A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.
Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in fish and other aquatic animals and in a variety of mammals, including man. Its organisms probably do not belong to the normal intestinal flora of man and can cause diarrhea.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TRIMETHOPRIM.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for actin-based motility of vaccinia but not Listeria or Shigella. (1/669)

Studies of the actin-based motility of pathogens have provided important insights into the events occurring at the leading edge of motile cells [1] [2] [3]. To date, several actin-cytoskeleton-associated proteins have been implicated in the motility of Listeria or Shigella: vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), vinculin and the actin-related protein complex of Arp2 and Arp3 [4] [5] [6] [7]. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of actin-tail assembly, we examined the localization of components of the actin cytoskeleton including Arp3, VASP, vinculin and zyxin during vaccinia, Listeria and Shigella infections. The most striking difference between the systems was that a phosphotyrosine signal was observed only at the site of vaccinia actin-tail assembly. Micro-injection experiments demonstrated that a phosphotyrosine protein plays an important role in vaccinia actin-tail formation. In addition, we observed a phosphotyrosine signal on clathrin-coated vesicles that have associated actin-tail-like structures and on endogenous vesicles in Xenopus egg extracts which are able to nucleate actin tails [8] [9]. Our observations indicate that a host phosphotyrosine protein is required for the nucleation of actin filaments by vaccinia and suggest that this phosphoprotein might be associated with cellular membranes that can nucleate actin.  (+info)

Interactions between vaccinia virus IEV membrane proteins and their roles in IEV assembly and actin tail formation. (2/669)

The intracellular enveloped form of vaccinia virus (IEV) induces the formation of actin tails that are strikingly similar to those seen in Listeria and Shigella infections. In contrast to the case for Listeria and Shigella, the vaccinia virus protein(s) responsible for directly initiating actin tail formation remains obscure. However, previous studies with recombinant vaccinia virus strains have suggested that the IEV-specific proteins A33R, A34R, A36R, B5R, and F13L play an undefined role in actin tail formation. In this study we have sought to understand how these proteins, all of which are predicted to have small cytoplasmic domains, are involved in IEV assembly and actin tail formation. Our data reveal that while deletion of A34R, B5R, or F13L resulted in a severe reduction in IEV particle assembly, IEVs formed by the DeltaB5R and DeltaF13L deletion strains, but not DeltaA34R, were still able to induce actin tails. The DeltaA36R deletion strain produced normal amounts of IEV particles, although these were unable to induce actin tails. Using several different approaches, we demonstrated that A36R is a type Ib membrane protein with a large, 195-amino-acid cytoplasmic domain exposed on the surface of IEV particles. Finally, coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that A36R interacts with A33R and A34R but not with B5R and that B5R forms a complex with A34R but not with A33R or A36R. Using extracts from DeltaA34R- and DeltaA36R-infected cells, we found that the interaction of A36R with A33R and that of A34R with B5R are independent of A34R and A36R, respectively. We conclude from our observations that multiple interactions between IEV membrane proteins exist which have important implications for IEV assembly and actin tail formation. Furthermore, these data suggest that while A34R is involved in IEV assembly and organization, A36R is critical for actin tail formation.  (+info)

Host cell death due to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli has features of apoptosis. (3/669)

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a cause of prolonged watery diarrhea in children in developing countries. The ability of EPEC to kill host cells was investigated in vitro in assays using two human cultured cell lines, HeLa (cervical) and T84 (colonic). EPEC killed epithelial cells as assessed by permeability to the vital dyes trypan blue and propidium iodide. In addition, EPEC triggered changes in the host cell, suggesting apoptosis as the mode of death; such changes included early expression of phosphatidylserine on the host cell surface and internucleosomal cleavage of host cell DNA. Genistein, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, and wortmannin, an inhibitor of host phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, markedly increased EPEC-induced cell death and enhanced the features of apoptosis. EPEC-induced cell death was contact dependent and required adherence of live bacteria to the host cell. A quantitative assay for EPEC-induced cell death was developed by using the propidium iodide uptake method adapted to a fluorescence plate reader. With EPEC, the rate and extent of host cell death were less that what has been reported for Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia, three other genera of enteric bacteria known to cause apoptosis. However, rapid apoptosis of the host cell may not favor the pathogenic strategy of EPEC, a mucosa-adhering, noninvasive pathogen.  (+info)

Safety and immunogenicity of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a O-specific polysaccharide conjugates in children. (4/669)

O-specific polysaccharide conjugates of shigellae were safe and immunogenic in young adults, and a Shigella sonnei conjugate conferred protection [1-3]. Shigellosis is primarily a disease of children; therefore, the safety and immunogenicity of S. sonnei and Shigella flexneri 2a conjugates were studied in 4- to 7-year-old children. Local and systemic reactions were minimal. The first injection of both conjugates elicited significant rises in geometric mean levels of serum IgG only to the homologous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (S. sonnei, 0.32-8.25 ELISA units [EU]; S. flexneri 2a, 1.15-20.5 EU; P<.0001). Revaccination at 6 weeks induced a booster response to S. flexneri 2a LPS (20.5-30.5 EU, P=.003). Six months later, the geometric mean levels of IgG anti-LPS for both groups were higher than the prevaccination levels (P<.0001). Similar, but lesser, rises were observed for IgM and IgA anti-LPS. The investigational Shigella conjugates were safe and immunogenic in children and merit evaluation of their efficacy.  (+info)

IpaC induces actin polymerization and filopodia formation during Shigella entry into epithelial cells. (5/669)

Shigella proteins that are targeted to host cells by a type III secretion apparatus are essential for reorganization of the cytoskeleton during cell invasion. We have developed a semi-permeabilized cell assay that tests the effects of bacterial proteins on the actin cytoskeleton. The Shigella IpaC protein was found to induce the formation of filopodial and lamellipodial extensions in these semi-permeabilized cells. Microinjection of IpaC into cells, or cellular expression of IpaC also led to the formation of filopodial structures. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the C-terminus of IpaC inhibited the IpaC-induced extensions, whereas an anti-N-terminal IpaC mAb stimulated extensive lamellae formation. Shigella induced foci of actin polymerization in the permeabilized cells and these were inhibited by anti-C-terminal IpaC mAbs. Consistent with a role for IpaC in Shigella-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements during entry, stable transfectants expressing IpaC challenged with Shigella showed increased bacterial internalization. IpaC-induced extensions were inhibited by a dominant-interfering form of Cdc42 or the Cdc42-binding domain of WASP, whereas a dominant-interfering form of Rac resulted in inhibition of lamellae formation. We conclude that IpaC leads to activation of Cdc42 which in turn, causes activation of Rac, both GTPases being required for Shigella entry.  (+info)

Shigellosis and Escherichia coli diarrhea: relative importance of invasive and toxigenic mechanisms. (6/669)

Shigellae and dysentery-like Escherichia coli must invade the epithelium of the colon to cause disease which can present as dysentery, diarrhea, or both. This paper addresses the possible role of a Shigella dysenteriae-like (Shiga-like) toxin in the pathogenesis of shigellosis and E. coli diarrheal diseases. The possibility for such a role is suggested by the following observations: 1) diarrhea, considered to be a result of secretion of water by the small bowel, is frequently observed in shigellosis, a large bowel disease. 2) Even though shigellae do not invade the jejunum of monkeys fed Shigella flexneri, jejunal secretion is seen in animals with diarrhea. 3) The Shiga toxin of S. dysenteriae has enterotoxic activity and other serotypes of shigellae produce Shiga-like toxins. 4) E. coli 015 RDEC-1 causes a diarrheal disease and frequently death in young rabbits. This organism neither produces E. coli enterotoxins nor is it invasive, but it may produce low levels of a Shiga-like toxin.  (+info)

Interaction of Shiga toxins with human brain microvascular endothelial cells: cytokines as sensitizing agents. (7/669)

Neurologic abnormalities are among the most serious extraintestinal complications of infection with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing bacteria. Histopathologic examination of tissues from patients with extraintestinal sequelae suggested that Stxs damage endothelial cells. It is shown here that human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) are relatively resistant to purified Stxs (50% cytotoxic doses [CD50s] >/=10 microgram/mL). Pretreatment of HBMECs with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, n-butyric acid, or a cAMP analogue resulted in a 103- to 104-fold decrease in CD50 values and a 2- to 4-fold increase in fluoresceinated Stx binding to HBMECs. Treatment of HBMECs with lipopolysaccharides did not significantly alter cytotoxicity or toxin binding. TNF-alpha and IL-1beta treatment was associated with the increased HBMEC expression of the toxin-binding glycolipid globotriaosylceramide. HBMECs did not produce IL-1beta and produced only trace amounts of TNF-alpha when stimulated with purified Stx1 in vitro.  (+info)

Typing and characterization of mechanisms of resistance of Shigella spp. isolated from feces of children under 5 years of age from Ifakara, Tanzania. (8/669)

Eighty-six strains of Shigella spp. were isolated during the dry season from stool samples of children under 5 years of age in Ifakara, Tanzania. The epidemiological relationship as well as the antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole were investigated. Four different epidemiological tools, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR, plasmid analysis, and antibiogram, were compared for typing Shigella strains. Seventy-eight (90%) strains were Shigella flexneri and were distributed into four groups, by either PFGE or REP-PCR, with 51, 17, 7, and 3 strains. The four strains of Shigella dysenteriae belonged to the same group, and the four strains of Shigella sonnei were distributed in two groups with three and one strain each. Plasmid analysis showed a high level of heterogeneity among strains belonging to the same PFGE group, while the antibiogram was less discriminative. REP-PCR provided an alternative, rapid, powerful genotyping method for Shigella spp. Overall, antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed a high level of resistance to ampicillin (81.8%), chloramphenicol (72.7%), tetracycline (96.9%), and co-trimoxazole (87.9%). Ampicillin resistance was related to an integron-borne OXA-1-type beta-lactamase in 85.1% of the cases and to a TEM-1-type beta-lactamase in the remaining 14.8%. Resistance to co-trimoxazole was due to the presence of a dhfr Ia gene in all groups except one of S. flexneri, where a dhfr VII gene was found within an integron. Chloramphenicol resistance was associated in every case with positive chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. All strains were susceptible to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefoxitin. Therefore, these antimicrobial agents may be good alternatives for the treatment of diarrhea caused by Shigella in Tanzania.  (+info)

