Sperm Midpiece: The middle piece of the spermatozoon is a highly organized segment consisting of MITOCHONDRIA, the outer dense fibers and the core microtubular structure.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 18.104.22.168.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.VirginiaAdenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 22.214.171.124.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.KansasMitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Mole Rats: Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Electromagnetic Fields: Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Dermabrasion: The mechanical planing of the SKIN with sand paper, emery paper, or wire brushes, to promote reepithelialization and smoothing of skin disfigured by ACNE scars or dermal NEVI.Electromagnetic Phenomena: Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Phosphoglycerate Kinase: An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from 3-phospho-D-glycerate in the presence of ATP to yield 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP. EC 126.96.36.199.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.2,3-Diphosphoglycerate: A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 188.8.131.52). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.N-Acetyllactosamine Synthase: The A protein of the lactose synthase complex. In the presence of the B protein (LACTALBUMIN) specificity is changed from N-acetylglucosamine to glucose. EC 184.108.40.206.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
They are elongated, flattened, and arranged circumferentially to form a helical coiled sheath in the midpiece of the sperm ... Sperm mitochondrial-associated cysteine-rich protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMCP gene. Sperm ... "Entrez Gene: SMCP sperm mitochondria-associated cysteine-rich protein". Behne D, Kyriakopoulos A (2001). "Mammalian selenium- ... and is thought to function in the organization and stabilization of the helical structure of the sperm's mitochondrial sheath. ...
... sperm head MeSH A11.497.760.400.100 - acrosome MeSH A11.497.760.450 - sperm midpiece MeSH A11.497.760.500 - sperm tail MeSH ... myelin sheath MeSH A11.650.800.500 - myelin sheath MeSH A11.650.800.500.550 - neurilemma MeSH A11.650.800.500.700 - ranvier's ... myelin sheath MeSH A11.2220.127.116.110 - nuclear envelope MeSH A11.218.104.22.1680.500 - nuclear lamina MeSH A11.284.149.165. ... sperm tail MeSH A11.284.180.565 - microvilli MeSH A11.284.180.610 - neurites MeSH A11.284.180.610.345 - growth cones MeSH ...
This makes the sperm completely unable to penetrate the zona pellucida. The sperm in Type 2 globozoospermia has some acrosomal ... It characterised by round-headed spermatozoa without acrosome, an abnormal nuclear membrane and midpiece defects. Affected ... and postacrosomal sheath WW domain binding protein (PAWP). De Braekeleer, Marc; Nguyen, Minh Huong; Morel, Frédéric; Perrin, ... The main technique used is intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) where fertilisation is achieved by a single sperm being ...
How exactly does a sperm cell meet its energy requirements? The mitochondria in the sperm midpiece churn out ATP by oxidative ... A structure called the fibrous sheath is wrapped around the axoneme.. Sperm cells are carried out of the man in the semen, ... and lipidic beta oxidation may contribute to sperm motility.". Even if the sperm make it to the oocyte, the state of the sperm ... Sperm Check Fertility and Sperm Check Vasectomy, using biomarkers that are unique to the final stage of sperm development in ...
They are elongated, flattened, and arranged circumferentially to form a helical coiled sheath in the midpiece of the sperm ... Sperm mitochondrial-associated cysteine-rich protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SMCP gene. Sperm ... "Entrez Gene: SMCP sperm mitochondria-associated cysteine-rich protein". Behne D, Kyriakopoulos A (2001). "Mammalian selenium- ... and is thought to function in the organization and stabilization of the helical structure of the sperms mitochondrial sheath. ...
Mitochondria in the midpiece of sperm were dyed red. Sperm nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33342 (blue). (b) Percentage MT-DR ... MMP Analysis in the Sperm of Participants. In human sperm, the mitochondrial sheath is organized in a helix of approximately 13 ... Mitochondria in the midpiece of sperm were dyed red, and sperm nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33342 (blue). (b) Histogram ... And the localization of DJ-1 in the midpiece of sperm indicated its function in mitochondria of sperm. These findings suggest ...
Ak2 protein was localized to the mitochondrial sheath in the sperm midpiece. ... and mitochondrial sheath of the mouse sperm tail, we show that another AK, AK8 (zeige AK8 Antikörper), is present in a third ... AK2 in the flagellar accessory structures provides a mechanism to buffer the adenylate energy charge for sperm motility. ...
In human sperm, pY proteins were located predominantly in the fibrous sheath of the principal piece. One of the identified ... In hamsters, tyrosine phosphorylated (pY) proteins were located in the equatorial segment, mid-piece, and principal piece. One ... Both recombinant proteins can enhance sperm capacitation through the increase of tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins. ... Cryopreserved human sperm samples were also used in this study and found to benefit from the presence of rHuOVGP1 which ...
After spermiation PRDX2 localization became confined to the mitochondrial sheath of the sperm tail midpiece. Boar spermatozoa ... Sperm and spermatid extracts displayed 20 kDa PRDX2 band in Western blotting. PRDX2 occurred as a Triton soluble form in the ... Peroxidase activity in sperm extracts is not due to the glutathione system and therefore possibly contributed by PRDX2 and ... While the specific role of PRDX2 in the total peroxidase activity of sperm extract is still an open question, the present study ...
... sperm motility as a result of ultrastructural morphological abnormalities in the mitochondrial sheath in the sperm midpiece. ...
They are elongated, flattened, and arranged circumferentially construct a helical coiled sheath in the midpiece of the sperm ... Sperm Mitochondria-Associated Cysteine-Rich Protein, MCSP, MCS, Mitochondrial Capsule Selenoprotein, HSMCSGEN1, Sperm ... and assumed to function in the organization and stabilization of the helical structure of the sperms mitochondrial sheath. ... Sperm mitochondria vary in morphology and subcellular localization from those of somatic cells. ...
