A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
An acute disease of young pigs that is usually associated with weaning. It is characterized clinically by paresis and subcutaneous edema.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
An inhibitor of Serine Endopeptidases. Acts as alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.

Vascular ultrastructure and DNA fragmentation in swine infected with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. (1/321)

Shiga toxins (Stx) produced by Escherichia coli cause systemic vascular damage that manifests as edema disease in swine and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. In vitro, Stx inhibit protein synthesis and, depending on circumstances, induce necrosis, apoptosis, or both. The mechanism of in vivo Stx-mediated vascular damage is not known. The ability of Stx to cause apoptosis of vasculature in vivo was studied in pigs with edema disease that was produced by oral inoculation with Stx-producing E. coli. Arterioles of ileum and brain were evaluated by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay for DNA fragmentation in myocytes (10 infected pigs, 5 control pigs) and by transmission electron microscopy for ultrastructural changes characteristic of apoptosis (17 infected pigs, 8 control pigs). In comparison with controls, increased numbers of TUNEL-positive arterioles were detected in 6/10 (60%) subclinically affected pigs 14-15 days after inoculation. Ultrastructurally, lesions in myocytes consisted of lysis (necrosis), with cytoplasmic debris and nuclear fragments contained between intact basement membranes. Endothelial cell changes ranged from acute swelling to necrosis and detachment from basement membrane. Subclinically affected pigs (n = 14) tended to have changes predominantly in myocytes, whereas pigs with clinical illness (n = 3) more commonly had changes in endothelial cells. The arteriolar lesions and clinical signs of edema disease are attributed to the effects of Stx on vasculature. Therefore, our findings suggest that the Stx-induced arteriolar lesions seen in this study were primarily necrotic, not apoptotic. We suspect that necrosis was the principal cause of the DNA fragmentation detected.  (+info)

Toxin gene expression by shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: the role of antibiotics and the bacterial SOS response. (2/321)

Toxin synthesis by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) appears to be coregulated through induction of the integrated bacteriophage that encodes the toxin gene. Phage production is linked to induction of the bacterial SOS response, a ubiquitous response to DNA damage. SOS-inducing antimicrobial agents, particularly the quinolones, trimethoprim, and furazolidone, were shown to induce toxin gene expression in studies of their effects on a reporter STEC strain carrying a chromosome-based stx2::lacZ transcriptional fusion. At antimicrobial levels above those required to inhibit bacterial replication, these agents are potent inducers (up to 140-fold) of the transcription of type 2 Shiga toxin genes (stx2); therefore, they should be avoided in treating patients with potential or confirmed STEC infections. Other agents (20 studied) and incubation conditions produced significant but less striking effects on stx2 transcription; positive and negative influences were observed. SOS-mediated induction of toxin synthesis also provides a mechanism that could exacerbate STEC infections and increase dissemination of stx genes. These features and the use of SOS-inducing antibiotics in clinical practice and animal husbandry may account for the recent emergence of STEC disease.  (+info)

Prevalence of non-O157:H7 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in diarrheal stool samples from Nebraska. (3/321)

We determined the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in diarrheal stool samples from Nebraska by three methods: cefixime-tellurite sorbitol MacConkey (CT- SMAC) culture, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) enzyme immunoassay, and stx1,2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fourteen (4.2%) of 335 specimens were positive by at least one method (CT-SMAC culture [6 of 14], EHEC enzyme immunoassay [13 of 14], stx1,2 PCR [14 of 14]). Six contained serogroup O157, while non-O157 were as prevalent as O157 serogroups.  (+info)

Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from seagulls. (4/321)

Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from a seagull in Japan were examined. A total of 50 faecal samples was collected on a harbour bank in Hokkaido, Japan, in July 1998. Two different STEC strains, whose serotypes were O136:H16 and O153:H-, were isolated from the same individual by PCR screening; both of them were confirmed by ELISA and Vero cell cytotoxicity assay to be producing active Stx2 and Stx1, respectively. They harboured large plasmids, but did not carry the haemolysin or eaeA genes of STEC O157:H7. Based on their plasmid profiles, antibiotic resistance patterns, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis (PFGE), and the stx genes sequences, the isolates were different. Phylogenic analysis of the deduced Stx amino acid sequences demonstrated that the Stx toxins of seagull-origin STEC were closely associated with those of the human-origin, but not those of other animal-origin STEC. In addition, Stx2phi-K7 phage purified from O136 STEC resembled Stx2phi-II from human-origin O157:H7, and was able to convert non-toxigenic E. coli to STEC. These results suggest that birds may be one of the important carriers in terms of the distribution of STEC.  (+info)

Entry of ricin and Shiga toxin into cells: molecular mechanisms and medical perspectives. (5/321)

A large number of plant and bacterial toxins with enzymatic activity on intracellular targets are now known. These toxins enter cells by first binding to cell surface receptors, then they are endocytosed and finally they become translocated into the cytosol from an intracellular compartment. In the case of the plant toxin ricin and the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin, this happens after retrograde transport through the Golgi apparatus and to the endoplasmic reticulum. The toxins are powerful tools to reveal new pathways in intracellular transport. Furthermore, knowledge about their action on cells can be used to combat infectious diseases where such toxins are involved, and a whole new field of research takes advantage of their ability to enter the cytosol for therapeutic purposes in connection with a variety of diseases. This review deals with the mechanisms of entry of ricin and Shiga toxin, and the attempts to use such toxins in medicine are discussed.  (+info)

Shiga toxin activates p38 MAP kinase through cellular Ca(2+) increase in Vero cells. (6/321)

