The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales. Lactic acid is the main product of their carbohydrate metabolism.
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.
A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.
Treatment modality for DENTAL CARIES that uses manual excavation method and GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS. Because of its noninvasiveness and no need for expensive equipment and anesthesia it is promoted as an approach in places where dental care is not readily available.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Bacterial swimming strategies and turbulence. (1/1135)

Most bacteria in the ocean can be motile. Chemotaxis allows bacteria to detect nutrient gradients, and hence motility is believed to serve as a method of approaching sources of food. This picture is well established in a stagnant environment. In the ocean a shear microenvironment is associated with turbulence. This shear flow prevents clustering of bacteria around local nutrient sources if they swim in the commonly assumed "run-and-tumble" strategy. Recent observations, however, indicate a "back-and-forth" swimming behavior for marine bacteria. In a theoretical study we compare the two bacterial swimming strategies in a realistic ocean environment. The "back-and-forth" strategy is found to enable the bacteria to stay close to a nutrient source even under high shear. Furthermore, rotational diffusion driven by thermal noise can significantly enhance the efficiency of this strategy. The superiority of the "back-and-forth" strategy suggests that bacterial motility has a control function rather than an approach function under turbulent conditions.  (+info)

In vitro characterization and micromechanics of tumor cell chemotactic protrusion, locomotion, and extravasation. (2/1135)

The objective of this paper is to introduce some novel in vitro applications in characterizing human melanoma cell protrusion and migration in response to soluble extracellular matrix protein stimulation. Specifically, we describe two assay systems: (1) dual-micropipette manipulation and (2) flow-migration chamber. Applications of the dual-micropipet technique provided kinetic measure of cell movement, cyclic pseudopod protrusion, and subsequent cell locomotion governed by chemotactic molecular transport dynamics. Chemotactic concentration gradient was found to influence significantly pseudopod protrusion frequency and locomotion speed, but not the protrusion extension. To further characterize active tumor cell extravasation, a process that involves dynamic tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium under flow conditions and subsequent transendothelial migration in response to chemotactic signals from the interstitial space, we developed a flow-migration chemotaxis system. This assay enabled characterization of tumor cell transcellular migration in terms of chemotactic signal gradients, shear forces, and cell-substrate adhesion. Results suggest that shear flow plays significant roles in tumor cell extravasation that is regulated by both tumor cell motility and tumor cell adhesion to endothelial molecules in a cooperative process.  (+info)

Fluid shear stress remodels expression and function of junctional proteins in cultured bone cells. (3/1135)

We tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress (tau) modifies the expression, function, and distribution of junctional proteins [connexin (Cx)43, Cx45, and zona occludens (ZO)-1] in cultured bone cells. Cell lines with osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1 cells) and osteocytic (MLO-Y4 cells) phenotypes were exposed to tau-values of 5 or 20 dyn/cm(2) for 1-3 h. Immunostaining indicated that at 5 dyn/cm(2), the distribution of Cx43, Cx45, and ZO-1 was moderately disrupted at cell membranes; at 20 dyn/cm(2), disruption was more severe. Intercellular coupling was significantly decreased at both shear stress levels. Western blots showed the downregulation of membrane-bound Cx43 and ZO-1 and the upregulation of cytosolic Cx43 and Cx45 at different levels of shear stress. Similarly, Northern blots revealed that expression of Cx43, Cx45, and ZO-1 was selectively up- and downregulated in response to different shear stress levels. These results indicate that in cultured bone cells, fluid shear stress disrupts junctional communication, rearranges junctional proteins, and determines de novo synthesis of specific connexins to an extent that depends on the magnitude of the shear stress. Such disconnection from the bone cell network may provide part of the signal whereby the disconnected cells or the remaining network initiate focal bone remodeling.  (+info)

Shear bond strength of a new dental adhesive used to bond brackets to unetched enamel. (4/1135)

The aims of the present study were to measure the shear bond strength of a new multipurpose dental adhesive, IntegraCem, for direct bonding of stainless steel and ceramic brackets to unetched enamel, and to determine the mode of bond failure. Both stainless steel and ceramic brackets (GAC) were bonded with IntegraCem to unetched extracted human premolars. After bonding, the teeth were either stored in a water bath at 37 degrees C for 3 days or passed 2500 thermocycles from 6 to 60 degrees C. Debonding was then performed with a shearing force using an Instron universal testing machine. The force was recorded at bond failure. The results showed that the shear bond strength achieved was between 6.7 and 10.8 megapascals (MPa). Bond failure occurred at the enamel-adhesive interface, enabling more efficient enamel clean up. The shear bond strengths measured suggest that IntegraCem adhesive may be effectively used in orthodontic treatment.  (+info)

Shear properties of passive ventricular myocardium. (5/1135)

We examined the shear properties of passive ventricular myocardium in six pig hearts. Samples (3 x 3 x 3 mm) were cut from adjacent regions of the lateral left ventricular midwall, with sides aligned with the principal material axes. Four cycles of sinusoidal simple shear (maximum shear displacements of 0.1-0.5) were applied separately to each specimen in two orthogonal directions. Resulting forces along the three axes were measured. Three specimens from each heart were tested in different orientations to cover all six modes of simple shear deformation. Passive myocardium has nonlinear viscoelastic shear properties with reproducible, directionally dependent softening as strain is increased. Shear properties were clearly anisotropic with respect to the three principal material directions: passive ventricular myocardium is least resistant to simple shear displacements imposed in the plane of the myocardial layers and most resistant to shear deformations that produce extension of the myocyte axis. Comparison of results for the six different shear modes suggests that simple shear deformation is resisted by elastic elements aligned with the microstructural axes of the tissue.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of various platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists on shear-induced platelet activation and adhesion. (6/1135)

Platelet accretion into arterial thrombus in stenotic arterial vessels involves shear-induced platelet activation and adhesion. The Cone and Plate(let) Analyzer (CPA) is designed to simulate such conditions in vitro under a rotating high shear rate in whole blood. In the present study, we evaluated various experimental conditions (including aspirin, temperature, and calcium concentration) and investigated the effects of small molecules along with peptide glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists on platelet adhesion using the CPA system. Concentration-dependent effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists on shear-induced platelet adhesion showed marked differences in potencies: IC50 = 34, 35, 91, 438, and 606 nM for DPC802 (a specific glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist), roxifiban, sibrafiban, lotrafiban, and orbofiban (free acid forms), respectively, and IC50 values of 43, 430, and 5781 nM for abciximab, tirofiban, and eptifibatide, respectively. Parallel study was also conducted to evaluate the effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors using optical aggregometry. The potency of fibans in blocking shear-induced platelet adhesion correlated well with their binding affinity to the resting and activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors, as well as their "off-rates". Nevertheless, none of these fibans was able to effectively block shear-induced platelet adhesion at targeted clinical dosing regimens except for abciximab. These data suggest that glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists that show similar efficacy in the inhibition of platelet aggregation in a static in vitro assay may differ substantially in a shear-based system of platelet adhesion. The clinical significance of this phenomenon awaits further investigation.  (+info)

Shear stress magnitude and directionality modulate growth factor gene expression in preconditioned vascular endothelial cells. (7/1135)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to simultaneously monitor the transcriptional levels of 12 endothelial growth factor genes in response to alterations in wall shear stress (WSS) under conditions relevant to the development of intimal hyperplasia, a major cause of arterial bypass graft failure. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were preconditioned in vitro under steady flow (WSS, 15 dynes/cm(2)) for 24 hours before being subjected to WSS at 25 (Delta = +10), 15 (Delta = 0), 5 (Delta = -10), 2.5 (Delta = -12.5), and 0 (Delta = -15) dynes/cm(2) or low magnitude WSS reversal (-2.5 dynes/cm(2)) for 6 hours. A focused complementary DNA array was used to simultaneously measure messenger RNA expression levels for END1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), platelet-derived growth factor A, platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB), acidic fibroblast growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, epidermal growth factor, and angiotensin converting enzyme. RESULTS: Preconditioning significantly (P <.05) increased the fold expression of NOS3 (4.1 +/- 1.4), basic fibroblast growth factor (3.90 +/- 1.16), vascular endothelial growth factor (3.39 +/- 1.04), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (2.8 +/- 0.7) but decreased END1 (0.47 +/- 0.05) and PDGFB (0.70 +/- 0.04) messenger RNA expression levels relative to no-flow controls, an effect that was sustained on removal from flow for 6 hours. Notably, the ratio of END1/NOS3 expression was diminished (0.11 +/- 0.03) relative to that of cells maintained in static culture. Although few differences in gene expression from baseline (15 dynes/cm(2)) were measured in cells exposed to either constant (Delta = 0) or step decreases (Delta = -10, -12.5, or -15 dynes/cm(2)) in WSS, marked changes were seen in the group exposed to a step increase in WSS (Delta = +10) or to WSS reversal. Low magnitude retrograde WSS evoked significant (P <.05) transcriptional changes in multiple genes, including elevated END1 (4.1 +/- 0.5), platelet-derived growth factor A (1.5 +/- 0.2), PDGFB (2.3 +/- 0.3), and transforming growth factor-beta (1.5 +/- 0.2) levels, but depressed NOS3 (0.60 +/- 0.17) levels, and a marked increase in END1/NOS3 (6.7 +/- 1.6) when compared with equal magnitude antegrade WSS (2.5 dynes/cm(2)). CONCLUSION: These results support the implementation of a preconditioning phase for in vitro WSS studies to establish a physiologic baseline. Our findings complement previous macroscale findings and are consistent with a cellular mechanism involving increased END1 and PDGFB levels, but decreased NOS3 levels, leading to intimal hyperplasia at regions of low magnitude reversing WSS.  (+info)

Microrheology of human lung epithelial cells measured by atomic force microscopy. (8/1135)

Lung epithelial cells are subjected to large cyclic forces from breathing. However, their response to dynamic stresses is poorly defined. We measured the complex shear modulus (G(*)(omega)) of human alveolar (A549) and bronchial (BEAS-2B) epithelial cells over three frequency decades (0.1-100 Hz) and at different loading forces (0.1-0.9 nN) with atomic force microscopy. G(*)(omega) was computed by correcting force-indentation oscillatory data for the tip-cell contact geometry and for the hydrodynamic viscous drag. Both cell types displayed similar viscoelastic properties. The storage modulus G'(omega) increased with frequency following a power law with exponent approximately 0.2. The loss modulus G"(omega) was approximately 2/3 lower and increased similarly to G'(omega) up to approximately 10 Hz, but exhibited a steeper rise at higher frequencies. The cells showed a weak force dependence of G'(omega) and G"(omega). G(*)(omega) conformed to the power-law model with a structural damping coefficient of approximately 0.3, indicating a coupling of elastic and dissipative processes within the cell. Power-law behavior implies a continuum distribution of stress relaxation time constants. This complex dynamics is consistent with the rheology of soft glassy materials close to a glass transition, thereby suggesting that structural disorder and metastability may be fundamental features of cell architecture.  (+info)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of saliva contamination on the shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive used with Transbond Moisture-Insensitive Primer (MIP, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer (SEP, 3M Unitek). Hydrophobic Transbond XT primer (XT, 3M Unitek) was used as a control. A total of 162 extracted premolars were collected and divided equally into 9 groups of 18 teeth each, and brackets were bonded with Transbond XT adhesive (3M Unitek) under different experimental conditions: (1) control: etch/dry/XT, (2) etch/dry/MIP, (3) etch/dry/MIP/wet (saliva)/MIP, (4) etch/wet/MIP, (5) etch/wet/MIP/wet/MIP, (6) dry/SEP, (7) dry/SEP/wet/SEP, (8) wet/SEP, and (9) wet/SEP/wet/SEP. Shear bond strength of each sample was examined with a testing machine. The results showed that the control group had the highest mean shear bond strength (group 1, 21.3 +/- 6.8 MPa), followed by the MIP group in a dry field (group 2, 20.7 +/- 5.0 MPa). No significant
D6467-13e1 Standard Test Method for Torsional Ring Shear Test to Determine Drained Residual Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils reconstituted specimens~ torsional ring shear test~ cohesive soils~
The objective of this study was to compare dentin shear bond strength (DSBS) of dentin bonding agents (DBAs) cured with a plasma arc (PAC) light curing unit (LCU) and those cured with a light emitting diode (LED) LCU. Optical properties were also analyzed for Elipar freelight 2 (3M ESPE); LED LCU, Apollo 95E (DMT Systems); PAC LCU and VIP Junior (Bisco); Halogen LCU. The DBAs used for DSBS test were Scotchbond Multipurpose (3M ESPE), Singlebond 2 (3M ESPE) and Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray). After DSBS testing, fractured specimens were analyzed for failure modes with SEM. The total irradiance and irradiance between 450 nm and 490 nm of the LCUs were different. LED LCU showed narrow spectral distribution around its peak at 462 nm whereas PAC and Halogen LCU showed a broad spectrum. There were no significant differences in mean shear bond strength among different LCUs (P > 0.05) but were significant differences among different DBAs (P < 0.001). ...