Behind the midpiece lies the tail, which is coated with a sheath of fibres that provide support as it beats back and forth. ... Even mammals with more primitively shaped sperm, like the platypus, still have sheathed tails. The naked mole rat? No sheath. ... Hermaphrodite insects fertilise daughters with parasitic sperm. *Sperm war - the sperm of ants and bees do battle inside the ... In most mammal sperm, there is a distinctive midpiece, loaded with rings of energy-producing structures called mitochondria. ...
... and reorganization of organelles including the formation of the mitochondrial sheath along the midpiece of the flagellum (1). ... Few sperm heads were observed in the lumen of caput and cauda epididymides of Paip2a/Paip2b-DKO mice as compared with WT mice ( ... C) Sperm count in testes, caput/corpus epididymides, and cauda epididymides of WT and Paip2a/Paip2b-DKO mice. Values are mean ... While the mitochondrial sheath is formed around the middle piece of the spermatid flagellum in WT mice (arrows in Figure 5, A ...
... and some nasal cilia of a patient with totally immotile spermatozoa associated with thickened sheath and short midpiece. Hum. ... B) Sperm cell from a Spag6 −/− mouse showing a disruption of the midpiece. (C) Headless sperm from a Spag6 −/− mouse. (D) Sperm ... The major fibrous sheath polypeptide of mouse sperm: structural and functional similarities to A-kinase anchoring proteins. Dev ... an estimate of the straightness of the sperm track, between wild-type sperm and mutant sperm. ...
Distal centriole in the midpiece of the mature sperm (smaller thin arrow). Degradation of sperm stored in the SSTs of turtles ... containing concentric membranes and a center core in the middle piece of the sperm form the mitochondria sheath. The nuclear ... Sperm stored in the sperm storage tubule (SST). Around the sperm mass are the ﬂocculent materials that are similar to the ... Sperm stored in the tubules are heterogeneous in cytology. In addition to the mature sperm in the lumen, sperm with large ...
They are elongated, flattened, and arranged circumferentially to form a helical coiled sheath in the midpiece of the sperm ... and is thought to function in the organization and stabilization of the helical structure of the sperms mitochondrial sheath ... Sperm mitochondria differ in morphology and subcellular localization from those of somatic cells. ...
reabsorbs fluid, concentrating the sperm. - As sperm goes through the epididymis, from the head to vas deferens, there is an ... Mid Piece. - axoneme (9+2) arrangement of microtubules. - surrounded by outer dense fibers (9 of them). - surrounded by ... mitochondrial sheath- provides energy for motility. Principle piece. - axoneme surrounded by outer dense fibers. - mitochondria ... Sperm is released from the semineferous tubules into the rete testis. - Rete are spaces in the mediastinum of the tunica ...
le). The midpiece of the rhea spermatozoa contains about 30 mitochondria. Mitochondria of rhea sperm are typical of sperm ... A 3-p-long distal centriole occupies the entire midpiece. The principal piece is characterized by a small fibrous sheath and ... The long centriole of the rhea enables this species to develop a midpiece similar to the midpiece of mammalian sperm without ... LITERATURE CITED Asa, C.S. and D.M. Phillips 1987 Ultrastructure of avian sperm: A short review. In: New Horizons in Sperm Cell ...
... and mid-piece (e-f) of sperm tails. Upper panel (f) shows normal axoneme (9+2 microtubules, MT), mitochondrial sheath (M), ... after sperm capacitation there are twice as many acrosome-reacted mutant sperm compared to wild-type derived sperm cells (Fig. ... is a sperm-specific protein located in the acrosome and is critically involved in sperm-ZP adhesion. Live, motile sperm expose ... 3. DefbΔ9/DefbΔ9 male mice have more fragile sperm with reduced motility. Figure 3A: Cauda epididymal sperm from DefbΔ9/DefbΔ9 ...
The midpiece is surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath. Concentrations of fine granular material are present between the ... it is clear that ostrich and rhea sperm are closely allied and distinct from tinamou sperm. ... Ostrich sperm differ in a number of respects from that of other non-passerine birds (the absence of a typical perforatorium; ... Ostrich sperm display a short, conical acrosome which covers the tapered tip of the long, cylindrical nucleus. A nuclear ...
... a fibrous sheath in the midpiece; presence of an annulus. A thin granular zone of cytoplasm at the anterior portion of the ... Within lacertid lizards, sperms differ among species in the number of mitochondria, but in all species studied so far, there ... A short midpiece; absence of multilaminar membranes; in longitudinal section, two tiers of mitochondria, in transverse section ... Males followed a seasonal testicular cycle in which sperm was produced in January-March and September-December. Testes in ...
The tightly packed helical sheath of ATP-producing mitochondria restricted to the midpiece of the sperm flagellum.. ...
Comparative study of boar sperm coming from the caput, corpus, and cauda regions of the epididymis ... The mitochondrial sheath of spermatozoa from the caput was made of voluminous mitochondria of unequal size, with a low electron ... This last fact is related to the loss of the capacity of spermatozoa to fold their tail by the midpiece as they progress along ... Sperm agglutination increased progressively as sperm progressed along the epididymal duct. The percent of mature spermatozoa ...
The nucleus has two curves which offset,br /,the head of the sperm from the cell axis. The flagellar fibrous sheath,br /,begins ... Organization of the midpiece,br /,with five sets of ring structures and mitochondria (designated rsl/mil...,br /,rs5/mi5), ... The A-tubules contain electron-dense material.,br /,Microtubule-fibrous sheath connectives and fibrous sheath-cell membrane,br ... Spermatozoa in the ductus,br /,deferens are characterized by spatulate acrosomes and bends of the,br /,midpiece at rs2/mi2. ...