We examined whether the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is involved in Shiga toxin (Stx)-induced Vero cell injury. Consonant with cell injury, Stx caused a transient extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and a sustained p38 MAPK phosphorylation. p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB 203580 and PD 169316), but not an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor (PD 98059), partially inhibited the Stx-induced cell death. BAPTA-AM, a Ca(2+) chelator, reduced both cell injury and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Antioxidants reduced Stx1-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These data indicate that Stx activates p38 MAPK through an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species, and this signaling is involved in Stx-induced cell death.  (+info)

Rab11 regulates the compartmentalization of early endosomes required for efficient transport from early endosomes to the trans-golgi network. (7/321)

Several GTPases of the Rab family, known to be regulators of membrane traffic between organelles, have been described and localized to various intracellular compartments. Rab11 has previously been reported to be associated with the pericentriolar recycling compartment, post-Golgi vesicles, and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). We compared the effect of overexpression of wild-type and mutant forms of Rab11 on the different intracellular transport steps in the endocytic/degradative and the biosynthetic/exocytic pathways in HeLa cells. We also studied transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus using the Shiga toxin B subunit (STxB) and TGN38 as reporter molecules. Overexpression of both Rab11 wild-type (Rab11wt) and mutants altered the localization of the transferrrin receptor (TfR), internalized Tf, the STxB, and TGN38. In cells overexpressing Rab11wt and in a GTPase-deficient Rab11 mutant (Rab11Q70L), these proteins were found in vesicles showing characteristics of sorting endosomes lacking cellubrevin (Cb). In contrast, they were redistributed into an extended tubular network, together with Cb, in cells overexpressing a dominant negative mutant of Rab11 (Rab11S25N). This tubularized compartment was not accessible to Tf internalized at temperatures <20 degrees C, suggesting that it is of recycling endosomal origin. Overexpression of Rab11wt, Rab11Q70L, and Rab11S25N also inhibited STxB and TGN38 transport from endosomes to the TGN. These results suggest that Rab11 influences endosome to TGN trafficking primarily by regulating membrane distribution inside the early endosomal pathway.  (+info)

Molecular and phenotypic characterization of potentially new Shigella dysenteriae serotype. (8/321)

From September 1997 to November 1998, the French National Center for Salmonella and Shigella received 22 Shigella isolates recovered from 22 different patients suffering from dysentery. None of these isolates reacted with any of the antisera used to identify established Shigella serotypes, but all of them agglutinated in the presence of antisera to a previously described potentially new Shigella dysenteriae serotype (represented by strain 96-204) primarily isolated from stool cultures of imported diarrheal cases in Japan. All French isolates, as well as strain 96-204, showed biochemical reactions typical of S. dysenteriae and gave positive results in a PCR assay for detection of the plasmid ipaH gene coding for invasiveness. No Shiga toxin gene was detected by PCR. These isolates were indistinguishable by molecular analysis of ribosomal DNA (ribotyping) and seemed to be related to S. dysenteriae serotypes 3 and 12. However, further characterization by restriction of the amplified O-antigen gene cluster clearly distinguished this new serotype from all other Shigella or Escherichia coli serotypes.  (+info)

The symptoms of HUS include:

* Diarrhea
* Vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Shortness of breath
* Pale or yellowish skin
* Easy bruising or bleeding

If you suspect that someone has HUS, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order blood tests to diagnose the condition. Treatment for HUS typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as stopping certain medications or treating an infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as kidney failure.

Preventative measures to reduce the risk of developing HUS include:

* Practicing good hygiene, especially during outbreaks of diarrheal illnesses
* Avoiding certain medications that are known to increase the risk of HUS
* Maintaining a healthy diet and staying hydrated
* Managing any underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes.

Here are some common types of E. coli infections:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.

If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.

There are several types of diarrhea, including:

1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.

Symptoms of diarrhea may include:

* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Headache
* Fatigue and weakness

Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea

Complications of diarrhea can include:

* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.

Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.

Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.

The diagnosis of bacillary dysentery is based on a combination of clinical findings and laboratory tests, such as fecal cultures or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can shorten the duration of diarrhea and reduce the risk of complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage dehydration and other complications.
Prevention measures include maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands after using the bathroom or before handling food, and avoiding contaminated water or food. Vaccines are also available for some types of Shigella infections.

Edema disease is caused by a picornavirus and is characterized by fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and difficulty breathing due to severe inflammation of the respiratory tract. The skin becomes edematous (swollen) and hemorrhages occur under the skin and in internal organs such as the lungs and liver. Death can occur within 24 to 48 hours after the onset of symptoms.

The disease is transmitted through direct contact with infected swine or contaminated fomites, and the virus can survive for several days in the environment. The incubation period is typically 3-7 days, and infected animals may not show any clinical signs until they are heavily infected.

There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for edema disease, and control measures are focused on preventing the spread of the virus through proper sanitation, biosecurity measures, and culling of infected animals. The disease is considered highly contagious and can have a significant impact on swine populations if not controlled promptly.

Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.

Types of Cattle Diseases

There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:

1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Cattle Diseases

The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:

1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases

Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.

Prevention of Cattle Diseases

Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:

1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.

It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.

Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.

By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.

Foodborne diseases, also known as food-borne illnesses or gastrointestinal infections, are conditions caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. These diseases can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can be present in food products at any stage of the food supply chain.

Examples of common foodborne diseases include:

1. Salmonella: Caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
2. E. coli: Caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli, this disease can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia.
3. Listeria: Caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this disease can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and stiffness in the neck.
4. Campylobacter: Caused by the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
5. Norovirus: This highly contagious virus can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
6. Botulism: Caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, this disease can cause symptoms such as muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, and difficulty swallowing.