Lu, Yiling and Li, Wei-Qi and Oraifige, I. and Wang, Wen (2014) Converging parallel plate flow chambers for studies on the effect of the spatial gradient of wall shear stress on endothelial cells. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 2. pp. 50-56. ISSN 2327-5081 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of two nanofilled posterior composites as core build up materials. T2 - An in vitro study. AU - Ganerhiwal, Shakshi. AU - Gupta, Chandni. AU - Kundabala, M.. AU - Ginjupalli, Kishore. AU - Shenoy, Ramya. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - Core build up is necessary as a foundation for post endodontic restorations when the tooth structure is severely damaged, fractured or extensively carious. Core build up material should provide resistance and retention form for the coronal restoration and possess sufficient strength to resist occlusal forces. An ideal core build-up material should have physical properties similar to those of tooth structure where the occlusal biting loads are transferred to dentin. The study evaluated and compared the shear bond strength of two nanofilled resin composites Group A - Filtek Z350 XT and Group B - Filtek Bulk fill) as core build up materials. Eighteen extracted permanent human molar teeth were sectioned ...
trength) Fracture Toughness 10,6-12,3 MPa-mЅ KIC for hot-pressed structural grades Shear Modulus 135 GPa Shear Strength 345 MPa hot-pressed block Shear Strength 480 MPa cross-rolled sheet Boron (Crystalline) Knoop Microhardness 99,9% pure is 3300 (100 g load) 9,3 Mohs Tensile Strength, Ultimate 2,6-
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ensemble Shear Strength, Stability, and Permeability of Mixed Mineralogy Fault Gouge Recovered From 3D Granular Models. AU - Wang, Chaoyi. AU - Elsworth, Derek. AU - Fang, Yi. N1 - Funding Information: This work is a partial result of support provided by DOE grant DE‐FE0023354. This support is gratefully acknowledged. The manuscript benefitted from careful and insightful reviews by Carolina Giorgetti and Martijn van den Ende. This work utilizes data from literature that are cited in the main reference list; data from numerical modeling of this study are shown in the main text.. PY - 2019/1. Y1 - 2019/1. N2 - We conduct numerical shear experiments on mixtures of quartz and talc gouge using a three-dimensional (3D) distinct element model. A modified slip-weakening constitutive law is applied at contacts. We perform velocity-stepping experiments on both uniform and layered mixtures of quartz and talc analogs. We separately vary the proportion of talc in the uniform mixtures and ...
Compression mode and shear mode refer to internal construction techniques of piezoelectric accelerometers. These two techniques comprise the majority of how piezoelectric accelerometers are made, although there are other techniques as well (for example, bimorph benders). It is impossible to tell whether an accelerometer is compression or shear mode by examining the outside of the sensor, so the manufacturer will typically state this on the product data sheet. The exception to this is ring-type accelerometers, featuring a mounting screw through the center of the sensor. These are almost always shear mode accelerometers ...
SCHERFESTIGKEITSPRÜFUNG (MATERIALPRÜFUNG); TESTING MACHINES AND APPARATUS (MATERIALS SCIENCE); SHEAR STRENGTH TESTING (MATERIALS TESTING); HOLZFORSCHUNG (HOLZINDUSTRIE); WOOD + TIMBER (BUILDING MATERIALS); WOOD PROPERTIES + WOOD TESTING (TIMBER INDUSTRY); SHEAR STRENGTH (ELASTOMECHANICS); PRÜFGERÄTE, PRÜFMASCHINEN (MATERIALWISSENSCHAFTEN); WOOD RESEARCH (TIMBER INDUSTRY); HOLZ-WERKSTOFFE (HOLZINDUSTRIE); HOLZEIGENSCHAFTEN + HOLZPRÜFUNG (HOLZINDUSTRIE); HOLZ (BAUSTOFFE); WOOD MATERIALS (TIMBER INDUSTRY); SCHERFESTIGKEIT + SCHUBFESTIGKEIT (ELASTOMECHANIK ...
Purpose: To examine the effects of the hemostatic agents ViscoStat and ViscoStat Plus on the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite resin (CR) to dentin in the presence and absence of blood. Materials and Methods: Sixty permanent teeth mounted in acrylic were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 12): (1) control, C; (2) ViscoStat, VS; (3) ViscoStat Plus, VS+; (4) ViscoStat and blood, VS/B; (5) ViscoStat Plus and blood, VS+/B. Groups 2 and 3 were exposed to VS and VS+, respectively. Freshly drawn human blood was placed on groups 4 and 5 immediately followed by VS and VS+, respectively. Specimens remained undisturbed for 1 min and were rinsed with tap water for 1 min. All groups were etched with 35% phosphoric acid and were bonded utilizing the Ultradent bonding clamp, Optibond Solo Plus, and Z-250 composite resin. Following water storage for 48 hrs at 37 C, specimens were debonded in an Instron test frame at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Statistical analysis was done with one-way analysis of ...
A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murrays Law.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Er:YAG laser on the shear bond strength of three different adhesives to lased dentin. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glass-ionomer restoratives and liners. T2 - shear bond strength to dentin.. AU - Bell, R. B.. AU - Barkmeier, Wayne W.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028692912&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028692912&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7803139. AN - SCOPUS:0028692912. VL - 6. SP - 129. EP - 134. JO - Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry. JF - Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry. SN - 1496-4155. IS - 3. ER - ...
Observation of blue clay slopes outcropping along the Italian peninsula (Apennine foredeep and other inland areas) promptedinvestigation into several factors whichgovern their actual slope angle. Though characterized by good gradient, slope angle may differ from slope to slope, as well as within certain limited areas.. The study attempts to connect structural order (dip strata) and shear strength of the soil to explain slope angle. In many cases it is possible to distinguish (i) slope angle controlled by substratum and, thus, characterized by shear strength higher than the residual condition,and (ii) slope angle controlled by colluvium cover,characterized by shear strength reduced to residual.. Following an infinite slope stability model approach, the above conditions are connected to the half residual friction angle value, ϕR′/2, which splits the slopes intotwo main types: cover-controlled, characterized by β≤ϕR′/2 and completely or in part substratum-controlled, characterized by ...
With the growing awareness of esthetics, the use of bleaching agents are on the increase. Bleaching agents intended to be used at home affects the existing restorations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bleaching with carbamide peroxide agents at concentrations 10 and 22% on the microhardness and shear bond strength of composites and compomers. For microhardness and shear bond strength evaluation, samples of both composite and compomer restorative materials were subdivided into control group (stored in artificial saliva), Experimental groups bleached with 10% CP and those bleached with 22% carbamide peroxide. Following 2 weeks of bleaching treatment, Vickers’s hardness number was noted for each test specimen using a microhardness meter. For shear bond strength evaluation, the specimens were subjected to shear test under Instron universal testing machine. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Tukey’s test for pair
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 CAD/CAM blocks of lithium disilicate (LD; IPS e.max CAD) were cut into four square sections (6 x 6 x 6 mm; n = 60 per group) and processed as recommended by the manufacturer. The LD specimens were divided into 12 groups according to the following independent variables: silane coupling agent (no silane; silane without 10-MDP [MBS, Monobond S]; silane with 10-MDP [MB+, Monobond Plus]) and adhesive + luting composite (no adhesive + Enforce; no adhesive + RelyX Ultimate; Prime & Bond Elect [PBE], a silane- and MDP-free universal adhesive + Enforce; Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU], a silane- and MDP-containing universal adhesive + RelyX Ultimate). After each treatment, cylindrical, transparent matrices were filled with a luting composite and light cured. Specimens were stored in water (37°C for 24 h or 1 year) and submitted to the microshear bond strength (?SBS) test. The failure pattern and ?SBS were statistically evaluated (? = 0.05). In addition, specimens ...
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 CAD/CAM blocks of lithium disilicate (LD; IPS e.max CAD) were cut into four square sections (6 x 6 x 6 mm; n = 60 per group) and processed as recommended by the manufacturer. The LD specimens were divided into 12 groups according to the following independent variables: silane coupling agent (no silane; silane without 10-MDP [MBS, Monobond S]; silane with 10-MDP [MB+, Monobond Plus]) and adhesive + luting composite (no adhesive + Enforce; no adhesive + RelyX Ultimate; Prime & Bond Elect [PBE], a silane- and MDP-free universal adhesive + Enforce; Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU], a silane- and MDP-containing universal adhesive + RelyX Ultimate). After each treatment, cylindrical, transparent matrices were filled with a luting composite and light cured. Specimens were stored in water (37°C for 24 h or 1 year) and submitted to the microshear bond strength (?SBS) test. The failure pattern and ?SBS were statistically evaluated (? = 0.05). In addition, specimens ...
Mechanical Engineering Assignment Help, Determine equivalent maximum shear stress in spring, Determine equivalent maximum shear stress in spring: A close coiled helical spring contains a stiffness of 10 N/mm. Its length while fully compressed, with adjacent coils touching each other is 400 mm. G = 80 GPa. (a) Find out the wire diamet
Lap Shear Strength of Adhesives for Nylon to Nylon Bonding Master Bond tested the tensile lap shear strength of several epoxy products to determine their capability in nylon to nylon bonding applications. The testing produced impressive results with many systems delivering high values. While high strength is often crucial, each system also offers a diverse range of other properties that must be... Read More » ...