The mitochondrial sheath is composed of mitochondria that coil tightly around the midpiece of the sperm flagellum. Mitochondria ... The mitochondrial sheath is composed of mitochondria that coil tightly around the midpiece of sperm flagellum. These ... Mitochondrial sheath development in glycerol kinase 2 (Gk2)-disrupted mice, which show abnormal mitochondrial sheath formation ... To analyze the disorganization of the mitochondrial sheath further, we generated Gk2-deficient mice using the CRISPR/Cas9 ...
We found that SQSTM1 form oocyte extracts became detectable in the midpiece/ mitochondrial sheaths of the sperm tail after co- ... While the sperm mitochondria were degraded completely prior to first cleavage of control zygotes, intact mitochondrial sheaths ... VCP was prominent in the sperm mitochondrial sheath both before and after extract co-incubation. Such patterns are consistent ... Due to such a post-fertilization degradation of sperm mitochondria, referred to as sperm mitophagy, the propagation of the ...
The midpiece is poorly organized and contains only 5 to 7 round to oval mitochondria. The flagellar pattern is 9+9+2. A ... distinct degenerative feature of the tail principal piece is the absence of the fibrous sheath. Only 7% motile spermatozoa were ... Sperm head shapes include round, oval, elongated, lobed, asymmetrical and amorphous. At the ultrastructural level, the sperm ... In this species, sperm form has simplified and degenerated in many aspects and represents a specialised form of degenerative ...
... an epididymal segment that is of critical importance for promoting sperm maturation. Our data indicate that epididymosome-sperm ... Notably, upon co-culture of sperm with epididymosomes, dynamin 1 undergoes a pronounced relocation between the peri- and post- ... Together, these data provide new mechanistic insight into epididymosome-sperm interactions with potential implications ... acrosomal domains of the sperm head. This repositioning of dynamin 1 is potentially mediated via its association with membrane ...
MotilityFibrous sheathMammalian spermMitochondria-associated cysteine-richMaturationTailCapacitationMorphologicalTyrosine phosphorylationAcrosome reactionMorphologyProteinsTestisTestesEpididymalShort midpieceUltrastructureBoarIntracytoplasmic sperm injBound to the zona pellucidaFlagellumOocyteFertilizationZonaSemenReproductiveFertilityMalesTesticularTubulesMotile spermChromatinEpididymisSpermatogenesisMiceAbnormalImmature spermStructuresRole in the spermGenesUltrastructuralDenseHumanDistal centrioleImmotileMorphometryHelicalIntracellularMareePlasma membranesHeadMammalsNucleusSimilarlyFewer
- Asthenozoospermia (AS), an important cause of male infertility, is characterized by reduced sperm motility. (hindawi.com)
- Neutrophils and macrophages can damage spermatozoa by generating proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation that may affect sperm motility and metabolism, consequently causing infertility [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Furthermore, sperm quality, particularly motility, is positively correlated with the enzymatic activity of electron transfer chain (ETC) complexes [ 7 , 8 ] and the expression of ETC subunits [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
- AKAP proteins play a role in regulating sperm capacitation and motility. (queensu.ca)
- Therefore, recombinant OVGP1s are capable of further enhancing sperm capacitation likely through the increase of the signaling events that lead to increased sperm motility. (queensu.ca)
- Mouse model of chorea-acanthocytosis exhibits male infertility caused by impaired sperm motility as a result of ultrastructural morphological abnormalities in the mitochondrial sheath in the sperm midpiece. (nih.gov)
- The sperm derived from the mutants have reduced motility and increased fragility. (prolekare.cz)
- It seems likely that they are involved in reproductive function and a few studies suggest that β-defensins influence sperm motility. (prolekare.cz)
- Gene targeting was used to create mice lacking sperm-associated antigen 6 (Spag6), the murine orthologue of Chlamydomonas PF16, an axonemal protein containing eight armadillo repeats predicted to be important for flagellar motility and stability of the axoneme central apparatus. (asm.org)
- Their sperm had marked motility defects and was morphologically abnormal with frequent loss of the sperm head and disorganization of flagellar structures, including loss of the central pair of microtubules and disorganization of the outer dense fibers and fibrous sheath. (asm.org)
- We conclude that Spag6 is essential for sperm flagellar motility and that it is important for the maintenance of the structural integrity of mature sperm. (asm.org)
- Males lacking Spag6 were infertile because their sperm had striking motility defects and were frequently decapitated and had disorganized flagellar structures. (asm.org)
- Our findings indicate that Spag6 is essential for sperm flagellar motility and that it may serve as a scaffold protein that maintains the structural integrity of the sperm flagella. (asm.org)
- Sperm structure and motility in the eusocial naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber : a case of degenerative orthogenesis in the absence of sperm competition? (biomedcentral.com)
- We have studied sperm structure and motility in a eusocial rodent where reproduction is typically restricted to a single male and behaviourally dominant queen. (biomedcentral.com)
- This restriction of breeding to a small subset of the entire population (queen and 1-3 breeding males) possibly presents a low risk for sperm competition and it is predicted to have shaped the structure (simple) and motility (slow) of spermatozoa in this species. (biomedcentral.com)
- From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. (ninamvseeno.org)
- A model can be proposed how the fibrous sheath represents an extremely ordered complicated analogous towards the electron transportation Lenvatinib chain where adjacent enzymes in the glycolytic pathway are constructed to permit effective flux of energy substrates and items with SFEC offering to mediate energy producing and energy eating procedures in the distal flagellum probably like a nucleotide shuttle between flagellar glycolysis proteins phosphorylation and systems of motility. (recyclers-info.com)
- Senchenkov, E. 2016-09-24 00:00:00 Motility is the most important property of mammalian sperm required for fertilization. (deepdyve.com)
- Axoneme and axoneme surrounding tail components are the morphological substrate of sperm motility. (deepdyve.com)