Foodborne diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including stool samples, blood tests, and biopsies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention is key to avoiding foodborne diseases, and this includes proper food handling and preparation practices, as well as ensuring that food products are stored and cooked at safe temperatures.

The term Shiga-like toxins is another antiquated term which arose prior to the understanding that Shiga and Shiga-like toxins ... 2017), "Chapter 3: Structure of Shiga toxins and other AB5 toxins", Shiga toxins: A Review of Structure, Mechanism, and ... Shiga toxin type 1 and type 2 (Stx-1 and 2) are the Shiga toxins produced by some E. coli strains. Stx-1 is identical to Stx of ... This is because Shiga toxin is usually taken in with contaminated food or water. The bacterial Shiga toxin can be used for ...
Shiga toxin-producingE. coli (STEC), which includes EHEC; enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC); and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC). ...
AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Under the categorize-by-A rule, it is a Ptx-family toxin. Shiga toxin, also known as Stx, is a toxin that is produced by the ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ...
Herold S; Karch H; Schmidt H (2004). "Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages-genomes in motion". International Journal of Medical ... causes minor dysentery because of its Shiga toxin, but other species may also be dysentery agents. S. dysenteriae releases an ...
Alpha toxin Anthrax toxin Dinotoxin Cyanotoxin Diphtheria toxin Exotoxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Shiga-like toxin K R ... Shiga toxins (Stxs), responsible for foodborne illnesses, are a classification of toxins produced by Shiga toxin-producing ... Toxin A and toxin B are two toxins produced by Clostridium difficile. Toxin A and toxin B are glycosyltransferases that cause ... The term shiga-like toxins was previously used to further distinguish the shiga toxins produced by E. coli, but nowadays, they ...
H4 strain which was lysogenized by a Shiga toxin encoding phage (typically associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia ... There are three toxins found in EAEC; plasmid encoded toxin (Pet), heat-stable toxin (EAST1), and Shigella enterotoxin 1 (ShET1 ... Nadia Boisen; Angela R. Melton-Celsa; Flemming Scheutz; Alison D. O'Brien; James P. Nataro (2015). "Shiga toxin 2a and ... Several toxins have been linked to EAEC virulence, including ShET1 (Shigella enterotoxin 1), Pet (plasmid‐encoded toxin), and ...
"Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC): Update on outbreak in the EU (27 July 2011, 11:00)". ECDC. 27 July 2011. Archived from ... Hughes JM, Wilson ME, Johnson KE, Thorpe CM, Sears CL (2006). "The Emerging Clinical Importance of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin- ... Fruth A, Prager R, Tietze E, Rabsch W, Fliger A (2015). "Molecular epidemiological view on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia ... European Food Safety Authority (2011). "Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O104:H4 2011 outbreaks in Europe: Taking stock". ...
Gastroenteritis Shiga-like toxin Shiga toxin Traveler's diarrhea "General Information, Shigella - Shigellosis , CDC". www.cdc. ...
Olitsky, Peter K.; Kligler, I. J. (1920). "Toxins and Antitoxins of Bacillus Dysenteriæ Shiga". Journal of Experimental ...
His team has validated the B-subunit of Shiga toxin (STxB) as a "pilot" for the delivery of therapeutic compounds to precise ... Shiga toxin induces tubular membrane invaginations for its uptake into cells. Nature 450: 670-675. Comments: Nat Rev Mol Cell ... Mechanism of Shiga toxin clustering on membranes. ACS Nano 11: 314-324 (& co-first authors, # authors from Johannes group, * ... Shiga toxin induces lipid compression: a mechanism for generating membrane curvature. Nano Lett 19: 7365-7369 Johannes L, ...
E. coli O104 is a Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The toxins cause illness and the associated symptoms by sticking to the ... H4 by an acute onset of diarrhea or bloody diarrhea together with the detection of the Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) or the Shiga gene ... can be tested in a laboratory for the presence of Shiga toxin. Testing methods used include direct detection of the toxin by ... "Shiga Toxin-producing E. Coli (STEC) O104:H4 2011 Outbreaks in Europe:." EFSA Journal. European Food Safety Authority, 3 Nov. ...
These setbacks led Shiga to stop any further trials or production of a Shiga toxin-based vaccine. Shiga had done research on ... Shiga was able to discover the Shiga toxin that is produced by the organism. With this new discovery, Shiga attempted to make a ... as well as the Shiga toxin, which is produced by the bacterium. After the discovery of Shigella, Shiga worked with Paul Ehrlich ... Kiyoshi Shiga married Ichiko Shiga and in the following years had eight children. He faced many family hardships. Shiga lost ...
The disease agent was Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7. The most recent illness started on December 12, 2017; the PHA ... H7 Shiga toxins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 (19): 10325-9. Bibcode: ... "Multistate Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Leafy Greens (Final Update)", ...
2017), "Chapter 3: Structure of Shiga toxins and other AB5 toxins", Shiga toxins: A Review of Structure, Mechanism, and ... "Shiga-like toxin" (SLT) or "verotoxin" is that they should all be referred to as (versions of) Shiga toxin, as the difference ... "Quinolone antibiotics induce Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages, toxin production, and death in mice". The Journal of ... The verocytotoxin (shiga-like toxin) can directly damage renal and endothelial cells. Thrombocytopenia occurs as platelets are ...
A prime example concerning the spread of exotoxins is the adaptive evolution of Shiga toxins in E. coli through horizontal gene ... ISBN 978-1-908230-10-2. Strauch E, Lurz R, Beutin L (December 2001). "Characterization of a Shiga toxin-encoding temperate ... The toxin α-amanitin is found in numerous, seemingly unrelated genera fungi such as Amanita, Lepiota, and Galerina. Two ... The whitefly Bemisia tabaci acquired a plant detoxification gene that neutralizes plant toxins. Gene transfer between plants ...
... and nonproducing strains may become infected and produce shiga-like toxins after incubation with shiga toxin positive strains. ... Strains of E. coli that express Shiga and Shiga-like toxins gained that ability via infection with a prophage containing the ... such as the use of anti-induction strategies to prevent toxin production and the use of anti-Shiga toxin antibodies, have also ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga-like toxin-producing ...
