstate.edu)
  • Comparison of the invasion strategies used by Salmonella cholerae-suis, Shigella flexneri and Yersinia enterocolitica to enter cultured animal cell. (nih.gov)
  • Several techniques were used to compare and contrast the invasion mechanisms of Salmonella cholerae-suis, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella flexneri. (nih.gov)
  • flexneri, while V. cholerae was already susceptible above 40°C. Conclusions: Salmonella Typhimurium was the most resistant and V. cholerae the least resistant enteric strain. (elsevier.com)
  • Our findings of this study have enriched our knowledge of the molecular characteristics of S. flexneri collected from diarrheal calves, which will be important for addressing clinical and epidemiological issues regarding Shigellosis. (researchsquare.com)
  • The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. (omicsonline.org)
  • Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. flexneri showed 35% alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. (omicsonline.org)
  • The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. flexneri in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping. (omicsonline.org)
  • Thyme oil had the highest antibacterial activity among other investigated oils (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 150 µL/L). Ciprofloxacin had the highest antimicrobial activity against S. flexneri (MIC 0.4 mg/L). The synergism between thyme oil and ciprofloxacin showed the maximum growth inhibition of S. flexneri . (jidc.org)
  • According to the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests, all 26 Shigella flexneri 2a serotypes were resistant to cephalosporin and/or fluoroquinolones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • S. flexneri is subtyped into various serotypes based on the combination(s) of antigenic determinants present in the O-antigen. (edu.au)
  • My group is investigating the genetic basis of the emergence and diversity of S. flexneri serotypes. (edu.au)
  • As highly variable VNTR loci could be serotype-specific, a common MLVA protocol that consists of only a small set of loci, for example four to eight loci, and that provides high resolving power to all S. flexneri serotypes may not be obtainable. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When S. flexneri reaches the adjoining membrane, it creates a protrusion into the neighboring cell's cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella can only cause damage if it escapes from the phagolysosome into the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • Spontaneous insertion of an IS1-like element into the virF gene is responsible for avirulence in opaque colonial variants of Shigella flexneri 2a. (atcc.org)
  • The pattern of colonisation and AMR gene acquisition suggest that S. flexneri has a distinct life-cycle involving local persistence. (elifesciences.org)
  • Shigella induces a blossom-like membrane structure consisting of membrane sheaths that coalesce above and thus internalize the invasive microorganism. (hu-berlin.de)
  • A03.1 is a billable ICD code used to specify a diagnosis of shigellosis due to Shigella flexneri. (icd.codes)
  • Since the 1940s vaccines for S. flexneri have been developed with little success, however, the growing understanding of S. flexneri's pathogenesis and the host's immune response is assisting in the generation of more refined vaccine strategies. (nih.gov)
  • subsidiary in Baltimore, Maryland, the new vaccine for Shigella flexneri demonstrated a favorable safety profile and induced significant systemic and mucosal immune responses in human volunteers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 12 ), even to the newest antibiotics, underscores the need for an effective vaccine to help control Shigella disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Of these vaccine approaches, only the live attenuated vaccines utilize the native invasiveness of the shigellae to deliver the LPS and other antigens to the mucosal immune system, presumably via the follicle-associated epithelium ( 33 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • therefore an effective Shigella vaccine could significantly reduce the burden of this disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, to date, no vaccine has been licensed for Shigella . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consequently, many live attenuated Shigella vaccine strains have been constructed and evaluated for safety and efficacy following the oral route of inoculation. (yu.edu)
  • In this thesis, I describe two independent projects that aim to clarify the complex interplay between bacterial effectors and host processes critical to Shigella flexneri pathogenesis. (harvard.edu)
  • Transformed cell lines and animal models have been widely used to study Shigella pathogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • We established the utility of this model for studying basic aspects of Shigella pathogenesis and host responses. (elsevier.com)
  • In vitro susceptibility to 27 antimicrobials was studied in twenty four Shigella flexneri strains isolated from stools. (scielo.cl)
  • The O antigen of the Shigella flexneri lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important virulence determinant and immunogen. (asm.org)
  • This effect is mediated by changes in the surface charge, since a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant with a negative surface shows enhanced hyperinvasion compared with wild-type Shigella. (nih.gov)
  • Historically, successful Shigella vaccines have emphasized presentation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a manner that will elicit protection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Volunteers were given a product consisting of hyperimmune immunoglobulin concentrate with a high titer of anti- S. flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with sodium bicarbonate or a control preparation with sodium bicarbonate three times a day for seven days. (ajtmh.org)
  • Monoclonal immunoglobulin A antibody directed against serotype-specific epitope of Shigella flexneri lipopolysaccharide protects against murine experimental shigellosis. (rupress.org)
  • To download a certificate of analysis for Shigella flexneri Castellani and Chalmers ( 9473 ), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your product label or packing slip. (atcc.org)
  • The certificate of analysis for that lot of Shigella flexneri Castellani and Chalmers ( 9473 ) is not currently available online. (atcc.org)