The differentiation between Shigella subspecies, and the phylogenetic position of Shigella clones within Escherichia coli clones was determined by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms of rDNA (ribotyping). Seventy-five Shigella strains belonging to the four subspecies and 13 enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) strains were compared with the 72 E. coli strains of the ECOR collection, which have been classified into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D). Seventeen Shigella dysenteriae ribotypes, 12 Shigella flexneri ribotypes, 23 Shigella boydii ribotypes, 12 Shigella sonnei ribotypes and 13 EIEC ribotypes were identified following digestion with HindIII and EcoRI. Correspondence analysis of the data showed that S. boydii serotype 13 strains were distantly related to the other Shigella strains, and that S. sonnei and S. flexneri were distinct from S. boydii and S. dysenteriae. The ribotypes of Shigella and ECOR strains were indistinguishable, and S. sonnei, S. flexneri and most S.
Shigella is a major cause of dysentery across the world. Appropriate antibiotic treatment of shigellosis depends on resistance patterns. The present study was conducted to identify Shigella species and their antibiotic resistance patterns among dysenteric patients in Rezaei Hospital of Damghan. Isolation of Shigella species was conducted by specific culture medium and biochemical tests. The Shigella species were determined by specific antiserum with agglutination on slide. Then, susceptibility to different antibiotics, i. e. nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, tetracycline, co-trimoxazole and ceftriaxone, was tested. The antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out using the Kirby-Bauer standard method on Mueller-Hinton agar.In this study, 29 Shigella species were found in 91 stool samples of the patients. Determination of Shigella spp. by specific antiserum showed S. flexneri (group B) in 13 cases, S. dysenteriae (group A) in 10 cases, and S. sonnei (group D) in 6 cases, while no case of S.
One hundred and two strains representing the four species of the genus Shigella and sixtyfour strains representing fourteen other genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae were tested for 192 characters based on their morphology, biochemistry and physiology. These data were subjected to a number of numerical analyses. The results (confirmed by the use of overlap statistics) showed that four taxonomically-valid taxa are present within the genus Shigella. These correspond with the species S. sonnei, S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. dysenteriae. On the basis of the results, the latter three species have been redefined. Of the other bacteria studied, the Alkalescens-Dispar group was most closely related to the genus Shigella and the need for this group to be studied further is noted. The importance of using computer-based matrices for the identification of strains of Shigella and other genera is discussed. Strains of the genus Providencia clustered separately from the shigellae. Three distinct species ...
Aim: To isolate and identify Shigella species from faecal samples based on cultural and biochemical tests. Material and Methods: For the isolation of Shigella spp., faecal samples from cattle, poultry and humans were collected from various locations of Pantnagar. Fecal specimens were processed according to standard protocols. Results: Out of 511 fecal samples (311 human, 100 cattle and 100 poultry faecal samples) analyzed, 8 isolates of Shigella species were confirmed on the basis of Gram stain, morphology, cultural identification and biochemical characters. All the 8 Shigella isolates were obtained from human stool samples giving a prevalence rate of 2.57%. Conclusion: Under the conditions of the current study, Shigella species were prevalent in human population although in small numbers, whereas it was not isolated from cattle and poultry samples.
Despite a significant global burden of disease, there is still no vaccine against shigellosis widely available. One aim of the European Union funded STOPENTERICS consortium is to develop vaccine candidates against Shigella. Given the importance of translational vaccine coverage, here we aimed to characterise the Shigella strains being used by the consortium by whole genome sequencing, and report on the stability of strains cultured in different laboratories or through serial passage. We sequenced, de novo assembled and annotated 20 Shigella strains being used by the consortium. These comprised 16 different isolates belonging to 7 serotypes, and 4 derivative strains. Derivative strains from common isolates were manipulated in different laboratories or had undergone multiple passages in the same laboratory. Strains were mapped against reference genomes to detect SNP variation and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The genomes assembled into similar total lengths (range 4.14-4.83 Mbp) and had similar
Summary Techniques were developed and tested for sampling unbaited domestic flies both outdoors and indoors to determine the natural occurrence of Shigella organisms. A total of 65,273 flies collected outdoors yielded 69 isolations of Shigella and 5,664 flies collected indoors yielded 12 isolations of Shigella. Comparison of rate of isolations from flies with rate of recovery by the rectal swab technique indicated that the indices from flies generally paralleled the indices from humans, but that they were too low to provide a sufficiently sensitive and effective means of measuring Shigella prevalence. Sampling of flies might be used to advantage in certain situations where high fly populations or high Shigella prevalence occurs. Eleven different types of Shigella were isolated from flies and the same 11 types were isolated from human sources. Associations in time, location, and Shigella type were noted. Musca domestica was the most abundant species of fly collected and most common in Shigella-positive
Hale, Thomas L. Genetic Basis of Virulence in Shigella Species. Dept. of Enteric Infections, Walter Reed Amry Institute of Research. Washington, D. C.: American Society for Microbiology, 1991. 206-224. 10 Nov. 2006 ,http://mmbr.asm.org/cgi/reprint/55/2/206.pdf,. Hale, Thomas L., and Gerald T. Keusch. Shigella. GSBS At UTMB. The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at UTMB. 10 Nov. 2006 ,http://www.gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch022.htm,. Sivapalasingam, S. High Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance among Shigella Isolates in the United States Tested by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System from 1999 to 2002. PubMed Central. New York, NY: NYU School of Medicine, 2006. 17 Nov. 2006 ,http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=16377666#N0x84ceb98.0x92357c0#N0x84ceb98.0x92357c0,. Sureshbabu, Jaya, and Poothirikovil Venugopalan. Shigella Infection. EMedicine From WebMD. 12 Sept. 2006. WebMD. 10 Nov. 2006 ,http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic2085.htm,. ...
The bile salts may crystallize over time. Salmonella Shigella (SS) Agar is not intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions in humans. Colorless colonies with no blackening where as Salmonella colonies are colorless with black centers due to ability producing hydrogen sulfide. Bu besiyerinde Salmonella kolonilerinin Shigella kolonilerinden ayrımı besiyerinde koloni etrafındaki renk değişiminin Salmonella da sarı, Shigella da kırmızı olması ile yapılır. Composition of Salmonella-Shigella (SS) Agar (Himedia) Ingredients Gms / Litre APHA yönergelerine uygundur. XLD Agar (Merck 1.05287) Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar . to grow. Neutral red turns red in the presence of an acidic pH, thus showing fermentation has occurred. in a laboratory setting. Salmonella Shigella (SS) Agar is moderately selective and differential medium for the isolation, cultivation and differentiation of Salmonella spp. Salmonella Shigella Agar The medium is widely used in sanitary ...
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Shigella spp. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Serogroup A: S. dysenteriae, serogroup B: S. flexneri, serogroup C: S. boydii, serogroup D: S. sonnei, shigellosis, and bacillary dysentery. CHARACTERISTICS: Shigella spp., of the Enterobacteriaceae family, are gram-negative rod-shaped pathogenic bacteria (1). They are non-motile, non-encapsulated, and facultative anaerobes that do not ferment lactose, or do so slowly. Different serogroups, considered as species, can be differentiated by their biochemical properties, phage or colicin susceptibility, and polyvanlent antisera can detect specific polysaccharide antigens (2, 3). S. dysenteriae is considered the most virulent, and can produce a potent cytotoxin known as Shigatoxin (4).. SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Ingested pathogens can survive gastric acidity and cause illness by infecting the colonic mucosa and multiplying in the colonic ...
Diarrheal diseases afflict a significant number of the worlds population each year. Estimates of disease caused by Shigella spp. on a yearly basis worldwide range from 164.7 to 200 million people infected, with nearly 1.1 million deaths attributed to this pathogen. Destruction of the intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal inflammation is a consequence of the hosts polymorphonuclear leukocytes and a subsequent recruitment influx of chemokines and cytokines at the sites of Shigella invasion. Shigellosis is a highly communicable disease due in part to the rapid spread of the pathogen within certain populations, particularly in crowded communities and/or in environments with poor sanitary conditions. The primary means of human-to-human transmission of Shigella is by the fecal-oral route. Most cases of shigellosis are caused by the ingestion of fecal-contaminated food or water. Surveillance of food-borne illnesses caused by Shigella spp. continues in many countries, with many reporting to a central
The invasive bacteria Shigella species and entero-invasive E. coli (EIEC) can cause gastroenteritis, and share a similar invasive nature. From results of food related outbreaks, a few in-vitro and in-vivo experiments with a limited number of strains, it appears that the symptoms of infections with Shigella and EIEC are comparable, only EIEC has a higher infection dose. Shigella species and EIEC are not compared with each other in a large prospective study, to our knowledge. Little is known about the incidence and course of infection of EIEC. Infections with Shigella species are notifiable in the Netherlands and infections with EIEC are not, even though differences between them are not clear. Next to this, diagnostics poses a problem, because Shigella species and EIEC are genetically related, they are difficult to distinguish with commonly used molecular diagnostics. Culturing, extensive phenotypic identification and serotyping are needed for identification. These labor-intensive and not ...
Annually 163 mio. people are affected by bacillary dysentery, an acute inflammatory bowel disease, caused by Shigella bacteria. Shigella have the ability to invade the colonic epithelium in humans, thereby causing an acute mucosal inflammation. The invasive phenotype is encoded on a virulence plasmid. The expression of the so-called invasion genes is controlled by a virulence factor VirF. The translation of the virF mRNA depends on the activity of a tRNA modifying enzyme - the tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT). TGT-mutants of Shigella are almost unable to penetrate host cells. In the first part of this work, the pathogenicity factor genes ipaA, ipgB2, ospD1, spa15, and ipgE, which are required at different points of the Shigella invasion mechanism, were cloned into several plasmid vectors and expressed in E. coli. In case of IpaA, OspD1, and IpgB2 only insoluble protein was obtained while in case of IpgE a purification protocol could be successfully established. Purified IpgE was identified ...
Hendriks, Amber C.A.; Reubsaet, Frans A.G.; Kooistra-Smid, A.M.D.; Rossen, John W.A.; Dutilh, B.E. ; Zomer, A.L.; Beld, Maaike J.C. van den ...
Shigella infection is a disease of the intestine caused by the shigella family of bacteria. Diarrhea is one of the symptoms of shigella infection, which is bloody in most cases. This is the forum for discussing anything related to this health condition
Iron is an essential element in the metabolism of many organisms, including bacteria. In many pathogenic bacteria, the levels of iron present trigger the expression of many virulence genes. In Shigella, a gram-negative bacterium that causes dysentery in humans, the expression of a small regulatory RNA, ryhB, is blocked in the presence of iron. Studies have revealed that ryhB represses virB, a global regulator of virulence genes in Shigella. The icsP gene is under the direct control of VirB. icsP encodes an outer membrane protease that cleaves a protein necessary for the actin tail assembly of Shigella in vitro. In vivo, this actin tail enables the pathogenic Shigella to spread intracellularly. Because most of the iron is complexed inside host cells, the intracellular compartment is considered an iron-poor environment. The aim of this project is to determine whether iron levels influence the regulation of icsP through VirB. Based on previous studies done on ryhB, I hypothesize that ryhB regulates icsP
A primate colony comprising three distinct but interrelated units had long-term history of undiagnosed diarrhea and associated deaths for many years. In 1989, the clinical problem was recognized as a confounding factor for the experimental work, and steps were taken to eradicate the disease. This was done by a combined approach involving improved sample collection techniques and microbiological methods, treatment of all animals in the colony, and improvement in management. These management changes included alterations in basic facility and cage design, disinfection procedures, and continuous routine microbiological sampling of all groups of animals on a random basis, as well as sampling of those suspected to be at risk for stress-associated Shigella shedding. Using this approach, we have eliminated clinical cases of shigellosis and have not have any further isolations of Shigella from this colony ...
ABSTRACT              Background and Objectives: The emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Shigella spp. is becoming a health concern worldwide. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance pattern and frequency of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes among Shigella isolates from patients in hospitals of Tehran, Iran.              Methods: In this cross-sectional study, ...
GN Broth was originally developed by Hajna to improve the recovery of Salmonella and Shigella from clinical and non-clinical specimens. Hajna recommended specimens be enriched in GN Broth 1-6 hours prior to plating on a solid medium.(7) Hajnas formulation employed an increased amount of mannitol over dextrose. This formulation produced an accelerated growth of Salmonella and Shigella while limiting the growth of Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Inhibitory chemicals in the medium allow normal fecal flora to be maintained in a prolonged lag phase. The Shigella and Salmonella are less inhibited and enter a log or stimulated phase of growth during the first few hours of incubation. Casein and meat peptones provide amino acids and other nitrogenous substances to support bacterial growth. Dextrose and mannitol supply the energy source. The pH of the medium is maintained by phosphate buffers and osmotic equilibrium is maintained by sodium chloride. Gram-positive microorganisms and early ...
But onto the title of post. As someone who has spent most of his career* studying bacterial evolution, many evolutionary debates focus on those organisms, which are at most, ten percent of the earths biomass (eukaryotes). When one considers bacteria, there are single events that radically change an organisms ecology-whether one wants to call these hopeful monsters or not, I leave to the reader.. Ive posted before about the evolution of Shigella, which is nothing more than several pathogenic lineages of E. coli, so I wont revisit that topic in detail. For a commensal E. coli to become Shigella, a critical step is the acquisition of a virulence plasmid. This plasmid (a mini-chromosome roughly ~3% the size of the E. coli genome) confers various traits on the bacterium, including the ability to stick to certain tissue types, and to produce an enterotoxin that causes bloody diarrhea. These plasmid-bearing bacteria are not Shigella. They are facultative pathogens-they can cause disease, but dont ...
Quantitative PCR for Detection of Shigella Improves Ascertainment of Shigella Burden in Children with Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Low-Income ...
Microbiology Unknown Identification Chart Oberteil Charts Shigella Shigella Identification Flow Chart Flowcharts shigella identification flow chart Flowchart program is a diagram that uses a set of standard graphic symbols to represent the sequence of coded instructions fed into a computer, enabling it to perform specified logical and arithmetical operations. It is a great tool to improve work efficiency. There are four basic symbols in program flowchart, start, process, decision and end. Each symbol represents a piece of the code written for the program. Find Your Next Flowcharts
Shigella antiseraSSI Diagnostica offers a wide range of Shigella antisera.Clinical relevanceShigella infections (shigellosis) can cause both bloo
Three hundred people are now suspected of having shigella in Grayson County, according to health officials.. According to local press reports, it started among students at Sherman ISD, spread to Denison ISD and then to people in Van Alstyne and Pottsboro.. One of the most recent confirmed cases is a 5-year-old girl at Bells elementary…. ...