Open-source genomic analysis of Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4. The New England Journal of Medicine, 365(8):718-724. doi ...
... also called Shiga-like toxin). E. coli can produce stx1 and/or stx2 Shiga toxins, the latter being more dangerous. A ... A positive Shiga-toxin/EHEC test confirms a cause for STEC-HUS, and severe ADAMTS13 deficiency (i.e., ≤5% of normal ADAMTS13 ... These Shiga toxins bind GB3 receptors, globotriaosylceramide, which are present in renal tissue more than any other tissue and ... The Shiga-toxin-activated endothelial cells then become thrombogenic (clot-producing) by a mechanism that is not fully ...
Grotiuz G, Sirok A, Gadea P, Varela G, Schelotto F (October 2006). "Shiga toxin 2-producing Acinetobacter haemolyticus ...
Therefore, O121 is sometimes roughly classified as a type of "non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli " (non-O157 STEC). A U.S. ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 "Laboratory-Confirmed Non-O157 Shiga Toxin Producing E. Coli". Centers for Disease Control and ... Escherichia coli O121 is a pathogenic serotype of Escherichia coli, associated with Shiga toxin, intestinal bleeding, and ...
"Differentiation between structurally homologous Shiga 1 and Shiga 2 toxins by using synthetic glycoconjugates". Angew Chem Int ...
HUS is caused by E. coli bloody diarrhea and specific strains of shiga toxin. The bacteria in HUS cause damage to the ...
"Escherichia coli Harboring Shiga Toxin 2 Gene Variants: Frequency and Association with Clinical Symptoms". The Journal of ...
He continued to study and characterize the bacterium, identifying its methods of toxin production i.e Shiga toxin, and worked ... Both Shiga toxin and verotoxin are associated with causing potentially fatal hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Shigella species invade ... S. dysenteriae strains produce Shiga toxin, which is hemolytic similar to the verotoxin produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli. ... The genus Shigella is named after Japanese physician Kiyoshi Shiga, who researched the cause of dysentery. Shiga entered the ...
Kimmitt PT, Harwood CR, Barer MR (2000). "Toxin Gene Expression by Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli: The Role of ... Use in EHEC infections may lead to an increase in expression of Shiga toxin. Known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim History of ...
... which mediate Shiga toxin 1 but not Shiga toxin 2 cell entry". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 296: 100299. doi:10.1016/j.jbc. ... Shiga Toxin Binds Human Platelets Via Globotriaoslyceramide (Pk antigen) and a Novel Platelet Glycosphingolipid. Infect Immun ... Pk antigen is a receptor for Shiga toxins produced by Shigella dysenteriae and some strains of Escherichia coli, which may ...
EcoShield PX targets E. coli O157:H7 and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Used to treat various foods including beef and ...
2011). "Open-Source Genomic Analysis of Shiga-Toxin-Producing E. coli O104:H4" (PDF). N Engl J Med. 365 (8): 718-24. doi: ...
2011). "Open-source genomic analysis of Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4" (PDF). N Engl J Med. 365 (8): 718-24. doi: ... 2013). "A culture-independent sequence-based metagenomics approach to the investigation of an outbreak of Shiga-toxigenic ... Detection and characterisation of diphtheria toxin genes and insertion sequences by PCR and other molecular techniques. MD ...
Confusingly, there are also E. coli strains that produce Shiga toxin known as STEC. Escherichia coli is a badly classified ...
Maletzki, C.; Linnebacher, M.; Savai, R.; Hobohm, U. (2013). "Mistletoe lectin has a shiga toxin-like structure and should be ...
"Hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated Shiga toxins promote endothelial-cell secretion and impair ADAMTS13 cleavage of unusually ...
FSL-GB3 as a solution/gel has been used to inhibit HIV infection and to neutralise Shiga toxin. FSL blood group A as a solution ...
In addition to chemical agents, the properties of many different toxins were also investigated by the Unit. To name a few, ... a professor at Shiga University of Medical Science. Nishiyama reportedly intended to publish the list online to encourage ... in response to a request by Professor Katsuo Nishiyama of the Shiga University of Medical Science. After World War II, the ... a mad scientist who conducts experiments on humans to create a genetically-modified race was first introduced as Shiga Maruta. ...
When actin is impaired due to latrunculin, Shiga toxins have a better chance of infiltrating the intestinal epithelial ... There are two main forms of the toxin, A and B. Latrunculin A is only present in sponges which live in the gulf of Suez while ... Similar effects were observed when the toxin was injected in mice. Latrunculin makes up to 0.35% of the dry weight of the ... The toxin was discovered around 1970. Researchers observed that the red-coloured sponges, Latrunculia Magnifica Keller, were ...
Shiga toxin causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome by damaging endothelial cells in the microvasculature of ... The bacterium causing shigellosis is named after Kiyoshi Shiga, a Japanese researcher who discovered it in 1897. Transmission ...
Type III, intracellular toxins or A/B toxins interfere with internal cell function and include shiga toxin, cholera toxin, and ... Toxins produced by pathogens cause an immune response; in gram-negative bacteria these are endotoxins, which are bacterial ... Recently, severe damage to liver ultrastructure has been noticed from treatment with cell-free toxins of Salmonella. Unless the ... Type I, cell surface-active toxins, disrupt cells without entering, and include superantigens and heat-stable enterotoxins. ...
This strain produces shiga toxin, which is thought to have been transferred to the species from a strain of Shigella by a ... This strain produces shiga toxin, which is thought to have been transferred to the species from the shigella bacterium, by a ... "Multistate Outbreak of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Organic Spinach and Spring Mix Blend ... Out of 324 soup cans, five of them were found to be contaminated with botulinum toxin, all in the initial batch of vichyssoise ...
A list of Foundation completed research projects on the subjects of: E.coli O157:H7 Non O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli ... www.meatpoultryfoundation.org/fact-sheets/non-o157h7-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli http://www.meatpoultryfoundation.org/fact- ...
Kolling GL, Matthews KR (May 1999). "Export of virulence genes and Shiga toxin by membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli O157:H7 ... Little is known about how these vesicles aid virulence but it has been speculated that they may contribute by secreting toxins ...