Low wall shear stress (WSS) increases neointimal hyperplasia (NH) in vein grafts and stents. We studied the causal relationship between WSS and NH formation in stents by locally increasing WSS with a flow divider (Anti-Restenotic Diffuser, Endoart SA) placed in the center of the stent. Carlier, Stéphane G; van Damme, Luc C A; Blommerde, Casper P; Wentzel, Jolanda J; van Langehove, Glenn; Verheye, Stephan; Kockx, Mark M; Knaapen, Michiel W M; Cheng, Caroline; Gijsen, Frank; Duncker, Dirk J; Stergiopulos, Nikos; Slager, Cornelis J; Serruys, Patrick W; Krams, Rob
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Process1800 eliminates the previously standard grinding operation used to produce the angle-bottleneck feature on a fine-pitch capillary. Process1800 imparts a high-tension, mirror smooth, secondary alumina skin on the angle bottleneck portion of the tool, substantially increasing shear strength and rigidity. Increased shear strength allows Gaiser Tool Company to produce a more robust, high-strength, small tip diameter, angle-bottleneck capillary. Increased rigidity reduces the ultrasonic energy loss inherent in the angle-bottleneck design, resulting in superior ultrasonic energy transmission and a wider tuning window - ideal for high frequency transducers. ...
For the core disruptive accident (CDA) of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), the molten fuel or steel is solidified into debris particles which form debris bed in the lower plenum. When the boiling occurs inside debris bed, the flow of coolant and vapor makes debris relocated and flattened, which called debris relocation. The thickness of debris bed has great influence to the cooling ability of fuel debris in low plenum. To ensure the effective implementation of the in-vessel retention (IVR), its very necessary to evaluate the transient changes of shape and thickness in relocation behavior for CDA simulation analysis. To simulate relocation behavior, a debris relocation model based on COMMEN code was developed in this paper. The debris relocation model was established based on the extrapolation of the shear strength mechanism, which was originally proposed and widely applied in soil mechanics filed. Shear strength is a function of the particles density and position. Debris bed is fluidized only ...
The SPT is a common in situ testing method. Geotechnical site investigations in the United States rely heavily on the SPT. The test is used to determine the geotechnical engineering properties of subsurface soils. The SPT has served as a simple test to estimate the relative density of soils and approximate shear strength parameters for engineers planning geotechnical structures such as foundation design and slope stability checks. The test has remained essentially the same since the 1960s.. One of the advantages of the newly designed SPT-T is that it takes only a few minutes to measure the torque and the conventional SPT procedure remains the same. This provides a reduced amount of effort for the user learning the new equipment. The test measures the torque required to rotate the sampler in the ground at constant rate; the torque is then related to the shear strength in these soils.. This tool has the potential to provide a substantial reduction in cost overruns and change orders caused by ...
Time: Thu 2019-04-25 13.00 Location: B3, Brinellvägen 23, plan 1, KTH Subject area: Civil and Architectural Engineering, specialisation in Soil and Rock Mechanics Doctoral student: Francisco Rios Bayona Opponent: Dr Jose Muralha, LNEC, Lissabon, Portugal Supervisor: Professor Stefan Larsson ...
Large plaque burden, certain phenotypes, and low wall shear stress (WSS) are associated with adverse outcomes and high WSS with development of plaque vulnerability. We aimed to investigate the incremental value of the combination of plaque burden, WS
Introduction: A good dental cement used as repair material should possess chemical binding, easy handling characteristics, minimal marginal breakdown and minimal polymerization shrinkage, high resistance to wear, high cohesive strength, and good color stability. This study was undertaken to compare the in vitro microleakage and shear bond strength among the newly introduced Prime fill flow and Dyad flow. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect on shear bond strength and microleakage of two self-adhesive composite resin. Materials and methods: Selected specimens were collected and stored in deionized water with an antibactericidal agent, 0.2% sodium azide, until ready to be used and were randomly divided into two groups: group I: Dyad flow and group II: Prime fill flow; specimens were sheared with a universal testing machine, and the results were calculated in megapascal, specimens were sectioned in a mesiodistal direction at four different locations, and analyzed for leakage (dye ...
In the case of valuable cold-rolled Cu/Al clad plates, billet surface treatment before rolling is a significant process that can affect the bonding efficiency and quality. While the current studies primarily focus on the influence of rolling parameters, insufficient attention has been paid to surface treatment. In this study, the effects of mechanical surface treatment on the bonding mechanism and bonding properties of cold-rolled Cu/Al clad plates were investigated. The results showed that different mechanical surface treatments have significant effects on the surface morphology, roughness, and residual stress. In addition, the effect of surface mechanical treatment on bonding quality was also observed to be critical. When the grinding direction was consistent with the rolling direction (RD), the bonding quality of the Cu/Al clad plates was significantly improved. After surface treatment along the RD for 20 s, the Cu/Al clad plates showed the highest shear strength (78 MPa), approximately four times as
Ring Shear Testing System The VJ Tech Ring Shear Testing System produces accurate and repeatable test results to determine the residual shear strength of cohesive soils, which is particularly important when assessing slope stability. The RingSHEAR features a digital display and control panel and can be computer controlled through the USB port. The rotational shearing action is applied continuously until a constant residual strength value is achieved. The advantages of a ring shear machine are that there is no change in the area of the cross section of the shear plane as the test proceeds and the sample can be sheared through an uninterrupted displacement of any magnitude. The user friendly Clisp Studio software conforms to BS1377-7 & ASTM D6467-13. A Ringshear Interface Top Cap Assembly is available which includes an annular stainless steel interface disc with an average roughness of Ra 6.3-12.5 for soil-steel interface testing
Dive into the research topics of Dynamic shear modulus of glycerol: Corrections due to instrument compliance. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Mechanotransduction plays a crucial role in vascular biology. One example of this is the local regulation of vascular resistance via flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Impairment of this process is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and a precursor to a wide array of vascular diseases, such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Yet the molecules responsible for sensing flow (shear stress) within endothelial cells remain largely unknown. We designed a 384-well screening system that applies shear stress on cultured cells.
Authors=ESAKI Tetsuro ! JIANG Yujing ! DU Shouji ! MITANI Yasuhiro ! WADA Yoshinori. Journal/Book_names=Proceedings of the Japan Symposium on Rock Mechanics. Publish_Country=Japan. volume=10. pages=79-84. Publish_year=1998. Publisher=Iwa no Rikigaku Rengokai. Language_of_Text=JA. Language_of_Abs.=EN. Data_Type=SE!CO. Map_Scale=0. ID=200114052. ...
This title covers the fundamental properties of rock joints, the method of laboratory testing of rock joints, and shear strength assessment under different load
A cured composition possessing excellent cohesive strength at high temperatures along with excellent adhesion, shear strength and solvent resistance is prepared by the high energy ionizing radiation initiated curing of a polymer composition comprising an alkenyl arene/conjugated diene block copolymer and a oligomer such that the unsaturation index of the composition is minimized. The radiation initiated curing of the adhesive composition is accomplished without requiring the aid of a coupling agent to promote crosslinking of the block copolymer during exposure to the radiation.
3M™ Adhesive Transfer Tape 467MP provides outstanding adhesion to metal and high surface energy plastics. 200MP adhesive delivers excellent shear strength to resist slippage and edge lifting. The tape is temporarily repositionable for placement accuracy. It also performs well after exposure to humidity and hot/cold temperatures. A PCK layflat liner helps prevent curling and buckling in the liner.
3M™ Adhesive Transfer Tape 467MP provides outstanding adhesion to metal and high surface energy plastics. 200MP adhesive delivers excellent shear strength to resist slippage and edge lifting. The tape is temporarily repositionable for placement accuracy. It also performs well after exposure to humidity and hot/cold temperatures. A PCK layflat liner helps prevent curling and buckling in the liner.
Intended for structural engineers or architects with a basic understanding of engineering principles, this presentation will provide an in-depth look at wood-frame shear wall designs commonly used for non-residential and multi-family low-rise and mid-rise buildings, including those with rectangular, offset and open-front plans. Topics will also include: a brief discussion on diaphragm irregularities and the detailing required to maintain continuous load paths across areas of discontinuity; a review of the new 2015 Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic (SDPWS) requirements for wood frame shear walls; a new method of analysis for a shear wall with Force Transfer Around an Opening; and available methods to analyze tall shear walls in mid-rise structures and determine their effect on the horizontal distribution of shears through the diaphragm and shear walls.. Content Rating: 1 (low) to 5 (high ...
JVCC TR-2X is an unsupported acrylic adhesive transfer film tape which is melamine and acid free. High quick tack and good shear strength makes this the best choice for more demanding applications. Rank #110 in ATG & Transfer Tapes category.
From this it can be seen that VA cannot be equal to VB unless M is zero, and in fact that VA must be greater than VB, which is what the results from RAM Frame indicate. This shows that the distribution of the shear is not merely a function of the wall cross section at a level but is also a function of the loading and displacements of the walls above. Under these conditions the short walls pull shear out of the tall walls.. Note that the above is a simplification of the behavior of the structure. For example, it does not take into account the effects of shear deformation (a 1.2VH/AE term would be added to each side, where V is VA and VB, respectively). However, the above discussion is sufficient for the point at hand.. Also note that this assumes a rigid diaphragm, capable of transmitting the shear out of one wall into another. If the diaphragm has insufficient strength or insufficient rigidity, the analysis performed by RAM Frame considering a rigid diaphragm is not valid for that ...
MacLine® GCL has high internal shear strength characteristics for steep slope applications. Visit our website for more information.
The Egcodorn® shear force dowel is used to transfer shear force in expansion joints. The Egcodorn® DND is used where there are dynamic stress
Freebird Shears is the only shear company in the world that lets you build your own professional custom grooming shears from scratch in just a few easy steps. We have combined the finest Japanese and German Steels with German Craftsmanship and American Technology to bring you a new kind of quality that cannot be found
Use JVCC DV-PEF12A Double-Coated Polyethylene Foam Tape for quick-stick and high shear properties. It provides secure bonding. Rank #90 in Double-Sided Tape category.
Figure 25: Experimental Study on Shear Failure Mechanism and the Identification of Strength Characteristics of the Soil-Rock Mixture
The work met with certain complexity due to highly non-linear behavior of the Carreau model with parameters fitted for rheological data of CNF suspensions. However, some important conclusions have been obtained from the results. It has been shown that the main parameter which affects the alignment of fibrils inside the flow is shear rate. Decreasing diameter and increasing flow rate both have resulted in increase in shear rate throughout the diameter of the capillary tube. Simulation of CNF suspensions with different concentrations resulted in an unexpected trend for velocity profiles and change in length of capillary did not affect velocity profiles or shear rate inside the capillary tube. The effect of these parameters was also studied for shear stress and it was shown that the change in diameter, flow rate and concentration of suspensions significantly change the trend of shear stress profiles ...
Wilko De-Lux Swivel Grass Shears - Trim ornamental grasses and create precise lawn edging the easy way with the Wilko Swivel Grass Shears. Their swivel action, carbon steel blades take the strain out of gardening and you can choose between 8 cutting positions depending on your needs. These grass shears are finished with a quick release lock for added safety. Warning: Contains functional blade. Always store garden tools in a secure place and keep out of reach of children., 000 from Wilko.com
2--> Showing results 1-2 of 2 matching Proposed New Standards under the jurisdiction of D04.47 D04 Home. WK56908 Determination of density and relative density of asphalt, semi-solid bituminous materials and soft-tar pitch by use of a digital density meter (U-tube) WK57910 Tackiness of Asphalt Binders Using the Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) ...