o Attendees should be held out until on appropriate antibiotics for 48 hours and symptom free for 24 hours before returning. If the child is not placed on antibiotics, 1 negative stool culture would be required before returning. Food handlers and child and patient care providers o Because of the small infective dose, patients with known Shigella infections should not be employed to handle food or to provide child or patient care until 2 successive fecal samples (collected 24 hours apart, but no sooner than 48 hours after discontinuance of antimicrobials) are found to be Shigella-free. Patients must be told of the importance and effectiveness of hand washing with soap and water after defecation as a means of curtailing transmission of Shigella. Patients should not participate in recreational water activities (e.g. swimming pools, water parks, splash parks) for 1 week after symptoms resolve. Providers may opt to give a copy of the Shigella fact sheet to their patients (page 2 of this Advisory). ...
Detection of microbial contamination in foods before they go on to the market can help prevent the occurrence of foodborne illness outbreaks
View Notes - unknown #2 from MIC 206 at ASU. Introduction: This lab was intended to differentiate between Salmonella and Shigella. The unknown 2 is a broth mixture of Proteus, E. coli, and either
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Study Flashcards On Salmonella and Shigella at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
I was with a male escort in Dublin who I found on this site last week and ended up in hospital for a few days with an infection called Shigella. It...
O Shigella bacteriano do micróbio patogénico, frequentemente propagação através do alimento contaminado ou água, é uma causa principal da mortalidade em crianças e em uns adultos mais velhos no mundo
Shigellosis, atau disentri basiler, adalah disentri yang disebabkan oleh infeksi Shigella dysentery bacilli di dalam usus dan rektum. Pertanda utama infeksi Shigella adalah diare dan feses berdarah. Shigella dapat menyebar melalui kontak langsung dengan bakteri dalam feses atau makanan yang terkontaminasi. Shigellosis kebanyakan menyerang anak berusia di antara 2-4 tahun. Penyakit ini sebagian besar tersebar di…
Several pathogenic bacterial species evolved to invade, reside in, and replicate inside the cytosol of their host cells. One adaptation common to most cytosolic bacterial pathogens is the ability to coopt the hosts actin polymerization machinery in order to generate force for intracellular movement. This actin-based motility enables Gram-negative bacteria, such as Shigella species, to propel themselves into neighboring cells,... ...
Bacterial pathogens are exposed to a variety of stressful conditions while spreading to and colonizing new hosts to cause infection. Gastrointestinal pathogens such as Campylobacter, Escherichia, Helicobacter, Listeria, Salmonella, and Shigella species encounter numerous stresses during host colonization and infection. During transit through the gastrointestinal tract these pathogens are exposed to physical stresses (pH and osmotic stresses) as well as noxious substances (reactive oxygen and nitrosative species). Bacteria respond to these stresses by altering their transcriptome/proteome in an adaptive manner to either overcome the stress or resist the stress long enough to transition to more favorable conditions. The following sections will present the current state of knowledge for each stress response mentioned above and how these defenses contribute to bacterial virulence.
The gatekeeper-chaperone complex is needed for efficient translocator secretion.A. T3S was induced from wild type and mxiC mutant Shigella strains. M90T is a wi
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; Enterobacteriaceae; Shigella; Shigella ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; Enterobacteriaceae; Shigella; Shigella ...
We would like to share with you a short story on our recent paper and how all our work began. We focus on our very personal and subjective experience, limited our views to only a small portion of the research related in our paper. We hope you find it fun; we did!
Shigellosis causes over one million fatalities with more than 160 million patients with shigellosis. Most of these patients were under 5 years (1, 2). Shigella infection occurs through the mouth and intestines. Accumulation of 10 to 100 of these bacteria could cause shigellosis (3). Shigella is categorized to 4 groups, through biochemical and O antigen characteristics, including S. dysenteriae (group A), Shigellaflexneri (group B), Shigella boydii (group C), and Shigella sonnei (group D) (4-6). Shigella cells include a virulent plasmid that encodes genes that are necessary for attacking Intestinal mucosal cells (7). However, there is some pathogenicity islands in Shigella chromosomes that could play important roles in Pathogenicity (8). All Shigella strains include a large virulent plasmid with 180 to 215 kb of size, which is necessary for Shigella pathogenicity (9, 10).. Pandemic epidemic of S. dysenteriae in central America led to a total of 112000 cases and 10000 deaths in Guatemala from 1969 ...
Shigella boydii is a Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Shigella. Like other members of the genus, S. boydii is a nonmotile, nonsporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium which can cause dysentery in humans through fecal-oral contamination.[page needed] S. boydii is the most genetically divergent species of the Shigella genus. There are 19 known serotypes of Shigella boydii. S. boydii is restricted to the Indian subcontinent. The species is named after the American bacteriologist Mark Frederick Boyd. S. boydii strain BS512 (serotype 18; group 1) has one chromosome and five plasmids. Ryan, Kenneth James; Ray, C. George, eds. (2004). Sherris medical microbiology: an introduction to infectious diseases (4 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional Med/Tech. ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0. Feng L; Senchenkova SN; Yang J; Shashkov AS; Tao J; Guo H; Zhao G; Knirel YA; Reeves P; Wang L (2004). Structural and Genetic Characterization of the Shigella boydii Type 13 O Antigen. Journal of Bacteriology. 186 (2): 383-392. ...
Another name for Shigella Infection is Shigella Infection. The evaluation of a shigella infection begins with a history and physical exam. Physical findings ...
Shigella flexneri is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of causing dysentery, a condition that afflicts many around the world, especially in developing countries. There are several aspects of Shigella pathogenesis that are not well understood, including a number of genetic and cellular changes that allow Shigella to adapt to stresses encountered while invading and replicating within the eukaryotic cytosol. It was the goal of this research to examine the roles of iscSUA and suf, gene systems predicted to encode for iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis proteins, in Shigella surviving exposure to oxidative stress agents and during Shigella invasion and plaque formation in a human colon cell line. An S. flexneri strain containing a deletion mutation in the iscSUA genes (UR022) was created and an earlier constructed S. flexneri strain containing a deletion mutation in the entire suf operon (UR011) was verified. Both mutant strains were less resistant to hydrogen
Shigella infection is triggered by a bacterium. Bloody diarrhea tends to be the common symptom of shigella infection. Find out how it is treated.
Abstract : Bacillary dysentery and acute gastroenteritis caused by infection of Shigella species are major public healthburden in India and its neighboring countries. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens to render current treatmentsineffective. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella boydii (S. boydii) withrespect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection(ATCC 9207) strain of S. boydii was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S.boydii. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. boydii were subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofieldtreatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 with respect to control (Gr. I). Sensitivity pattern ofamoxicillin/k-clavulanate was improved from intermediate (I) to susceptible (S) with correspond to MIC value was alsoreduced by two ...
Shigella is a low-infectious dose pathogen that can cause disease in healthy people. It causes a range of diseases from mild watery diarrhea to severe dysentery (shigellosis). The primary objective of this project was to isolate bacteriophage against Shigella dysenteriae and to recognize its different characteristics as an antimicrobial agent to determine the therapeutic potential. In this study, Shigella dysenteria specific bacteriophage was isolated and characterized to develop a therapeutic agent. A total number of 20 samples were collected for the study of this experiment. The samples were collected from different areas of Dhaka city. The samples were initially filtered and the double layer- ager method was used for the isolation of bacteriophages. For the characterization of bacteriophages, host range specificity tests were checked. After examination of the host range, the Shigella dysenteriae phage stated that it had a wide host range as it was able to lyse 5 out of 13 distinct bacterial ...
Seven plasmid-coded polypeptides, designated a through g, were identified by two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis of radiolabeled extracts from minicells of virulent Shigella flexneri serotypes 2a and 5 and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli O143. These polypeptides were deemed to be products of 140-megadalton (MDa) virulence-associated plasmids because they were not synthesized in minicells which were not harboring a 140-MDa plasmid or in minicells which were carrying an F lac plasmid of the same incompatibility group. Synthesis of these polypeptides was repressed in minicells incubated at 30 degrees C and in minicells isolated from a noninvasive opaque colonial variant, even though these strains harbored a 140-MDa plasmid. Enriched fractions of polypeptides b, c, and d were obtained from S. flexneri serotype 5 by preparative isoelectric focusing, and polyclonal rabbit antisera recognizing each polypeptide were raised. These antisera were able to detect cross-reacting ...
Abstract. To evaluate the performance of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) typing versus the current standard for the typing of Shigella pulsed gel electrophoresis (PFGE), we typed 116 Shigella isolates from a village in an endemic setting over a 20-month period using both methods. PFGE identified 37 pulse types and had a discrimination index of 0.925 (95% confidence interval = 0.830-1.00), whereas ERIC-PCR identified 42 types and had a discrimination index of 0.961 (95% confidence interval = 0.886-1.00). PFGE and ERIC-PCR showed a 90.4% correlation in the designation of isolates as clonal or non-clonal in pairwise comparisons. Both systems were highly reproducible and provided highly similar and supplementary data compared with serotyping regarding the transmission dynamics of shigellosis in this community. ERIC-PCR is considerably more rapid and inexpensive than PFGE and may have a complementary role to PFGE for initial investigations of
Until now, it has been generally accepted that IpaDs primary function in Shigella invasion is to associate with IpaB within the context of the Mxi/Spa type III secreton to form a plug that prevents or controls the release of the remaining Shigella effectors prior to pathogen contact with a host cell (21). Following activation of the Shigella TTSS, IpaB and IpaC form a translocon pore in the host cell membrane (3, 4). As an integral component of the translocon (3), IpaC may directly initiate the cytoskeletal rearrangements responsible for Shigella entry (18, 31, 36). Similarly, IpaB triggers apoptosis in macrophages (6) and may mediate host cell responses via interactions with CD44 (35). In contrast, IpaD is required for invasion, but it has not been implicated in triggering any specific events in host cells. Recently, it was proposed that IpaD may be involved in delivering IpaB into target cell membranes to initiate formation of the membrane-imbedded Ipa translocon, which then allows the ...
Shigella species sonnei, flexneri, and boydii are among the most important foodborne pathogens [1, 2]. Ingestion of food contaminated with these bacteria causes shigellosis within 12 - 48 hours. Fever, aches, fatigue and loss of appetite are the initial symptoms, which may be associated with watery diarrhea that, in turn, may develop into bloody stools or dysentery. A fatal hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), due to the production of Shiga toxin, may also develop in certain severe cases [3]. Shigella-related outbreaks occur through direct or indirect human fecal contamination and have been reported in both developed and developing countries wherever poor hygiene standards occur [4]. Food products such as salads, soft cheese, vegetables and meat products are usually reported as being associated with these outbreaks [3].. Lytic phages have been applied successfully to control the growth of various foodborne pathogens including Shigella[5]. They are able to attack sensitive bacteria and utilize their ...
Biochemical Test of Shigella flexneri -Basic Characteristics Properties (Shigella flexneri) Catalase Positive (+ve) Citrate Negative (-ve) Gas Positive (+ve) Gelatin Hydrolysis Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Negative (-ve) Growth in KCN Negative (-ve) H2S Negative (-ve) Indole Variable Motility Non-Motile MR (Methyl Red) Positive (+ve) Nitrate Reduction Positive (+ve) Oxidase Negative (-ve) Pigment Negative (-ve) Shape … Read more Biochemical Test of Shigella flexneri. ...
OBJECTIVE: To measure the proportion of nosocomial diarrhea cases associated with Salmonella and Shigella species. DESIGN: Prospective 6-month survey. SETTING: Tertiary care center in a developing country. PATIENTS: Pediatric and adult patients admitted with the previous 24 hours and all consenting adult or pediatric medical patients with nosocomial diarrhea. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella species isolated from rectal swabs at admission and among subjects with nosocomial diarrhea. RESULTS: Salmonella species and Shigella species were isolated from 3.0% and 2.5%, respectively, of 667 patients screened on admission. All admission Salmonella isolates were identified in children under 13 years of age; Shigella prevalence was similar for children and adults. Children with Salmonella at admission were significantly older and more likely to have diarrhea, fever, and some indicators of malnutrition than those from whom Salmonella was not isolated. Salmonella and Shigella were ...
Accumulating biochemical evidence has identified XIAP as a component of the NOD signaling cascade, implicating XIAP in immune inflammatory signaling (Krieg et al, 2009; Damgaard et al, 2012). However, the use of minimal peptidoglycan fragments to stimulate intracellular NOD signaling in these studies cannot fully account for the complexity of a bacterial infection. Our data now clearly implicate XIAP in NOD1‐mediated NF‐κB signaling upon infection with the Gram‐negative enteropathogenic bacterium Shigella, both in vivo and in vitro. Notably, our preliminary analyses in cIAP1‐ or cIAP2‐deficient cells showed no evidence for an involvement of other IAP members in Shigella‐induced NF‐κB activity (data not shown). Therefore, we here focused on the role of XIAP in the NOD‐mediated response to Shigella infection and its antagonization by SMAC. However, since cytosolic SMAC indiscriminately targets cIAPs (Supplementary Fig S2H), we cannot formally exclude the possibility that cIAPs ...
Children younger than 5 years are the most likely to get shigellosis, but people of all ages can get the disease 1. Many outbreaks are related to childcare settings and schools, because Shigella germs spread from young children to their family members and others in their community. Learn more about how to prevent Shigella infections in children below.. ...
In this study, we provide the first evidence that bacteria such as the enteropathogen Shigella flexneri control the epigenetic of their host by altering the activity of a chromatin reader, the HP1 protein. In an in vivo model of rectocolitis, we showed that the non‐invasive-albeit proinflammatory-mxiD Shigella mutant promotes pronounced HP1γ phosphorylation in the colon when compared to wild‐type Shigella. A phosphoproteome analysis of Toll‐like receptor‐activated macrophages reported that LPS caused major dynamic changes in the cell phosphorylation state, with sub‐data analysis indicating multiple phosphorylation sites on HP1γ, including S83 (Weintz et al, 2010). In the context of our in vivo model of colonic infection, one can reasonably conceived that bacterial challenge might directly-through LPS release-or indirectly initiated proinflammatory signaling cascade(s), leading to increase HP1γ phosphorylation at multiple residues, including the S83 residue monitored in our study. As ...
Many gram-negative bacterial pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, are able to translocate bacterial proteins, dubbed effectors, across the host cell plasma membrane into the host cell cytosol using a syringe-like structure, the type three secretion apparatus (T3SA). While some bacteria use their T3SA to modulate their phagosomal environment (Salmonella spp.), establish pedestal structure to form microcolonies on the plasma membrane (Enteropathogenic Escherichi coli) or lyse their entry vacuole (Shigella spp.), they all have in common a tightly regulated activity of their T3SA. However, the tracking of the activity of the T3SA in infected cells and tissue has been difficult to perform. Using the property of MxiE-dependent promoters that are upregulated when the T3SA is active, we have recently designed a transcription-based secretion activity reporter (TSAR) that allows the following of the activity of the S. flexneri T3SA in real-time in tissue culture cells and in vivo using fast maturing GFP
We identified 3 atypical Shigella flexneri varieties in China, including 92 strains with multidrug resistance, distinct pulse types, and a novel sequence type. Atypical varieties were prevalent mainly in developed regions, and 1 variant has become the dominant Shigella spp. serotype in China. Improved surveillance will help guide the prevention and control of shigellosis ...
Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive tract and cause a wide range of symptoms, from diarrhea, cramping, vomiting, and nausea, to more serious complications and illnesses.