- Exogenous factors, and, rarely, genetic defects may cause a significant reduction in sperm motility. (deepdyve.com)
- PCD-a severe systemic disease of the reduction of sperm motility-is just one symptom. (deepdyve.com)
- Dysplasia of the fibrous sheath (DFO) is also genetically determined sperm motility decrease. (deepdyve.com)
- sperm motility-is just one symptom. (deepdyve.com)
- sperm motility decr ease. (deepdyve.com)
- By contrast, the kinetics of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and sperm motility are unaltered in mutant sperm relative to wild-type. (biologists.org)
- The motility is supported by the mitochondrial sheath found in the mid piece of the spermatozoa. (edu.au)
- One of the more common approaches for attempting X-sperm or Y-sperm enrichment in semen has relied on motility and density sedimentation. (google.com)
- Moreover, in one of the few studies to monitor blood fluoride concentrations throughout the study, a team of Mexican researchers found that blood fluoride levels of 0.2 to 0.26 ppm for eight weeks caused increased oxidative stress, reductions in sperm motility, and reduced fertility in male rats. (fluoridealert.org)
- Sperm motility evaluation by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) confirmed significantly higher motility in Kedah Kelantan. (mdpi.com)
- However, Am-in N [ 10 ] pointed out that the ratios of n-3/n-6 PUFAs in boar sperm were negatively correlated with sperm motility, viability, normal morphology, and normal plasma membranes, which suggested that the appropriate ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs in males was important for sperm quality. (beds.ac.uk)
- Conventional semen parameters such as sperm concentration, motility and morphology are generally used to assess male fertility [ 1 - 3 ]. (degruyter.com)
- The post extension sperm motility did not differ between extenders A (control) and E (20% DEY). (science.gov)
- In human sperm, pY proteins were located predominantly in the fibrous sheath of the principal piece. (queensu.ca)
- The principal piece is characterized by a small fibrous sheath and tiny dense fibers that are only observed in the region of the principal piece, which is immediately behind the annulus. (docme.ru)
- The principal-piece of the tail is demarcated from the midpiece by a distinct annulus and characterized by a ribbed fibrous sheath enclosing a typical axoneme. (up.ac.za)
- Rudimentary coarse fibres are observed between the fibrous sheath and the doublet microtubules of the axoneme in the proximal region of the principal-piece. (up.ac.za)
- A distinct degenerative feature of the tail principal piece is the absence of the fibrous sheath. (biomedcentral.com)
- The longest area of the sperm flagellum the main piece provides the fibrous sheath a cytoskeletal element unique to spermiogenesis. (recyclers-info.com)
- The co-localization of SFEC and glycolytic enzymes in the fibrous sheath facilitates a Lenvatinib growing books that the main little bit of the flagellum can be capable of producing and regulating ATP individually from mitochondrial oxidation in the mid-piece. (recyclers-info.com)
- Also detectable in these photoelectron images were finer membrane surface details, periodicities in the midpiece region of the tail which coincided with the distribution of mitochondria, and periodicities in the principal piece which appeared to be related to fibrous sheath components. (uoregon.edu)
- To initiate fertilization, mammalian sperm cells rely on the propulsive forces generated by their flagella to reach the site of fertilization in the oviduct and to penetrate the investments of the egg ( 8 ). (asm.org)
- The long centriole of the rhea enables this species to develop a midpiece similar to the midpiece of mammalian sperm without the complex intercellular movements that characterize mammalian spermiogenesis. (docme.ru)
- Mammalian sperm-borne mitochondria are selectively degraded inside the fertilized oocyte. (kclifesciences.org)
- We conclude that 15-LOX is prominently present in the mammalian sperm CD and thus may contribute to spermiogenesis, CD function or CD removal. (bioscientifica.com)
- Abst r ac t -Mot ility is th e mos t important property of mammalian sperm required for fert ilization. (deepdyve.com)
- Mammalian sperm must undergo a physiological maturation, termed capacitation, before they are able to fertilize eggs. (biologists.org)
- Mammalian sperm subpopulations enriched in X- or Y-sperm. (google.com)
- Thus we demonstrate in vivo that β-defensins are essential for successful sperm maturation, and their disruption leads to alteration in intracellular calcium, inappropriate spontaneous acrosome reaction and profound male infertility. (prolekare.cz)
- The complex epididymal maturation process of the sperm results in quantitative and qualitative changes that can be characterized in each of the three epididymal regions. (eurekamag.com)
- an epididymal segment that is of critical importance for promoting sperm maturation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Together, these data provide new mechanistic insight into epididymosome-sperm interactions with potential implications extending to the manipulation of sperm maturation for the purpose of fertility regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
- This sub-class of epididymosomes displays preferential interaction with live spermatozoa, thus implicating them in sperm maturation/storage [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The packaging of the nuclear pores into the redundant nuclear envelope suggests that they play a role in late stages of sperm maturation or in fertilization, as most other unnecessary organelles of sperm are discarded during spermiogenesis or during shedding of the cytoplasmic droplet. (edu.au)
- Results from this study showed that both rHamOVGP1 and rHuOVGP1 can bind to their homologous sperm in both the head and tail regions. (queensu.ca)
- After spermiation PRDX2 localization became confined to the mitochondrial sheath of the sperm tail midpiece. (umsystem.edu)
- Behind the midpiece lies the tail, which is coated with a sheath of fibres that provide support as it beats back and forth. (discovermagazine.com)
- This last fact is related to the loss of the capacity of spermatozoa to fold their tail by the midpiece as they progress along the epididymal duct. (eurekamag.com)
- However, phosphorylation of proteins on the sperm tail cannot explain another key feature of capacitation, the ability of spermatozoa to interact with the zona pellucida and undergo acrosomal exocytosis. (biologists.org)
- Both recombinant proteins can enhance sperm capacitation through the increase of tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins. (queensu.ca)