What about the shears in the footing?. The shear is produced by the soil bearing pressure acting upwards on the footing. If the pressure is uniform, or if the entire footing is under compression, this force can be easily calculated as the volume of the parallelogram delimited by the critical section, the footing edges, and the bearing pressure. Consider now a partial bearing diagram, such as the Type II, III or IV above, and trace the shear critical section. Try to visualize the resulting irregular shape formed in this scenario, as shown in the figures below in lighter blue. You still need to calculate the volume of this amorphous solid formed by inclined and vertical planes that resembles a stalactite, but now the calculation is substantially harder to accomplish.. ASDIP FOUNDATION uses an algorithm based on triple integrals of the type V = ∫∫∫dV to find the volume of these solids, and therefore the shear forces in the footing. The pictures below show the factored shear forces of a ...
Like primers for the face eye primers come in different consistencies, theres liquid, gel and mousse varieties and it is used as a base - applied before eye-shadow/liner and optional to apply concealer first before the base or just go ahead with the primer application.. Liquid primers I find are best to suit all types of skin and ages but it is ideal for dry eye-lids, mature skin and sensitive thin skin, the texture of this is usually creamy and thicker than what the liquid name would make you assume, its creamy texture makes it very easy to apply and to make sure to rub it in and keep eyes closed for a few seconds for it to settle into the skin (sometimes it can crease - simply rub and blend any crease lines out) any eye primer thats the equivalent to fluid and very watery I would say is a no-go, chances are the products off or its just not going to be strong enough as a base. The same attributes can be applied to cream primers, the only thing is that they are thicker so it depends on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of thermocycling on shear bond strength of glass ionomer cements. AU - Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev. AU - Paulson, Liz. AU - Ginjupalli, Kishore. AU - Ozcan, Mutlu. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - To evaluate the effect of thermocycling on shear bond strength of Fuji IX glass ionomer cement and a novel glass ionomer cement (Ketac Universal) to dentin. A total of 40 extracted human molars were divided into 4 groups (n = 10). The occlusal surfaces were ground flat to expose dentin using diamond discs. Dentin surfaces were treated according to manufacturers instructions, and restorative materials were applied onto a plastic mold of 3mm height and 4mm diameter. The shear bond strength of Ketac Universal and conventional Fuji IX glass ionomer cements was evaluated after 24 h using Instron Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min before and after the specimens were subjected to thrmocycling. There was no statistical difference in the shear bond strength of ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preheating on microshear bond strength (MSBS) of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins to human dentin. The teeth were randomly divided into three main groups: (1) composite resins were heated upto 68 degrees C; (2) cooled to 4 degrees C; and (3) control [room temperature (RT)]. Each group was then randomly subdivided into four subgroups according to adhesive system used [Solobond M (Voco), All Bond SE (Bisco), Clearfil SE Bond (CSE) (Kuraray), Silorane adhesive system (SAS) (3M ESPE)]. Resin composite cylinders were formed (0.9mm diameterx0.7mm length) and MSBS of each specimen was tested. The preheated groups exhibited the highest MSBS ( ...
Purpose: To determine the degree of conversion (DC), physicochemical properties, and microshear bond strength (mu SBS) of experimental self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) to dentin and yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramic. Materials and Methods: Dual-curing cements were formulated with UDMA, HEMA, bis-GMA, and TEG-DMA as the organic matrix. 2MP (bis 2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyl-phosphate) and GDMAP (1,3-glycerol dimethacrylate phosphate) were added to impart self-adhesive characteristics. A control group was formulated without self-etch methacrylates. Silanized particles were incorporated. Photoactivation was carried out using an LED light-curing unit (1200 mW/cm(2)) for 20 s. Infrared spectroscopy assessed the DC immediately and after 24 h. pH was analyzed in real time and recorded after 48 h. Water sorption (W-sp), water solubility (W-sl), and film thickness measurements followed ISO 4049. mu SBS of the cements to dentin and Y-TZP was evaluated immediately and after 3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of NaOCl deproteinization on shear bond strength in function of dentin depth. AU - Toledano, Manuel. AU - Perdigão, Jorge. AU - Osorio, Estrella. AU - Osorio, Raquel. PY - 2002/8/1. Y1 - 2002/8/1. N2 - Purpose: To determine the influence of NaOCl application on shear bond strengths (SBS) to superficial and deep dentin, using Prime & Bond 2.1. Materials and Methods: Superficial and deep dentin was exposed in 40 extracted third molars by sectioning the occlusal surface immediately under the enamel-dentin junction or close to the pulp chamber. After polishing the dentin disks (600-grit SiC), they were assigned to two groups: (1) 36% orthophosphoric acid for 15 seconds, or (2): 36% orthophosphoric acid for 15 seconds followed by 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 2 minutes. The dentin adhesive was applied as per manufacturers instructions, followed by TPH resin-based composite. The specimens were stored in water for 24 hours at 37°C and thermocycled x500 and SBS were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Shear bond strength of the Tenure Solution dentin bonding system.. AU - Barkmeier, Wayne W.. AU - Cooley, R. L.. PY - 1989/10. Y1 - 1989/10. N2 - A liquid solution of an oxalate bonding system containing NTG-GMA and PMDM has become commercially available. The bond strength of this oxalate adhesive (Tenure Solution) to dentin was determined by bonding composite resin cylinders to extracted teeth. The bond strengths obtained in this study are compared to the bond strengths obtained in earlier studies with the first and second generation oxalate adhesives whose components were supplied as powders and required mixing. The oxalate solutions developed significantly higher bond strengths than the original powder type systems.. AB - A liquid solution of an oxalate bonding system containing NTG-GMA and PMDM has become commercially available. The bond strength of this oxalate adhesive (Tenure Solution) to dentin was determined by bonding composite resin cylinders to extracted teeth. The ...
Laboratory triaxial tests were carried out to investigate the reinforcement mechanism, to study the characteristics of flax fiber-reinforced clay, and to discuss the effect on stress-strain relationship and shear strength parameters of flax fiber-reinforced clay in different flax fiber content and different confining pressure. Respectively, the ratio of fiber content to clay by weight is 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, and 1.0%, and the confining pressure is 100 kPa, 200 kPa, and 300 kPa in triaxial test. The test results show that, the shear strength of flax fiber-reinforced clay is greater than that of pure clay. Compared with the pure clay, the shear strength of flax fiber-reinforced clay increased as the cohesion and friction increased; while the increase of the friction is relatively small, the increase of cohesion is large. The shear strength firstly increased and then reduced with the increase of flax fiber content. When the fiber content was 0.8&
Effects of Wheat Flour Dough’s Viscoelastic Level by Adding Glucose Oxidase on its Dynamic Shear Properties whatever the Strain Modes
The acute and chronic adaptation to changes in blood flow occur as a result of endothelium-dependent responses that regulate vascular tone and the organization of the blood vessel wall. Among the most rapid responses of vascular endothelial cells to changes in fluid shear stress are K+ channel activation,2 generation of inositol trisphosphate,3 an increase in [Ca2+]i,23 24 and changes in pHi.4 5 The present study shows that an abrupt decrease in fluid shear stress produces cytosolic alkalinization of vascular endothelial cells by affecting membrane ion transporters that contribute to pHi regulation. After a period of exposure to continuous fluid shear stress at 2.7 dyne/cm2, the abrupt reduction of fluid shear stress from 2.7 to 0.3 dyne/cm2 produced a bicarbonate-dependent increase in pHi of 0.27 pH unit, which was not affected by prior inhibition of the Na+-H+ exchanger alone. Recovery from an NH4Cl prepulse-induced acid load occurred more rapidly when fluid shear stress was abruptly reduced ...
The friction coefficient of thin polymer sheets under high loads can be accounted for by a simple extension of the adhesion theory of friction in which the pressure dependence of the shear strength...
A. N. James and A. L. Little write: Hossain and Ali have presented an interesting set of results obtained for an Obhor sabkha clay near Jedda, suggesting a tentative correlation between undrained shear strength (measured by a field vane test) and the M-value (number of blows for 0.3 m penetration) obtained using a Mackintosh probe. :Figures 2-4 of the paper show clearly that one of the difficulties in dealing with sabkha is the considerable scatter of results and the variation in the nature of the basic material comprising the sabkha.. In a previous paper, Hossain & Ali (1988) divided the upper 5 metres of the Obhor Sabkha into two main zones:. Zone I: a landward zone, predominantly clayey beneath a thin (c. 0.5 m) layer of loose sand;. Zone II: a seaward zone, predominantly sandy with a thin (c. 0.5 m) cemented sandy crust.. A small subzone, IIA, is described as clay over sandy sabkha. For the upper soft clay (at Zone I) they give liquid limits between 20% and 50 0.000000or the top crust ...
Objective: This study examined the shear bond strength of bonding agents to normal or fluoridated enamel following use of weak or strong acids to prepare enamel surfaces and after contamination with a measured amount of saliva at various stages of the bonding procedure. Method and materials: One hundred extracted human third molar teeth were randomly separated into 2 basic groups (normal or fluoridated teeth), then divided into 5 subgroups. Group A specimens were not contaminated. After etching, enamel surfaces were dry and clean. Group B was left with wet surfaces after etching. Group C specimens were contaminated with artificial saliva and then dried. Group D specimens were contaminated with artificial saliva, rinsed, and then dried. In group E, all enamel surfaces were left contaminated with saliva after the etching procedures (with maleic acid or phosphoric acids). Adhesive resins were applied to all enamel surfaces according to the manufacturer s instructions. The specimens were then ...
The structure and physiology of the endothelial cells that line the mammalian vasculature are greatly influenced by the shear stresses that are continuously imposed on them by blood flow. The most obvious structural responses of endothelium to shear stress are changes in cell shape and orientation; in areas of low or inconsistent shear stress in vivo, or when cells are maintained in static culture, endothelial cells assume a cuboidal, cobblestone morphology, whereas they elongate and align in the direction of flow when shear stress is moderate or high.1 2 These morphological changes are adaptive in that they reduce the spatial fluctuations in shear stress and the maximum shears to which the cells are exposed.3 Shape change of cells within monolayers probably necessitate changes in the interaction of individual cells with their neighbors at cell-cell junctions; however, changes in endothelial cell-cell contacts during responses to altered shear stress have not been examined. Endothelial cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chapter 7 Monitoring Oxidative Stress in Vascular Endothelial Cells in Response to Fluid Shear Stress. T2 - From Biochemical Analyses to Micro- and Nanotechnologies. AU - Rouhanizadeh, Mahsa. AU - Takabe, Wakako. AU - Ai, Lisong. AU - Yu, Hongyu. AU - Hsiai, Tzung. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Hemodynamics, specifically, fluid shear stress, modulates the focal nature of atherosclerosis. Shear stress induces vascular oxidative stress via the activation of membrane-bound NADPH oxidases present in vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and phagocytic mononuclear cells. Shear stress acting on the endothelial cells at arterial bifurcations or branching points regulates both NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide (NO) synthase activities. The former is considered a major source of oxygen-centered radicals (i.e., superoxide anion [O2· -]) that give rise to oxidative stress; the latter is a source of nitrogen-centered radicals (i.e., nitric oxide [NO]) that give rise to nitrative/nitrosative ...