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Shigella is an important human food-borne zoonosis bacterial pathogen, and can cause clinically severe diarrhea. There is an urgent need to develop a specific, sensitive and rapid methodology for detection of this pathogen. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with magnetic immunocapture assay(IC-LAMP) was first developed for the detection of Shigella in pure culture, artificial milk, and clinical stool samples. This method exhibited a detection limit of 8.7 CFU/mL. Compared with PCR, IC-LAMP is sensitive, specific, and reliable for monitoring Shigella. Additionally, IC-LAMP is more convenient, efficient, and rapid than ordinary LAMP, as it is more efficiently enriches pathogen cells without extraction of genomic DNA. Under isothermal conditions, the amplification curves and the green fluorescence were detected within 30 min in the presence of genomic DNA template. The overall analysis time was approximately 1h, including the enrichment and lysis of the bacterial cells,
Nicholas Thomson, a genomicist at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, first came to know of Cables lethal infection at a conference in October 2011. At the meeting, he met a woman named Philippa Pippa Bracegirdle, who worked in the archives of the UK National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC), the oldest collection of bacterial cultures in the world. Over a drink, Bracegirdle mentioned that the collection contained an isolate of Shigella, the dysentery-causing kin of E. coli that had killed Cable. Later identified as Shigella flexneri serotype 2a, it was the first bacterial isolate deposited in NCTCs now 5,000-sample-strong biobank ...
Nicholas Thomson, a genomicist at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, first came to know of Cables lethal infection at a conference in October 2011. At the meeting, he met a woman named Philippa Pippa Bracegirdle, who worked in the archives of the UK National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC), the oldest collection of bacterial cultures in the world. Over a drink, Bracegirdle mentioned that the collection contained an isolate of Shigella, the dysentery-causing kin of E. coli that had killed Cable. Later identified as Shigella flexneri serotype 2a, it was the first bacterial isolate deposited in NCTCs now 5,000-sample-strong biobank ...
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies 110395 in Shigella boydii CDC 3083-94. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of 110395.
During 2009, 79 culture-confirmed cases of Shigella infection (1.5 per 100,000 population) were reported (Figure 2). This represents a 75% decrease from the 311 cases reported in 2008, and a 67% decrease from the median number of cases reported annually from 1999 to 2008 (median, 238 cases; range, 68 to 904). In 2009, S. sonnei accounted for 46 (58%) cases, S. flexneri for 27 (34%), S. boydii for 4 (5%), and S. dysenteriae for 2 (3%). Cases ranged in age from 1 to 96 years (median, 16 years). Forty-six percent of cases were ≤10 years of age; children ≤5 years of age accounted for 30% of cases. Eighteen (23%) cases were hospitalized. Seventy-five percent of cases resided in the metropolitan area, including 33% in Hennepin County and 21% in Ramsey County. No outbreaks of shigellosis were identified in 2009.. Every twentieth Shigella isolate re-ceived at MDH is tested for antimicrobial resistance. Three isolates were tested in 2009; 100% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 33% were ...
Shigellosis, or bacillary dysentery, is an intestinal infection caused by Shigella, a genus of enterobacteria. Shigella are potential food-borne pathogens that are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate immune response. During basolateral entry into the host-cell cytoplasm, Shigella deliver a subset of effectors into the host cells through the type III secretion system. The effectors induce membrane ruffling through the stimulation of the Rac1-WAVE-Arp2/3 pathway, enabling bacterial entry into the epithelial cells. During multiplication within the cells, Shigella secrete another subset of effectors. VirG induces actin polymerization at one pole of the bacteria, allowing the bacteria to spread intracellularly and to infect adjacent cells. OspF, OspG and IpaH(9.8) downregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-8, helping bacteria circumvent the innate immune response ...
Shigella is a highly adapted human pathogen, mainly found in the developing world and causing a severe enteric syndrome. The highly sophisticated infectious strategy of Shigella banks on the capacity to invade the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause its inflammatory destruction. The cellular pathogenesis and clinical presentation of shigellosis are the sum of the complex action of a large number of bacterial virulence factors mainly located on a large virulence plasmid (pINV). The expression of pINV genes is controlled by multiple environmental stimuli through a regulatory cascade involving proteins and sRNAs encoded by both the pINV and the chromosome. The primary regulator of the virulence phenotype is VirF, a DNA-binding protein belonging to the AraC family of transcriptional regulators. The virF gene, located on the pINV, is expressed only within the host, mainly in response to the temperature transition occurring when the bacterium transits from the outer environment to the intestinal ...
On the 230-kilobase-pair (kb) virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri 2a strain YSH6000, at least seven separate genetic determinants have been identified. One of them, an approximately 4-kb region, virG, that is required for the Sereny reaction, was extensively studied to examine the role of the virG region. The phenotype of a VirG- mutant (M94) of YSH6000 in the cytoplasm of cultured MK cells was characterized by a kinetic study of the invading shigellae. The observed phenotype of M94 in the cytoplasm indicated that the virG locus is not required for multiplication of the invading shigellae, but is essential for their spread to adjacent cells. The DNA region necessary for the VirG function was localized to a 3.6-kb DNA sequence on the 230-kb plasmid. A 130-kilodalton polypeptide was confirmed to be the virG product. External labeling of bacteria with 125I indicated that the 130-kilodalton virG protein is exposed on the bacterial surface. The nucleotide sequence of 4,472 bp, which contains the ...
Shigella Blog covers news stories surrounding foodborne Shigella bacteria - recalls, outbreaks, litigation & food poisoning victim stories.
Shigellosis remains a serious and frequent disease throughout the world. Development of vaccines has been difficult because shigellae are habitants of and pathogens for humans only and there is no consensus about the mechanism(s) of immunity to this pathogen.. Incomplete, but compelling evidence, indicates that a critical level of serum IgG anti-LPS confers immunity to shigellosis. Important data come from our clinical trial in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) recruits. A randomized, double-blind, vaccine-controlled study showed that the S. sonnei-rEPA elicited 74% protection against shigellosis occurring about 3 months after vaccination (p=0.001). This vaccine conferred 43% (p=0.04) protection in one company during an outbreak up to 14 days following vaccination suggesting that our Shigella conjugates might be of value in epidemics. The efficacy of S. sonnei-rEPA was correlated with the level of vaccine-induced IgG antibodies.. The highest incidence, morbidity, and mortality of shigellosis is in ...
Every year 600,000 children under two years old in the developing world die because of infectious diarrhea. Shigella spp. are a major cause of diarrhea, stunted growth, and death in children in the developing world. The cost of antibiotics, the rise of antibiotic resistance, and side-effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiota have made phage therapy an attractive alternative to treating infections caused by bacteria like Shigella.. Exploring the potential that bacteriophages (phage) have as an alternative to combat Shigella is the goal of Nathan Brown and Marta Clokie, researchers at the University of Leicester, who are currently developing the in vivo work of this project in the Animal Facility of the University of Algarve, with the support of Vítor Fernandes, CBMR researcher.. These experiments will tell them if a simple phage cocktail can effectively treat Shigella flexneri 2a in vivo and how many possible effective phage cocktails can be prepared from a library of 300 phages. Over the ...
Questions about Shigella enteritis. Ask a doctor and get answers from experts in Shigella enteritis and gastro-enterology, general internal medicine, GP - general practice
Volunteers stool will be tested to see if the vaccine is present. This will tell whether the vaccine is able to stick to the intestine and grow there. We will see whether this information predicts the strength of the immune responses to the vaccine and whether the vaccine could potentially be passed to close contacts ...
Shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery in its most severe manifestation, is a foodborne illness caused by infection by bacteria of the genus Shigella.
Intestinal adherence factor favors colonization in vivo and in animal models. This is 97-kD outer-membrane protein (OMP) encoded by each gene on chromosomes. This codes for intimin protein, and an ant... more
Intestinal adherence factor favors colonization in vivo and in animal models. This is 97-kD outer-membrane protein (OMP) encoded by each gene on chromosomes. This codes for intimin protein, and an ant... more
BioAssay record AID 201598 submitted by ChEMBL: The relative ability of compound to promote the growth of Shigella flexneri SA 240, a strain lacking the ability to synthesize siderophores was measured as zone stimulation at concentration of 50 uM; NA=No activity.
Shigella flexneri ATCC ® 700930™ Designation: 2457T TypeStrain=False Application: Emerging infectious disease and enteric research
Shigella flexneri ATCC ® 700930™ Designation: 2457T TypeStrain=False Application: Emerging infectious disease and enteric research
VIENNA, 24-Sep-2020 - /EPR HEALTHCARE NEWS/ - Eveliqure Biotechnologies GmbH, an Austrian biotechnology company, today announces the initiation of clinical testing for its ShigETEC vaccine candidate, with the dosing of the first subject in a Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity study in Europe. ShigETEC is an orally administered vaccine candidate targeting Shigella and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), two of the major pathogens responsible for diarrhoeal diseases in travelers to endemic countries, as well as a major threat to children living in low- and middle- income countries.. Currently no effective vaccines against these two pathogens exist and previous attempts to develop vaccines against Shigella and ETEC have failed. Eveliqure has employed a radically innovative approach based on a live attenuated Shigella vaccine strain rationally designed to provide broad, serotype independent protection against both Shigella and ETEC, and is developing the vaccine for both travelers to endemic countries ...
Shigellosis is an infection of the intestines caused by Shigella bacteria. Signs and symptoms may range from mild abdominal discomfort to full-blown dysentery characterized by cramps, diarrhea, with slimy-consistent stools, fever, blood, pus, or mucus in stools or tenesmus. Discover the latest research on shigellosis here. ...
In 1999, a review of the literature for 1966-1997 suggested that ≈1.1 million persons die annually of shigellosis, including ≈880,000 in Asia. Our recent review of the literature for 1990-2009 indicates that ≈125 million shigellosis cases occur
Antibiotic therapy for Shigella dysentery Unchanged answers are found in the Cochrane Abstracts powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar is used for the isolation and differentiation of enteric pathogens. Conforms to Harmonized USP/EP/JP Requirements.
Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar is used for the isolation and differentiation of enteric pathogens. Conforms to Harmonized USP/EP/JP Requirements.
Shigella spp., E. coli, B. proteus, S. epidermidis and Staph. aureus, Cl. welchii, B. cereus and faecal streptococci. These ...
Shigella sonnei • Staphylococcus aerogenes • Staphylococcus Aureus • Streptococcus agalactiae • Streptococcus faecalis • ...
Shigella spp., and urinary tract infections that are caused by E. coli and Staphylococcus spp. Also the introduction of ...
Shigella). Organisms that ferment lactose display "nucleated colonies"-colonies with dark centers. This medium is important in ...
Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. are other common bacterial pathogens. Campylobacter, Yersinia, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas spp ... Several vaccine candidates targeting ETEC or Shigella are in various stages of development. One 2007 review found that ...
The most common triggers are intestinal infections (with Salmonella, Shigella or Campylobacter) and sexually transmitted ... Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., and Campylobacter spp. A bout of food poisoning or a gastrointestinal infection may also precede ... the disease (the last four genera of bacteria mentioned above are enteric bacteria). Shigella is the most common organism ...
They cite in support of this argument research published in 1973 that found that treating Shigella with the anti-diarrhea drug ... are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea, but infections by Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and some strains of Escherichia coli ... Dysentery is a symptom of, among others, Shigella, Entamoeba histolytica, and Salmonella. Diarrheal disease may have a negative ... New vaccines against rotavirus, Shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), and cholera are under development, as well ...
Shigella sp., Enterobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. The following represents minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ...
Shigella spp. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Staphylococcus saprophyticus Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ...
... between Shigella strains and Between Shigella and E. coli strains". Hihon Iji Shimpor (in Japanese). 1861: 34. CS1 maint: ... "Shigella sonnei". Infection and Immunity. 69 (12): 7588-7595. doi:10.1128/IAI.69.12.7588-7595.2001. Oliveira, PH; Touchon, M; ... "On the mechanism of the development of multiple-drug-resistant clones of Shigella". Jpn. J. Microbiol. 4 (2): 219-27. doi: ... coli through horizontal gene transfer via transduction with Shigella species of bacteria. Strategies to combat certain ...
It is particularly useful in isolating Salmonella and Shigella. Lysogeny broth MacConkey agar is a selective and differential ... Önöz agar allows more rapid bacteriological diagnosis, as Salmonella and Shigella colonies can be clearly and reliably ... Shigella, Proteus, etc.). R2A agar, a nonspecific medium, imitates water, so is used for water analysis. Tryptic (trypticase) ... are higher than those obtained with LEIFSON agar or Salmonella-Shigella agar. Phenylethyl alcohol agar selects for ...
If diarrhea is present, cultures of stool should be examined for enteropathogens (i.e., Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, ...
While some agents (such as Shigella) only occur in primates, others may occur in a wide variety of animals (such as Giardia). ... "Antibiotic therapy for Shigella dysentery". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (8): CD006784. doi:10.1002/14651858. ... Bacteria and protozoans that are amenable to treatment include Shigella Salmonella typhi, and Giardia species. In those with ... For example, vaccines against Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), two of the leading bacterial causes of ...
"Shigella Infections among Gay & Bisexual Men". Center For Disease Control. April 23, 2015. Archived from the original on July 4 ...
The invasion of the cells can trigger a mild form of diarrhea or dysentery, often mistaken for dysentery caused by Shigella ... It is closely related to Shigella. After the E. coli strain penetrates through the epithelial wall, the endocytosis vacuole ... Rolland K, Lambert-Zechovsky N, Picard B, Denamur E (September 1998). "Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli strains are ... "Molecular evolutionary relationships of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella spp". Infect. Immun. 72 (9): 5080-8. doi: ...
He had developed the LB medium to optimize Shigella growth and plaque formation. LB media formulations have been an industry ... Luria, S. E.; Burrous, J. W. (1957). "Hybridization between Escherichia coli and Shigella". J. Bacteriol. 74 (4): 461-476. PMC ...
Shigella flexneri at Who Named It? Griffen Jr, WO. "Jacob: the other Flexner". Ann Surg. 239 (6): 808-17. doi:10.1097/01.sla. ... The bacteria species Shigella flexneri was named in recognition of Flexner. In addition, Flexner was the first to describe ...
It is especially active against Shigella species., Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Branhamella catarrhalis, Haemophilus ...
"Hilleman Labs, NICED to develop Shigella Vaccine". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 18 April 2017. ... organization to develop a vaccine against Shigella, a bacteria that causes dysentery. Currently, there is no approved vaccine ...
Shigella is thought to cause bleeding due to invasion rather than toxin, because even non-toxogenic strains can cause dysentery ... For example, Shigella is a longstanding World Health Organization (WHO) target for vaccine development, and sharp declines in ... Insufficient data exists, but Shigella is estimated to have caused the death of 34,000 children under the age of five in 2013, ... Dysentery may also be caused by shigellosis, an infection by bacteria of the genus Shigella, and is then known as bacillary ...
Shigella in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. ... Vibrio cholerae (cholera) Clostridium difficile (pseudomembranous enterocolitis) Shigella (shigellosis / bacillary dysentery) ...
