A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
An acute disease of young pigs that is usually associated with weaning. It is characterized clinically by paresis and subcutaneous edema.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
An inhibitor of Serine Endopeptidases. Acts as alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.

Vascular ultrastructure and DNA fragmentation in swine infected with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. (1/321)

Shiga toxins (Stx) produced by Escherichia coli cause systemic vascular damage that manifests as edema disease in swine and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. In vitro, Stx inhibit protein synthesis and, depending on circumstances, induce necrosis, apoptosis, or both. The mechanism of in vivo Stx-mediated vascular damage is not known. The ability of Stx to cause apoptosis of vasculature in vivo was studied in pigs with edema disease that was produced by oral inoculation with Stx-producing E. coli. Arterioles of ileum and brain were evaluated by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay for DNA fragmentation in myocytes (10 infected pigs, 5 control pigs) and by transmission electron microscopy for ultrastructural changes characteristic of apoptosis (17 infected pigs, 8 control pigs). In comparison with controls, increased numbers of TUNEL-positive arterioles were detected in 6/10 (60%) subclinically affected pigs 14-15 days after inoculation. Ultrastructurally, lesions in myocytes consisted of lysis (necrosis), with cytoplasmic debris and nuclear fragments contained between intact basement membranes. Endothelial cell changes ranged from acute swelling to necrosis and detachment from basement membrane. Subclinically affected pigs (n = 14) tended to have changes predominantly in myocytes, whereas pigs with clinical illness (n = 3) more commonly had changes in endothelial cells. The arteriolar lesions and clinical signs of edema disease are attributed to the effects of Stx on vasculature. Therefore, our findings suggest that the Stx-induced arteriolar lesions seen in this study were primarily necrotic, not apoptotic. We suspect that necrosis was the principal cause of the DNA fragmentation detected.  (+info)

Toxin gene expression by shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: the role of antibiotics and the bacterial SOS response. (2/321)

Toxin synthesis by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) appears to be coregulated through induction of the integrated bacteriophage that encodes the toxin gene. Phage production is linked to induction of the bacterial SOS response, a ubiquitous response to DNA damage. SOS-inducing antimicrobial agents, particularly the quinolones, trimethoprim, and furazolidone, were shown to induce toxin gene expression in studies of their effects on a reporter STEC strain carrying a chromosome-based stx2::lacZ transcriptional fusion. At antimicrobial levels above those required to inhibit bacterial replication, these agents are potent inducers (up to 140-fold) of the transcription of type 2 Shiga toxin genes (stx2); therefore, they should be avoided in treating patients with potential or confirmed STEC infections. Other agents (20 studied) and incubation conditions produced significant but less striking effects on stx2 transcription; positive and negative influences were observed. SOS-mediated induction of toxin synthesis also provides a mechanism that could exacerbate STEC infections and increase dissemination of stx genes. These features and the use of SOS-inducing antibiotics in clinical practice and animal husbandry may account for the recent emergence of STEC disease.  (+info)

Prevalence of non-O157:H7 shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in diarrheal stool samples from Nebraska. (3/321)

We determined the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in diarrheal stool samples from Nebraska by three methods: cefixime-tellurite sorbitol MacConkey (CT- SMAC) culture, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) enzyme immunoassay, and stx1,2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fourteen (4.2%) of 335 specimens were positive by at least one method (CT-SMAC culture [6 of 14], EHEC enzyme immunoassay [13 of 14], stx1,2 PCR [14 of 14]). Six contained serogroup O157, while non-O157 were as prevalent as O157 serogroups.  (+info)

Detection and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from seagulls. (4/321)

Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains isolated from a seagull in Japan were examined. A total of 50 faecal samples was collected on a harbour bank in Hokkaido, Japan, in July 1998. Two different STEC strains, whose serotypes were O136:H16 and O153:H-, were isolated from the same individual by PCR screening; both of them were confirmed by ELISA and Vero cell cytotoxicity assay to be producing active Stx2 and Stx1, respectively. They harboured large plasmids, but did not carry the haemolysin or eaeA genes of STEC O157:H7. Based on their plasmid profiles, antibiotic resistance patterns, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis (PFGE), and the stx genes sequences, the isolates were different. Phylogenic analysis of the deduced Stx amino acid sequences demonstrated that the Stx toxins of seagull-origin STEC were closely associated with those of the human-origin, but not those of other animal-origin STEC. In addition, Stx2phi-K7 phage purified from O136 STEC resembled Stx2phi-II from human-origin O157:H7, and was able to convert non-toxigenic E. coli to STEC. These results suggest that birds may be one of the important carriers in terms of the distribution of STEC.  (+info)

Entry of ricin and Shiga toxin into cells: molecular mechanisms and medical perspectives. (5/321)

A large number of plant and bacterial toxins with enzymatic activity on intracellular targets are now known. These toxins enter cells by first binding to cell surface receptors, then they are endocytosed and finally they become translocated into the cytosol from an intracellular compartment. In the case of the plant toxin ricin and the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin, this happens after retrograde transport through the Golgi apparatus and to the endoplasmic reticulum. The toxins are powerful tools to reveal new pathways in intracellular transport. Furthermore, knowledge about their action on cells can be used to combat infectious diseases where such toxins are involved, and a whole new field of research takes advantage of their ability to enter the cytosol for therapeutic purposes in connection with a variety of diseases. This review deals with the mechanisms of entry of ricin and Shiga toxin, and the attempts to use such toxins in medicine are discussed.  (+info)

Shiga toxin activates p38 MAP kinase through cellular Ca(2+) increase in Vero cells. (6/321)

We examined whether the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is involved in Shiga toxin (Stx)-induced Vero cell injury. Consonant with cell injury, Stx caused a transient extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and a sustained p38 MAPK phosphorylation. p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB 203580 and PD 169316), but not an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor (PD 98059), partially inhibited the Stx-induced cell death. BAPTA-AM, a Ca(2+) chelator, reduced both cell injury and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Antioxidants reduced Stx1-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These data indicate that Stx activates p38 MAPK through an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species, and this signaling is involved in Stx-induced cell death.  (+info)

Rab11 regulates the compartmentalization of early endosomes required for efficient transport from early endosomes to the trans-golgi network. (7/321)

Several GTPases of the Rab family, known to be regulators of membrane traffic between organelles, have been described and localized to various intracellular compartments. Rab11 has previously been reported to be associated with the pericentriolar recycling compartment, post-Golgi vesicles, and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). We compared the effect of overexpression of wild-type and mutant forms of Rab11 on the different intracellular transport steps in the endocytic/degradative and the biosynthetic/exocytic pathways in HeLa cells. We also studied transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus using the Shiga toxin B subunit (STxB) and TGN38 as reporter molecules. Overexpression of both Rab11 wild-type (Rab11wt) and mutants altered the localization of the transferrrin receptor (TfR), internalized Tf, the STxB, and TGN38. In cells overexpressing Rab11wt and in a GTPase-deficient Rab11 mutant (Rab11Q70L), these proteins were found in vesicles showing characteristics of sorting endosomes lacking cellubrevin (Cb). In contrast, they were redistributed into an extended tubular network, together with Cb, in cells overexpressing a dominant negative mutant of Rab11 (Rab11S25N). This tubularized compartment was not accessible to Tf internalized at temperatures <20 degrees C, suggesting that it is of recycling endosomal origin. Overexpression of Rab11wt, Rab11Q70L, and Rab11S25N also inhibited STxB and TGN38 transport from endosomes to the TGN. These results suggest that Rab11 influences endosome to TGN trafficking primarily by regulating membrane distribution inside the early endosomal pathway.  (+info)

Molecular and phenotypic characterization of potentially new Shigella dysenteriae serotype. (8/321)

From September 1997 to November 1998, the French National Center for Salmonella and Shigella received 22 Shigella isolates recovered from 22 different patients suffering from dysentery. None of these isolates reacted with any of the antisera used to identify established Shigella serotypes, but all of them agglutinated in the presence of antisera to a previously described potentially new Shigella dysenteriae serotype (represented by strain 96-204) primarily isolated from stool cultures of imported diarrheal cases in Japan. All French isolates, as well as strain 96-204, showed biochemical reactions typical of S. dysenteriae and gave positive results in a PCR assay for detection of the plasmid ipaH gene coding for invasiveness. No Shiga toxin gene was detected by PCR. These isolates were indistinguishable by molecular analysis of ribosomal DNA (ribotyping) and seemed to be related to S. dysenteriae serotypes 3 and 12. However, further characterization by restriction of the amplified O-antigen gene cluster clearly distinguished this new serotype from all other Shigella or Escherichia coli serotypes.  (+info)