Hernon Manufacturing Inc. is launching a two-component methacrylate adhesive under the brand name Fusionbond370. It is able to bond thermoplastics, metal, wood and composites and will be used for marine, automotive and construction applications. Apart from being able to bond dissimilar substrates, the adhesive is fatigue and impact-resistant and is able to tolerate exposure to salt spray while maintaining the integrity of bonds at temperatures ranging from -100 F to 250 F. Shear strength varies from 620 psi to 3,000 psi depending on substrate.. Palm Labs Adhesives is expanding its range of fluorescent Cyanoacrylate adhesives with Turbo Fuse 130 FY, an adhesive with a curing time of 24 hours at room temperature. When exposed to ultraviolet light, the adhesive glows yellow, allowing for easy inspection of bonds. It is able to bond plastics, metals, elastomers and wood with a shear strength of 3,000 psi at temperatures of -65F to 180F.. ...
In most organisms biological processes are partitioned, or phased to specific times over the day through interactions between external cycles of temperature (thermocycles) and light (photocycles), and the endogenous circadian clock. This orchestration of biological activities is achieved in part through an underlying transcriptional network. To understand how thermocycles, photocycles and the circadian clock interact to control time of day specific transcript abundance in Arabidopsis thaliana, we conducted four diurnal and three circadian two-day time courses using Affymetrix GeneChips (ATH1). All time courses were carried out with seven-day-old seedlings grown on agar plates under thermocycles (HC, hot/cold) and/or photocycles (LD, light/dark), or continuous conditions (LL, continuous light; DD, continuous dark, HH, continuous hot). Whole seedlings (50-100), including roots, stems and leaves were collected every four hours and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The four time courses interrogating the
Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of a new orthodontic bonding system that incorporates the primer solution in the adhesive. Materials and Methods: 90 anterior bovine teeth were divided in three groups: in Group I, brackets were bonded with Transbond XT system, in Group II with GC Ortho Connect which incorporates the primer in the adhesive, and in Group III, a single layer of primer was applied on the teeth before bonding the brackets with GC Ortho Connect. After a 24-hour latency period, Shear Bond Strength (SBS) and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) were measured. In cases with remnants left mainly on the bracket base, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometry was performed in order to determine the presence of calcium particles. Selected cases were examined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis and in nanometer scale with a confocal visible light microscope (μsurf revolver, NanoFocus AG, Germany). Results: The mean SBS values were 7.25 ± 0.58 MPa for Group I, 6.57 ± 0.50 MPa for Group
This paper presents novel approaches to address the complex issues associated with preservation, transportation, and tensile testing of the vegetation root samples needed for the enhancement of soil and prevent erosion. Readily availability of no equipment for in-situ assessment of the roots contribution to soil strength forces the researchers to transport the root samples to the lab for testing and estimating the contribution to the soil shear strength. Moreover, the standard procedures and apparatuses available in the public domain are regrettably suitable for testing of relatively stiffer materials. Therefore, conducting the tensile test of roots using off-the-shelf equipment often causes premature failure of the soft tissues and produces an erratic result, which ultimately leads to unrealistic soil shear strength. The experimental work replaced the traditional jaw type grips by innovative 3D-printed mold or metal ring with silicone, epoxy, and hot-glue to ensure a minimal degree of damage to the
Also constructions in soil can fail due to shear, e.g. the weight of an earth-filled dam or dike may cause the subsoil to collapse, like a small landslide. A simple definition of shear stress is, The components of stress at a point that act parallel to the plane in which they lie. Shear stress vectors have a important relevance on surfaces due to movement of fluids on it. When a fluid moves uppon a surface, there is generation of shear stress. Particularly, the laminar flux on the surface have a 0 m/s velocity, and the shear stress appears. The biological importance of shear stress relies on blood flux. The endothelial cells recognise them and tranduces signals to vascular muscular cells and others in order to modify the vessels structure. It is necessary, because high shear stress vessels regions must have larger vessels walls. ...
Engineering grain boundaries (GBs) are effective in tuning the thermoelectric (TE) properties of TE materials, but the role of GB on mechanical properties, which is important for their commercial applications, remains unexplored. In this paper, we apply ab initio method to examine the ideal shear strength and failure mechanism of GBs in TE oxide BiCuSeO. We find that the ideal shear strength of the GB is much lower than that of the ideal single crystal. The atomic rearrangements accommodating the lattice and neighbor structure mismatch between different grains leads to the much weaker GB stiffness compared with grains. Failure of the GBs arises from either the distortion of the Cu-Se layers or the relative slip between Bi-O and Cu-Se layers. This work is crucial to illustrate the deformation of GBs, laying the basis for the development and design of mechanically robust polycrystalline TE materials. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of disturbed flow on endothelial cells. AU - Chiu, J. J.. AU - Wang, D. L.. AU - Usami, S.. AU - Chien, S.. AU - Skalak, R.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Atherosclerotic lesions tend to localize at curvatures and branches of the arterial system, where the local flow is often disturbed and irregular (e.g., flow separation, recirculation, complex flow patterns, and nonuniform shear stress distributions). The effects of such flow conditions on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were studied in vitro by using a vertical-step flow channel (VSF). Detailed shear stress distributions and flow structures have been computed by using the finite volume method in a general curvilinear coordinate system. HUVECs in the reattachment areas with low shear stresses were generally rounded in shape. In contrast, the cells under higher shear stresses were significantly elongated and aligned with the flow direction, even for those in the area with reversed flow. When ...
The mechanical properties and microstructure of articular cartilage from the canine tibial plateau were studied 12 weeks after total medial meniscectomy. The organization of the birefringent collagen network was measured with quantitative polarized light microscopy to determine the thickness and the degree of organization of the superficial and deep zones. The zonal concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycan was quantified with digital densitometry of safranin-O staining. Equilibrium compressive and shear properties, as well as dynamic shear properties, were measured at sites adjacent to those of microstructural analysis. The results evinced significant loss of cartilage function following meniscectomy, with decreases of 20-50% in the compressive and shear moduli. There was no evidence of alterations in the degree of collagen fibrillar organization, although a complete loss of the surface zone was seen in 60% of the samples that underwent meniscectomy. Meniscectomy resulted in a decreased ...
Particles are frequently exposed to shear stresses during manufacturing, which leads to breakage. This is particularly relevant to weak active pharmaceutical ingredients and is prevalent in pharmaceutical and food industries. The attrition of Paracetamol and Aspirin caused by shear deformation at very low stresses is investigated here. The extent of breakage of these particles is related to the prevailing shear stresses and strains. In contrast to the expected trend, smaller particles exhibited increased breakage rates. At the onset of shearing at low stresses Aspirin particles experienced slightly more breakage than the Paracetamol, however prolonged shearing resulted in greater breakage of Paracetamol. Breakage occurred initially through chipping with some fragmentation, particularly more noticeable for Aspirin, with an increase in abrasion after extensive shear strain for Paracetamol. Empirical breakage relationships are proposed and when combined with process stresses and strain analyses the ...
This study investigated the influence of beam depth with varying longitudinal reinforcement without shear reinforcement. Size effect, which is described here in as the decrease in shear strength with the increase in the depth of members, is not evaluated sufficiently enough. To this end, fifteen palm kernel shell (PKS) reinforced concrete beams varying from 150 to 300 mm were tested to investigate their size effects on ultimate shear capacity and failure modes. Test variables were longitudinal reinforcement ratio (ρw varying from 1 to 2%) and effective depth of beams (varying from 120 to 265 mm) with average compressive strength (fcu) = 30.3 MPa and shear span to effective depth (av/d) = 2.5. For the range of variables tested, the test results were compared with the strengths predicted by the ACI 318-08 and BS 8110 with and without reduction factors. All tested beams failed in shear failure modes and were influenced by the beam depth and amount of longitudinal reinforcement. The PKS beams were
Resulcin Aqua Prime & Monobond N and AC-Bond were not significantly different than established 5th generation products. AC-Bond + Desensitizer and Prompt L-Pop have significantly different SBS from established 4th and 5th generation products. Future studies are required to investigate marginal i …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Local wall shear stress variations predicted by computational fluid dynamics for hygienic design. AU - Jensen, Bo Boye Busk. AU - Friis, Alan. AU - Benezech, Thierry. AU - Legentilhomme, Patrick. AU - Lelievre, Caroline. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. M3 - Journal article. VL - 83. SP - 53. EP - 60. JO - Food and Bioproducts Processing. JF - Food and Bioproducts Processing. SN - 0960-3085. IS - C1. ER - ...
The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of an argon laser in polymerizing a light-cured orthodontic adhesive. Metal brackets were bonded to 185 premolars, divided into 5 different protocol groups of 37 each as follows: light 40-se
Previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial cells exposed to laminar shear stress are protected from apoptotic stimuli such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The authors investigated the role of phosphatidylserine (PS) in this phenomenon. Western blot analysis of cleaved caspase 3 was used as an indicator of apoptosis and revealed that in the absence of serine, endothelial cells exposed to laminar shear stress were unable to protect against TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis, in contrast to sheared cells grown in regular medium. It was also found that shear-induced activation of the Akt pathway was significantly decreased in cells grown without serine. In addition, quantitation of PS using a novel isotopic labeling technique involving the use of formalin revealed that stearoyl-oleic PS (18:0/18:1) did not increase during shear treatment. These findings suggest that basal levels of PS are required to activate survival pathways in endothelial cells and thereby contribute to the overall ...
Hot-melt, pressure-sensitive adhesive compositions of amorphous polyalphaolefin and crystalline polypropylene have improved bond strength over the amorphous polyalphaolefin alone. The adhesive compositions improve dynamic shear strength, dynamic peel strength, as well as static peel strength. The adhesive compositions are particularly suitable for use in absorbent articles.
is converted to polymethacrylimide Rohacell 31 IG F Properties Metric English Comments Physical Properties Density 0 032 g cc 0 00116 lb in ASTM D 1622 63 Water Absorption 19 5 19 5 Equilibrium at 98 RH Moisture Absorption at Equilibrium 1 5 1 5 15 RH Moisture Absorption at Equilibrium 2 9 2 9 30 RH Moisture Absorption at Equilibrium 4 7 4 7 50 RH Moisture Absorption at Equilibrium 6 6 65 RH Water Absorption at Saturation 13 13 Volume 50 days immersion at 20fC Moisture Expansion Max 1 Max 1 50 days immersion at 20fC Mechanical Properties Tensile Strength Ultimate 0 979 MPa 142 psi ASTM D 638 68 Elongation break 3 5 3 5 ASTM D 638 68 Modulus of Elasticity 0 0353 GPa 5 12 ksi ASTM D 638 68 Flexural Yield Strength 0 786 MPa 114 psi ASTM D 790 66 Compressive Yield Strength 0 393 mpA 57 PSI ASTM D 790 66 Shear Modulus 0 0128 1 85 ksi ASTM C 273 61 Shear Modulus 0 0137 1 99ksi ASTM D 2236 69 Shear Strength 0 393 MPa 57 psi ASTM C 273 61 Electrical Properties Dielectric Constant 1 05 1 05 5 0 GHz ...
atherosclerosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and is shown to be an inflammatory disease (22, 28). Although multiple systemic factors such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking are well-known risk factors, atherosclerosis occurs preferentially at particular areas of disturbed flow characterized by low and oscillatory wall shear stress (WSS) in branched or curved arteries (19, 34). In contrast, straight arterial regions are exposed to high and stable shear stress and are well protected from atherosclerosis (34). Despite the close association between the two, evidence directly linking disturbed flow conditions to atherosclerosis has been lacking, and the mechanisms responsible for pro- and antiatherogenic effects of shear stress are still incompletely understood.. Shear stress is the tangential force imparted by viscous fluid flowing over endothelial cells (5, 16). Endothelial cells sense changes in shear stress and trigger ...