Vitamin B-6 Dependency Syndromes at eMedicine Matsumoto, Arifumi; Shiga, Yusei; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kimura, Itaru; Hisanaga, ... some of which are used or have been used clinically and others of which are naturally occurring toxins - include strychnine, ...
October 2017). "Shiga Toxins Induce Apoptosis and ER Stress in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells". Toxins. 9 (10): 319. ... Lee SY, Lee MS, Cherla RP, Tesh VL (March 2008). "Shiga toxin 1 induces apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum stress ...
He continued to study and characterize the bacterium, identifying its methods of toxin production i.e Shiga Toxin, and worked ... the genus Shigella is named after Japanese physician Kiyoshi Shiga, who researched the cause of dysentery. Shiga entered the ... Shiga was impressed by Dr. Kitasato's intellect and confidence, so after graduating, he went to work for him as a research ... In 1897, Shiga focused his efforts on what the Japanese referred to as a "Sekiri" (dysentery) outbreak. These epidemics were ...
Tests for toxin production can use mammalian cells in tissue culture, which are rapidly killed by shiga toxin. Although ... Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), specifically serotype O157:H7, have also been transmitted by flies, as well as direct ... ISBN 0-8138-0430-2, p. 270 Paton JC, Paton AW (1 July 1998). "Pathogenesis and diagnosis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia ... "Importance of Culture Confirmation of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli Infection as Illustrated by Outbreaks of ...
"Vero toxin" after this cell line, and later called "Shiga-like toxin" due to its similarity to Shiga toxin isolated from ... Vero cells are used for many purposes, including: screening for the toxin of Escherichia coli, first named " ...
"Outbreak of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 Associated With Organic Fenugreek Sprouts, France, June 2011". ...
Horizontal method for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the determination of O157, O111, O26, ...
Meanwhile, a virulent strain of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli undermines host cell survival by producing AB5 toxin to ...
Bielaszewska, M; Sinha, B; Kuczius, T; Karch, H (2005). "Cytolethal Distending Toxin from Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia ...
... location of shiga-like toxin and lysis genes suggest a role for phage functions in toxin release" (PDF). Molecular Microbiology ... Another holin (phage H-19B holin) is encoded by a gene associated with the Shiga-like toxin I gene of E. coli. Thus, it appears ... "Bacteriophage-encoded toxins: the lambda-holin protein causes caspase-independent non-apoptotic cell death of eukaryotic cells ... that holins can export various toxins as well as autolysins. The holes caused by S105 have an average diameter of 340 nm, and ...
Leafy greens, such as romaine lettuce and spinach, are commonly associated with outbreaks of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli ( ... Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli and Leafy Greens. ... Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli and Leafy Greens. *Vibriosis and ...
... shiga toxin - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... Tags e. coli, hemolytic uremic syndrome, hus, lettuce, shiga toxin, shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli, stec ...
Multistate Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to I.M. Healthy Brand SoyNut Butter ... Multistate Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to I.M. Healthy Brand SoyNut Butter ( ...
Learn more about FoodNet which consists of active surveillance for foodborne diseases and related epidemiologic studies designed to help public health officials better understand the epidemiology of foodborne diseases in the United States.
... ... 2019)‎. Attributing illness caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (‎STEC)‎ to specific foods: report. World Health ...
... could also carry different Shiga toxin (stx) genes and their variants (stx1 and/or stx2) (1,2). Cooperation of Shiga toxins ... Shiga toxins 1 and 2 are related toxins produced by certain bacteria and are implicated in bloody diarrhoea, haemorrhagic ... Shiga toxin-producing bacteria are the main cause of bloody or non-bloody diarrhoea. They can produce a life-threatening ... The Shiga-toxin Citrobacter isolates were related to the same outbreak, which was reported 3 months after an outbreak caused by ...
... dc.contributor. ... Genes encoding Shiga toxin and the intimin receptor detected in faecal samples collected from wild canids. pt_BR. ... Discussion: The carriers animals of STEC and EPEC strains do not have receptors for the Shiga toxin, serving as asymptomatic ... In conclusion, the identification of genes encoding Shiga toxin and the intimin receptor in wild canids feces highlight that ...
An outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 linked to a mud-based obstacle course, England, August 2018.. ... In August 2018, Public Health England (PHE) was made aware of five probable cases of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli ( ... Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação Adulto Animais Inglaterra/epidemiologia Microbiologia Ambiental ...
Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes severe human diseases including ... N2 - Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes severe human diseases ... AB - Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes severe human diseases ... Escherichia coli O157 : H7 strains harbor at least three distinct sequence types of Shiga toxin 2a-converting phages. In: BMC ...
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains / editors: James B. Kaper, Alison D. OBrien. ... Details for: Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains / ... Bacterial toxinsNLM classification: QR 201.E82 98ES ...
transmitted commonly through food: Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium*, Cyclospora, Listeria, norovirus, Salmonella, Shiga toxin- ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli * Culture-confirmed includes those infections confirmed by culture only or by culture ...
Detection & characterization of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) & enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in ... Dutta T K, Roychoudhury P, Bandyopadhyay S, Wani S A, Hussain I. Detection & characterization of Shiga toxin producing ... Background & objectives Limited information is available on shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in animals and birds ...
Cambridge Org Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroup O157 is a zoonotic, foodborne gastrointestinal pathogen ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroup O157 is a zoonotic, foodborne gastrointestinal pathogen of major public ... Research - The epidemiology of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serogroup O157 in England, 2009-2019. Posted on April 8, ...