On April 20, 2010, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) was notified by correctional authorities regarding three inmates with bloody diarrhea at a minimum-security correctional facility. The facility, which houses approximately 500 inmates, is a designated work center where inmates are employed or receive vocational training. Approximately 70 inmates work at an onsite dairy, which provides milk to all state-run correctional facilities in Colorado. CDPHE immediately began an investigation and was later assisted by the High Plains Intermountain Center for Agricultural Health and Safety at Colorado State University and by CDC. This report describes the results of the investigation, which determined that the illnesses were caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O111 (STEC O111) infections. During April-July, 10 inmates at the facility received a diagnosis of laboratory-confirmed STEC O111 infection, and a retrospective prevalence study of 100 inmates found that, ...
Acta Sci. Pol. Zootechnica 14(1) 2015, ISSN ISSN (online) EFFECTIVE BACTERIOLYSIS OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI O157: H7 CAUSED BY SPECIFIC BACTERIOPHAGE
Recall & Advice to Consumers & Retailers: Multistate Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Beef Products Produced by Adams Farm
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does sequence type 33 of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O91 cause only mild symptoms?. AU - Maeda, Eriko. AU - Murakami, Koichi. AU - Etoh, Yoshiki. AU - Onozuka, Daisuke. AU - Sera, Nobuyuki. AU - Asoshima, Nanami. AU - Honda, Mikiko. AU - Narimatsu, Hiroshi. AU - Iyoda, Sunao. AU - Watahiki, Masanori. AU - Fujimoto, Shuji. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84919476405&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84919476405&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1128/JCM.02335-14. DO - 10.1128/JCM.02335-14. M3 - Letter. C2 - 25392363. AN - SCOPUS:84919476405. VL - 53. SP - 362. EP - 364. JO - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. JF - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. SN - 0095-1137. IS - 1. ER - ...
Disease burden in The Netherlands due to infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 - Volume 132 Issue 3 - A. H. HAVELAAR, Y. T. H. P. VAN DUYNHOVEN, M. J. NAUTA, M. BOUWKNEGT, A. E. HEUVELINK, G. A. DE WIT, M. G. M. NIEUWENHUIZEN, N. C. A. J. van de KAR
Thirty-six Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O111:H- strains, 18 of which were isolated from patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and 18 from patients suffering from diarrhea, were investigated for their enterohemolytic phenotypes and genotypes. Twenty-two strains were EHEC hemolysin (EHEC Hly) positive by probe hybridization and by PCR with sequences complementary to the EHEC hlyA gene of E. coli O157:H7, but only 20 of these were hemolytic on blood agar plates. The remaining 14 strains were EHEC Hly negative according to DNA-based methods and did not express the enterohemolytic phenotype. The enterohemolytic phenotype was observed in 16 of 18 (88%) strains from patients with HUS but only in 4 of 18 (22.2%) of the STEC O111:H- strains from patients with diarrhea. All STEC O111:H- strains carried large plasmids, as shown by plasmid analysis, but only plasmids of EHEC Hly probe-positive strains hybridized with the CVD419 probe. A BamHI fragment of approximately 12 kb was ...
Few US clinical laboratories screen stool specimens for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) other than E. coli O157. An outbreak of STEC O111:H8 infections indistinguishable from E. coli O157:H7 at a youth camp highlights the need to improve non-O157 STEC surveillance. Interviews of 521 (80%) of 650 attendees revealed 55 (11%) were ill; 2 developed hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Illness was associated with consuming salad during the camps first lunch meal (hazard ratio [HR], 4.68; P , .01), consuming ice provided in barrels on the camps final day (HR, 3.41; P , .01), eating cob corn (HR, 3.22; P , .01), and eating a dinner roll (HR, 2.82; P , .01). Cultures of 2 of 11 stools yielded E. coli O111:H8. Results of serologic testing and additional stool cultures demonstrated no evidence of infection with other bacterial pathogens, including E. coli O157, and supported infection with E. coli O111. Clinical laboratories should routinely screen suspect specimens for non-O157 STEC and should ...
Between July 1999 and December 2000, the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was established in 200 Argentine healthy young beef steers (14-16 months old) grown under local production systems with a feed grain period of 3-4 months, and the STEC strains isolated were examined in regard to their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics.Stool samples (n=70) and rectal swabs (n=130) were taken at the slaughterhouse level.By polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Shiga toxin (stx) gene sequences were detected in 69% of the samples. Eighty-six STEC strains were isolated from 39% of the animals. Serogroups identified, in order of frequency, were: O8 (16 strains), O113 (14), O103 (5), O91 (4), O171 (3), O174 (3), O25 (2), O112 (2), O145 (2), O2, O11, O104, O121, O128, O143, O146, O157. the most frequent serotype isolated was O8:H19 (12.9%). A total of 17 serotypes, including E. coli O157:H7 found in one animal (0.5%), have been previously associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of periplasmic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and thiol peroxidase) of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the formation of biofilms. AU - Kim, Young Hoon. AU - Lee, Yunho. AU - Kim, Saehun. AU - Yeom, Jinki. AU - Yeom, Sujin. AU - Kim, Beom Seok. AU - Oh, Sangnam. AU - Park, Sungsu. AU - Jeon, Che Ok. AU - Park, Woojun. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - This study examined the role of the periplasmic oridative defense proteins, copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SodC), and thiol peroxidase (Tpx), from the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) in the formation of biofilms. Proteomic analyses have shown significantly higher expression levels of both periplasmic antioxidant systems (SodC and Tpx) in STEC cells grown under biofilm conditions than under planktonic conditions. An analysis of their growth phase-dependent gene expression indicated that a high level of the sodC expression occurred during the stationary phase and that ...
Podana liczba cytowań wynika z analizy informacji dostępnych w Internecie i jest zbliżona do wartości obliczanej przy pomocy systemu Publish or Perish. ...
A case was defined as isolation of E. coli non-O157 with the outbreak PFGE pattern or closely related by whole genome sequencing (WGS) in a Canadian resident or visitor with onset of symptoms of gastroenteritis on or after November 1, 2016. Patients illness onset dates ranged from November 2016 to April 2017 (Figure). As of May 23, 2017, a total of 29 cases were identified in six provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan). One additional case was identified in a U.S. resident who traveled to Canada during the exposure period. Patients ages ranged from 2-79 years (median = 23.5 years) and 50% were female. Eight patients were hospitalized, and one developed hemolytic uremic syndrome. Clinical isolates were typed as E. coli O121:H19 (one case was typed as E. coli O121:H undetermined) with Shiga toxin 2-producing genes by in silico toxin testing and had closely related PFGE patterns and WGS ...
Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is an important foodborne pathogen that can be transmitted to humans both directly and indirectly from the feces of beef cattle, its primary reservoir. Numerous studies have investigated the shedding dynamics of E. coli O157 by beef cattle, however the spatiotemporal trends of shedding are still not well understood. Molecular tools can increase the resolution through the use of strain typing to explore transmission dynamics within and between herds and identify strain-specific characteristics that may influence pathogenicity and spread. Previously, the shedding dynamics and molecular diversity, through the use of multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of STEC O157, were separately investigated in an Australian beef herd over a 9-month study period. Variation in shedding was observed over time and 33 MLVA types were identified. The study presented here combines the two datasets previously published with an aim to clarify the
Several exogenous and endogenous cargo proteins are internalized independently of clathrin, including the bacterial Shiga toxin. The mechanisms underlying early steps of clathrin-independent uptake remain largely unknown. In this study, we have designed a protocol to obtain gradient fractions containing Shiga toxin internalization intermediates. Using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and quantitative mass spectrometry, Rab12 was found in association with these very early uptake carriers. The localization of the GTPase on Shiga toxin-induced plasma membrane invaginations was shown by fluorescence microscopy in cells transfected with GFP-Rab12. Furthermore, using a quantitative biochemical assay, it was found that the amount of receptor-binding B-subunit of Shiga toxin reaching the trans-Golgi/TGN membranes was decreased in Rab12-depleted cells, and that cells were partially protected against intoxication by Shiga-like toxin 1 under these conditions. These findings ...
Shiga toxin-producing (Stx) Escherichia coli (STEC) O113:H21 strains are associated with human diarrhea and some of these strains may cause hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). The molecular mechanism underlying this capacity and the differential host cell response to HUS-causing strains are not yet completely understood. In Brazil O113:H21 strains are commonly found in cattle but, so far, were not isolated from HUS patients. Here we conducted comparative gene co-expression network (GCN) analyses of two O113:H21 STEC strains: EH41, reference strain, isolated from HUS patient in Australia, and Ec472/01, isolated from cattle feces in Brazil. These strains were cultured in fresh or in Caco-2 cell conditioned media. GCN analyses were also accomplished for cultured Caco-2 cells exposed to EH41 or Ec472/01. Differential transcriptome profiles for EH41 and Ec472/01 were not significantly changed by exposure to fresh or Caco-2 conditioned media. Conversely, global gene expression comparison of both strains cultured