The machine used is called a squaring shear, power shear, or guillotine. The machine may be foot powered, less commonly hand powered, or mechanically or hydraulically powered. It works by first clamping the material with a ram. A moving blade then comes down across a fixed blade to shear the material. For larger shears the moving blade may be set on an angle or rocked in order to shear the material progressively from one side to the other; this angle is referred to as the shear angle. Setting the blade on an angle decreases the amount of force required, but increases the stroke. A 5 degree shear angle decreases the force by about 20%. The amount of energy used is still the same. The moving blade may also be inclined 0.5 to 2.5°, called the rake angle, to keep the material from becoming wedged between the blades. However, raking the blade compromises the squareness of the edge.[4] The machine consists of a shear table, work-holding device, upper and lower blades, and a gauging device. The ...
We report high-resolution measurements of the forces between two atomically smooth solid surfaces across a film of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ionic liquid, for film thickness down to a single ion diameter. For films thinner than ∼2 nm oscillatory structural forces are observed as the surface se
Arterioles that had been exposed to 17β-E2 overnight exhibited a significantly augmented dilation in response to increases in flow compared with control responses, as shown by the significant leftward shift in the slope of the flow-diameter curves (Figure 1⇑, top). These responses were not altered by incubation with 17α-E2 (Figure 4⇑, top), indicating a specific action of 17β-E2 on the vascular function. The physiological relevance of the enhanced flow-induced dilation is indicated further by the calculation of wall shear stress (Figure 1⇑, bottom). It shows a significant leftward shift of the shear stress-diameter curve after incubation with 17β-E2, revealing that the value of shear stress required to dilate arterioles maximally is significantly less than in control. These findings support the idea that in hypertension, impairment of the regulation of shear stress in arterioles, because of a lesser release of endothelial NO, may contribute to the elevated peripheral resistance.9 17 ...
The major finding of this study is the identification of a shear stress-induced p60src signaling pathway that regulates the transcriptional activation of TRE and SRE via MAPKs, including both JNK and ERK pathways. The src-family PTKs possess several structural features that include (1) an approximately 60-amino acid src homology 3 (SH3) domain that is involved in the interaction with signaling molecules that have proline-rich regions, (2) an approximately 100-amino acid src homology 2 (SH2) domain that can recognize the phosphorylated tyrosine of many RTKs, and (3) a kinase catalytic domain (see References 42 and 4342 43 for review). The activation of p60src by shear stress suggests that SH2- and SH3-containing molecules may be involved in the shear stress-induced signal transduction pathways and that RTKs may be upstream to such pathways. We have recently found that the Shc·Grb2·Sos ternary complex is involved in the endothelial gene expression in response to shear stress.44 Shc and Grb2 are ...
Evaluation Of The Effect Of Different Surface Treatments, Aging And Enzymatic Degradation On Zirconia-Resin Micro-Shear Bond Strength
Exact solutions for static bending of symmetric laminated orthotropic plates with different Lévy-type boundary conditions are developed. The shear deformation plate theories of Mindlin-Reissner and Reddy as well as the three-dimensional elasticity theory are employed. Using the minimum total potential energy principle, governing equilibrium equations of laminated orthotropic plates and pertaining boundary conditions are derived. Closed-form Lévy-type solutions are obtained for the governing equations of both theories using separation of variables method and different types of classical boundary conditions, namely simply-supported, clamped and free edge, are exactly satisfied. Thereafter, 3-D elasto-static equations for orthotropic materials are solved for bending analysis of laminated plates using two different approaches. First, the method of separation of variables is utilised and an exact closed-from solution is achieved for simply-supported laminated orthotropic plates. Next, a combined Fourier
Used to determine the physical and mechanical properties of raw materials and components, Lloyd Instruments manufactures and supplies universal testing machines (UTM) and tensile testers worldwide. The wide range of material testing machines can test for tensile strength, compression, flexure, friction, tear, peel, adhesion, shear, ductility, insertion, shear strength and many other parameters. Lloyd Instruments texture analyzers have an international reputation for their high performance and cost effectiveness. Specially engineered food texture probes provide the platform to perform rapid, general food testing and detailed texture analysis on a diverse range of foods.. DavenportTM Polymer Testing Products. Melt Flow Index (MFI): The Davenport Melt Flow Indexer is used to determine the melt flow properties of a polymer by extruding it in a molten state, through a calibrated die using a reference weight. It is used extensively in production and quality control to ensure batch-to-batch consistency ...
A laminated composite was produced using a thermoplastic prepreg by inserting an interleaved film with the same type of matrix as the prepreg during the lay-up process to improve the low interlaminar properties, which is a known weakness of laminated composites. Carbon fiber fabric (CFF) and polypropylene (PP) were used to manufacture the thermoplastic prepregs. Eight prepregs were used to produce the laminated composites. Interleaved films with different thicknesses were inserted into each prepreg. The physical properties of the composite, such as thickness, density, fiber volume fraction (Vf), and void content (Vc), were examined. The tensile strength, flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS), impact property, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the mechanical properties. Compared to the composite without any inserted interleaved film, as the thickness of the inserted interleaved resin film was increased, Vc decreased by 51.45%. At the same time, however, the
An improved method is described for the fusing, joining or seaming of cellulosic materials. The method utilizes a solution of selected organometallic compounds or metal oxides to rapidly crosslink opposing, overlapping cellulosic surfaces to provide secure seams. Enhanced seam strength is achieved by a subsequent moisture treatment. The tubular cellulosic casings are well-suited for the manufacture of sausages and sausage-like products. The seams according to this invention have exceptionally high shear strength and wet strength.
Price, G. J., Pastor, M. L., Towo, A. N., Ansell, M. P. and Packham, D. E., 2007. Shear strength at Sisal fibre-polyester resin interfaces: use of inverse gas chromatography to study pretreatment effects. Composite Interfaces ...
Dejong JT, Randolph MF, Degroot DJ, Yafrate N. 2011. Closure to Evaluation of remolded shear strength and sensitivity of full‐flow penetrometers. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 137(4):440-441. ...
Dejong JT, Degroot DJ, Yafrate N. 2012. Closure to Evaluation of undrained shear strength using full-flow penetrometers.. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 138(6):765‐767. ...
Lets put it this way... yes 80 lb braid and xxh rods get em to to the net quick- but have you ever caught a 50 tiger??? Probably not .... i have fished for these fish for yrs and neither have I .... because they are mistreated , and mis-handled allowing only a rare handfull to even reach that size. The shear strength of any tiger over 40 inches is heart dropping and intense , although short lived it is the most adrenaline pumping 60 second fight you can have in fresh water!!!!! These amazing fish exert extreme stress and WILL die when fought to long in warm water- it takes soooo much energy to move a mass that large . Ok so another issue with chasing these fiah without proper gear- the surroundings while fighting em - all it takes is one bush or log to shred 10 lb mono with a 20 lb fish running at the other end , now we have a tiger with a mouth full of trebles tthat will probably die shortly after from lack of food, or being stuck.into the cover that it ran into...not trying to puck a fight ...
A system for, and method of, orienting seismic energy sources and seismic energy receivers to yield discriminated horizontal and vertical shear modes. In one embodiment, the system includes: (1) an initial matrix representing wave energy produced by a selected seismic energy source and received by a selected seismic energy receiver, (2) a first transforming matrix that cooperates with the initial matrix to orient the selected seismic energy source with respect to the selected seismic energy receiver, and (3) a second transforming matrix that cooperates with the initial matrix to orient the selected seismic energy receiver with respect to the selected seismic energy source, the initial matrix thereby transformed into a successive matrix containing the discriminated horizontal and vertical shear modes.. ...
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Shear strength The maximum shear stress that can be applied in a soil mass without causing shear failure. Atterberg Limits ... Stability is determined by the balance of shear stress and shear strength. A previously stable slope may be initially affected ... are calculated along the failure plane and compared to the soils shear strength as determined by Terzaghi's shear strength ... "Shear strength". NPTEL. Retrieved 24 August 2015. Terzaghi, K., Peck, R.B. and Mesri, G. (1996), Soil Mechanics in Engineering ...
shear strength τ. m. {\displaystyle \tau _{m}}. is given approximately by: τ. m. =. G. 2. π. .. {\displaystyle \tau _{m}={\frac ... and shear stresses, τ. {\displaystyle \tau }. . F. x. =. b. x. σ. x. x. +. b. y. τ. x. y. +. b. z. τ. x. z. F. y. =. b. x. τ. y ... is the applied shear stress, m. {\displaystyle m}. is a constant that decreases with increasing temperature. Increased shear ... The shear modulus in metals is typically within the range 20 000 to 150 000 MPa indicating a predicted shear stress of 3 000 to ...
DeGroot, D. J., & Lunne, T. (2007). Measurement of Remoulded Shear Strength. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute. Report, 20061021 ... Erdogan, F.; Sih, G. C. (1 December 1963). "On the Crack Extension in Plates Under Plane Loading and Transverse Shear". Journal ... Kenny, T. C. (1967). The influence of mineral composition on the residual strength of natural soils. TRID, 1, 123-129. Mitra, ... Hoover, S.R; Cashman, K.V; Manga, M (June 2001). "The yield strength of subliquidus basalts - experimental results". Journal of ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Shear Strength". The Spectacular Spider-Man. Season 2. Episode 4. July 6, 2009. Disney ... "Shear Strength". The Max Dillon incarnation of Electro appears in the Ultimate Spider-Man animated series, voiced by ... superhuman strength, and speed. Since his conception, the character has undergone several design changes, from his original ... causing him to increase in size and strength while his features become progressively more deformed. Inside the Temple, he ...
The resulting composite structure exhibits a high strength-to-weight ratio and shear strength. Shear strength is the measured ... 2009). What is the definition of "shear strength"? Plascore AS9100 and ISO-9001 Certificate "Plascore receives awards from CERN ... Plascore honeycomb is designed to increase shear strength while adding minimal additional weight. Plascore is a global ... where it allows boat designers to add strength to hull manufacturing and also save weight, for example by using thin layers of ...
Luna, B. and A. S. Whittaker, "Peak strength of shear-critical reinforced concrete walls," ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 16, No ... Gulec, K., A. S. Whittaker and B. Stojadinovic, "Shear strength of squat rectangular reinforced concrete walls," ACI Structural ... doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:3(433). Gulec, K; Whittaker, A.S.; Stohadinovic, B. (2008). "Shear strength of squat ... Luna, B.; Whittaker, A.S. (2019). "Peak strength of shear-critical reinforced concrete walls". ACI Structural Journal. 16 (2): ...
Bhimaseni focuses on sheer strength. In Sanskrit, mallayuddha literally translates to "wrestling combat". Strictly speaking, ... Hanuman, the god in Ramayana, is worshipped as the patron of wrestlers and general feats of strength. The Mahabharata epic also ... Matches were traditionally codified into four types which progressed from purely sportive contests of strength to actual full- ... size and strength. It also outlines how the wrestlers were to exercise and what they were to eat. In particular the king was ...
Rinaldo, left alone, prays for strength. A sea shore. As Goffredo, Eustazio and Rinaldo near the magician's lair, a beautiful ...