- Epididymal sperm isolated from the cauda should require capacitation to induce the acrosome reaction but sperm from the mutants demonstrate precocious capacitation and increased spontaneous acrosome reaction compared to wild-types but have reduced ability to bind the zona pellucida of oocytes. (prolekare.cz)
- In this paper, we describe the capacitation phenotype of sperm lacking the long isoform of β1,4-galactosyltransferase I (GalT I), a sperm surface protein that functions as a receptor for the zona pellucida glycoprotein, ZP3, and as an inducer of the acrosome reaction following ZP3-dependent aggregation. (biologists.org)
- As expected, wild-type sperm must undergo capacitation in order to bind the zona pellucida and undergo a Ca 2+ ionophore-induced acrosome reaction. (biologists.org)
- By contrast, GalT I-null sperm behave as though they are precociously capacitated, in that they demonstrate maximal binding to the zona pellucida and greatly increased sensitivity to ionophore-induced acrosome reactions without undergoing capacitation in vitro. (biologists.org)
- removing these decapacitating factors from wild-type sperm phenocopies the capacitation behavior of GalT I-null sperm. (biologists.org)
- three co-factors normally required by wild-type sperm to achieve capacitation. (biologists.org)
- Consistent with this, GalT I-null sperm have increased levels of cAMP that correlate closely with both the accelerated kinetics and co-factor-independence of GalT I-null sperm capacitation. (biologists.org)
- These data suggest that GalT I may function as a negative regulator of capacitation in the sperm head by suppressing intracellular signaling pathways that promote this process. (biologists.org)
- Before ejaculated sperm can complete any of these steps, they must undergo a series of biochemical, morphological and behavioral changes, collectively called capacitation. (biologists.org)
- Furthermore, there is reason to believe that the process of capacitation may be accelerated in GalT I-null sperm, relative to wild-type sperm. (biologists.org)
- The capacitation phenotype of GalT I-null sperm is the subject of this report. (biologists.org)
- Sperm capacitation is required for fertilization. (readbyqxmd.com)
- The phosphotyrosine expression associated with sperm capacitation localised to internal flagellar structures in permeabilised cells but could also be detected on the exterior surface of the sperm head in live cells. (biologists.org)
- Based on these results, we propose a novel mechanism for mammalian gamete interaction whereby the activation of sperm-surface chaperones by tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation may trigger conformational changes facilitating the formation of a functional zona pellucida receptor complex on the surface of mammalian spermatozoa. (biologists.org)
- These round haploid cells undergo a series of dramatic morphological changes into the long, polarized sperm cells known also as spermatozoa. (asbmb.org)
- Morphological and histochemical methods located glycoproteins, polisaccharides, acid glycosaminoglycans in the sperm ducts of males and females. (unicamp.br)
- An increased ROS and a decreased TAC accompanied with distinct morphological changes and significant apoptosis were observed in mice sperm from the fluoride group. (fluoridealert.org)
- 05), and the development of testis and the morphological structure of sperm in the 1.52 group were better than other groups. (beds.ac.uk)
- Several morphological studies have been carried out to define the normal form of sperm (see reference [ 9 ] for review) and the last WHO semen manual provides objective criteria to assess the sperm morphology [ 4 ]. (degruyter.com)
- Is image-based flow cytometry a useful tool to study intracellular events in human sperm such as protein tyrosine phosphorylation or signaling processes? (readbyqxmd.com)
- In this study we demonstrate a causal relationship between tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa and sperm-zona interaction. (biologists.org)
- These data suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in remodelling the sperm surface, so that these cells are able to recognise the zona pellucida. (biologists.org)
- In addition, the presence of recombinant OVGP1s in the capacitating medium was able to further potentiate the sperm to undergo acrosome reaction. (queensu.ca)
- Consistent with premature acrosome reaction, sperm from mutant animals have significantly increased intracellular calcium content. (prolekare.cz)
- Similarly, sperm from males devoid of all GalT I, or devoid of just the surface isoform of GalT I, fail to bind ZP3 or undergo a ZP3-induced acrosome reaction. (biologists.org)
- Sperm mitochondria differ in morphology and subcellular localization from those of somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Microarray analysis also provided several important biological clues for further investigating fluoride-induced damage in sperm morphology and functions. (fluoridealert.org)
- The most common technique to assess sperm morphology is conventional optical microscopy (OM), usually performed on fixed and stained specimens. (degruyter.com)
- To reduce the subjectivity of sperm morphology assessment, computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA or ASMA) have been developed in the '90s [ 16 , 17 ]. (degruyter.com)
- One of the major hamster sperm pY proteins is likely to be AKAP83. (queensu.ca)
- We cloned the human and murine orthologues of PF16, named sperm-associated antigen 6 (Spag6), and found that the amino acid sequences of the mammalian and algal proteins were highly conserved, including the eight armadillo repeats required for the assembly of PF16 onto the C1 microtubule and for flagellar function ( 11 , 16 , 20 , 21 ). (asm.org)
- Our early observations established that post-fertilization degradation of sperm mitochondria is mediated by ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), the major protein-turnover pathway that degrades proteins one molecule at a time. (kclifesciences.org)
- We determined that the ooplasmic, ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptor SQSTM1 binds to ubiquitinated mitochondrial sperm membrane proteins, targeting whole sperm mitochondria towards autophagosome. (kclifesciences.org)
- Concurrently, protein dislocase VCP extracts ubiquitinated sperm mitochondrial membrane proteins and transport them to the 26S proteasome. (kclifesciences.org)
- Sperm proteins are important for the sperm cell function in fertilization. (biomedcentral.com)