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predicting hemolytic uremic syndrome and renal replacement therapy in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli-infected children. AU - Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee and Pediatric Emergency Research Canada. AU - McKee, Ryan S.. AU - Schnadower, David. AU - Tarr, Phillip I.. AU - Xie, Jianling. AU - Finkelstein, Yaron. AU - Desai, Neil. AU - Lane, Roni D.. AU - Bergmann, Kelly R.. AU - Kaplan, Ron L.. AU - Hariharan, Selena. AU - Cruz, Andrea T.. AU - Cohen, Daniel M.. AU - Dixon, Andrew. AU - Ramgopal, Sriram. AU - Rominger, Annie. AU - Powell, Elizabeth C.. AU - Kilgar, Jennifer. AU - Michelson, Kenneth A.. AU - Beer, Darcy. AU - Bitzan, Martin. AU - Pruitt, Christopher M.. AU - Yen, Kenneth. AU - Meckler, Garth D.. AU - Plint, Amy C.. AU - Bradin, Stuart. AU - Abramo, Thomas J.. AU - Gouin, Serge. AU - Kam, April J.. AU - Schuh, Abigail. AU - Balamuth, Fran. AU - Hunley, Tracy E.. AU - Kanegaye, John T.. AU - Jones, Nicholas E.. AU - Avva, ...
Many pathogens produce the β-(1-6)-linked poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) surface polysaccharide that is being developed as a broadly protective antimicrobial vaccine. However, it is unknown whether systemically injected PNAG vaccines or antibodies would provide protective immunity against pathogens confined to the gastrointestinal tract such as Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), an important group of gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens for which effective immunotherapeutics are lacking. To ascertain whether systemic IgG antibody to PNAG impacts this infectious situation, a vaccine consisting of a synthetic nonamer of nonacetylated PNAG, 9GlcNH2, conjugated to the Shiga toxin 1b subunit (9GlcNH2-Stx1b) was produced. Rabbit antibodies raised to the conjugate vaccine were tested for bacterial killing and toxin neutralization in vitro and protection against infection in infant mice. Cell surface PNAG was detected on all 9 STEC isolates tested, representing 6 STEC serogroups, ...
O104:H4, a Shiga toxin-producing hybrid pathotype that was implicated in a major foodborne outbreak in Germany in 2011, has not been detected in cattle. However, serotypes of O104, other than O104:H4, have been isolated from cattle feces, with O104:H ...
DETECTION METHODS AND INTESTINAL ADHERENCE OF NON-O157 SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI Zachary R. Stromberg, Ph.D. University of Nebraska, 2015 Advisor: Rodney A. Moxley Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are enteric pathogens of humans. Cattle serve as a reservoir and harbor STEC in their intestines. Intimin-positive STEC are referred to as enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC). Seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) account for the majority of illness due to STEC and are hereafter referred to as STEC/EHEC-7. To improve detection, enrichment broths were compared for supporting growth of STEC-7 and STEC O104:H4 (STEC-8). In pure culture, STEC enriched in trypticase soy broth (TSB) had significantly greater growth compared to TSB containing antimicrobials. In fecal samples, E. coli broth enrichment yielded growth of STEC-8 that was significantly greater than in TSB. Optimized culture conditions allow for greater detection of EHEC-7 in cattle. To determine the prevalence
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is an important subset of Shiga toxin-producing (Stx-producing) E. coli (STEC), pathogens that have been implicated in outbreaks of food-borne illness and can cause intestinal and systemic disease, including severe renal damage. Upon attachment to intestinal epithelium, EHEC generates attaching and effacing (AE) lesions characterized by intimate attachment and actin rearrangement upon host cell binding. Stx produced in the gut transverses the intestinal epithelium, causing vascular damage that leads to systemic disease. Models of EHEC infection in conventional mice do not manifest key features of disease, such as AE lesions, intestinal damage, and systemic illness. In order to develop an infection model that better reflects the pathogenesis of this subset of STEC, we constructed an Stx-producing strain of Citrobacter rodentium, a murine AE pathogen that otherwise lacks Stx. Mice infected with Stx-producing C. rodentium developed AE lesions on the intestinal epithelium
Shiga toxins belong to a family of structurally and functionally related toxins serving as the main virulence factors for pathogenicity of the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) associating
The impact of livestock farming on the incidence of human Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection was assessed by using several livestock density indicators (LDI) that were generated in a systematic approach. A total of 80 LDI were considered suitable proxy measures for livestock density. Multivariate Poisson regression identified several LDI as having a significant spatial association with the incidence of human STEC infection. The strongest associations with human STEC infection were the ratio of beef cattle number to human population and the application of manure to the surface of agricultural land by a solid spreader and by a liquid spreader showed. This study demonstrates the value of using a systematic approach in identifying LDI and other spatial predictors of disease.
Adherence to epithelial cells by specific adhesins is a characteristic of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. The eae-encoded protein intimin is the main adhesin implicated in intestinal colonization in vivo. We recently showed that STEC strains isolated in Chile displayed a wide variety of adhesins; here we demonstrate that some of these STEC strains are eae-negative and still adhere to epithelial cells at a level 100-fold higher than enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157 : H7 prototype strain EDL933. This phenotype is associated with the presence of adherence factors different from the intimin protein. Subtractive hybridization between EHEC EDL933 and STEC eae-negative strain 472-1 was used to identify regions implicated in adhesion. In addition to the saa gene, we identified 18 specific genes in STEC 472-1, 16 of which had nucleotide identity to Salmonella ST46 phage genes; the two remaining ones shared identity to a gene encoding a hypothetical protein of uropathogenic E. coli.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are the only pathogenic group of E. coli that has a definite zoonotic origin, with ruminants and, in particular, cattle being recognized as the major reservoir. Most human STEC infections are food borne, but the routes of transmission include direct contact with animals and a variety of environment-related exposures. Therefore, STEC public health microbiology spans the fields of medical, veterinary, food, water, and environmental microbiology, requiring a
Nadratowska-Wesolowska, B., Haugsten, EM., Zakrzewska, M., Jakimowicz, P., Zhen, J., Pajdzik, D., Wesche, J., Wiedlocha, A. (2013) RSK2 regulates endocytosis of FGF receptor 1 by phosphorylation on serine 789. Oncogene Oct21.. Zakrzewska, M., Haugsten, EM., Nadratowska-Wesolowska, B., Oppelt, A., Hausott, B., Jin, Y., Otlewski, J., Wesche, J., Wiedlocha, A. (2013) ERK-mediated phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 on Ser777 inhibits signaling. Science Signaling Vol. 6, Issue 262.. Nejman, B., Nadratowska-Wesolowska, B., Szalewska-Palasz, A., Wegrzyn, A, Wegrzyn, G. (2011) Replication of plasmids derived from Shiga toxin-converting bacteriophages in starved Escherichia coli. Microbiology 157: 220-233.. Nadratowska-Wesolowska, B., Slominska-Wojewodzka, M., Lyzen, R., Wegrzyn, A., Szalewska-Palasz, A., Wegrzyn, G. (2010) Transcription regulation of the Escherichia coli pcnB gene coding for poly(A) polymerase I: roles of ppGpp, DksA and sigma factors. Molecular Genetics and Genomics ...
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a serious complication which is predominantly associated in children with infection by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). By using HuMAb-Mouse (Medarex) animals, human monoclonal antibodies (Hu-MAbs) were developed against Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) for passive immunotherapy of HUS. Ten stable hybridomas comprised of fully human heavy- and light-chain immunoglobulin elements and secreting Stx1-specific Hu-MAbs (seven immunoglobulin M(kappa)() [IgM(kappa)] elements [one specific for the A subunit and six specific for the B subunit] and three IgG1(kappa) elements specific for subunit B) were isolated. Two IgM(kappa) Hu-MAbs (2D9 and 15G9) and three IgG1(kappa) Hu-MAbs (5A4, 10F4, and 15G2), all specific for subunit B, demonstrated marked neutralization of Stx1 in vitro and significant prolongation of survival in a murine model of Stx1 toxicosis.. ...
CDC, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service, and public health officials in several states are investigating an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157:H7) infections.. Public health investigators are using the PulseNet system to identify illnesses that may be part of this outbreak. PulseNet, the national subtyping network of public health and food regulatory agency laboratories, is coordinated by CDC. DNA fingerprinting is performed on E. coli bacteria isolated from ill people by using a technique called pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, or PFGE. PulseNet manages a national database of these DNA fingerprints to identify possible outbreaks.. One DNA fingerprint (outbreak strain) is included in this investigation. A total of 19 people infected with the outbreak strain of Shiga toxin-producing STEC O157:H7 have been reported from 7 states. The majority of illnesses have been reported from states ...
Date: 10/3/2014 Title: Factors Associated with Regulatory Action Involving Investigation of Illnesses Associated with Shiga Toxin-Producing *Escherichia coli* in Products Regulated by the Food Safety and Inspection Service ...
Full Text (subscription or payment may be required). Pharmaceutical Ads Often Dont Adhere to U.S. FDA Guidelines. THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- Physician-targeting pharmaceutical advertisements have low rates of adherence to U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and provide inadequate information for safe prescribing, according to a study published online Aug. 17 in PLoS One.. Full Text (subscription or payment may be required). CDC: Reporting Delays Occurred in German E. coli Outbreak. THURSDAY, Aug. 25 (HealthDay News) -- During the outbreak of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and bloody diarrhea related to shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 (STEC) in Germany during May and June 2011, there was a median delay of 20 days between symptom onset and reporting the cases, according to a study published in the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Preventions October Emerging Infectious Diseases.. Full Text. Stereotactic Radiotherapy Treats Colorectal Liver Mets ...