... has very good shear strength as a block. Lateral load involves sideways force - the wind load on the entire area of ... However, its strength in model structures has been proven, and homes and small commercial buildings are being constructed. ... Papercrete has also been tested for its tensile strength. Fuller notes that a papercrete block is the equivalent of hundred of ... Dried papercrete has very low strength, but fails by slow compression (due to the large air content and hence compressibility) ...
Burland, J. B. (1990). "On the compressibility and shear strength of natural clays". Géotechnique. 40 (3): 329-378. doi:10.1680 ... to deliver the 30th Rankine Lecture of the British Geotechnical Association titled On the compressibility and shear strength of ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Shear strength of slab". Railway Gazette. 1 October 2005. Retrieved 9 September 2014. ... 120 tonnes (120 long tons; 130 short tons) of steel and 600 cubic metres (21,000 cu ft) of high strength concrete were used to ...
Burland, J. B. (1990). "On the compressibility and shear strength of natural clays". Géotechnique. 40 (3): 329-378. doi:10.1680 ... Hoek, E. (1984). "Strength of jointed rock masses". Géotechnique. 34 (3): 187-223. doi:10.1680/geot.1983.33.3.187. Wroth, C.P ... Bishop, A. W. (1966). "The Strength of Soils as Engineering Materials". Géotechnique. 16 (2): 91-130. doi:10.1680/geot.1966.16. ...
Its strength is its sheer simplicity. Any band would give their eye teeth to have a hit record like that. I'm very proud of it ... The song appeared in Get Real (1998) directed by Simon Shore, screenplay by Patrick Wilde. After its use in Four Weddings and a ...
Shear displacement takes place if the shear stress along the discontinuity plane exceeds the shear strength of the ... Shear displacement along the discontinuity can take place if the shear strength along the discontinuity plane is exceeded, and ... As intact material has virtually always far higher shear strength than the discontinuity, a non-persistent discontinuity will ... Discontinuity (geotechnical engineering) Rock mechanics Shear strength (discontinuity) ISRM (1978). "Suggested methods for the ...
In "Shear Strength", the Tinkerer helps upgrade the Vulture's suit. After Spider-Man discovers his involvement in Gwen Stacy's ...
To seal together tissues the human body uses collagen and elastin to obtain superior shear strength. Type I collagen which ... had shear strength of only 17.6 kiloPascals. Furthermore, another study performed at the University of California determined ... "A method to determine shear adhesive strength of fibrin sealants". Journal of Applied Biomaterials. 3 (2): 147-51. doi:10.1002/ ...
Shear strength is assumed to be equal to σ/2. The following equations need to be adjusted if the shear strength is greater than ... However, α=45° will be stronger than α=90° if shear strength is greater than σ/2. The joint is strongest between these two ... The second equation accounts for failure in shear. Some special angles should be noted or the graphs of two equations should be ... The plain scarf is not preferred when strength is required, so it is often used in decorative situations, such as the ...
The polymer should exhibit sufficient peel, shear and tensile strengths. The polymer should be readily available and should not ...
Direct shear test Shear strength Triaxial shear test Hoek, E.; Bray, J. (1974). Rock slope engineering. London: Institute of ... In geomechanics, a tilt test is a simple test to estimate the shear strength parameters of a discontinuity. Two pieces of rock ... ISBN 978-90-6191-109-8. Barton, N.R. (5-6 March 2008). "Shear Strength of Rockfill, Interfaces and Rock Joints, and their ... Phien-wej, N.; Shrestha, U.B.; Rantucci, G. (1990). "Effect of infill thickness on shear behaviour of rock joints". In Barton, ...
This assumes that yield occurs when the shear stress τ {\displaystyle \tau \!} exceeds the shear yield strength τ y {\ ... If the uniaxial tensile strength of the material is σ t {\displaystyle \sigma _{t}} and the uniaxial compressive strength is σ ... Structural failure Strength of materials Ultimate failure Damage mechanics Size effect on structural strength Concrete fracture ... the prediction of the ultimate failure strength of a ductile material. Several models for predicting the ultimate strength have ...
The bonded materials typically exhibit excellent shear and tensile strength, but poor peel strength. In a fusion bond, either ... The resultant bond exhibits excellent tensile strength, but poor peel and shear strength. Resistance seam welding is a process ... While the shear strength of each weld is high, the fact that the weld spots do not form a continuous seam means that the ... When high strength in shear is needed, spot welding is used in preference to more costly mechanical fastening, such as riveting ...
Frenzel, Michael; Curbach, Manfred (26 October 2017). "Shear strength of concrete interfaces with infra-lightweight and foam ... Curbach produced significant results on the multiaxial loading of concrete, especially ultra-high-strength concrete, and built ... made of high-strength fine concrete and high-performance fibres (made of different materials such as alkali-resistant glass, ...
Then, a tension strength test is performed on the welded sample, with the joint surface being loaded in pure shear, a load ... The lap shear strength is the maximum tensile load imparted on the sample by the machine divided by the lapped area. ... Lap shear strength (LSS) testing, in accordance with ASTM D 1002, is a method of destructive testing used to determine the ... The lapped shear strength and the weld time are also correlated. Initially, there is a positive correlation between weld time ...
This parameter is related to the probability of discontinuity shear strength. F3 depends on the relationship between slope (βs ... Slope mass rating (SMR) is a rock mass classification scheme developed by Manuel Romana to describe the strength of an ... The term rock mass incorporates the influence of both intact material and discontinuities on the overall strength and behavior ... SMR uses the same first five scoring categories as RMR: Uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock, Rock Quality Designation ...
A solid is a deformable body that possesses shear strength, sc. a solid can support shear forces (forces parallel to the ... ISBN 978-0-7506-8025-7. Wright, T. W. (2002). The Physics and Mathematics of Adiabatic Shear Bands. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge ... the intensity of electromagnetic forces depends upon the strength (electric charge) of the electromagnetic field. The total ... material surface on which they act). Fluids, on the other hand, do not sustain shear forces. For the study of the mechanical ...
doi:10.1007/s10064-002-0155-4. Barton, N.R.; Choubey, V. (1977). "The shear strength of rock joints in theory and in practice ... Normally discontinuities with the same origin have broadly the same characteristics in terms of shear strength, spacing between ... is a plane of physical weakness where the tensile strength perpendicular to the discontinuity or the shear strength along the ... shear strength, roughness, infill material, etc.) are broadly the same. A discontinuity may exist as a single feature (e.g. ...
Epoxies have shown 150-1,050 psi (1,000-7,200 kPa) shear strength. Cyanoacrylates are useful for bonding to metal, leather, ... It is often used for machined parts of paintball markers that do not require the strength of aluminium, such as handles and ... POM is characterized by its high strength, hardness and rigidity to −40 °C. POM is intrinsically opaque white, due to its high ... In order to get a high bond strength without specialized tools, treatments, or roughening, one can use Loctite 401 prism ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Milbank, Zac (10 November 2009). "Luke Tapscott is rich talent and sheer strength". The ...
Designers did not know the tensile, compressive, or shear strengths of metals. Engineers did not know the effects of scaling, ...
... with a corresponding estimated shear strength of 56.0 MPa. Direct methods of measuring the shear strength indicate that the ... The shear strength of MoS2 increases as the coefficient of friction increases. This property is called superlubricity. At ... Extensive work has been performed to characterize the coefficient of friction and shear strength of MoS2 in various atmospheres ... The yield strength of monolayer flakes was 270 GPa, while the thicker flakes were also stiffer, with a yield strength of 330 ...
By this accession, the II Corps attained in April 1864, an aggregate strength of 46,363, with 28,854 present for duty. ... District of Eastern Shore. *Department of Pennsylvania: Department of the Monongahela. *Department of the Susquehanna ... At this time the corps contained 85 regiments; its effective strength, however, was less than at a previous date. ...
If there is enough low level wind shear, the column of hot, rising air can develop a small cyclonic motion that can be seen ... The rate of occurrence drops off quickly with increasing strength-less than 1% are violent tornadoes (EF4, T8 or stronger).[65] ... There are several scales for rating the strength of tornadoes. The Fujita scale rates tornadoes by damage caused and has been ... wind shear, and atmospheric instability are present.[78] Tornadoes are focused in the right front quadrant of landfalling ...
Experienced users with sufficient upper-body strength can generally balance the chair on its rear wheels, a "wheelie", and the ... who adversely affected by sheer forces (reclining causes the body to slide slightly every time), or who need to keep a ...
Fluorescent signal strength depends on many factors such as probe labeling efficiency, the type of probe, and the type of dye. ... This is accomplished by applying mechanical shear along the length of the slide, either to cells that have been fixed to the ... can be described as a method that uses FISH in a parallel manner with the comparison of the hybridization strength to recall ...
California and was brought up to full strength in the summer, when the 29th and 31st Fighter Squadrons were assigned.[8][9] Its ... Testing of the Bell P-59 Airacomet jet fighter was being conducted at a site on the north shore of Rogers Dry Lakebed, about ...
Ruff, C. (2009). "Relative Limb Strength and Locomotion in Homo habilis". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 138 (1): ... Marchi, D.; Harper, C. M.; Chirchir, H.; Ruff, C. B. (2019). "Relative fibular strength and locomotor behavior in KNM-WT 15000 ...
Immediately, all other naval vessels and shore troops joined in, downing friendly aircraft and forcing planeloads of ... being reduced in strength to between 20 and 30 men. H Company drove forward to rescue a captured British General and was cut ... and they were immediately on leaving the far shore the target of German 88mm cannons, 20mm cannons, flak wagons, machine guns ...
Mora Ruben Perez: Study of the Fatigue Strength in the Gigacycle Regime of Metallic Alloys Used in Aeronautics and Off-shore ... "Very high cycle fatigue strength of a high strength steel under sea water corrosion." ICF13. Beijing, 2013, side 1. ... Thierry PL og C Bathias, Very high cycle fatigue strength of a high strength steel under sea water corrosion, 13th ... "Very high cycle fatigue strength of a high strength steel under sea water corrosion." ICF13. 2013. ...
Leaders can spot weaknesses and strengths in the participants of the simulation without worrying about every single piece of ... When the sheer cost effectiveness and training of which simulation was capable surfaced during extensive military use, hardware ...
... yield strength, and tensile strength of the resulting steel. The increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is only ... with a fair amount of shear on both constituents. If quenching is done improperly, the internal stresses can cause a part to ... Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, ... Nickel and manganese in steel add to its tensile strength and make the austenite form of the iron-carbon solution more stable, ...
Gómez-Ramírez, P., Shore, R. F., Van Den Brink, N. W., Van Hattum, B., Bustnes, J. O., Duke, G., & Krone, O. (2014). An ... although there is little evidence that the golden and white-tailed eagles are notably different in strength.[4][154][181] In ... however the eagle would be unable to fly with such a large catch and would need to row it to the nearest shore.[119] The next ... across the water to the nearest bank or shore. While this would leave them waterlogged, of course, the food yield from such a ...
Moreover, while the Australians had no knowledge of the strength or intentions of the Japanese, no force would be able to ... on the northern shore of the bay; due to an error in navigation they came ashore about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) east of where they ... of the shore, they had to be unloaded onto pontoons and the stores manhandled onto vehicles, a labour-intensive process.[24] ... The Japanese ships also shelled shore positions at Gili Gili and Waga Waga and illuminated, but did not fire on, the hospital ...
Over 320,000 VHS copies were shipped throughout the United States, and on the strength of its award nominations and word of ... a dreaming Red is sucked into the poster of Rita Hayworth to find himself alone and insignificant on the Pacific shore, saying ...