- Sperm proteins are important for the structure and function of these specific, highly differentiated cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- To identify proteins related to the higher thermo-tolerance and fertility of Zebu cattle, this study was undertaken to identify differences in sperm proteome between the high fertile Malaysian indigenous zebu cattle (Kedah Kelantan) and the sub-fertile crossbred cattle (Mafriwal). (mdpi.com)
- Sperm proteins were then extracted, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis performed to compare proteome profiles. (mdpi.com)
- While results from this study do identify proteins that may be responsible for the higher fertility of Kedah Kelantan, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles in sperm fertility. (mdpi.com)
- In porcine, two oviductal proteins have been identified in relation to sperm binding, Annexin A2 and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumour 1 (DMBT1). (readbyqxmd.com)
- Although phosphorylation of sperm proteins on tyrosine residues has been recognised as an important component of this process, the precise relationship between the phosphorylation status of mammalian spermatozoa and their capacity for fertilisation has remained unclear. (biologists.org)
- Phosphoproteome analysis yielded the first evidence of molecular chaperones, endoplasmin (erp99) and heat shock protein 60 (hsp60), as targets for phosphorylation on the surface of mouse spermatozoa, whereas immunofluorescence localised these proteins to the precise region of the sperm head that participates in zona recognition. (biologists.org)
- Sperm leave the testis and enter the epididymis in autumn (September-October). (docme.ru)
- To analyze the disorganization of the mitochondrial sheath further, we generated Gk2 -deficient mice using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and observed sperm mitochondria in testis using a freeze-fracture method with scanning electron microscopy. (go.jp)
- Seminiferous tubules special tubular structures in the testis that produce and release sperm continuously throughout the male life cycle. (edu.au)
- Herr has developed two commercial home tests for male infertility, Sperm Check Fertility and Sperm Check Vasectomy, using biomarkers that are unique to the final stage of sperm development in the testes. (asbmb.org)
- These results suggest that the impaired mitochondrial activity could be due to the broken interaction between DJ-1 and NDUFS3 and that downregulation of DJ-1 in sperm and testes contributes to AS pathogenesis. (hindawi.com)
- Ultrastructural examination reveals a defect in microtubule structure of the axoneme with increased disintegration in mutant derived sperm present in the epididymis cauda region, but not in caput region or testes. (prolekare.cz)
- Epididymal sperm characteristics were examined by light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (eurekamag.com)
- Sperm agglutination increased progressively as sperm progressed along the epididymal duct. (eurekamag.com)
- Rather, it is driven exclusively via extrinsic factors that sperm encounter within the luminal microenvironment of the epididymal tubule. (biomedcentral.com)
- A short midpiece is observed between the head and principal piece (Fig. la). (docme.ru)
- A peculiar haplotaxid combination of characters (none unique) is slight withdrawal of the primary vesicle into the acrosome tube with a strongly emergent capitulate axial rod and moderately short midpiece. (edu.au)
- Ultrastructure of Anterior Uterus of the Oviduct and the Stored Sperm in Female Soft-Shelled Turtle Trionyx sinensis. (docme.ru)
- THE ANATOMICAL RECORD 291:335-351 (2008) Ultrastructure of Anterior Uterus of the Oviduct and the Stored Sperm in Female Soft-Shelled Turtle, Trionyx sinensis XIANGKUN HAN, LI ZHANGLI, MEIYING LI, HUIJUN BAO, NAINAN HEI, QIUSHENG CHEN* College of Veterinary Medicine of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, P.R. China AND ABSTRACT Ultrastructure of sperm storage in female soft-shelled turtle, Trionyx sinensis was examined under light and electron microscopes. (docme.ru)
- This study was conducted to evaluate ultrastructure, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in sperm of mice treated with 150 mg/l NaF for 49 days. (fluoridealert.org)
- Boar spermatozoa with disrupted acrosomes expressed PRDX2 in the postacrosomal sheath region. (umsystem.edu)
- Peroxidase enzyme activity of boar sperm extracts was evaluated by estimating the rate of NADPH oxidation in the presence or absence of a glutathione depletor (diethyl maleate) or a glutathione reductase inhibitor (carmustin). (umsystem.edu)
- When ejaculated boar spermatozoa were subjected to separation on a 45/90% Percoll gradient, 15-LOX co-migrated with the immotile sperm and cellular debris/CD fractions, but not with the motile sperm fraction containing morphologically normal spermatozoa without CDs. (bioscientifica.com)
- The 15-LOX and various components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway were also detected in sperm CDs of other mammalian species, including the human, mouse, stallion and wild babirusa boar. (bioscientifica.com)
- Functional analysis of GAPDHS from the sperm acrosome was performed in the boar model using sperm/zona pellucida binding assay. (biomedcentral.com)
- Monoclonal antibody Hs-8 is an anti-human sperm antibody that cross-reacts with the Hs-8-related protein in spermatozoa of other mammalian species (boar, mouse). (biomedcentral.com)
- Called intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI (pronounced ick-see), it now constitutes 68 percent of all assisted reproductive cycles done worldwide, according to ASRM. (asbmb.org)
- Confocal microscopy was used to image stages of equine zygote development, at timed intervals, after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of oocytes that were matured in vivo or in vitro. (readbyqxmd.com)
- They are elongated, flattened, and arranged circumferentially to form a helical coiled sheath in the midpiece of the sperm flagellum. (wikipedia.org)
- They are elongated, flattened, and arranged circumferentially construct a helical coiled sheath in the midpiece of the sperm flagellum. (prospecbio.com)
- The tightly packed helical sheath of ATP-producing mitochondria restricted to the midpiece of the sperm flagellum. (zfin.org)
- The mitochondrial sheath is composed of mitochondria that coil tightly around the midpiece of sperm flagellum. (go.jp)
- Gk2 -disrupted spermatids show abnormal localization of crescent-like mitochondria, in spite of the initial proper alignment of spherical mitochondria around the flagellum, which causes abnormal mitochondrial sheath formation leading to exposure of the outer dense fibers. (go.jp)