He also actively contributes to the development of vaccine candidates against the major shigellae causing dysentery in the ... Sansonetti's laboratory has notably shown that Shigella pathogenesis is imparted by a large virulence plasmid containing a ... demonstrated that Shigella kills macrophages by pyroptosis; identified that intracellular bacteria are detected by Nod proteins ... characterised the molecular mechanisms leading to Shigella epithelial cell invasion and intracellular motility; ...
She studied the toxins produced by Shigella dysenteriae. The main focus of Branham's work at the NIH, however, was meningitis. ... Broadly, Sara Branham's research was based in the field of infectious diseases, including influenza, salmonella, shigella, ...
Three species are associated with bacillary dysentery: Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae. A study in ... The term is usually restricted to Shigella infections. Shigellosis is caused by one of several types of Shigella bacteria. ... There are several Shigella vaccine candidates in various stages of development that could reduce the incidence of dysentery in ... 2005). "Genome dynamics and diversity of Shigella species, the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery". Nucleic Acids Res. 33 ...
Shigella flexneri use AI-2 to mediate virulence. The major virulence factor in Shigella is the plasmid vir B. The AI-2 ... It is likely the high concentrations of AI-2 produced by normal gut flora effect the production of AI-2 in Shigella and its ... 2016). Cell signaling Quorum sensing Day; Maurelli (2001). "Shigella flexneri LuxS Quorum-Sensing System Modulates virB ...
In 2001 images of NCs from Shigella flexneri were digitally analyzed and averaged to obtain a first semi-3D structure of the NC ... The helical structure of NCs from Shigella flexneri was resolved at a resolution of 16 Å using X-ray fiber diffraction in 2003 ... Hilbi H, Moss JE, Hersh D, Chen Y, Arondel J, Banerjee S, Flavell RA, Yuan J, Sansonetti PJ, Zychlinsky A (1998). "Shigella- ... One of the most researched T3SS effector is IpaB from Shigella flexneri. It serves a double role, both as a translocator, ...
Jankowski W, Mankowski T, Chojnacki T (1974). "Formation of polyprenol monophosphate glucose in Shigella flexneri". Biochim. ...
Shigella will thus remain "E. coli in disguise". In a similar way, the Bacillus species of the B. cereus-group (B. anthracis, B ... The bacterial genus Shigella is the cause of bacillary dysentery, a potentially severe infection that claim the lives of over a ... E. coli itself can also cause serious dysentery, but the difference in the genetic makeup between the E. coli and Shigella ... However, due to the medical conditions associated both with E. coli itself and with Shigella the current classification will ...
Lan, R; Reeves, PR (2002). "Escherichia coli in disguise: molecular origins of Shigella". Microbes and infection / Institut ...
Indeed, all Shigella species were placed within a single subspecies of E. coli in a phylogenomic study that included the type ... In fact, from the evolutionary point of view, the members of genus Shigella (S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. ... In fact, four different species of Shigella are nested among E. coli strains (vide supra), while E. albertii and E. fergusonii ... Sims GE, Kim SH (May 2011). "Whole-genome phylogeny of Escherichia coli/Shigella group by feature frequency profiles (FFPs)". ...
Shigella bacteria cause an infection called shigellosis. Most people with Shigella infection have diarrhea (sometimes bloody), ... Antibiotics can shorten the duration of illness (by about 2 days) and might help reduce the spread of Shigella to others. ...
Each of the Shigella genomes includes a virulence plasmid that encodes conserved primary virulence determinants. The Shigella ... are better placed in Shigella (see Escherichia coli#Diversity for details). Shigella infection is typically by ingestion. ... Shigella species invade the host through the M-cells interspersed in the gut epithelia of the small intestine, as they do not ... Hence, Shigella cells may cause dysentery. In rare cases, young children may have seizures. Symptoms can take as long as a week ...
Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans. Several ... "Shigella flexneri". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 623. Type strain of Shigella flexneri at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Ogawa M; Handa Y; Ashida H; Suzuki M; Sasakawa C (2008). "The versatility of Shigella effectors". Nature Reviews Microbiology. ... Peng, Junping; Yang, Jian; Jin, Qi (2011-04-05). "An Integrated Approach for Finding Overlooked Genes in Shigella". PLOS ONE. 6 ...
Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive tract and cause a wide range of symptoms, from diarrhea, cramping, vomiting ... Infecciones por Shigella. About Shigella. Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive tract and cause a wide range of ... Shigella can be passed in the persons stool for about 4 weeks even after the obvious symptoms of illness have resolved ( ... Shigella bacteria produce toxins that can attack the lining of the large intestine, causing swelling, ulcers on the intestinal ...
The-Zebrafish-as-a-New-Model-for-the-In-Vivo-Study-of-Shigella-flexneri-Interaction-with-Phagocytes-ppat.1003588.s012.ogv 8.4 s ... The-Zebrafish-as-a-New-Model-for-the-In-Vivo-Study-of-Shigella-flexneri-Interaction-with-Phagocytes-ppat.1003588.s015.ogv 2.2 s ... The-Zebrafish-as-a-New-Model-for-the-In-Vivo-Study-of-Shigella-flexneri-Interaction-with-Phagocytes-ppat.1003588.s016.ogv 6.8 s ... The-Zebrafish-as-a-New-Model-for-the-In-Vivo-Study-of-Shigella-flexneri-Interaction-with-Phagocytes-ppat.1003588.s007.ogv 23 s ...
Drugs & Diseases , Pediatrics: General Medicine , Shigella Infection Q&A How is Shigella infection treated?. Updated: Apr 03, ... encoded search term (How is Shigella infection treated?) and How is Shigella infection treated? What to Read Next on Medscape. ... Shigellas ways of manipulating the host intestinal innate and adaptive immune system: a tool box for survival?. Immunol Cell ... Shigella phages isolated during a dysentery outbreak reveal uncommon structures and broad species diversity. J Virol. 2018 Feb ...
... FAQ (Spanish). Shigella Flyer. Shigella Cleaning Protocol. Questions. For questions contact the Epidemiology ... WHO CAN GET SHIGELLA?. Anyone can get Shigella, but those who are at the highest risk include:. *People with limited access to ... HOW IS SHIGELLA SPREAD?. Infected persons carry Shigella in their feces (poop) while they are sick and can spread the disease. ... Shigella Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) * WHAT IS SHIGELLOSIS?. Shigellosis is a diarrheal illness caused by the bacteria ...
Shigella is a type of bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea, most often in children. WebMD explains causes, symptoms, and ... CDC: "Shigella-Shigellosis.". UpToDate: "Shigella infection: Treatment and prevention in adults," "Shigella infection: Clinical ... This occurs to about 2% of people who get infected with shigella flexneri, a type of shigella bacteria. ... The Shigella bacteria pass through your stomach and then multiply in your small intestines. They then spread into your large ...
Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli(EIEC) are gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary dysentery (shigellosis ... Farfan MJ, Toro CS, Barry EM, Nataro JP (2011) Shigella enterotoxin-2 is a type III effector that participates in Shigella- ... Parsot C (2009) Shigella type III secretion effectors: how, where, when, for what purposes? Curr Opin Microbiol 12:110-116. ... Salgado-Pabón W, Celli S, Arena ET et al (2013) Shigella impairs T lymphocyte dynamics in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110: ...
Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive tract and cause a wide range of symptoms, from diarrhea, cramping, vomiting ... en españolInfecciones por Shigella (shigelosis). What Is a Shigella Infection?. An infection with Shigella (shih-GEL-uh) ... Shigella can pass in a persons stool for about 4 weeks, even after the obvious symptoms of illness have gotten better. ... It doesnt take many Shigella bacteria to cause an infection, so the illness spreads easily in families and childcare centers. ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Salmonella and Shigella are the second and third most common causes of bacterial food-borne disease in the United States and ... Salmonella and Shigella are the second and third most common causes of bacterial food-borne disease in the United States and ... Salmonella and Shigella species Clin Lab Med. 1999 Sep;19(3):469-87, v. ...
... was isolated from epidemics in China during the 1950s. The Shigella pathogenicity island SHI-1 ... "The complete sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid pSS of Shigella sonnei.". Jiang Y., Yang F., Zhang X., Yang J ... Shigella was recognized as the etiologic agent for bacillary dysentery in the 1890s, and adopted as a genus in the 1950s and ... Shigella are highly invasive in the colon and the rectum, and are able to proliferate in the host cell cytoplasm, triggering an ...
Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shigella&oldid=6140255" ...
Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative bacterium which causes the most communicable of bacterial dysenteries, shigellosis. ... Shigella flexneri infection: pathogenesis and vaccine development.. Jennison AV1, Verma NK. ... the host has been implicated in both the destruction of the colonic epithelium and in controlling and containing the Shigella ...
Shigella sonnei is one of the main species causing shigellosis worldwide. Here the authors analyse nearly 400 S. sonnei genome ... Shigella sonnei increasingly dominates the international epidemiological landscape of shigellosis. Treatment options for S. ... Upon host cell invasion, Shigella imports fatty acids from the host cytosol. Therefore, depletion in biotin may direct Shigella ... Table 1 Summary of sequences used to investigate the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella sonnei. Full size table. ...
Shigella boydii ATCC ® 9207™ Designation: AMC 43-G-58 TypeStrain=False Application: Emerging infectious disease research ...
Shigella is a serious gut infection causing severe, prolonged diarrhoea and stomach cramps. It is transmitted by contact with ... Shigella is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella, the most common of which in the UK are ... "Shigella can cause stomach pain and watery diarrhoea.". Shigella is transmitted by contact with very small amounts of human ... Shigella can be successfully treated with antibiotics. Treatment can also reduce the risk of passing the infection on. Shigella ...
NAME: Shigella spp. SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Serogroup A: S. dysenteriae, serogroup B: S. flexneri, serogroup C: S. boydii, ... 5 - 15% of all diarrhea cases can be linked to Shigella spp. infection, where two-thirds of all cases and deaths occur in ... LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Shigella species have been recently identified to be the most frequently identified agent of ... CHARACTERISTICS: Shigella spp., of the Enterobacteriaceae family, are gram-negative rod-shaped pathogenic bacteria (1). They ...
All about Stomach Ache (Shigella). FACTS: A lot of stomach aches are caused by gas or acid in your stomach. But others are ... Shigella is one of the more common culprits! (It is particularly common in developing countries and is a major cause of ... Shigella is one of the more common culprits! (It is particularly common in developing countries and is a major cause of ... Shigella is extremely contagious. In fact, it is so contagious that if even 10 individual bacteria get into your system, you ...
... Article Translations: (Spanish). What Is a Shigella Infection?. An infection with Shigella ( ... Shigella can pass in a persons stool for about 4 weeks, even after the obvious symptoms of illness have gotten better. ... It doesnt take many Shigella bacteria to cause an infection, so the illness spreads easily in families and childcare centers. ... To see if your child has shigellosis, the doctor will take a stool sample to test for Shigella bacteria. ...
... an intestinal disease caused by a family of bacteria known as shigella, that stemmed from the Subway restaurant. ...
Shigella sonnei ATCC ® 29930™ Designation: WRAIR I virulent TypeStrain=True Application: Emerging infectious disease and ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : U14470 Shigella sonnei ATCC 29930 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (gnd) gene, partial cds. ...
Shigella - Staphylococcus Bacteria Cultures. 8 Items Shigella - Staphylococcus Bacteria Cultures is rated 3.6 out of 5 by 7. ...
The CDC has released a Health Alert Network health advisory warning clinicians about emerging Shigella strains that show ... CDC Issues Health Advisory on Shigella Strains Emerging With Possible Reduced Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin April 20, 2017 04 ... The agency said Shigella isolates without a quinolone-resistance gene typically have a ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.015 μg/mL or less ... Shigella strains harboring PMQR genes were identified earlier this year following whole-genome sequencing of isolates from a ...
Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shigella_virus_PSf2&oldid=6003611" ...
Bioimage analysis of Shigella infection. Ellen T. Arena, Francois-Xavier Campbell-Valois, Jean-Yves Tinevez, Giulia Nigro, ... Bioimage analysis of Shigella infection. Ellen T. Arena, Francois-Xavier Campbell-Valois, Jean-Yves Tinevez, Giulia Nigro, ... 2009) Shigella type III secretion effectors: How, where, when, for what purposes? Curr Opin Microbiol 12(1):110-116. ... Bioimage analysis of Shigella infection reveals targeting of colonic crypts Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is expected begin an investigation this week into skyrocketing rates of Shigella ... Shigellosis is the infectious disease caused by Shigella. Most individuals who are infected with Shigella develop diarrhea, ... Shigella is a highly contagious bacteria that is spread person-to-person after it leaves the infected person via their feces ... CDC will investigate Shigella spikes in Genesee, Saginaw counties. Updated Jan 19, 2019; Posted Oct 11, 2016 ...
... have sequenced and analyzed genomes from Shigella sonnei (S. sonnei) bacteria associated with major shigellosis outbreaks in ... "The toxin gene was most likely acquired by Shigella sonnei via genetic exchanges with E. coli and other Shigella species. ... "Shigella sonnei bacteria normally cause a less severe disease and are not known to produce Shiga toxin," said Dr. James Watt, ... One of four Shigella species, S. sonnei is responsible for most shigellosis outbreaks and can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea ...
  • Shigella bacteria cause an infection called shigellosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The causative agent of human shigellosis, Shigella causes disease in primates, but not in other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] After invasion, Shigella cells multiply intracellularly and spread to neighboring epithelial cells, resulting in tissue destruction and characteristic pathology of shigellosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • To confirm the diagnosis of shigellosis, your doctor may take a stool sample to be tested for Shigella bacteria. (kidshealth.org)
  • Shigellosis is a diarrheal illness caused by the bacteria Shigella . (longbeach.gov)
  • Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) in humans, which is characterized by invasion and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. (springer.com)
  • Bhattacharya D, Bhattacharya H, Thamizhmani R et al (2014) Shigellosis in Bay of Bengal Islands, India: clinical and seasonal patterns, surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella strains isolated during a 6-year period from 2006 to 2011. (springer.com)
  • To see if your child has shigellosis, the doctor will take a stool sample to test for Shigella bacteria. (kidshealth.org)
  • Shigella is a Gram-negative, non-sporulating, facultative anaerobe bacterium that causes dysentery or shigellosis in man. (uniprot.org)
  • Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative bacterium which causes the most communicable of bacterial dysenteries, shigellosis. (nih.gov)
  • Shigella sonnei increasingly dominates the international epidemiological landscape of shigellosis. (nature.com)
  • Although the majority of Shigella infections are self-limiting, shigellosis can be severe if left unattended 6 . (nature.com)
  • An infection with Shigella (shih-GEL-uh) bacteria is called shigellosis (shih-guh-LOW-sus). (childrensmn.org)
  • The suit alleges that during a period from Feb. 23 to March 1, 2010, there were 328 cases of shigellosis infection, an intestinal disease caused by a family of bacteria known as shigella, that stemmed from the Subway restaurant. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Shigellosis is the infectious disease caused by Shigella. (mlive.com)
  • SACRAMENTO, Calif.) -- In a study that could have significant impact on how disease outbreaks are managed, researchers at UC Davis and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) have sequenced and analyzed genomes from Shigella sonnei ( S. sonnei ) bacteria associated with major shigellosis outbreaks in California in 2014 and 2015. (eurekalert.org)
  • One of four Shigella species, S. sonnei is responsible for most shigellosis outbreaks and can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea and other gastrointestinal problems. (eurekalert.org)
  • Shigella species are bacteria that cause a foodborne illness called shigellosis. (osu.edu)
  • Shigella organisms are a group of gram-negative pathogens, which were initially recognized as the causal agents of shigellosis (also known as bacillary dysentery) in the 1890s. (kenyon.edu)
  • Decreasing Shigellosis-related Deaths without Shigella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Because the epidemiology of shigellosis may dif- because of increasing resistance to antimicrobial drugs fer in Africa, we restricted our review to studies in Asian among shigellae, especially in S. dysenteriae type 1 (the populations. (cdc.gov)