The 2 most important toxins were initially identified in studies of Shigella dysenteriae and therefore named Shiga toxin (Stx ... Response to Shiga toxin-1, with and without lipopolysaccharide, in a primate model of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Am J Nephrol. ... Pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2001 Oct. 16(10):823-39. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Postdiarrheal Shiga toxin-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome. JAMA. 2003 Sep 10. 290(10):1379-81. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Evaluation of Process Control to Prevent Contamination of Beef with Non O157 Shiga Toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in U ...
title = "The role of periplasmic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and thiol peroxidase) of the Shiga toxin-producing ... T1 - The role of periplasmic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and thiol peroxidase) of the Shiga toxin-producing ... The role of periplasmic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and thiol peroxidase) of the Shiga toxin-producing ... The role of periplasmic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and thiol peroxidase) of the Shiga toxin-producing ...
Multidrug resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolated from broiler chickens at slaughter / Resistência ... Broiler chickens and derived products are a key source of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in humans. This ...
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (Shiga toxin-mediated). Enteric infection with Shiga toxin-secreting strain of Escherichia coli or ...
Shiga-Like Toxin II. Shiga Toxin 2. D27 - Chemical Actions and Uses. Molecular Mechanisms of Action. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Shiga-Like Toxin I. Shiga Toxin 1. ...
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Shigellosis. Current week. Previous 52 weeks Max †. Cum YTD 2020 †. Cum YTD 2019 ...
  • Leafy greens, such as romaine lettuce and spinach, are commonly associated with outbreaks of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and other enteric infections. (cdc.gov)
  • To evaluate the potential public health risk caused by sec- healthy adults examined, 398 (0.08%) were positive for ondary Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) STEC. (cdc.gov)
  • 60 isolates were O higa toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which serogroup untypeable (online Technical Appendix Table). (cdc.gov)
  • Multiple teams of scientists are looking into how E. coli causes disease, including enterohemmaorrhagic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (known to scientists as EHEC/STEC). (nih.gov)
  • Large-scale outbreaks of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection have revealed the great disease-causing potential of this organism, especially among children and elderly persons. (nih.gov)
  • In 2016, a multijurisdictional team investigated an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroup O121 and O26 infections linked to contaminated flour from a large domestic producer. (nih.gov)
  • Although Escherichia coli O157 has been is the most prevalent Shiga toxin producing serotype of Escherichia coli (STEC) in the United States, more than 900 isolates of non-O157 STEC, including serogroups O26, O111, O121, O45 and O145, were cultured from people with sporadic illnesses from 43 different states between 1983 and 2002. (beefresearch.org)
  • In all countries outside North America, non-O157 serogroups of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) have emerged as the cause about four times as many cases of human disease as E. coli O157. (beefresearch.org)
  • This hypothesis is supported by laboratory experiments that have demonstrated the potential for bacteriophages from E. coli O157 that encode Shiga toxins to lysogenize new host bacteria, making them STEC. (beefresearch.org)
  • Background: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are diarrheagenic E. coli that can cause disease in humans. (ufrgs.br)
  • Discussion: The carrier's animals of STEC and EPEC strains do not have receptors for the Shiga toxin, serving as asymptomatic vehicle. (ufrgs.br)
  • In conclusion, the identification of genes encoding Shiga toxin and the intimin receptor in wild canids feces highlight that STEC and EPEC pathogens could be spread by these wild animals. (ufrgs.br)
  • Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are estimated to cause more than 265,000 illnesses each year in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • In recent years, the number of clinical laboratories that use tests that detect Shiga toxin or Shiga toxin genes has increased, resulting in increased detection of both O157 and non-O157 STEC infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Hybrid Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains can cause both diarrhoea and urinary tract infections and are phylogenetically located between STEC and UPEC (UTIs). (tsijournals.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Detection & characterization of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) & enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in poultry birds with diarrhoea. (who.int)
  • Dutta T K, Roychoudhury P, Bandyopadhyay S, Wani S A, Hussain I. Detection & characterization of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) & enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in poultry birds with diarrhoea. (who.int)
  • Background & objectives Limited information is available on shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in animals and birds from India. (who.int)
  • The PST2 cluster, identified in two clade 8 strains, was related to stx2a-converting phages previously identified in non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains associated with a high incidence of HUS. (elsevier.com)
  • The European Commission (EC) integrated approach to food safety [8] defines a case of Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) diarrhea caused by O104:H4 by an acute onset of diarrhea or bloody diarrhea together with the detection of the Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) or the Shiga gene stx2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • To diagnose infection with STEC, a patient's stool (feces) can be tested in a laboratory for the presence of Shiga toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroup O157 is a zoonotic, foodborne gastrointestinal pathogen of major public health concern. (kswfoodmicro.com)
  • This study examined the role of the periplasmic oridative defense proteins, copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SodC), and thiol peroxidase (Tpx), from the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) in the formation of biofilms. (korea.ac.kr)