A total of 27 persons infected with the outbreak strain of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O121 (STEC O121) have been reported from 15 states. 81%
REYES S, Marcelo; DURAN T, Claudia e PRADO J, Valeria. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Shiga toxin producing E coli (STEC) strains isolated from human infections and food. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2004, vol.132, n.10, pp.1211-1216. ISSN 0034-9887. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872004001000008.. Background: Shiga toxin-producing E coli (STEC) are zoonotic pathogens associated to sporadic episodes of bloody diarrhea, foodborne outbreaks, and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), with worldwide public health impact. Antibiotic use in STEC infections is controversial because of the potential to increase production and secretion of Shiga toxins. Aim: To study the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility profile of STEC. Material and methods: The in vitro susceptibility profile against 10 antimicrobials of STEC strains isolated from 29 meat products, 20 patients with diarrhea and 9 HUS patients was studied. Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (µg/ml) by agar dilution method for ampicillin, ...
All humans and animals carry the bacteria called Escherichia coli (E.coli) in their intestines - they are part of our normal flora and usually harmless. However, there are certain types of E. coli strains that are a risk to human health including those that are capable of producing toxins. These strains are called STEC/VTEC (shiga toxin or verotoxin-producing E. coli) or EHEC (enterohaemorrhagic E. coli), and their toxins have the potential to cause bloody diarrhoea and Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), a serious complication that can be fatal. In the EU and as reflected in EFSAs work on zoonoses, Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli is referred to as VTEC (verotoxin-producing E. coli) but the term STEC was used for this outbreak as it is in line with terminology used by WHO and other organisations.. Transmission of STEC infection mainly occurs through eating or handling contaminated food and contact with infected animals. Food can also be contaminated from infected humans handling it. ...
These items were distributed to retail stores and food service locations in Illinois, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Carolina and Virginia.. The problem was discovered when the Illinois State Meat Inspection Service notified FSIS on May 2, 2017, about positive non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) samples made with source material produced by Marcho Farms, Inc. There have been no confirmed reports of adverse reactions due to consumption of these products.. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreaks are rare, but tend to primarily be due to contaminated food and person-to-person transmission. Like E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is a potentially deadly bacterium that can cause dehydration, bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps 2-8 days (3-4 days, on average) after exposure the organism. While most people recover within a week, some develop a type of kidney failure called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). This condition can occur ...
On 9 September 2011, the Estrel Convention Center in Berlin was the venue for a first clinical symposium on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli / haemolytic uremic syndrome (STEC/HUS) reflecting on the large STEC outbreak in Germany earlier this year. The German Society of Nephrology (DGfN) invited internationally renowned clinical experts and microbiologists to discuss the basic science and diagnostics of STEC infections and the different options for treating an EHEC-associated HUS, including plasmapheresis, antibody therapy with Eculizumab, and extracorporeal immune adsorption.
After ingestion via contaminated food or water, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli colonises the intestinal mucosa and produces Shiga toxins (Stx). No Stx-specific secretion system has been described so far, and it is assumed that Stx are released into the gut lumen after bacterial lysis. Human intestinal epithelium does not express the Stx receptor Gb3 or other Stx binding sites, and it remains unknown how Stx cross the intestinal epithelial barrier and gain access to the systemic circulation. This review summarises current knowledge about the influence of the intestinal environment on Stx production and release, Stx interaction with intestinal epithelial cells and intracellular uptake, and toxin translocation into underlying tissues. Furthermore, it highlights gaps in understanding that need to be addressed by future research.
Infections with Shiga toxin (STx)-producing bacteria cause more than a million deaths each year and have no definitive treatment. To exert its cytotoxic effect, STx invades cells through retrograde membrane trafficking, escaping the lysosomal degradative pathway. We found that the widely available metal manganese (Mn2+) blocked endosome-to-Golgi trafficking of STx and caused its degradation in lysosomes. Mn2+ targeted the cycling Golgi protein GPP130, which STx bound in control cells during sorting into Golgi-directed endosomal tubules that bypass lysosomes. In tissue culture cells, treatment with Mn2+ yielded a protection factor of 3800 against STx-induced cell death. Furthermore, mice injected with nontoxic doses of Mn2+ were completely resistant to a lethal STx challenge. Thus, Mn2+ may represent a low-cost therapeutic agent for the treatment of STx infections.. ...
Escherichia coli (E. coli) are commonly found in the intestine. Contrary to popular belief, most of E. coli strains are harmless to the host and are a part of the normal flora within the intestine. However, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is a pathogen strain of E. coli that can cause serious illness. Infection of EHEC is usually transferred through contaminated food products such as ground meat, raw milk, drinking water, and vegetables. EHEC produces Shiga toxins which can lead to bellyache, severe and acute hemorrhagic diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and uremia.. In this study, the subjects (Balc/c mice) were administered EHEC along with our functional probiotics. At the end of the trial, the liver, ileum, and feces of the subjects were collected to analyze the EHEC translocation in liver and ileum and measure the Shiga toxin in feces. In this model, we assessed whether the use of our functional probiotics could improve the symptoms caused by EHEC by protecting the ...
Food poisoning victims -- as a result, for example, of consuming Shiga-packing E.coli in a contaminated bag of spinach -- have always had the cold comfort of being told that not all common bacteria make humans extremely sick, only the strains that have integrated the Shiga gene into their DNA. These bacteria can produce large amounts of the Shiga toxin and release it into the surrounding environment.
Efficacy of Lactic Acid, Hot Water, and Acidified Sodium Chlorite for the Reduction of Non‑O157 Shiga Toxin‑producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Utilizing Chilled Beef Subprimals and Escherichia coli O157:H7 as an ...
Efficacy of Lactic Acid, Hot Water, and Acidified Sodium Chlorite for the Reduction of Non O157 Shiga Toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Utilizing a Hot Carcass Model and Escherichia coli O157:H7 as an ...
This external quality assessment (EQA) scheme samples challenges the detection and quantification of Shiga toxin Escherichia coli organisms by molecular methods.
An element usually found in nature may give way to neutralize the potentially toxic effects of a compound known as Shiga toxin, was discovered by Carnegie Mellon University researchers.
It has been since October 2009 that we filed the Petition for an Interpretive Rule Declaring enterohemorrhagic Shiga Toxin-producing Serotypes of Escherich
Incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in beef, pork, chicken, deer, boar, bison, and rabbit retail meat ...
Aflatoxin, Fumonisin and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Calves and the Effectiveness of Celmanax®-Dairymans Choice™ Applications to Eliminate Morbidity and Mortality Losses. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
To the Editor: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are an important cause of severe human disease. Although most infections are caused by strains of serogroup O157, STEC pathogenic to humans may belong to other serogroups usually referred to as non-O157 STEC.. Recently, Tarr et al. (1) and Acheson et al. (2) described infections attributable to STEC O103 and expressed concern that non-O157 STEC may pose an underestimated threat to public health in the United States. In fact, non-O157 STEC is often overlooked in clinical microbiology laboratories because the toxigenic phenotype is not exploited to identify such pathogens. Rather, most laboratories use sorbitol MacConkey agar and serotyping (which cannot detect most non-O157 STEC) to identify E. coli O157:H7.. Since the end of the 1980s, non-O157 STEC infections have caused as many as 10% to 30% of sporadic cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in Germany (3), Italy (4), and the United Kingdom (5). Moreover, HUS outbreaks ...
Aspán A. and E. Eriksson. 2010. Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Swedish cattle; isolates from prevalence studies versus strains linked to human infections--a retrospective study. BMC Vet Res. 6: 7.. Bielaszewska M., A. Mellmann, W. Zhang, R. Köck, A. Fruth and A. Bauwens. 2011. Characterization of the Escherichia coli strain associated with an outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Germany, 2011: a microbiological study. Lancet Infect. Dis. 11: 671-676.. Bugarel M., L. Beutin and P. Fach. 2010. Low-density macroarray targeting non-locus of enterocyte effacement effectors (nle genes) and major virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC): a new approach for molecular risk assessment of STEC isolates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76: 203-211.. Bugarel M., A. Martin, P. Fach and L. Beutin. 2011. Virulence gene profiling of enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli strains: a basis for molecular risk assessment of typical and atypical ...
Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin content of hemorrhaged mucosa in dairy calves during natural disease outbreaks, compared the virulence genes of the STECs, evaluated the effect of the mucosal mycotoxins on STEC toxin expression and evaluated a Celmanax®/Dairymans Choice™ application to alleviate disease. As for human infections, the OI-122 encoded nleB gene was common to STEC genotypes eliciting serious disease. Low levels of aflatoxin (1-3 ppb) and fumonisin (50-350 ppb) were detected in the hemorrhaged mucosa. Growth of the STECs with the mycotoxins altered the secreted protein concentration with a corresponding increase in cytotoxicity. Changes in intracellular calcium indicated that the mycotoxins increased
In recent years, the incidence of foodborne diseases caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has increased globally. For this reason, within the specific regional control plan for the detection of STEC in food products in Italy, the presence of STEC in unpasteurised milk cheeses was investigated. In total, 203 samples obtained from March 2011 to December 2013 were analysed, with two standard methods (ISO 16654:2001 and ISO 13136:2012). Two strains of E. coli O157 were isolated (2/161, 1.2%) but did not carry any virulence-associated genes and 22 stx-positive samples (22/146, 15.1%) were detected in enrichment cultures, mostly from ovine cheeses. Only two strains isolated from different ovine cheeses carried stx gene and none of these was eae-positive. This study confirms the presence of stx-positive E. coli and suggests that this type of food cannot be excluded as a potential vehicle of STEC ...
Sprouted seeds have been implicated in a number of serious outbreaks caused by Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Sprouts pose a very complex challenge to bacterial pathogen enrichment and detection since they naturally contain high levels of background microflora including members of the Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the currently used method cannot ensure reliable detection of STEC in sprouts. In this study, we compared different media for the enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in their ability to promote the growth of stressed STEC at 37°C and 42°C. Mung bean sprouts were spiked with low levels of STEC and their growth was recorded over time. In addition, the microbiome of mung bean sprouts was analysed before and after enrichment. Our results indicate that the growth of dry-stressed STEC is comparable in all of the tested enrichment media except for mTSB+Novobiocin and not influenced by the incubation temperature. Low levels of STEC spiked into the sprouts resuspended in ...
ICD-10 B96.22 is other specified shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli [e. coli] (stec) as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere (B9622). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for certain infectious and parasitic diseases.
The viability of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes within plant- and beef-based burgers was monitored during storage and cooking. When inoculated (ca. 3.5 log CFU/g) into 15-g portions of plant- or beef-based burgers, levels of STEC and Salmonella decreased slightly (≤0.5-log decrease) in both types of burgers when stored at 4°C, but increased ca. 2.4 and 0.8 log CFU/g, respectively, in plant-based burgers but not beef-based burgers (≤1.2-log decrease), after 21 days at 10°C. For L. monocytogenes, levels increased by ca. 1.3 and 2.6 log CFU/g in plant burgers after 21 days at 4 and 10°C, respectively, whereas pathogen levels decreased slightly (≤0.9-log decrease) in beef burgers during storage at 4 and 10°C. Regarding cooking, burgers (ca. 114 g each) were inoculated with ca. 7.0 log CFU/g STEC, Salmonella, or L. monocytogenes and cooked in a sauté pan. Cooking plant- or beef-based burgers to 62.8°C (145°F), 68.3°C (155°F), or ...
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are foodborne pathogens, and beef cattle are recognized as the principal reservoir. The aims of this study were (1) to identify the most sensitive combination of selective enrichment broths and agars for STEC isolation in artificially inoculated ground b …
Serogroups, subtypes and virulence factors of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from human, calves and goats in Kerman, Iran
Date: 11/7/2018 Title: Detection and Quantification of Seven Major Serogroups of Shiga Toxin-Producing *Escherichia coli* on Hides of Cull Dairy, Cull Beef, and Fed Beef Cattle at Slaughter ...
Yin, S.; Jensen, M.A.; Bai, J.; Debroy, C.; Barrangou, R.; Dudley, E.G., 2013: The evolutionary divergence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is reflected in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) spacer composition
In 1982, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome were linked to infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7, a serotype now classified as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Thereafter, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with non-O157 STEC serogroups were reported, with the frequency of non-O157 STEC illness rivaling that of O157:H7 in certain geographic regions. In the United States, non-O157 E. coli may account for up to 20%-50% of all STEC infections. A high index of suspicion, paired with options to test for non-O157 STEC infection, are necessary for early recognition and appropriate treatment of these infections. Supportive care without the use of antibiotics is currently considered to be optimal treatment for all STEC infections. This commentary provides a perspective on the non-O157 STEC as human pathogens, how and when the clinician should approach the diagnosis of these organisms, and the challenges ahead.. ...
FIG. 3. Western blot of serum samples from a child with enteropathic HUS and the childs family members and controls using Stx2 as the antigen. Lane 1, blot strip of the PVDF membrane stained with Coomassie blue, showing the A subunit, the A1 fragment, and the B subunit. Lanes 2, 3, 8, and 9 represent human control sera. Lane 2, nonreactive; lane 3, reactive against the A and B subunits; lanes 8 and 9, same control serum reactive against the B subunit of Stx2 at the standard dilution of 1:100 (lane 8) and at a dilution of 1:10,000 (lane 9). Lane 4, Western blot of a 4-year-old patient with enteropathic HUS (reactive against the A subunit of Stx2). Western blots of family members of the patient (lanes 5 to 7, 10, and 11). Lane 5, serum from the 2-year-old brother of the HUS patient (reactive against the A and B subunits of Stx2); lane 6, serum from the 5-year-old brother (nonreactive); and lanes 7, 10, and 11, serum from the 7-year-old brother, 11-year-old sister, and the mother of the patient ...
The described PCR method proved efficient for detecting hemolysin genes from E. coli: elyA from STEC strains andhlyA from E. coli producing alpha-hemolysin. PCR-RFLP showed that all human STEC isolates harbored elyA. In comparison to the results for the O157:H7 reference strain, PCR-RFLP and subsequent nucleotide sequencing of elyA amplicons revealed only four STEC strains with minor sequence variations. These strains were of rare non-O157 serovars associated withstx1 genes and lacked eaeA. However, among the STEC strains, hlyA was restricted to an O138:K81:H− strain. Alpha-hemolysin of this porcine strain was associated with stx2e and estA genes, as shown by Meyer and Karch (20). In the present study,astA, encoding a second heat-stable enterotoxin, was detected in this strain. The close association of elyA, located on the 94- to 103-kb STEC virulence plasmid (28), and stx genes, harbored by a lysogenic lambdoid phage (25), was remarkable. This situation could also be true forhlyA from porcine ...
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Citation: Hegde, N.V., Praul, C., Gehring, A.G., Fratamico, P.M., Debroy, C. 2013. Rapid O serogroup identification of the six clinically relevant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by antibody microarray. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 93(3):273-276. Interpretive Summary: Food-borne pathogenic bacteria known as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause severe diarrheal illness and can lead to serious kidney disease and even death. Cattle are a reservoir for these pathogens, and food of bovine origin is a common vehicle of human infection. STEC O157:H7 and six addidtional non-O157 STEC serogroups known as O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 (top six serogroups) are classified as adulterants in beef by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, and thus the availabiltiy of rapid and sensitive methods for detection and identification of these STEC serogroups is critical. A method based on an antibody array was developed for the detection of the top six non-O157 STEC. The ...
The objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the prevalence of non-O157 STEC and E. coli O157 in naturally infected beef cows and in steer calves at postweaning, during finishing, and at slaughter and (ii) to test non-O157 STEC isolates for the presence of virulence genes stx 1, stx 2, eaeA, and ehlyA. Samples were collected from study animals during multiple sampling periods and included fecal grabs, rectal swabs, and midline sponge samples. Laboratory culture, PCR, and multiplex PCR were performed to recover and identify E. coli and the virulence genes. The prevalence of non-O157 STEC (serogroups O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O113, and O145) fecal shedding ranged from 8% (4 of 48 samples) to 39% (15 of 38 samples) in cows and 2% (1 of 47 samples) to 38% (9 of 24 samples) in steer calves. The prevalence of E. coli O157 fecal shedding ranged from 0% (0 of 38 samples) to 52% (25 of 48 samples) in cows and 2% (1 of 47 samples) to 31% (15 of 48 samples) in steer calves. In steer calves, the ...
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Description of Research Interests. Molecular detection and characterization of foodborne bacterial pathogens; epidemiological typing, bacterial stress response, microbial physiology and pathogenicity and control of pathogens and their toxins in food.. Selected Recent Publications. Chen, J., Lazar, N. (2012). Selection of working correlation structure in generalized estimating equations via empirical likelihood. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 21, 18-41.. Yoo, B. K., Chen, J. (2009). Influence of culture conditions and medium composition on the production of cellulose by the cells of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75, 4630-4632.. Nagachinta, S., Chen, J. (2009). Integron-mediated antibiotic resistance in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Journal of Food Protection, 72, 21-27.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inherited complement hyperactivation is critical for the pathogenesis of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) but undetermined in postdiarrheal HUS. Our aim was to investigate complement activation and variants of complement genes, and their association with disease severity in children with Shiga toxin-associated HUS. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Determination of complement biomarkers levels and next-generation sequencing for the six susceptibility genes for atypical HUS were performed in 108 children with a clinical diagnosis of post-diarrheal HUS (75 Shiga toxin-positive, and 33 Shiga toxin-negative) and 80 French controls. As an independent control cohort, we analyzed the genotypes in 503 European individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project. RESULTS: During the acute phase of HUS, plasma levels of C3 and sC5b-9 were increased, and half of patients had decreased membrane cofactor protein expression, which normalized after 2 weeks. Variants with minor