  • Decreasing Shigellosis-related Deaths a set of other articles obtained by using the keywords inci- in the 2 settings (community and treatment facilities) by dence, prevalence, public health, death rate, mortality, sur- the percentage of diarrhea cases from which Shigella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Enquanto se move através do sistema digestivo, o Shigella atravessa o intestino delgado e contamina subseqüentemente o grande intestino, causando a limitaçã0, a diarreia e a desidratação na doença chamada shigellosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Shigellosis is the name of the disease that Shigella causes. (marlerblog.com)
  • The disease caused by the ingestion of Shigella bacteria is referred to as shigellosis, which is associated with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • About 250 million cases of shigellosis occur annually in low and middle-income countries, causing over 212,000 (Shigella morbidity & mortality) . (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Using this approach, we have eliminated clinical cases of shigellosis and have not have any further isolations of Shigella from this colony. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Information regarding Shigella infection (shigellosis), an intestinal disease with the main sign being diarrhea, which is often bloody. (disabled-world.com)
  • Shigella infection or, 'shigellosis,' is an intestinal disease caused by a family of bacteria known as, 'shigella. (disabled-world.com)
  • Shigellosis, (Bacillary dysentery or Marlow Syndrome), is defined as a foodborne illness caused by infection by bacteria of the genus Shigella. (disabled-world.com)
  • Shigella sonnei or Shigellosis) in Lea, Chaves, and Eddy counties. (nmhealth.org)
  • Shigella is a type of bacteria that causes shigellosis, a diarrheal disease. (ca.gov)
  • Shigella transmission can occur through person-to-person contact, eating food contaminated by someone who has shigellosis, or swallowing contaminated recreational (e.g., lake or river) or drinking water. (ca.gov)
  • Shigellosis is an infection of the large and small intestines caused by bacteria called Shigella . (southernnevadahealthdistrict.org)
  • Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative bacterium causing the diarrhoeal disease shigellosis in humans. (hindawi.com)
  • Shigella dysenteriae Bacteria, the pathogen that causes Shigellosis, platinum-palladium metal shadowed. (sciencephoto.com)
  • A Shigella infection, known as shigellosis, is an intestinal disease that results in diarrhoea, fever, and abdominal pain. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • Shigella l tc nhn gy nn bnh shigellosis, l mt bnh rt nguy him ly lan rt nhanh trong cng ng t ngi sang ngi, qua ng thc phm c nc ung. (scribd.com)
  • Shigellosis might be increasing because of increasing populations in Shigella spp. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Shigellae belong to the Gram-negative group of bacteria and are the causative agent of shigellosis or bacillary dysentery. (edu.au)
  • shigellosis - bacillary dysentery caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A research team at Massachusetts General Hospital is hoping to create new treatments for shigellosis, a potentially fatal digestive disorder, by factoring in genetic changes that occur in Shigella bacteria during the journey through the human digestive system. (massgeneral.org)
  • On January 24, 2001, the Skagit County Health Department (SCHD) recorded a significant increase in the number of cases of shigellosis in the county, and after a preliminary investigation recorded a total of eight culture-confirmed Shigella sonnei cases. (marlerclark.com)
  • Most people with Shigella infection have diarrhea (sometimes bloody), fever, and stomach cramps. (cdc.gov)
  • Shigella infection is typically by ingestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This inflammation results in the diarrhea and even dysentery that are the hallmarks of Shigella infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some strains of Shigella produce toxins which contribute to disease during infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. flexneri is able to inhibit the acute inflammatory response in the initial stage of infection by using an effector protein, OspI, which is encoded by ORF169b on the Shigella large plasmid and secreted by the type III secretion system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because it doesn't take many Shigella bacteria to cause an infection, the illness spreads easily in families and childcare centers. (kidshealth.org)
  • Call the doctor if your child has signs of a Shigella infection, including diarrhea with blood or mucus, accompanied by abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, or high fever. (kidshealth.org)
  • How is Shigella infection treated? (medscape.com)
  • Ingersoll MA, Zychlinsky A. ShiA abrogates the innate T-cell response to Shigella flexneri infection. (medscape.com)
  • Identification and management of Shigella infection in children with diarrhoea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Caused by a group of bacteria called shigella, this infection can cause belly pain, fever, and watery or bloody diarrhea . (webmd.com)
  • You could have lingering effects after a shigella infection, though such cases are rare. (webmd.com)
  • What Is a Shigella Infection? (kidshealth.org)
  • Shigella flexneri infection: pathogenesis and vaccine development. (nih.gov)
  • The inflammation produced by the host has been implicated in both the destruction of the colonic epithelium and in controlling and containing the Shigella infection. (nih.gov)
  • Shigella is a serious gut infection causing severe, prolonged diarrhoea and stomach cramps. (aidsmap.com)
  • Here, we have measured the progression of Shigella infection in a small animal model of the disease to better understand the mechanism of invasion of the colonic mucosa. (pnas.org)
  • These findingings show that immunity in malnourishrd children with shigella infection is impaired which may lead to more severe illness. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Young children with a Shigella infection, or with diarrhea of any cause, should not be in contact with uninfected children. (marlerblog.com)
  • What is the clinical presentation of Shigella infection in patients with HIV infection? (medscape.com)
  • Shigella Infection in Macaque Colonies: Case Report of an Eradica. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Two guests evacuated from the hotel in Egypt where a British couple died last week say they have the bacterial infection shigella, the Telegraph can reveal. (flipboard.com)
  • The main sign of shigella infection is diarrhea, which is often times bloody. (disabled-world.com)
  • Children between the ages of two and four are most likely to experience a shigella infection. (disabled-world.com)
  • Signs and symptoms of shigella infection usually start a day or two after contact with shigella, yet might take up to a week to develop. (disabled-world.com)
  • A shigella infection occurs when a person accidentally swallows shigella bacteria. (disabled-world.com)
  • Examples of causes of a shigella infection include the following. (disabled-world.com)
  • Swallowing Contaminated Water: Water may become contaminated either from sewage, or from a person with shigella infection swimming in it. (disabled-world.com)
  • Touching Your Mouth: If you do not wash your hands well after changing the diaper of a child who has shigella infection, you might become infected as well. (disabled-world.com)
  • One of the risk factors for a shigella infection is simply being a toddler. (disabled-world.com)
  • Shigella infection is most common in children who are between the ages of two and four. (disabled-world.com)
  • People who live or travel to developing countries are more likely to contract shigella infection. (disabled-world.com)
  • A shigella infection usually clears up without complications, although it might take weeks or even months before your bowel habits return to usual. (disabled-world.com)
  • Seizures: Some children who run high fevers with a shigella infection experience seizures. (disabled-world.com)
  • NMDOH encourages individuals with symptoms to get tested if they are experiencing signs and symptoms of Shigella infection. (nmhealth.org)
  • The evaluation of a shigella infection begins with a history and physical exam. (freemd.com)
  • Tests are required to make the diagnosis of shigella infection. (freemd.com)
  • Most of the men with Shigella were also diagnosed with another sexually transmitted infection or HIV. (aidsmap.com)
  • Here, we investigated how neutrophil degranulation affects virulence and show that exposure of Shigella to granular proteins enhances infection of epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Shigella infection cluster reported in L.A. (washingtonblade.com)
  • LOS ANGELES - An outbreak cluster of 15 cases of Shigella flexneri infection, transmitted when feces comes into contact with the mouth, has occurred and is being investigated by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and the California Department of Public Health, Outbreak News Today reports . (washingtonblade.com)
  • All of these cases of Shigella infection have occurred among men, disproportionately among gay/bisexual men, or men who have sex with men (MSM). (washingtonblade.com)
  • Because accidental ingestion of even a tiny amount of fecal matter that contains Shigella can cause infection, men having sex with other men is a known risk factor for Shigella. (washingtonblade.com)
  • Among the cases that have developed Shigella infection in Los Angeles County, there has been one death. (washingtonblade.com)
  • Walker said outbreaks of Shigella sonnei infection began in 2014 in San Diego County, yielding a two-year total of 426 cases. (modbee.com)
  • State officials alerted Stanislaus County, which confirmed its first Shigella sonnei infection in June 2015, Walker said. (modbee.com)
  • Bacillary dysentery and acute gastroenteritis caused by infection of Shigella species are major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries. (pearltrees.com)
  • According to an official health advisory from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, clinicians should order a ____________________ to obtain isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in suspected cases of Shigella infection. (mdedge.com)
  • In each year, 165 million cases of Shigella infection are accounted worldwide, of that, 163 million take place in developing countries and ultimately result in millions of death [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Two people evacuated from a hotel in Egypt where a British couple died are reported to have the bacterial infection shigella. (eveningtelegraph.co.uk)
  • Shigella species generally invade the epithelial lining of the colon, causing severe inflammation and death of the cells lining the colon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella species invade the host through the M-cells interspersed in the gut epithelia of the small intestine, as they do not interact with the apical surface of epithelial cells, preferring the basolateral side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Shigella that can cause diarrhea in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella species. (medscape.com)
  • Salmonella and Shigella species. (medscape.com)
  • Shigella phages isolated during a dysentery outbreak reveal uncommon structures and broad species diversity. (medscape.com)
  • Shigella was recognized as the etiologic agent for bacillary dysentery in the 1890's, and adopted as a genus in the 1950's and subgrouped into four species. (uniprot.org)
  • Shigella species, such as S. sonnei and S. flexneri, spread through eating contaminated food, causing food-borne illness. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Most Shigella species cause mild symptoms like slight fever, chills, stomach cramps, and sometimes bloody stool that can last up to a week. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • The CDC said rising fluoroquinolone MIC values among Shigella isolates may be related to the emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) genes in Shigella species in the United States. (aafp.org)
  • The toxin gene was most likely acquired by Shigella sonnei via genetic exchanges with E. coli and other Shigella species. (eurekalert.org)
  • The four difference species of Shigella vary greatly in the genomic structure. (kenyon.edu)
  • Shigella species are the leading bacterial cause of diarrheal death globally. (asm.org)
  • Shigella remains a significant cause of diarrheal disease with two species, S. flexneri and S. sonnei , causing the majority of infections. (asm.org)
  • The laboratory can also do special tests to tell which species of Shigella the person has and which antibiotics would be best to treat it. (marlerblog.com)
  • Although Shigella bacteria don't cause disease in animals, they are highly contagious in humans, and S flexneri is the most frequently isolated species in many countries (especially low- and middle-income countries), causing roughly 10% of all diarrheal episodes in children under the age of 5. (umn.edu)
  • Shigella species are commonly pathogenic to humans, causing severe gastroenteritis (bacillary dysentery). (wisc.edu)
  • Shigella is a species of enteric bacteria that causes disease in humans and other primates. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • IVI filed these two patents (Applications No. 12/603,574 and No. 12/692,187) following its discovery of novel common protein antigens in several Shigella species that could be used as the basis of a universal vaccine against bacillary dysentery. (news-medical.net)
  • With the potential to provide cross-protection across species and serotypes of Shigella , this could be the first broadly protective vaccine against dysentery. (news-medical.net)
  • This study investigated the frequency of Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella species in stool specimens from patients with diarrhoea presenting to health centres in Hamedan province, Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • What is different is that we usually don't see this particular species (Shigella sonnei) causing hospitalization," Walker said, explaining why state health experts are watching the local outbreak. (modbee.com)
  • The species acquired a gene to produce toxin most likely through genetic exchanges with E. coli and other Shigella species, Chaturvedi said. (modbee.com)
  • Shigella boydii - a species found in feces of symptomatic individuals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shigella dysenteriae - a species causing dysentery in humans and in monkeys. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shigella sonnei - a species causing mild dysentery and also summer diarrhea in children. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shigella - a genus of nonmotile, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae), all of whose species produce dysentery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Members of the genus Shigella are phenotypically similar to Escherichia coli and, with the exception of Shigella boydii serotype 13, would be considered the same species by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis and whole-genome sequence analysis. (asmscience.org)
  • Shigella species are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens acquired by fecal-oral spread. (harvard.edu)
  • Hence, Shigella cells may cause dysentery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its human host, Shigella causes diarrhea and dysentery by infecting and spreading through the colonic epithelium, a process for which IcsA is a key virulence factor. (pnas.org)
  • BILTHOVEN, Netherlands , Nov. 16, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Intravacc , one of the leading translational research and development vaccine institutes with an extensive track record in developing viral and bacterial vaccines, today announced the results of a clinical study with an experimental vaccine against Shigella, intestinal bacteria that cause severe diarrhea and dysentery. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The joint Public Health England (PHE) and Terrence Higgins Trust (THT) campaign informs gay/bisexual men about the risks and symptoms of Shigella dysentery. (aidsmap.com)
  • Dysentery, though not exclusively caused by the Shigella bacteria, has long been an issue for combatants in war zones. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • We used the TSP of bacteriophage Sf6 to establish two applications for detecting Shigella flexneri ( S. flexneri ), a highly contagious pathogen causing dysentery. (mdpi.com)
  • people are affected by bacillary dysentery, an acute inflammatory bowel disease, caused by Shigella bacteria. (uni-marburg.de)
  • As TGT plays a key role in pathogenicity of Shigella, the causative agent of bacterial dysentery, it has been established as a target for structure-based drug design. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The review examined both the effectiveness and the safety of antibiotics in treating Shigella dysentery. (www.gov.uk)
  • Christopher, P.R.H. Antibiotic therapy for Shigella dysentery. (www.gov.uk)
  • A common cause of bacillary dysentery worldwide, particularly in developing countries, Shigella invade colonic mucosal cells and employ a repertoire of proteins secreted by a type III secretion system (T3SS) to manipulate host cytoskeleton and signaling pathways. (harvard.edu)
  • Shigella dysenteriae ir gramnegatīvas nekustīgas nūjiņveidīgas baktērijas [1] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella dysenteriae spēj izraisīt ilgstošas šigelozes epidēmijas [1] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Rezistence pret antibiotikām Shigella dysenteriae baktērijai parādās ātrāk nekā pārējiem Shigella pārstāvjiem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pirmā serotipa Shigella dysenteriae producē šigatoksīnu ( ST ), atšķiroties no citām Shigella pārstāvjiem, kuri producē pseidošigatoksīnu ( SL-T ). Šigatoksīns un pseidošigatoksīns ir proteīntoksīni, kas sastāv no vienas enzimātiskās apakšvienības A un piecām receptorvienībām B, kuras ir radniecīgas ar receptoriem Gb3 ( globotriasyceramide ), kas savukārt novietojas uz kapilāru endotēlija membrānām [1] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Shiga isolated the etiologic agent from patient stool samples: a bacillus, later called Shigella dysenteriae . (cdc.gov)