  • Broiler chickens and derived products are a key source of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • Scientists at USDA's Agricultural Research Service Western Regional Research Center in Albany, CA, have come up with a less-expensive way to detect biologically active Shiga toxin, a product of pathogenic Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • While Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 most commonly produces this toxin, other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, as well as Citrobacter spp. (who.int)
  • Secondly, it is considered possible that new strains of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli may emerge by acquiring the ability to produce Shiga toxin from E. coli O157 following the exchange of genetic material. (beefresearch.org)
  • The Shiga toxin gene was replaced with an antibiotic marker (chloramphenicol acetyl transferase, CAT) gene among isolates of E. coli O157 and isolates of E. coli O26. (beefresearch.org)
  • Eight, 12-week-old wean calves were inoculated with an E. coli O157 strain in which the Shiga toxin gene had been replaced with a kanamycin resistance gene ( E. coli O157 stxÄkan). (beefresearch.org)
  • A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Isolation of E. coli from a clinical specimen with detection of Shiga toxin or Shiga toxin genes. (cdc.gov)
  • Whole-Genome Sequencing of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli OX18 from a Fatal Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Case. (bvsalud.org)
  • We report a fatal case of hemolytic uremic syndrome with urinary tract infection in Japan caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli . (bvsalud.org)
  • Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains / editors: James B. Kaper, Alison D. O'Brien. (who.int)
  • Background: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes severe human diseases including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis of genomic sequences obtained by BGI Shenzhen shows that the O104:H4 outbreak strain is an enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC or EAggEC) type that has acquired Shiga toxin genes, presumably by horizontal gene transfer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent infizierte Rinder sind das wichtigste Reservoir für humanpathogene Shigatoxin-bildende E. coli. (uni-giessen.de)
  • Persistently infected ruminants are the main reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli which can be pathogenic for humans. (uni-giessen.de)
  • Effect of rifampicin and gentamicin on Shiga toxin 2 expression level and the SOS response in Escherichia Coli O104:H4. (metaorganism-research.com)
  • could also carry different Shiga toxin (stx) genes and their variants (stx1 and/or stx2) (1,2). (who.int)
  • All colony forming units (CFU) were collected by plate washing with ultrapure water (2 mL) and posterior freezing at -20°C. The total bacterial DNA from the CFU collected was extracted, followed by PCR assay to search for three genes: stx1, stx2 (responsible for the synthesis of the Shiga toxin) and tir, which encodes the translocated intimin receptor, related to the A/E lesion formation. (ufrgs.br)
  • Within 2 months, two water sources in a karst area in Switzerland were sampled 9 times each, and analyzed by real-time PCR for 6 EHEC O-types, Shiga-like-toxin (stx1 and stx2) and intimin (eae) genes. (usda.gov)
  • Detection of Shiga toxin or Shiga toxin genes in a clinical specimen using a culture-independent diagnostic test (CIDT) and no known isolation of Shigella from a clinical specimen. (cdc.gov)
  • Polymorphisms between phage genomes may help explain differences in Stx2a production between strains, however our data indicates that genes encoded external to the phage affect toxin production as well. (elsevier.com)
  • Testing methods used include direct detection of the toxin by immunoassay , or detection of the stx2 gene or other virulence-factor genes by PCR . (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to compete with commensal microbes, strains passing into the small and large intestines must be able to colonise the intestinal epithelium - and then may express various toxins after coming in close association with the intestinal mucosa [ 1 ]. (tsijournals.com)
  • Rasooly says that while the cost of technology used to detect Shiga toxin and other pathogens is not a concern for wealthy countries, the equipment is typically too expensive for developing ones, where the risk of foodborne illness and outbreaks is greatest. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Insbesondere wurden die Zellen durchflusszytometrisch auf die Expression von Stx1-Rezeptoren (Gb3/CD77) sowie die Fähigkeit zur Bindung der B-Untereinheit des Toxins untersucht und die Zusammensetzung der IEL-Subpopulationen mit der aus Zäkum und Kolon verglichen. (uni-giessen.de)
  • Genome assembly and copy-number analysis both confirmed that two copies of the Shiga toxin stx2 prophage gene cluster are a distinctive characteristic of the genome of the O104:H4 outbreak strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affordable, sensitive devices like this are needed to reduce the sources and incidence of foodborne illness, says Reuven Rasooly, who works in the center's Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The camera method, which can easily be adapted for detecting other foodborne toxins,was compared to a commercial fluorometer for detecting active Shiga toxin, Rasooly adds. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • This study investigated the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing bacteria in stool samples of patients with diarrhoea associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • Cooperation of Shiga toxins with other virulence factors, such as aggregative adhesin and intimin (eae), could induce more severe disease in infected patients (3). (who.int)
  • By studying the human genome, researchers have identified special, small molecules that stop bacteria from producing toxins and other molecules that can cause a severe bacterial infection and illness or death. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 532 stool and rectal swab samples from 70 sporadic outbreaks during May 2014 to August 2015 were examined for infection with Shiga toxin-producing bacteria. (who.int)
  • Shiga toxin-producing bacteria are the main cause of bloody or non-bloody diarrhoea. (who.int)
  • The virulence factor that mediates HUS, Shiga toxin (Stx), is encoded within the genome of a lambdoid prophage. (elsevier.com)
  • Antimicrobials may have a potentially harmful role, possibly by inducing intestinal production of Shiga toxin during the diarrheal phase of illness. (nih.gov)