Adult nondiarrhea hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with Shiga toxin Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteremia and urinary tract infection. Chiurchiu C, Firrincieli A, Santostefano M, Fusaroli M, Remuzzi G, Ruggenenti P. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2003;41(1):E4.. ABSTRACT:. About 15% of children with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC) primarily of serotype O157:H7, gastrointestinal infection, and watery or bloody diarrhea, may develop hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Usually diarrhea-associated (D+) HUS is not complicated by bacteremia and patients recover spontaneously without antibiotic treatment. This paper reports on an adult case of a STEC O157:H7 urinary tract infection complicated by bacteremia and HUS that was not preceded by diarrhea (D- HUS). A 25-year-old woman was hospitalized with fever, vomiting, and gross hematuria. At admission she reported decreased urine output, reduced vision in the left eye, and epistaxis. Her temperature and pulse rate were increased ...
Citation: Fratamico, P.M., Bagi, L.K., Cray, P.J., Bhagwat, A.A. 2006. Characterization of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli strains isolated from swine feces. {Abstract}. International Association of Food Protection. P1-47. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) belonging to different serogroups were isolated from swine feces and were characterized to determine the presence of E. coli virulence genes by the PCR, antibiotic resistance profiles, and acid tolerance. Twenty-nine out of 219 (13%) of the isolates harbored the gene for Stx1, 14 (6%) Stx2, 179 (80%) Stx2e, 46 (21%) STa, 14 (6.4%) STb, 10 (4.6%) F18, 94 (42.9%) EAST1, 192 (87.7%) Cdt-II, 1 (0.46%) Cdt-III, and 25 (11.4%) Hly. None of the strains harbored the genes for LT, BFP, F4, F5, F6, F41, CNF1, CNF2, EaeA, Cdt-I, and Cdt-IV. The strains were also examined for antimicrobial susceptibility profiles using 16 antibiotics. The STEC isolates displayed resistance most often to tetracycline ...
Inflammatory cytokines up-regulate the expression of the receptor for Stx on endothelial cells and allow the endothelial cells to be more sensitive to the toxic effect of Stx (32, 33). Elevated concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma have been reported in HUS patients, and the degree of HUS is closely related to the levels of inflammatory cytokines (12, 16). Therefore, inflammatory cytokines are thought to be important in modifying the disease caused by STEC infection.. The roles of antimicrobial agents in the prevention and amelioration of HUS remain controversial, and an optimal treatment regimen for STEC infection has not been established (9, 31). In this study, we demonstrated that azithromycin has a strong effect on Stx production by STEC. Azithromycin inhibited the in vitro growth of STEC strains and did not induce Stx-converting phage or stimulate the production of Stx at a wide range of concentrations in vitro. This was in sharp contrast to newer fluoroquinolones such as norfloxacin ...
Computer artwork surface representation of Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) from Escherichia coli O157. Shiga toxin is produced by enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a dangerous form of the normally harmless E. coli bacteria which live in the human intestine. Shiga toxin can cause life-threatening diarrhoea, intestinal bleeding, kidney failure and disturbances to blood clotting. - Stock Image C009/7432
Shiga-toxin producing E. coli Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (STEC HUS) follows a gut infection with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), which causes severe (often bloody) diarrhoea. Around 1000 UK children are infected with STEC each year and approximately 100 of these develop STEC HUS when a toxin from STEC causes damage to small blood vessels, especially in the kidneys. About 50-60% of children with STEC HUS need artificial kidney support (dialysis), which may last several weeks. About 2-3% of children with STEC HUS die, and about 20-25% get HUS in their brain, causing fits or a stroke. Many make a full recovery, but about 25-30% will have permanent kidney damage or more rarely brain damage. Previous studies have investigated a number of different treatments for STEC HUS, but have failed to show significant benefit. Eculizumab is a medicine that blocks part of the immune system called complement. Evidence suggests complement plays a role in STEC HUS. Eculizumab is very effective in a related ...
Cooling, L.L.W.; Walker, K.E.; Koener, T.A.W., 1995: Variability in shiga toxin binding and P-K blood group expression in individual platelet donors
Shiga toxin (Stx) is a major virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, which causes fatal systemic complications. Here, we identified a tetravalent peptide that inhibited Stx by targeting its receptor-binding, B-subunit pentamer through a multivalent interaction. A monomeric peptide with the same motif, however, did not bind to the B-subunit pentamer. Instead, the monomer inhibited cytotoxicity with remarkable potency by binding to the catalytic A-subunit. An X-ray crystal structure analysis to 1.6 Å resolution revealed that the monomeric peptide fully occupied the catalytic cavity, interacting with Glu167 and Arg170, both of which are essential for catalytic activity. Thus, the peptide motif demonstrated potent inhibition of two functionally distinct subunits of Stx. Watanabe-Takahashi, Tamada, Senda et al. identify a tetravalent peptide that inhibits Shiga toxin (Stx), a major virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, by targeting its receptor-binding. On the other hand, a
Virulence factors for hemolytic uremic syndrome, Denmark. Ethelberg S, Olsen KEP, Scheutz F, Jensen C, Schiellerup P, Engberg J, Petersen AM, Olesen B, Gerner-Smidt P, Mølbak K. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2004;10(5):842-847.. ABSTRACT:. Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are identified by the Shiga toxins (Stx); two classes, Stx1 and Stx2, are recognized. STEC strains also frequently harbor other virulence factors responsible for causing damage. Only a few epidemiologic studies have addressed the relative importance of virulence factors for serious clinical disease. This paper examines the risk factors for hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and bloody diarrhea among a series of microbiologic and patient-related characteristics. From 1997 to 3002, 343 cases with STEC infections registered in Denmark, and for which complete data were available, were included in this study. HUS developed in 6% of patients and 36.4% had bloody diarrhea. The isolates comprised 74 serotypes and 49 ...
Shiga Toxins, EIA with Reflex to E. coli O157, Culture. If Shiga Toxin, EIA is Detected, Escherichia coli O157, Culture will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87046).. If culture is Isolated, identification will be performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 87077 or 87140 or 87143 or 87147 or 87149).. Antibiotic susceptibilities are only performed when appropriate (CPT code(s): 87181 or 87184 or 87185 or 87186).. Methodology Bacterial culture • Aerobic Isolation and Identification Procedures • Broth Enhanced Enzyme Immunoassay. Reference Range(s) See individual tests. Alternative Name(s) Stool Culture, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter Stool Culture. ...
What is Escherichia coli?. Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses. Still other kinds of E. coli are used as markers for water contamination-so you might hear about E. coli being found in drinking water, which are not themselves harmful, but indicate the water is contaminated. It does get a bit confusing-even to microbiologists.. What are Shiga toxin-producing E. coli? Some kinds of E. coli cause disease by making a toxin called Shiga toxin. The bacteria that make these toxins are called Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, or STEC for short. You might hear them called verocytotoxic E. coli (VTEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC); these all refer generally to the same group of bacteria. The most commonly identified STEC in North America is ...
In Norway, it is recommended that children with Shiga-Toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are excluded from daycare centers until up to five consecutive negative stool cultures are obtained. Children with gastrointestinal illness of unknown etiology are asked to remain home for 48 hours after symptoms subside. On 16 October 2012, two cases of STEC infection were reported from a daycare center, where other children were also symptomatic. Local health authorities temporarily closed the daycare center and all children and staff were screened for pathogenic E. coli. We present the results of the outbreak investigation in order to discuss the implications of screening and the exclusion policies for children attending daycare in Norway. Stool specimens for all children (n = 91) and employees at the daycare center (n = 40) were tested for pathogenic E. coli. Information on demographics, symptoms and potential exposures was collected from parents through trawling interviews and a web-based
This document assesses the risk to human health posed by a multi-country foodborne outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections associated with haemolytic uraemic syndrome taking place in the European Union (EU). ...
We compared 61 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups from 448 food isolates with 71 STEC serogroups from 1,447 isolates from patients in Germany. Two thirds (41/61), representing 72% of food isolates, were also found in patients. Serogroups typically isolated from patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome were rarely found in food ...