- In snakes, the midpiece contains structures which, in other taxa, are present in the remainder of the flagellum, suggesting that it may integrate some of its functions. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the immunofluorescence test, Hs-8 antibody recognized the protein localized in the acrosomal part of the sperm head and in the principal piece of the sperm flagellum. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we identified the antigen with Hs8 antibody and confirmed its localization in the apical part of the sperm head in addition to the principal piece of the flagellum. (biomedcentral.com)
- The spermatozoon of this fish exhibited a spheroidal head with the nucleus containing highly electron-dense chromatin globules, a midpiece containing ten ovoid mitochondria arranged in two rows and a flagellum formed by the typical 9+2 microtubule axoneme. (ac.ke)
- Out of the millions, fewer than a hundred sperm cells actually arrive at the oocyte. (asbmb.org)
- However, it was not clear how a single-molecule proteolytic pathway such as the UPC could degrade dozens of whole sperm mitochondria inside a fertilized oocyte (Sutovsky et al. (kclifesciences.org)
- In an indirect binding assay, we confirmed the potential role of GAPDHS as a binding protein that is involved in the secondary sperm/oocyte binding. (biomedcentral.com)
- Fertilization is the process whereby sperm and eggs interact reciprocally to begin development. (asm.org)
- Due to such a post-fertilization degradation of sperm mitochondria, referred to as sperm mitophagy, the propagation of the paternal, sperm contributed mitochondrial genes, resulting in heteroplasmy, is seldom observed in mammals. (kclifesciences.org)
- The objectives of our research are to i) identify UPS determinants present in porcine sperm mitochondria, and ii) to characterize the UPS-controlled porcine ooplasmic autophagy receptors that may regulate sperm mitophagy after fertilization. (kclifesciences.org)
- While the sperm mitochondria were degraded completely prior to first cleavage of control zygotes, intact mitochondrial sheaths were detected in 2-4 cell embryos that were pre-injected with anti-SQSTM1 antibodies prior to fertilization and then treated with a specific VCP inhibitor during early stages of zygotic development. (kclifesciences.org)
- Gamete interaction is a crucial event during fertilization when receptors on sperm bind to ligands on the extracellular coat of the egg, called the zona pellucida in mammals. (biologists.org)
- Fertilization of an ovum by a Y-sperm produces a male. (google.com)
- Fertilization by an X-sperm produces a female. (google.com)
- Moreover, both Hs-8 and anti-GAPDHS antibodies blocked sperm/zona pellucida binding. (biomedcentral.com)
- Binding to the zona pellucida clusters the sperm receptor, activating intracellular signaling cascades that stimulate the exocytosis of the acrosome. (biologists.org)
- Mouse sperm are unusual in that all of their GalT I is present on the plasma membrane overlying the acrosome, where it functions as a receptor for the major sperm-binding ligand in the zona pellucida, ZP3. (biologists.org)
- The fertility of GalT I-null mice suggests that sperm binding to the zona pellucida requires a GalT-ZP3-independent interaction ( Rodeheffer and Shur, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
- Varied levels of 15-LOX were expressed in ejaculated sperm samples from boars with varied semen quality. (bioscientifica.com)
- "Different staining techniques change the morphometric dimensions of the human sperm head, probably due to the fact that either the fixatives or stains are not iso-osmotic in relation to human semen. (edu.au)
- Semen samples enriched for X- or Y-sperm. (google.com)
- Methods for increasing the probability that offspring will be male or female comprising the step of allowing as sperm from an enriched semen sample to fertilize an ovum. (google.com)
- It relates to the use of these antibodies to modify a semen sample so that the semen sample will be enriched in X-chromosome bearing sperm cells or Y-chromosome bearing sperm cells. (google.com)
- Mammalian semen contains approximately equal numbers of Y-chromosome bearing sperm cells (Y-sperm) and X-chromosome bearing sperm cells (X-sperm). (google.com)
- Various methods have been proposed for modifying mammalian semen to increase the relative percentage of X- or Y-sperm in a semen sample, and thereby achieve a greater likelihood of female or male offspring. (google.com)
- Frozen semen from three high performance bulls from each breed were processed to obtain live and pure sperm. (mdpi.com)
- It is envisaged that supplementing the conditioned medium used in assisted reproductive technology with rHuOVGP1 could be beneficial for enhancing the sperm fertilizing competence. (queensu.ca)
- The degenerative sperm in the tubules might be related to paternity-speciﬁc reproductive adaptations, and the sperm competition might occur during long time storage. (docme.ru)
- It follows that an understanding of the mechanisms by which epididymosomes are targeted to, and interact with, their recipient cells is of fundamental importance to the field of reproductive biology as well as those seeking to resolve the pathway(s) by which paternal exposures alter the sperm epigenome [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Abstract: The study of the structural, ultrastructural and cytochemical characteristics of the initial phases of spermatogenesis was undertaken, also including the cells present in the sperm throughout the reproductive cycle. (unicamp.br)
- Methods of decreasing fertility comprising the step of immunizing a female with both X- and Y-sperm. (google.com)
- Based on these findings, it was proposed that oxidative stress induced by excessive ROS may trigger sperm apoptosis through mitochondrial impairment, resulting in decreased fertility in mice exposed to fluoride. (fluoridealert.org)
- However, little is known about the effects of different ratios of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs on sperm quality and fertility, although both positive and negative actions are theoretically possible. (beds.ac.uk)
- And all the males - whether breeding or not - had the same misshapen sperm. (discovermagazine.com)
- In many other animals, females mate with many males, or can store sperm inside their bodies. (discovermagazine.com)
- With such fixed fates, there is no reason for the other males to compete for mating rights, and no reason to have Olympic-level sperm. (discovermagazine.com)
- Males followed a seasonal testicular cycle in which sperm was produced in January-March and September-December. (oalib.com)