  • The cytotoxic activity of Shigella dysenteriae 1 was assayed by exposing HeLa cells in microtiter cultures to dilutions of toxin. (asm.org)
  • Infections caused by Shigella dysenteriae type 1 areparticularly severe. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Furthermore it describes two methods which have been used for theconformational predictionsThe Shigella dysenteriae type 2 Oantigenwas predicted to form a compact helicalstructure with three repeating pentasaccharide units per turn. (avhandlingar.se)
  • This thesis describes the synthesis of oligosaccharide derivatives corresponding to the repeating unit of the O-antigen from two different bacteria, Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and Salmonella thompson serogroup Ci, and fragments thereof. (avhandlingar.se)
  • L'espèce Shigella dysenteriae est responsable de la dysenterie bacillaire ou shigellose. (geocaching.com)
  • Different bacteria interact differently with FLA since Francisella tularensis, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella sonnei , and S. dysenteriae are able to grow inside A. castellanii . (hindawi.com)
  • For the most part these emphasize the predominance of Shigella flexneri 4 ( S. paradysenteriae ) types, the paucity of S. dysenteriae (Shiga), the fluctuating, but usually considerable incidence of S. sonnei and the rarity of the types of Boyd and Sachs (2-7). (ajtmh.org)
  • U42434 Shigella boydii dGTP triphosphohydrolase (dgt) gene, complete cds. (atcc.org)
  • Of the various strains of shigella, S. sonnei is the cause of 78% of infections, and S. flexneri , and S. boydii combined are responsible for the rest of the remaining 22% of cases. (kenyon.edu)
  • Conjugation and hybridization studies indicated that the genes for the synthesis and transport of aerobactin are linked and are found on the chromosome of Shigella flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. (asm.org)
  • ICD-9 code 004.2 for Shigella boydii is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -INTESTINAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES (001-009). (aapc.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is very closely related to a group of E. coli strains known as Shigella boydii, Shigella flexerni and Shigella sonnei . (edu.au)
  • Biofield Treated Shigella Boydii Antibiogram of Biofield-Treated Shigella boydii: Global Burden of Infections Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Alice Branton1, Dahryn Trivedi1, Gopal Nayak1, Sambhu Charan Mondal2, Snehasis Jana2, * 1Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, NV, USA 2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. (pearltrees.com)
  • S. boydii l Shigella c pht hin u tin n , v khng ph bin lm, ch yu gy bnh vng tiu lc a n, trong S. boydii tup 2 l S. boydii gy bnh ph bin nhng nc ang pht trin. (scribd.com)
  • Phylogenetic studies indicate Shigella is more appropriately treated as subgenus of Escherichia, and that certain strains generally considered E. coli - such as E. coli O157:H7 - are better placed in Shigella (see Escherichia coli#Diversity for details). (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of 20 E.coli/Shigella strains shows the core genome to be about 2000 genes while the pan-genome has over 18,000 genes. (uniprot.org)
  • With temperatures rising and more patients participating in outdoor activities, including water sports and other water-related pursuits, it's important to heed a recent CDC Health Alert Network (HAN) health advisory (emergency.cdc.gov) warning clinicians about emerging Shigella strains that demonstrate possible reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. (aafp.org)
  • Specifically, the CDC has identified strains of Shigella with elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for ciprofloxacin (i.e., values of 0.12-1 μg/mL). (aafp.org)
  • Despite current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria that categorize Shigella isolates with a ciprofloxacin MIC of ≤1 μg/mL as susceptible to ciprofloxacin, recent data from the CDC and state and local public health partners indicate these emerging strains frequently have a quinolone-resistant gene that can lead to clinically significant reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone antibiotics. (aafp.org)
  • The CDC has released a Health Alert Network health advisory warning clinicians about emerging Shigella strains that show possible reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. (aafp.org)
  • Shigella strains harboring PMQR genes were identified earlier this year following whole-genome sequencing of isolates from a multistate outbreak of multidrug-resistant S. flexneri infections that predominantly affected adult men -- many of whom identified as men who have sex with men, according to epidemiologic data collected by the CDC's Shigella program as part of the outbreak response. (aafp.org)
  • However, the 'free-living' strain appears to lack the virulence factors found in the Shigella strains. (edu.au)
  • Consequently, Shigella strains are likely to possess attributes that enhance their persistence in non-host environments. (edu.au)
  • The genome sequences of these Shigella strains are also available and this provides the opportunity to investigate what traits might contribute to the enhanced survival of these bacteria in the external environment. (edu.au)
  • This project will take a comparative genomics and phenomics approach to investigate the similarities and differences between the free-living E. coli strains and the Shigella strains. (edu.au)
  • The study not only has the potential to identify what traits enhance the survival of these bacteria, but may also lead to a better understanding of the traits present in the Shigella that may contribute to the virulence of these strains. (edu.au)
  • From 144 samples, Shigella strains were isolated in 17 cases [‎11.8%]‎: 10 Sh. (who.int)
  • Those resistant genes are similar to what's found in Shigella strains in Southeast Asia. (modbee.com)
  • Thereby, most infections in developing countries are caused by Shigella flexneri ( S. flexneri ) strains, with serotype 2a as the most prominent [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 4 ], an increasing number of resistant Shigella strains are found [ 5 ], with livestock farming as a potential source [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • are readily transmitted via food, water, environmental contacts, pets and from Culture and identification of strains person to person, with morbidity rates in Frozen Shigella and Salmonella strains developing countries 3-to-6-fold higher were subcultured on MacConkey agar than in developed countries [ 1 ]. (who.int)
  • To add to the challenge, there are new, antibiotic-resistant strains of Shigella emerging that are much more difficult to treat. (massgeneral.org)
  • The changes that Shigella undergo during their journey means that the microbes that launch their attack in the colon look a lot different from the Shigella strains that have been cultured in the laboratory. (massgeneral.org)
  • Strains of Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia actively enter eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Shigella is one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea worldwide, causing an estimated 80-165 million cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shigella bacteria can cause diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive tract and cause a wide range of symptoms, from diarrhea , cramping, vomiting, and nausea, to more serious complications and illnesses. (kidshealth.org)
  • Shigella bacteria produce toxins that can attack the lining of the large intestine, causing swelling, ulcers on the intestinal wall, and bloody diarrhea. (kidshealth.org)
  • 5 - 15% of all diarrhea cases can be linked to Shigella spp. (msdsonline.com)
  • Most individuals who are infected with Shigella develop diarrhea, fever and stomach cramps starting a day or two after they are first exposed to the bacteria, according to the CDC. (mlive.com)
  • Shigella is a bacterium that can cause sudden and severe diarrhea (gastroenteritis) in humans. (marlerblog.com)
  • Most people who are infected with Shigella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. (marlerblog.com)
  • Individuals who are infected with Shigella may develop diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps. (washingtonblade.com)
  • Shigella causes diarrhea, resulting in severe dehydration and malnutrition. (cjonline.com)
  • In research on the never-ending war between pathogen and host, scientists at the Pasteur Institute in Paris have discovered a novel defensive weapon, a cytoskeletal protein called septin, that humans cells deploy to cage the invading Shigella bacteria that cause potentially fatal human diarrhea, according to a presentation on Dec. 5, at the American Society for Cell Biology Annual Meeting in Denver. (phys.org)
  • Shigella causes about 500,000 cases of diarrhea in the United States annually. (massgeneral.org)
  • Each of the Shigella genomes includes a virulence plasmid that encodes conserved primary virulence determinants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ssr1 sRNA, which could play role in resistance to acidic stress and regulation of virulence was shown to exist only in Shigella. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different EIEC and Shigella subgroups rose independently from commensal E. coli through patho-adaptive evolution that included loss of functional genes interfering with the virulence and/or with the intracellular lifestyle of the bacteria, as well as acquisition of genetic elements harboring virulence genes. (springer.com)
  • The principal virulence determinant of Shigella is the type III secretion system encoded by a large virulence plasmid, which enables the pathogen to invade the colonic mucosa and kill resident macrophages, triggering inflammatory responses and causing damage to the intestinal epithelium 5 . (nature.com)
  • Virulence of Shigella is temperature-regulated, as organisms are able to invade HeLa cells at 37°C, and cannot do so in vitro at 30°C (12). (msdsonline.com)
  • IcsA (VirG) is essential to Shigella intracellular motility and virulence. (pnas.org)
  • We have sequenced the large virulence plasmid pWR501 from Shigella flexneri serotype 5a, and it is available from Genbank with accession number AF348706 . (wisc.edu)
  • M. M. Venkatesan, M. B. Goldberg, D. J. Rose, E. J. Grotbeck, V. Burland and F. R. Blattner (2001) Complete DNA sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri . (wisc.edu)
  • Further, their studies will elucidate the role of IcsA unipolarity in the pathogenesis and virulence of Shigella. (usda.gov)
  • The O antigen of the Shigella flexneri lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an important virulence determinant and immunogen. (asm.org)
  • We propose that Shigella evolved to use host defence molecules to enhance its virulence and subvert the innate immune system. (nih.gov)
  • Induction of expression of hfq by DksA is essential for Shigella flexneri virulence. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shigella causes about 450,000 infections each year, and Resistant Shigella infections have increased notably since 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • Most Shigella infections resolve on their own without treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Proper handling, storage, and preparation of food can also help prevent Shigella infections. (kidshealth.org)
  • however, the majority of Shigella infections are associated with organisms belonging to S. flexneri and S. sonnei . (nature.com)
  • Many of the men being diagnosed with shigella also have other sexually transmitted infections such as LGV , syphilis and HIV. (aidsmap.com)
  • The agency's advisory offers background on its findings and outlines new recommendations for clinical diagnosis, management and reporting of Shigella infections. (aafp.org)
  • It is difficult to have an extremely accurate gauge of the actual number of cases that occur because 90-95% of shigella infections are typically asymptomatic so they may go unnoticed, and thus unreported. (kenyon.edu)
  • And fortunately, he noted, Shigella infections don't always require antibiotic therapy. (umn.edu)
  • Possible complications from Shigella infections include post-infectious arthritis, blood stream infections (although rare), seizures, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome ( HUS ), a life-threatening disease than can cause kidney damage. (nmhealth.org)
  • SACRAMENTO - T he California Department of Public Health (CDPH), in collaboration with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health and several Southern California local public health agencies, are investigating a cluster of Shigella infections predominantly affecting men who have sex with men (MSM). (ca.gov)
  • Every year sees about 500,000 Shigella infections, resulting in 6,000 hospitalizations and 70 deaths in the United States. (modbee.com)
  • Marler Clark represented individuals who became ill with Shigella infections after eating at Royal Fork in claims against the restaurant. (marlerclark.com)
  • Shigella (/ʃɪˈɡɛlə/) is a genus of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, nonmotile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a recent genetic study argues that Shigella emerged from multiple independent origins of E.coli 35'000-270'000 years ago and may not constitute a genus. (uniprot.org)
  • If it is possibly routine for the doctor heavy flagyl, shigella treat cipro does skip the missed professional and take your partial prolongation at the antibiotic-resistant wife. (dirtehookah.com)
  • Aggarwal P, Uppal B, Ghosh R et al (2016) Multi drug resistance and extended spectrum beta lactamases in clinical isolates of Shigella: a study from New Delhi, India. (springer.com)
  • The agency said Shigella isolates without a quinolone-resistance gene typically have a ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.015 μg/mL or less. (aafp.org)
  • Fluoroquinolone resistance is of particular concern given that data from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System indicate that many Shigella isolates with a quinolone-resistance gene also are resistant to many other commonly used treatment agents, such as azithromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin,' the advisory noted. (aafp.org)
  • The prevalence of PMQR genes among all U.S. Shigella isolates is currently unknown. (aafp.org)
  • Among the 76 Shigella isolates serogroup B [‎Sh. (who.int)
  • Shigella isolated in this laboratory prior to 1949 (unpublished data) demonstrated that S. flexneri serotype II was the most common (approximately 40 per cent of those isolated) followed closely by S. sonnei (which comprised about 35 per cent of the isolates). (ajtmh.org)
  • van Pelt W , Esveld M I , van Duynhoven Y T H P , van Leeuwen W J . Outbreak of Shigella sonnei in the Netherlands. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Prolonged outbreak of multidrug-resistant Shigella sonnei harbouring blaCTX-M-27 in Victoria, Australia. (medworm.com)
  • Two lawsuits were filed this week against a Subway in Lombard, Illinois, the site of a county-wide Shigella outbreak . (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Around the time of J.B.'s second appointment, Ron and Sarah Bowers saw a local news story highlighting the Shigella outbreak associated with the Subway they had recently visited. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • To protect public health and prevent the future spread of Shigella, Public Health urges people to use a protective covering or avoid oral-anal contact during sex, Outbreak reports. (washingtonblade.com)
  • The male predominance of Shigella cases each year, as well as the identification of cases among MSM, emphasize the risk in this group, whether or not a cluster is recognized, Outbreak News Today reports. (washingtonblade.com)
  • Fluoroquinolones are a safe, well tolerated, highly effective antimicrobial class with broad-spectrum activity and are highly efficacious for treating Shigella -associated diarrhoea. (nature.com)
  • Shigella can cause stomach pain and watery diarrhoea. (aidsmap.com)
  • A multicentre study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology. (cdc.gov)
  • The output of this study has revealed that the Shigella is the third leading reason behind diarrhoea in children [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Shigella is a highly infectious condition which can cause diarrhoea and stomach cramps, and is a common cause of food poisoning. (eveningtelegraph.co.uk)
  • On the ColV plasmid and in the Shigella chromosome, the aerobactin genes are associated with a repetitive sequence which has been identified as IS1. (asm.org)
  • In the first part of this work, the pathogenicity factor genes ipaA, ipgB2, ospD1, spa15, and ipgE, which are required at different points of the Shigella invasion mechanism, were cloned into several plasmid vectors and expressed in E. coli. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The Shigella chromosomes share most of their genes with those of E. coli K12 strain MG1655. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Shigella aerobactin genes share considerable homology with the E. coli ColV aerobactin genes. (asm.org)
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare complication of shigella, more commonly caused by bacteria called, 'E. Coli,' which may lead to a low red blood cell count, low platelet count and acute kidney failure. (disabled-world.com)
  • Les Shigella sont des bactéries très proches d'Escherichia coli. (geocaching.com)
  • Currently there is no vaccine available against Shigella. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • This experimental Shigella vaccine (SF2a-TT15), developed by Institut Pasteur, is a conjugate vaccine consisting of a synthetic oligosaccharide chemically linked to tetanus toxoid. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • The Shigella vaccine patents, which will expire in 2029, are the most recently issued patents of IVI. (news-medical.net)