Dr Lorinda Frylinck, Senior Navorser, LNR-Diere Produksie, Irene.. Introduction. The production of safe and wholesome beef and beef-derived food products is the highest priority for the beef industry in South Africa. There are potential risks associated with the possible presence of harmful pathogens in the food production chain; however, clear guidelines and regulations have been implemented to reduce these risks to a minimum and ensure a safe product for consumers. Nevertheless it remains important to continually assess these risks and to ensure effective implementation of control measures.. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are bacteria associated with food and waterborne diseases and have been recognized as causing public health problems worldwide. The WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) reported that Foodborne STEC caused more than 1 million illnesses and 128 deaths in 2010 (8). Of the over 470 different serotypes of STEC detected in humans, the ...
An evaluation of molecular typing methods that can be applied to the food-borne pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes is presented. This evaluation is divided in two parts. Firstly, commonly used molecular typing methods are assessed against a set of predefined criteria relating to discriminatory capacity, reproducibility, repeatability and current or potential suitability for international harmonisation. Secondly, the methods are evaluated for their appropriateness for use in different public health-related applications. These applications include outbreak detection and investigation, attribution modelling, the potential for early identification of food-borne strains with epidemic potential and the integration of the resulting data in risk assessment. The results of these evaluations provide updated insights into the use and potential for use of molecular characterisation methods, including whole genome sequencing technologies, in ...
Vanneste, Kevin; Nancy Roosens; Sigrid De Keersmaecker Source: Foods, Volume 9, Issue 8 (2020) Keywords: Food Safety foodborne outbreak investigation Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli STEC Surveillance .... ...
The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of cattle in human disease due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and to discuss ...
Herold S; Karch H; Schmidt H (2004). "Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages-genomes in motion". International Journal of Medical ... causes minor dysentery because of its Shiga toxin, but other species may also be dysentery agents. S. dysenteriae releases an ...
"Toxin Gene Expression by Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli: The Role of Antibiotics and the Bacterial SOS Response". Emerg ... Use in EHEC infections may lead to an increase in expression of Shiga toxin.[17] ...
H4 strain which was lysogenized by a Shiga toxin encoding phage (typically associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia ... There are three toxins found in EAEC; plasmid encoded toxin (Pet), heat-stable toxin (EAST1), and Shigella enterotoxin 1 (ShET1 ... Nadia Boisen; Angela R. Melton-Celsa; Flemming Scheutz; Alison D. O'Brien; James P. Nataro (2015). "Shiga toxin 2a and ... Several toxins have been linked to EAEC virulence, including ShET1 (Shigella enterotoxin 1), Pet (plasmid‐encoded toxin), and ...
"Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC): Update on outbreak in the EU (27 July 2011, 11:00)". ECDC. 27 July 2011. Archived from ... Hughes JM, Wilson ME, Johnson KE, Thorpe CM, Sears CL (2006). "The Emerging Clinical Importance of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin- ... Fruth A, Prager R, Tietze E, Rabsch W, Fliger A (2015). "Molecular epidemiological view on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia ... European Food Safety Authority (2011). "Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O104:H4 2011 outbreaks in Europe: Taking stock". ...
Gastroenteritis Shiga-like toxin Shiga toxin Traveler's diarrhea "General Information, Shigella - Shigellosis , CDC". www.cdc. ...
His team has validated the B-subunit of Shiga toxin (STxB) as a "pilot" for the delivery of therapeutic compounds to precise ... "Shiga toxin induces tubular membrane invaginations for its uptake into cells". nature. Retrieved 2020-10-27. Forrester, Alison ... Shiga toxin induces tubular membrane invaginations for its uptake into cells. Nature 450: 670-675. Comments: Nat Rev Mol Cell ... Mechanism of Shiga toxin clustering on membranes. ACS Nano 11: 314-324 (& co-first authors, # authors from Johannes group, * ...
E. coli O104 is a Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The toxins cause illness and the associated symptoms by sticking to the ... H4 by an acute onset of diarrhea or bloody diarrhea together with the detection of the Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) or the Shiga gene ... can be tested in a laboratory for the presence of Shiga toxin. Testing methods used include direct detection of the toxin by ... "Shiga Toxin-producing E. Coli (STEC) O104:H4 2011 Outbreaks in Europe:." EFSA Journal. European Food Safety Authority, 3 Nov. ...
The disease agent was Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:H7. The most recent illness started on December 12, 2017; the PHA ... H7 Shiga toxins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 (19): 10325-9. Bibcode: ... "Multistate Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Leafy Greens (Final Update)", ...
2017), "Chapter 3: Structure of Shiga toxins and other AB5 toxins", Shiga toxins: A Review of Structure, Mechanism, and ... "Shiga-like toxin" (SLT) or "verotoxin" is that they should all be referred to as (versions of) Shiga toxin, as the difference ... are strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli that produce either Shiga toxin or Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin). Only a minority ... "Quinolone antibiotics induce Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages, toxin production, and death in mice". The Journal of ...
A prime example concerning the spread of exotoxins is the adaptive evolution of Shiga toxins in E. coli through horizontal gene ... ISBN 978-1-908230-10-2. Strauch E, Lurz R, Beutin L (December 2001). "Characterization of a Shiga toxin-encoding temperate ...
... and nonproducing strains may become infected and produce shiga-like toxins after incubation with shiga toxin positive strains. ... Strains of E. coli that express Shiga and Shiga-like toxins gained that ability via infection with a prophage containing the ... such as the use of anti-induction strategies to prevent toxin production and the use of anti-Shiga toxin antibodies, have also ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga-like toxin-producing ...
EcoShield PX™. Targets E. coli O157:H7 and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Used to treat various foods including beef and ...
Open-source genomic analysis of Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4. The New England Journal of Medicine, 365(8):718-724. doi ...
... also called Shiga-like toxin). E. coli can produce stx1 and/or stx2 Shiga toxins, the latter being more dangerous. A ... A positive Shiga-toxin/EHEC test confirms a cause for STEC-HUS, and severe ADAMTS13 deficiency (i.e., ≤5% of normal ADAMTS13 ... These Shiga toxins bind GB3 receptors, globotriaosylceramide, which are present in renal tissue more than any other tissue and ... The Shiga-toxin-activated endothelial cells then become thrombogenic (clot-producing) by a mechanism that is not fully ...
Grotiuz G, Sirok A, Gadea P, Varela G, Schelotto F (October 2006). "Shiga toxin 2-producing Acinetobacter haemolyticus ...
Therefore, O121 is sometimes roughly classified as a type of "non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli " (non-O157 STEC). A U.S. ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 "Laboratory-Confirmed Non-O157 Shiga Toxin Producing E. Coli". Centers for Disease Control and ... Escherichia coli O121 is a pathogenic serotype of Escherichia coli, associated with Shiga toxin, intestinal bleeding, and ...
HUS is caused by E. coli bloody diarrhea and specific strains of shiga toxin. The bacteria in HUS cause damage to the ...
"Escherichia coli Harboring Shiga Toxin 2 Gene Variants: Frequency and Association with Clinical Symptoms". The Journal of ...
Both Shiga toxin and verotoxin are associated with causing potentially fatal hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Shigella species invade ... S. dysenteriae strains produce Shiga toxin, which is hemolytic similar to the verotoxin produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli. ... The genus is named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered it in 1897. The causative agent of human shigellosis, Shigella ... Some strains of Shigella produce toxins which contribute to disease during infection. S. flexneri strains produce ShET1 and ...
2011). "Open-Source Genomic Analysis of Shiga-Toxin-Producing E. coli O104:H4" (PDF). N Engl J Med. 365 (8): 718-24. doi: ...
... which mediate Shiga toxin 1 but not Shiga toxin 2 cell entry". Journal of Biological Chemistry: 100299. doi:10.1016/j.jbc. ... Shiga Toxin Binds Human Platelets Via Globotriaoslyceramide (Pk antigen) and a Novel Platelet Glycosphingolipid. Infect Immun ... Pk antigen is a receptor for Shiga toxins produced by Shigella dysenteriae and some strains of Escherichia coli, which may ...
2011). "Open-source genomic analysis of Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4" (PDF). N Engl J Med. 365 (8): 718-24. doi: ... 2013). "A culture-independent sequence-based metagenomics approach to the investigation of an outbreak of Shiga-toxigenic ...
Confusingly, there are also E. coli strains that produce Shiga toxin known as STEC. Escherichia coli is a badly classified ...
Kolling GL, Matthews KR (May 1999). "Export of virulence genes and Shiga toxin by membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli O157:H7 ... Little is known about how these vesicles aid virulence but it has been speculated that they may contribute by secreting toxins ...
October 2017). "Shiga Toxins Induce Apoptosis and ER Stress in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells". Toxins. 9 (10): 319. ... Lee SY, Lee MS, Cherla RP, Tesh VL (March 2008). "Shiga toxin 1 induces apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum stress ...
Shiga toxin secreted by enterohemorrhagic E. coli has been shown to be transcytosed into the intestinal lumen. From these ... "Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection stimulates Shiga toxin 1 macropinocytosis and transcytosis across intestinal ...
Shiga toxin produced by enterohemorrhagic E. coli has been shown to enter target cells via macropinocytosis, causing ... "Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection stimulates Shiga toxin 1 macropinocytosis and transcytosis across intestinal ...