  • The toxins cause illness and the associated symptoms by sticking to the intestinal cells and aggravating the cells along the intestinal wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin in the sample inhibited the synthesis of GFP - reducing GFP production in relation to the amount of toxin present. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The expression of the toxin receptor Gb3/CD77, the binding of rStxB1 to IEL, and differences between the lymphocyte subpopulations of ileum, cecum and colon were all investigated. (uni-giessen.de)
  • Receptor-mediated internalization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequent retro-translocation to the cytosol are essential sequential processes required for the productive intoxication of susceptible mammalian cells by Shiga-like toxin-1 (SLTx). (ox.ac.uk)
  • A recent clinical trial evaluating an intraluminal Shiga toxin-binding agent to ameliorate HUS showed no improvement in outcome. (nih.gov)
  • Determining the activity of the toxin is very important, because the active form poses a threat to humans. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Shiga Toxin 2" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ucdenver.edu)
  • A portion of a Shiga toxin-containing food sample was incubated with cells designed to produce GFP. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Shiga Toxin 2" by people in this website by year, and whether "Shiga Toxin 2" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Current immunological tests, such as the ELISA, cannot distinguish between the active and inactive form of Shiga toxin. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The association of Shiga-like toxin with detergent-resistant membranes is modulated by glucosylceramide and is an essential requirement in the endoplasmic reticulum for a cytotoxic effect. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Reduction in glucosylceramide (GlcCer) levels led to complete protection against SLTx and a reduced cell surface association of bound toxin with DRM. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, toxin sequestration within DRM of the ER was abolished under reduced GlcCer conditions, suggesting that an association of toxin with lipid microdomains or rafts in the ER (where these are defined by detergent insolubility) is essential for a later step leading to or involving retro-translocation of SLTx across the ER membrane. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The antibodies are intended to neutralize circulating Shiga toxins (Stx1 and Stx2), thereby treating the disease and preventing serious complications such as gastrointestinal disease, bloody diarrhea, destruction of red blood cells and platelets, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). (medscape.com)
  • Correction to: C3 levels and acute outcomes in Shiga toxin-related hemolytic uremic syndrome. (bvsalud.org)
  • Shiga toxin associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Joseph A, Cointe A, Mariani Kurkdjian P, Rafat C, Hertig A. Shiga Toxin-Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Narrative Review. (medscape.com)
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome revisited: Shiga toxin, factor H, and fibrin generation. (medscape.com)
  • and the European Medicines Evaluation Agency has approved orphan drug status for 2 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli infections. (medscape.com)
  • While Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 most commonly produces this toxin, other members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli, as well as Citrobacter spp. (who.int)
  • Unlike the atypical form, the typical form is caused by infection with certain strains of Escherichia coli bacteria that produce toxic substances called Shiga-like toxins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Epidemic profile of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical laboratories should report and send E. coli O157 isolates and Shiga toxin-positive samples to state or local public health laboratories as soon as possible for additional characterization. (cdc.gov)
  • Characterization of a Shiga toxin-encoding temperate bacteriophage of Shigella sonnei. (nih.gov)
  • A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE . (bvsalud.org)
  • Strains may carry one Shiga toxin or both at the same time. (cdc.gov)
  • Strains that produce Shiga toxin 2 tend to be more virulent. (cdc.gov)
  • Infections by bacterial strains that carry Shiga toxin, however, can lead to dangerous complications, including severe bloody diarrhea, kidney failure and even death. (nih.gov)
  • could also carry different Shiga toxin (stx) genes and their variants (stx1 and/or stx2) (1,2). (who.int)
  • 1. Therapeutic Uses of Bacterial Subunit Toxins. (nih.gov)
  • 12. A bacterial toxin and a nonenveloped virus hijack ER-to-cytosol membrane translocation pathways to cause disease. (nih.gov)
  • Shiga toxins (Stx) comprise a family of potent cytotoxins that are involved in severe human disease. (nih.gov)
  • Shiga toxin, however, escapes this route by leaving the endosome and traveling through the Golgi apparatus to the cell's protein production machinery. (nih.gov)
  • Once there, the toxin halts protein production and kills the cell. (nih.gov)
  • In earlier research, scientists directed by Dr. Adam Linstedt of Carnegie Mellon University found that Shiga toxin uses a specific cellular protein, called GPP130, to bypass the cell's defenses and avoid destruction. (nih.gov)
  • Curious about the connection between GPP130 and Shiga toxin, the researchers broke the GPP130 protein into pieces. (nih.gov)
  • They found that Shiga toxin binds directly to one section of the GPP130 protein. (nih.gov)
  • When cells of the digestive tract take up Shiga toxin, it interferes with cellular functions and the cells die. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Trafficking of Shiga toxin/Shiga-like toxin-1 in human glomerular microvascular endothelial cells and human mesangial cells. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Gastric Adenocarcinomas Express the Glycosphingolipid Gb3/CD77: Targeting of Gastric Cancer Cells with Shiga Toxin B-Subunit. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Targeted Subunit Toxins Provide a New Approach to Rescue Misfolded Mutant Proteins and Revert Cell Models of Genetic Diseases. (nih.gov)
  • However, with further research, the scientists hope to find a manganese treatment that can be used as a preventative measure or at disease onset to prevent Shiga toxin-related death. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Alteration of the glycolipid binding specificity of the pig edema toxin from globotetraosyl to globotriaosyl ceramide alters in vivo tissue targetting and results in a verotoxin 1-like disease in pigs. (nih.gov)
  • All patients with Shiga toxin-positive diarrheal illness or HUS should be reported to health departments. (cdc.gov)