  • The patents claim vaccine compositions comprising either of two novel conserved Shigella proteins and a conjugate molecule comprising an O-specific polysaccharide antigen of Shigella bacteria covalently bound to either of these Shigella proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Dr. Czerkinsky commented, 'We are extremely excited about the issuance of the Shigella vaccine patents. (news-medical.net)
  • Enesi announced it will use its proprietary formulation to produce a solid dose Shigella vaccine alongside the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • Developing a Shigella vaccine in solid dose formulation is a high-priority for the US army, Enesi Pharma said in a statement. (in-pharmatechnologist.com)
  • William Picking said the shigella vaccine they and their colleagues are developing will be ready to enter Phase I clinical trials this year at a medical center in the Baltimore area. (cjonline.com)
  • subsidiary in Baltimore, Maryland, the new vaccine for Shigella flexneri demonstrated a favorable safety profile and induced significant systemic and mucosal immune responses in human volunteers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vaccinomics Approach for Designing Potential Peptide Vaccine by Targeting Shigella spp. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, we have tried to impose the vaccinomics approach for designing a common peptide vaccine candidate against the immunogenic SigA of Shigella spp. (hindawi.com)
  • Shigella sonnei (strain Ss046) was isolated from epidemics in China during the 1950's. (uniprot.org)
  • The Shigella pathogenicity island SHI-1 is absent from the strain Ss046 but SHI-2 is present but unlinked with the selC gene. (uniprot.org)
  • We have completed the genome sequence of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a strain 2457T, which has been the subject of extensive molecular pathogenesis and genetics research. (wisc.edu)
  • Shigella flexneri strain 2457T has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection ( ATCC ) and is available as ATCC 700930, both as a culture and as purified DNA from this strain. (wisc.edu)
  • As of Aug. 25, 2016, 14 patients infected with an uncommon strain of Shigella have been identified. (ca.gov)
  • According to the recent study, the Shigella strain associated with outbreaks in San Francisco contained genes that made it resistant to certain antibiotics. (modbee.com)
  • Les shigelles, les bactéries du genre Shigella, sont des Enterobacteriaceae pathogènes strictes, rencontrées exclusivement chez l'être humain. (geocaching.com)
  • Salmonella and Shigella are the second and third most common causes of bacterial food-borne disease in the United States and are a major global health problem. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the salmonella and shigella vaccines, the institute has another four or five vaccines in the works that KU will own entirely. (cjonline.com)
  • Infected persons carry Shigella in their feces (poop) while they are sick and can spread the disease. (longbeach.gov)
  • Shigella leaves the body through human feces. (webmd.com)
  • Shigella is a highly contagious bacteria that is spread person-to-person after it leaves the infected person via their feces and spreads by contaminated hands, food, surfaces or water. (mlive.com)
  • The source of Shigella bacteria is the excrement (feces) of an infected individual that is ultimately ingested by another person. (marlerblog.com)
  • While some people experience no symptoms after they have been infected with shigella, their feces might continue to be contagious for up to a few weeks. (disabled-world.com)
  • Shigella bacteria are found in the feces (stool) of an infected person. (southernnevadahealthdistrict.org)
  • People are infectious as long as the Shigella bacteria are present in the feces. (southernnevadahealthdistrict.org)
  • Most people have Shigella in their feces for one to two weeks. (southernnevadahealthdistrict.org)
  • Shigella bacteria can infect the intestinal tract after the ingestion of relatively few organisms. (marlerblog.com)
  • Shigella flexneri is an enteric pathogen that causes massive inflammation and destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Vit Nam, s ca nhim Shigella rt cao, hn hn bnh gy ra bi Salmonella typhi v Vibrio choleraeri.Vit Nam c khong 435.000 ca nhim Shigella (khong 39.500 ca nhim hng nm). (scribd.com)
  • Shigella is named after a Japanese researcher named Shiga who discovered the bacterium in 1897. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Shigella is an intracellular pathogen that invades the human host cell cytosol and exploits intracellular nutrients for growth, enabling the bacterium to create its own metabolic niche. (asm.org)
  • Shigella IcsA is localized to the old pole of the bacterium, where it mediates assembly of an actin tail inside infected mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
  • Unbeknownst to the couple, the sandwich was contaminated by Shigella sonnei, a potentially lethal bacterium. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • False-colour transmission electron micrograph of a rod-shaped bacterium, Shigella sp. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In the case of Shigella , the Gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium responsible for acute rectocolitis, such interactions contribute to bacterial adherence to epithelial cells. (asm.org)
  • Shigella pathogens use a mixed acid fermentation pathway to metabolize substrates. (kenyon.edu)
  • Shigella is unique among Gram-negative enteric pathogens in that it accesses the cytoplasm of host cells and assembles actin into long tails, which propel bacterial spread through tissues. (usda.gov)
  • Shigella are significant human diarrheal pathogens and are unlikely to persist in a vertebrate host for a significant period. (edu.au)
  • Their research focuses on shigella and salmonella, two bacterial pathogens that infect the human digestive system and kill millions of children in underdeveloped countries where potable water and sanitation are lacking and antibiotics often are too expensive for people to buy. (cjonline.com)
  • Pascale Cossart, Ph.D., and Serge Mostowy, Ph.D., reported that the septin cages not only targeted the pathogens for degradation by autophagy, the cell's internal garbage disposal system, but also prevented the Shigella bacteria from spreading to other cells by impeding the pathogens' access to actin, a different component of the cell skeleton. (phys.org)
  • Bougneres L, Girardin SE, Weed SA et al (2004) Cortactin and Crk cooperate to trigger actin polymerization during Shigella invasion of epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Invasive Shigella flexneri activates NF-kappa B through a lipopolysaccharide-dependent innate intracellular response and leads to IL-8 expression in epithelial cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • SAN JOSE - Shigella, the diarrheal disease that sickened dozens of people who ate at a downtown San Jose restaurant, is caused by a group of bacteria and is spread by eating or drinking something that has come into contact with stool of an infected person, according to Santa Clara health officials. (mercurynews.com)
  • In this study, the serogroup and susceptibility patterns of Shigella and Salmonella spp. (who.int)
  • Shigella bacteria in a stool sample. (kenyon.edu)
  • A culture of an infected personís stool sample can identify the Shigella bacteria. (marlerblog.com)
  • At the ER, Mrs. Romero submitted a stool sample for testing, which ultimately tested positive for Shigella sonnei. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Gay and bisexual men experiencing Shigella symptoms are urged to go to their GP or a clinic, mentioning Shigella and requesting a stool sample test. (aidsmap.com)
  • Shigella sonnei bacteria normally cause a less severe disease and are not known to produce Shiga toxin," said Dr. James Watt, Chief, Division of Communicable Disease Control at CDPH. (eurekalert.org)
  • Finding this gene raises concerns that illness due to Shigella sonnei could become more severe in the future," Watt said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Any quick afib famotidine of this medication may also be severe in shop all of the shigella treat cipro does drugs or approved for all of the thatthat discussed already. (dirtehookah.com)
  • In a news release Wednesday, Vishnu Chaturvedi, director of the state's microbial diseases lab, said Shigella sonnei bacteria normally cause more mild disease but started to produce the Shiga toxin. (modbee.com)
  • This infectious disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Shigella , is a major health problem in developing countries, as young children are particularly vulnerable to the disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Furthermore, T3SS effectors are directly involved in Shigella manipulation of immune cells causing their dysfunction and promoting cell death. (springer.com)
  • IcsB, one of the Shigella flexneri effectors, is secreted by means of the type III secretion system (TTSS) of cytoplasmic bacteria and located on the bacterial surface ( 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In this thesis, I describe two independent projects that aim to clarify the complex interplay between bacterial effectors and host processes critical to Shigella flexneri pathogenesis. (harvard.edu)
  • I also investigated the outer Shigella protein C (OspC) effectors OspC1, OspC2, and OspC3, highly homologous T3SS effectors with potentially disparate functions. (harvard.edu)
  • This work identifies new cellular targets and activities of the Shigella effector IpgD and provides insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis dependent on secreted bacterial effectors. (harvard.edu)
  • The effector proteins can alter the metabolism of the target cell, for instance leading to the lysis of vacuolar membranes or reorganization of actin polymerization to facilitate intracellular motility of Shigella bacteria inside the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rather, Shigella VirG, a protein required for intracellular actin-based motility, induced autophagy by binding to the autophagy protein, Atg5. (sciencemag.org)
  • mxiE regulates intracellular expression of factors secreted by the Shigella flexneri 2a type III secretion system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comparison of the invasion strategies used by Salmonella cholerae-suis, Shigella flexneri and Yersinia enterocolitica to enter cultured animal cells: endosome acidification is not required for bacterial invasion or intracellular replication. (nih.gov)
  • Shigella uses a type-III secretion system, which acts as a biological syringe to translocate toxic effector proteins to the target human cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ashida H, Mimuro H, Sasakawa C (2015) Shigella manipulates host immune responses by delivering effector proteins with specific roles. (springer.com)
  • During this process, cationic granular proteins bind to the Shigella surface causing increased adhesion which ultimately leads to hyperinvasion. (nih.gov)
  • The guinea pig model for Shigella flexneri invasion of the colonic mucosa was used to monitor the infectious process over time with GFP-expressing S. flexneri . (pnas.org)
  • The Shigella life cycle begins with penetration of colonic mucosa. (kenyon.edu)
  • Shigella have the ability to invade the colonic epithelium in humans, thereby causing an acute mucosal inflammation. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Shigella can be passed in the person's stool for about 4 weeks even after the obvious symptoms of illness have resolved (although antibiotic treatment can reduce the excretion of Shigella bacteria in the stool). (kidshealth.org)
  • Bhattacharya D, Bhattacharya H, Sayi DS et al (2015) Changing patterns and widening of antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. (springer.com)
  • Prolongation page deepak antibiotic cipro m. your cariprazine of medication to does cipro treat shigella levaquin lasting right ago is here renal, and generic also few from an many part of half-life. (dirtehookah.com)
  • The United States Patent and Trademark Office recently issued two patents on 'Novel Shigella protein antigens and methods' to IVI. (news-medical.net)
  • Dr. Cecil Czerkinsky, IVI's Deputy Director-General of Laboratory Sciences and Dr. Dong Wook Kim, Associate Professor at Hanyang University and former IVI scientist, reported the original discovery of the Shigella common protein antigens in a provisional patent application filed in October 2008. (news-medical.net)
  • The investigators have previously shown that the Shigella outer membrane protein IcsA is sufficient for actin assembly and that IcsA is localized to a single pole of the bacillus. (usda.gov)
  • Antibiotics can shorten the duration of illness (by about 2 days) and might help reduce the spread of Shigella to others. (cdc.gov)
  • Shigella can even be carried and spread by flies that have touched contaminated stool. (kidshealth.org)
  • The best way to prevent the spread of Shigella is by frequent and careful hand washing with soap, especially after they use the toilet and before they eat. (kidshealth.org)
  • In the meantime, the Health Department is promoting the importance of hand washing to prevent the spread of Shigella. (mlive.com)
  • Saginaw County health officials warned of rising rates of Shigella cases in June and urged resident to be diligent in washing hands to prevent spread of the disease. (mlive.com)
  • In rare cases, Shigella bacteria can also be spread through ponds and swimming pools without enough chlorine. (osu.edu)
  • Shigella is easily spread because of its low infectious dose. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Direct Person-To-Person Contact: Person-To-Person contact is the most common way shigella is spread. (disabled-world.com)
  • Infected persons can spread Shigella by not washing their hands after going to the bathroom and then handling food that other people will eat. (nmhealth.org)
  • How long is a person able to spread Shigella? (southernnevadahealthdistrict.org)
  • What can be done to prevent the spread of Shigella ? (southernnevadahealthdistrict.org)
  • Comparison of the invasion strategies used by Salmonella cholerae-suis, Shigella flexneri and Yersinia enterocolitica to enter cultured animal cell. (nih.gov)
  • Several techniques were used to compare and contrast the invasion mechanisms of Salmonella cholerae-suis, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella flexneri. (nih.gov)
  • In the UK, most cases of shigella used to be associated with foreign travel. (aidsmap.com)
  • Genesee County Health Department employees said Tuesday that cases of Shigella have occurred across the county, but about one-half of cases have been reported from people living in Flint. (mlive.com)
  • Worldwide there are approximately 165 million cases of shigella annually, with 98% of those cases occurring in third world, developing nations. (kenyon.edu)
  • The majority of cases of shigella are reported in the summer months. (kenyon.edu)
  • DuPage County health officials have since confirmed 21 cases of Shigella poisoning linked to Subway food, and suspect more to follow. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The New Mexico Department of Health ( NMDOH ) continues investigating an ongoing increase of cases of Shigella (a.k.a. (nmhealth.org)
  • Stanislaus County, which typically has 10 to 15 cases of Shigella each year, recorded 47 cases by mid-August of this year, prompting the Health Services Agency to warn the public. (modbee.com)
  • Using condoms for anal sex and latex gloves for fisting, as well as washing hands frequently, can help prevent transmission of shigella. (aidsmap.com)
  • Transmission of Shigella among MSM is often through sex, typically through oral or anal contact. (ca.gov)
  • When the lining of the intestines gets damaged during the sickness, shigella or other germs in your gut could infect your bloodstream. (webmd.com)
  • Shigella is a group of pathogenic bacteria that has evolved over millions of years specifically to infect humans. (massgeneral.org)
  • With the help of a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Faherty is also collaborating with researchers at MIT to develop new bacteriophages-custom-made viruses that could be designed to infect and kill Shigella --in the intestines without harming beneficial bacteria. (massgeneral.org)
  • Characterization of the rfc region of Shigella flexneri. (asm.org)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/740655/all/Shigella. (tabers.com)
  • Anderson M, Sansonetti PJ, Marteyn BS (2016) Shigella diversity and changing landscape: insights for the twenty-first century. (springer.com)
  • Despite this cluster of cases, the total number of Shigella flexneri cases reported through August to Public Health in 2016 is similar to that for 2015. (washingtonblade.com)
  • Krista Dommer, a spokeswoman for San Joaquin County's public health agency, said that county has confirmed 65 Shigella cases in 2016, a third of last year's total. (modbee.com)
  • Aerobactin genes in Shigella spp. (asm.org)
  • Although humans are the primary reservoir of Shigella spp. (mdpi.com)
  • The oligosaccharide mimics a part of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is abundantly present in the outer membrane of Shigella bacteria. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Shigella organisms are killed by heat used in cooking. (marlerblog.com)
  • Some others such as Shigella ( 8 , 9 ), Listeria monocytogenes ( 10 ), and Rickettsia conorii ( 11 ) can escape from phagosomes into the cytoplasm, multiply, and disseminate into neighboring cells by eliciting actin polymerization. (sciencemag.org)
  • Shigella requires actin to rocket around the host cell before punching into an adjacent cell, said the Pasteur researchers, who made their discovery in human cells grown in culture in the laboratory. (phys.org)
  • Shigella is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella , the most common of which in the UK are Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri . (aidsmap.com)
  • The Shigella bacteria pass through your stomach and then multiply in your small intestines . (webmd.com)
  • Stomach Ache (Shigella) under a microscope! (giantmicrobes.com)

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