  • We have isolated a complex of invasins and LPS from water-extractable antigens of virulent shigellae by ion-exchange chromatography. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mice or guinea pigs immunized intranasally with purified invasin complex (invaplex), without any additional adjuvant, mounted a significant immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibody response against the Shigella virulence antigens and LPS. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Structural studies have shown that all S. flexneri O-antigens, except for serotype 6, are polymers of the basic tetrasaccharide repeating unit, which is found in S. flexneri serotype Y strains. (edu.au)
  • Conformational Changes in IpaD from Shigella flexneri Upon Binding Bil" by Nicholas E. Dickenson, L. Zhang et al. (usu.edu)
  • Here we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EMAN2 (Electron Microscopy ANalysis Software) to produce the first three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the needle tip for Shigella expressing wild-type IpaD , IpaDΔ192-267,or Shigella that are null for ipaD . (okstate.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of virulence factors and the molecular characteristics of S. flexneri isolated from calves with diarrhea. (researchsquare.com)
  • Here we use high-throughput cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) to visualize intact machines in a virulent Shigella flexneri strain genetically modified to produce minicells capable of interaction with host cells. (pnas.org)
  • Shigella flexneri serotype 3a was responsible for a prolonged MSM-associated outbreak in England and Wales initially detected in 2009 and ongoing at the time of study publication ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • High-titered, orally administered bovine immunoglobulin concentrate protects against shigellosis and may be useful in preventing shigellosis among travelers, military personnel, and individuals at risk during a Shigella outbreak. (ajtmh.org)
  • The Health Protection Agency has been investigating a national outbreak of S. flexneri detected in 2011 and which is still ongoing. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • At the beginning of October 2003, an outbreak of food poisoning caused by Shigella flexneri 2b occurred in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. (asm.org)
  • The 15 N-terminal amino acids target IpaC for secretion by Shigella flexneri, and placing additional amino acids at the N terminus does not interfere with IpaC secretion. (ku.edu)
  • S. flexneri uses these three methods to reach the sub-mucosa to penetrate the epilithelial cells from the basolateral side. (wikipedia.org)
  • We were able to quantify the number of apoptotic cells in rabbit Peyer's patches infected with S. flexneri by detecting cells with fragmented DNA. (asm.org)
  • Thus, we identified PI5P, which was enriched in endosomes, as a regulator of vesicular trafficking that alters growth factor receptor signaling by impairing lysosomal degradation, a property used by S. flexneri to favor survival of host cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Local IFN-γ production by T and NK cells recruited to the lung was demonstrated in S. flexneri -infected wt mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • The invasion of host cells by Shigella spp. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In addition, Shigella entry is significantly reduced in cells transfected with a dominant negative allele of ezrin with entry foci showing much shorter cellular protrusions. (biologists.org)
  • 1995 ). Cytoskeletal rearrangments and the functional role of T-plastin during entry of Shigella flexneri into HeLa cells. (biologists.org)
  • 1987 ). Entry of Shigella flexneri into HeLa cells: evidence for directed phagocytosis involving actin polymerization and myosin accumulation. (biologists.org)
  • Overnight cultures of Shigella cells (10 μl) and HB101 cells (1 ml) were added to fresh Luria-Bertani (LB) broth (5 ml) and incubated for 6 h. (asm.org)
  • Conclusions: The combination of thyme oil and ciprofloxacin gave synergistic activity, which proved to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of ulcer-forming S. flexneri , healing the colon ulcer, and decreasing infiltration of the lamina propria with inflammatory cells. (jidc.org)
  • Apical invasion by S. flexneri is very limited but increases 10-fold when enteroids are differentiated to include M cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Implantation of hybridoma cells in the back of mice, resulting in the development of a myeloma tumor producing mIgA in the serum and subsequently secretory mIgA in local secretions, or direct intranasal administration of these antibodies, protected the animals against subsequent intranasal challenge with S. flexneri serotype 5a. (rupress.org)
  • Invasive bacterial pathogens such as Shigella flexneri force their uptake into non-phagocytic host cells. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The protective effects of interferon-{dollar}\gamma{dollar} could be reproduced in vitro by activating S. flexneri infected cells with this cytokine. (yu.edu)
  • Such vaccines include live attenuated vaccines ( 25 , 32 ) and delivery of Shigella LPS or O polysaccharides with carriers such as proteosomes ( 28 ), tetanus toxoid ( 6 ), or ribosomes ( 16 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Manifestation of clinical complications in S. flexneri infected patients such as shigellosis (watery diarrhoea with mild vomiting), reactive arthritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome [ 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • These data will be useful in the future development and evaluation of Shigella vaccines. (yu.edu)
  • 4 ], an increasing number of resistant Shigella strains are found [ 5 ], with livestock farming as a potential source [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Cephalosporin-resistant Shigella flexneri over 9 years (2001-09) in India. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of all the Shigella flexneri , 75.8% were resistant to nalidixic acid, and 37.0% were categorized as norfloxacin resistant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conventional treatment regimens for Shigella have been less effective due to the development of resistant strains against antibiotics. (bvsalud.org)