... was found to inhibit the growth of a Shiga toxin-producing bacteria called Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, ... "Spread and change in stress resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 on fungal colonies". Microbial ... Aspergillus ochraceus is a mold species in the genus Aspergillus known to produce the toxin ochratoxin A, one of the most ... Significant loss in nutritive value and hazardous effect on the food chain are caused due to the same OTA toxin contamination ...
Stool samples from patients with diarrhea or other GI symptoms should be tested for STEC and the presence of Shiga-toxin. ... However, a positive identification of Shiga-toxin, which is required to diagnose STEC-HUS, does not rule out aHUS. Nevertheless ... and Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli hemolytic uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS). However, it is now understood that although ... Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome: prognostic significance of genetic background". Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 1 (1 ...
Shiga toxin causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome by damaging endothelial cells in the microvasculature of ...
Shiga toxin · Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli) · E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin · Cholera toxin · Pertussis ... "toxin" tại Từ điển Y học Dorland *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Truy cập ngày 13 tháng 12 ... type I (Superantigen) · type II (Pore forming toxins) · type III (AB toxin/AB5) ... Clostridium: tetani (Tetanospasmin) · perfringens (Alpha toxin, Enterotoxin) · difficile (A, B) · botulinum (Botox). khác: ...
... and nonproducing strains may become infected and produce shiga-like toxins after incubation with shiga toxin positive strains. ... Strains of E. coli that express Shiga and Shiga-like toxins gained this ability due to infection with a prophage containing the ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin-producing types ... H7 Shiga toxins". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 97 (19): 10325-9. doi: ...
AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ... After endocytosis, pertussis toxin's mechanism is the same as cholera toxin. The main receptor for the shiga toxin is ...
... with the help of Japanese microbiologist Kiyoshi Shiga, Ehrlich experimented with hundreds of dyes on mice infected with ... But Ehrlich's rationale was that the chemical structure called side chain forms antibodies that bind to toxins (such as ...
Toksin Shiga · Verotoksin/Toksin serupa Shiga (E. coli) · Enterotoksin stabil haba E. coli · Enterotoksin labil haba · Toksin ... Simpson, L. L. (1986) "Molecular Pharmacology of Botulinum Toxin and Tetanus Toxin." Annual Review of Pharmacology and ... jenis I (Superantigen) · jenis II (Pore forming toxins) · jenis III (Toksin AB/AB5) ... "Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon." The Journal of the Americal Medical Association, 285 ...
Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... Microbial toxins. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Montecucco C, Molgó J (June 2005). "Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an ... Toxin production[edit]. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ... Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism.[17] Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from ...
Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Histrionicotoxins are a group of related toxins found in the skin of poison frogs from the family Dendrobatidae, notably ...
Shiga toxins, heat-stable and heat-labile toxins), no production of cytotoxins (CNF), no invasiveness, no pathogenic adhesion ...
Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Nevertheless, they appear much less capable of causing mutagenesis than the unmetabolized toxin.[19] ... and the possibility of concurrent exposure to other toxins. The main target organ in mammals is the liver, so aflatoxicosis ...
Type III, intracellular toxins or A/B toxins interfere with internal cell function and include shiga toxin, cholera toxin, and ... Recently, severe damage to liver ultrastructure has been noticed from treatment with cell-free toxins of Salmonella.[10] Unless ... Type I, cell surface-active toxins, disrupt cells without entering, and include superantigens and heat-stable enterotoxins. ... Type II, membrane-damaging toxins, destroy cell membranes in order to enter and include hemolysins and phospholipases. ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... Its adult length can range from 5 to 8 in (13 to 20 cm).[1] Its skin produces a potent toxin[citation needed]. ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... This evolutionary arms race has resulted in the newts producing levels of toxin far in excess of what is needed to kill any ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... Microbial toxins. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Montecucco C, Molgó J (June 2005). "Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an ... Toxin production[edit]. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ... Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of problems. Muscle spasticity[edit]. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... "toxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Retrieved 13 ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation).. A toxin (from Ancient Greek: τοξικόν, translit. toxikon) is a poisonous substance ... 3 Environmental toxins *3.1 Finding information about toxins. *3.2 Computational resources for prediction of toxic peptides and ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... Heat-labile enterotoxin is a type of labile toxin found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... It acts similarly to the cholera toxin by raising cAMP levels through ADP-ribosylation of the alpha-subunit of a Gs protein ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Possani, L.D.; Becerrill, B.; Delepierre, M.; Tytgat Hammock, J. (1999). "Scorpion toxins specific for Na+-channels". European ... Gordon, D.; Savarin, P.; Gurevitz, M.; Zinn-Justin, S. (1998). "Functional anatomy of scorpion toxins affecting sodium channels ...
Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... "toxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Retrieved 13 ... Environmental toxins[edit]. See also: Environmental toxicology. The term "environmental toxin" can sometimes explicitly include ... Toxins are often distinguished from other chemical agents by their method of production-the word toxin does not specify method ...
... also called Shiga-like toxin). E. coli can produce stx1 and/or stx2 Shiga toxins, the latter being more dangerous. A ... HUS was first defined as a syndrome in 1955.[2][3] The more common form of the disease, Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli HUS ... A positive Shiga-toxin/EHEC test confirms a cause for STEC-HUS,[23][31] and severe ADAMTS13 deficiency (i.e., ≤5% of normal ... Certain Shiga toxin-secreting strains of Shigella dysenteriae can also cause HUS.[4] Approximately 5% of cases are classified ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... ডোরল্যান্ডের চিকিৎসাশাস্ত্র অভিধানে "toxin" *↑ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary"। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases. *ToxSeek: Meta-search engine in toxicology and ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... It is also called spasmogenic toxin, or TeNT. The LD50 of this toxin has been measured to be approximately 2.5-3 ng/kg,[2][3] ... making it second only to botulinum toxin (LD50 2 ng/kg)[4] as the deadliest toxin in the world. However, these tests are ... Tetanus toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin produced by the vegetative cell of Clostridium tetani[1] in anaerobic ...
Shiga toxin (from dysentery) mice 2 ng/kg 0.000000002 [89]. Tetanospasmin (tetanus toxin) mice 2 ng/kg 0.000000002 [89]. ... Botulinum toxin (Botox) human, oral, injection, inhalation 1 ng/kg (estimated) 0.000000001 [90]. ... Nagai H (2003). "Recent Progress in Jellyfish Toxin Study". Journal of Health Science. 49 (5): 337-340. doi:10.1248/jhs.49.337 ... or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.[1] The value of LD50 for a substance is the dose ...
Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a ... Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is AB5 multimeric protein complex secreted ...
The bacterial Shiga toxin can be used for targeted therapy of gastric cancer, because this tumor entity expresses the receptor ... Globotriaosylceramide is also one of the targets of Shiga toxin, which is responsible for pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic ... Gastric adenocarcinomas express the glycosphingolipid Gb3/CD77: Targeting of gastric cancer cells with Shiga toxin B-subunit. ... of the Shiga toxin. For this purpose an unspecific chemotherapeutical is conjugated to the B-subunit to make it specific. In ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli)(英语:Shiga-like toxin). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin(英语:Heat-stable enterotoxin)/ ... Staphylococcus aureus alpha(英语:Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin)/beta(英语:Staphylococcus aureus beta toxin)/delta(英语: ... Androctonus australis hector insect toxin(英语:Androctonus australis hector insect toxin) ... Shiga toxin(英语:Shiga toxin). * ... Cholera toxin(英语:Cholera toxin). *Pertussis toxin(英语:Pertussis ...
Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli, such as E coli o157:h7, are the most common cause of infectious bloody diarrhea in the ... The most common cause of this type of diarrhea is a cholera toxin that stimulates the secretion of anions, especially chloride ... Other infectious agents, such as parasites or bacterial toxins, may exacerbate symptoms.[21] In sanitary living conditions ... In the elderly, particularly those who have been treated with antibiotics for unrelated infections, a toxin produced by ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Scorpions such as the deathstalker paralyze their prey by injecting a potent mix of peptide toxins.[4] Charybdotoxin, a 37 ... The Charybdotoxin family of scorpion toxins is a group of small peptides that has many family members, such as the pandinotoxin ...
2006) Outcome of renal transplantation in patients with non-Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome: prognostic ... 2012) Infections in pediatric postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome: factors associated with identifying shiga toxin- ... Shiga-toksiinipositiiviset ulostenäytteet ja todiste STEC-infektiosta seeruminäytteessä vahvistavat STEC-HUS-diagnoosin. [43] ... ADAMTS13-aktiivisuutta testaamalla voidaan vahvistaa, onko kyseessä TTP vai aHUS, ja Shiga-toksiinikokeella voidaan havaita ...

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