- Males rarely compete for access to the queen during her estrus cycle, suggesting little or no role for sperm competition. (biomedcentral.com)
- Los tratamientos con telmisartán y losartán influenciaron el comienzo de la atenuación de los cambios en la ultraestructura testicular de la radiación. (bvsalud.org)
- Testicular biopsy specimens from 30 men (mean age: 35 years) with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) who underwent microdissection testicular sperm extraction and 23 men with obstructive azoospermia (OA) were included. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Sperm storage tubules are restricted to the anterior of the uterus. (docme.ru)
- The junction complexes are markedly distributed between cells, which are important in keeping stability and the microenvironment maintenance of the sperm storage tubules. (docme.ru)
- Sperm stored in the tubules are heterogeneous in cytology. (docme.ru)
- Those changes are possibly due to the long time storage of the sperm in sperm storage tubules, and the leakage of reactive oxygen species is suggested to be a major cause. (docme.ru)
- of Trionyx sinensis is unique, in addition to having a basal function in secretion and the cilia swing, the tubules also provide an available microenvironment for the sperm to long time stored. (docme.ru)
- At the ultrastructural level, the sperm head contains condensed to granular chromatin with large open spaces between the chromatin. (biomedcentral.com)
- The present study was performed to investigate the relation of Chlamydia trachomatis infection to sperm chromatin/DNA integrity in a population of infertile men (male partner of infertile couples) from Iran. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Sperm quality in the Caput, corpus, and cauda regions of the epididymis of healthy and sexually mature Landrace boars was studied. (eurekamag.com)
- Sperm vitality decreased very slightly although progressively with the transport of sperm through the epididymis. (eurekamag.com)
- Takes sperm about _____________days to travel epididymis,maturing along the way. (studyres.com)
- Recently, disorganization of the mitochondrial sheath was reported in Glycerol kinase 2 ( Gk2 ) disrupted mice. (go.jp)
- We characterized the acrosomal sperm protein detected by a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) (Hs-8) that was prepared in our laboratory by immunization of BALB/c mice with human ejaculated sperms and we tested the possible role of this protein in the binding assay. (biomedcentral.com)
- Furthermore, microarray analysis was also utilized to characterize the effects of fluoride in gene expression profiling on mice sperm. (fluoridealert.org)
- 2011). Fluoride-induced apoptosis and gene expression profiling in mice sperm in vivo. (fluoridealert.org)
- The heads of spermatozoa from nectin-2 −/− mice contain mitochondria, dense outer filaments, and misshapen nuclei, and the mitochondrial sheath of the middle piece is disorganized. (asm.org)
- The origin and relationships of the tinamous (Order Tinamiformes), ratites (Order Struthioniformes, Rheiformes, Casuariiformes, Apterygiformes) and birds of the order Galliformes and Anseriformes is the subject of much debate and it has been suggested that the ultrastructural analysis of a wide variety of avian sperm may provide information relevant to this problem. (up.ac.za)
- Apart from these investigations on sperm function and those on sperm morphometry mentioned above, no studies on sperm competition in mammals have included data on potential differences at the sperm ultrastructural level. (biomedcentral.com)
- A fertile male usually churns out between 5 million to 250 million sperm cells per milliliter of ejaculate (the average human ejaculate is between 0.75 mL and 2.5 mL). (asbmb.org)
- Human sperm are produced in several steps. (asbmb.org)
- In an ideal human sperm, there is a smooth, oval-shaped 5-micrometer head free of indentations, bulges or tapers. (asbmb.org)
- Cryopreserved human sperm samples were also used in this study and found to benefit from the presence of rHuOVGP1 which resulted in increasing the sperm fertilizing capacity. (queensu.ca)
- I've often seen human sperm this rubbish too! (discovermagazine.com)
- Guinea-pig, hamster and human sperm atozoa were fixed in glutaraldehyde, deposited on conductive glass discs, and dehydrated. (uoregon.edu)
- In immunoblotting test, MoAb Hs-8 labelled a protein of 45 kDa in the extract of human sperm. (biomedcentral.com)
- Morphometric dimensions of the human sperm head depend on the staining method used. (edu.au)
- A 3-p-long distal centriole occupies the entire midpiece. (docme.ru)
- A centriolar complex is situated beneath the head and consists of a short proximal centriole and a long (3,0 μm) distal centriole which extends the complete length of the midpiece. (up.ac.za)
- the structure and length of the distal centriole) but show a close similarity to sperm of the rhea and crested tinamou, both representatives of primitive avian families. (up.ac.za)
- The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the capsule associated with the mitochondrial outer membranes and is thought to function in the organization and stabilization of the helical structure of the sperm's mitochondrial sheath. (wikipedia.org)
- SMCP localizes to the capsule linked with the mitochondrial outer membranes and assumed to function in the organization and stabilization of the helical structure of the sperm's mitochondrial sheath. (prospecbio.com)
- This implies that intracellular targets of albumin, Ca 2+ and/or HCO 3 - may be constitutively active in GalT I-null sperm. (biologists.org)
- Image-based flow cytometry is a powerful tool to study intracellular events in a relevant number of sperm cells, which enables a robust statistical analysis providing spatial resolution in terms of the specific subcellular localization of the labeling. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Spermatozoa are characterized by a curved head and a midpiece. (docme.ru)
- the head of the sperm from the cell axis. (mendeley.com)
- Our data indicate that epididymosome-sperm interactions are initiated via tethering of the epididymosome to receptors restricted to the post-acrosomal domain of the sperm head. (biomedcentral.com)
- Notably, upon co-culture of sperm with epididymosomes, dynamin 1 undergoes a pronounced relocation between the peri- and post-acrosomal domains of the sperm head. (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, it has been shown that different staining techniques may cause not uniform changes in sperm head dimensions [ 15 ]. (degruyter.com)