The same is true on the northern shore of Lake Superior, which cools hot humid air from the south, leading to cooler summer ... An economic boom in the 1850s coincided with railway expansion across the province, further increasing the economic strength of ... Apple orchards are a common sight along the southern shore of Nottawasaga Bay (part of Georgian Bay) near Collingwood and along ... the Iroquois had seceded from Ontario and the Mississaugas of the Ojibwa had settled the north shore of Lake Ontario. The ...
From 'sea-to-shore'[edit]. See also: Observer Group and Scouts and Raiders ... yet accurate account of their enemies potential and strengths-using a technique known as reconnaissance-in-force (RIF). RIF ... available garrisons and strength of forces, avenues of attack, adaptability of the defenses) ... forcing it to be re-designated to full battalion-strength with two active reconnaissance companies; becoming the "Amphibious ...
Timoshenko, Stephen (1983). History of Strength of Materials. Courier Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-61187-7.. ... which was the temporary double refraction produced in viscous liquids by shear stress.[37] His other paper was "Rolling Curves ...
Shore Line East (CT). *Metro-North (CT). *Hartford Line (CT, MA). *New Haven Line (CT) ...
In prominent spiral arms, the field strength can be up to 25 μG, in regions where cold gas and dust are also concentrated. The ... but based simply on the apparent faintness and sheer population of stars, the true distances of these objects placed them well ... The typical average equipartition strength for spiral galaxies is about 10 μG (microGauss) or 1 nT (nanoTesla). For comparison ... the Earth's magnetic field has an average strength of about 0.3 G (Gauss or 30 μT (microTesla). Radio-faint galaxies like M 31 ...
... which has been reported to affect the bulk and shear moduli by only 1-2%.[13]) The fabricated greenware is subjected to heat ... Compressive strength 2.68 GPa. Thermal and optical[7]. *Specific heat 0.781 J/(g·°C) ...
The strength also depends on the species and techniques of cultivation. In Vanuatu, a strong kava drink is normally followed by ... Traditionally, grog is drunk from the shorn half-shell of a coconut, called a bilo. Grog is very popular in Fiji, especially ...
High-voltage shore connection. *Load management. *Mains electricity by country. *Power line ...
By sheer coincidence, exactly 100 years later on 7 August 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover used its Radiation Assessment ... the strength of the solar wind is not constant, and hence it has been observed that cosmic ray flux is correlated with solar ...
Physical strength declines, and fatigue occurs sooner than it would otherwise. Alertness and mental capacity also may be ...
They are almost always used in shore fishing (sea fishing from the shoreline) from the beach, rocks or other shore feature. ... usually referred to as hoop strength). The rod tapers from one end to the other and the degree of taper determines how much of ... giving it a much greater strength and flexibility. ...
"Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2011" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India ... It is, for instance, sheer convention based on Tamil grammatical tradition (influenced no doubt by Sanskrit) that, as a rule, ...
Upon setting foot on the shore, Saragnayan asked who he was and what was his business. When Labaw Donggon expressed his desire ... Saragnayan wrestled with Buyung Baranugon but the Lord of Darkness was no match for the strength of Buyung Baranugon. However, ... Anggoy Ginbitinan and Anggoy Doronoon cures Labaw Donggon from his deranged state and his former strength returns to him. ...
The Maryland Eastern Shore experienced only minor rainfall from one to two inches (25 to 50 mm). Damage was light, and no ... Allison was the first Atlantic tropical storm to have its name retired without ever having reached hurricane strength. ... Due to dry air and moderate westerly wind shear, the storm transformed into a subtropical cyclone. While the subtropical ... 2001 incarnation of Allison was the only Atlantic tropical system to have its name retired without reaching hurricane strength ...
CFRP can also be applied to enhance shear strength of reinforced concrete by wrapping fabrics or fibers around the section to ... Small areas of very high strength but moderate stiffness material will significantly increase strength, but not stiffness. ... A CFRP bicycle frame weighs less than one of steel, aluminum, or titanium having the same strength. The type and orientation of ... Despite its high initial strength-to-weight ratio, a design limitation of CFRP is its lack of a definable fatigue limit. This ...
... used for low strength and stiffness for low load applications, to high strength and stiffness for high performance applications ... structure provides a material with minimal density and relative high out-of-plane compression properties and out-of-plane shear ... The strength of laminated or sandwich panels depends on the size of the panel, facing material used and the number or density ... Honeycomb materials are widely used where flat or slightly curved surfaces are needed and their high specific strength is ...
The strength of our response is not necessary for most cases, but remains from a primitive time. ... The atmosphere is "for sheer size and perfection of function, it is far and away the grandest product of collaboration in all ...
... 2004-01-0734. Discontinuously reinforced thermoplastic composites are used in a ... Citation: Bates, P., Couzens, D., and Mah, J., "Shear Strength of Vibration Welded Lap Joints," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01- ... The effects of weld parameters such as weld area, weld pressure and meltdown have been assessed using a compression shear test ... The results show that shear stresses of the order of 15 MPa are attainable for a wide variety of processing conditions. ...
Mining Publication: Shear Strength Evaluation of Clay-Rock Mixtures. Keywords: Clays Shear tests Slopes ... This study reviewed 31 technical papers which contain analysis of shear strengths for clay and sands with varying mixtures of ... Evaluation of this body of knowledge has shown that the shear strength gradually increases with increasing percentages of ... Estimation of Shear Strength Using Fractals as a Measure of Rock Fracture Roughness ...
Shear modulus Shear stress Shear strain Shear strength (soil) Shear strength (Discontinuity) Strength of materials Tensile ... and shear strengths: USS: Ultimate Shear Strength, UTS: Ultimate Tensile Strength, SYS: Shear Yield Stress, TYS: Tensile Yield ... "Shear Strength of Metals". www.roymech.co.uk. "Shear Strength - Instron". www.instron.us. Retrieved 2020-02-14. Portl; Portl, ... In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure when ...
The shear strength of a discontinuity is often considerably lower than the shear strength of the blocks of intact material in ... the shear strength of discontinuities influences the stress distribution in a soil or rock mass. The shear strength along a ... or have the asperities been sheared off). Only for simple models of discontinuities the shear strength can be analytically ... or empirical calculations based on characterizing the discontinuity are used to establish the shear strength. Direct shear test ...
Laboratory shear strength of soil : a symposium. [R N Yong; Frank C Townsend; ASTM Committee D-18 on Soil and Rock for ... Shear strength of soils--Testing. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Shear strength of soils--Testing"@en ;. .. ... Shear strength of soils--Testing. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Shear strength of soils--Testing"@en ;. .. ... strength_of_soil_1980_chicago_ill> # Symposium on Laboratory Shear Strength of Soil (1980 : Chicago, Ill.). a bgn:Meeting, ...
Two-component, fast-curing adhesive features high shear and peel strength. December 2, 2005 Richard Nass ... It exhibits high peel strength, outstanding impact strength, and superior resistance to vibration and shock. Service operating ...
Effects of various methods of chlorhexidine application on shear bond strength. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or ... Effects of Various Methods of Chlorhexidine Application On Shear Bond Strength. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998;114(2):150 ... Effects of various methods of chlorhexidine application on shear bond strength. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998;114(2):150 ... "Effects of Various Methods of Chlorhexidine Application On Shear Bond Strength." American Journal of Orthodontics and ...
The mean shear-peel bond strengths for the laser cured groups were quite similar for the 5-, 10- and 15-second laser groups ( ... The difference in the shear-peel bond strength between the light 40-second buccal (13.31 MPa) and the light 40-second lingual ( ... 10.86, 11.32, and 10.80 MPa). The difference in mean lingual bond strength between the light 40-second and laser 5-second ...
The knowledge of shear strength geotechnical parameters, cohesion and friction angle, is necessary for many engineering works ... Use of Borehole Shear Test to Obtain Shear Strength Data Comparison to Direct Shear Test. ... Use of Borehole Shear Test to Obtain Shear Strength Data Comparison to Direct Shear Test. In: Shakoor A., Cato K. (eds) IAEG/ ... Borehole Shear, and Cone Penetration Tests. Laboratory Shear Strength of Soil, ASTM STP 740, American Society for Testing and ...
Interlayer Shear Strength Test for Tack Coat evaluates and validates a test method to determine the interlayer shear strength ... Revisiting the Effectiveness of Tack Coats in HMA Overlays: The Shear Strength of Tack Coats in Young Overlays. Proceedings of ... Validation of the Louisiana Interlayer Shear Strength Test for Tack Coat (2018) Chapter: References. ... Validation of the Louisiana Interlayer Shear Strength Test for Tack Coat. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: ...
The shear strength is found to increase linearly with this parameter whereas the solid fraction both at the initial isotropic ... Our data suggest that the increase of shear strength with reflects both enhanced friction mobilization and anisotropic particle ... Microscopic Origins of Shear Strength in Packings Composed of Elongated Particles Emilien Azéma 1, * Farhang Radjai 1 Details. ... Microscopic Origins of Shear Strength in Packings Composed of Elongated Particles. IWBDG, 2010, France. pp.1-7. ⟨hal-00686728⟩ ...
... Journal. Medicina Oral Patologia Oral y Cirurgia ... Objectives: The shear bond strength of three glass ionomer cements (GIC) to enamel and dentine was evaluated.. Study Design: ... Results: The mean (±sd) of shear bond strength (MPa), on enamel and dentine, were: KM (6.4±1.4 and 7.6±1.5), FJ (5.9±1.5 and ... shear bond strength was tested in a universal testing machine. Non-parametric statistical tests (Friedman and post-hoc Wilcoxon ...
Interlayer Shear Strength Test for Tack Coat evaluates and validates a test method to determine the interlayer shear strength ... Validation of the Louisiana Interlayer Shear Strength Test for Tack Coat (2018) Chapter: Appendix B. ... Validation of the Louisiana Interlayer Shear Strength Test for Tack Coat. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: ... Validation of the Louisiana Interlayer Shear Strength Test for Tack Coat. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: ...
The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) was calculated according to the maximum force applied to pull the GF out of the epoxy ... These configurations were not effective in shear stress between GF and epoxy as well as fiber strength. Hence, CNT coverage is ... Grafting Carbon Nanotubes on Glass Fiber by Dip Coating Technique to Enhance Tensile and Interfacial Shear Strength. Bahador ... Considering the magnitude of shear stress between coated GF and epoxy droplet indicates that the improvement of shear stress ...
Comparison of shear bond strength of rebonded brackets with four methods of adhesive removal. *S. Yassaei1, ... Yassaei, S., Aghili, H., KhanPayeh, E. et al. Comparison of shear bond strength of rebonded brackets with four methods of ... Ishida K, Endo T, Shinkai K, Katoh Y (2011) Shear bond strength of rebonded brackets after removal of adhesives with Er, Cr: ... The aim of this study was to compare the shear rebond strength (SRS) of brackets recycled with different resin removal methods ...
... shear strength / industrial 2000 series - THREE BOND and find where you can buy it. Contact the manufacturer directly to ... shear strength / industrial. 2000 series THREE BOND Epoxy adhesive / two-component / shear strength / industrial - 2000 series ...
Quality Bathroom Sealant Reactive And Functional Polymers Low Modulus High Shear Strength on sale of Risun Polymer ... Bathroom Sealant Reactive And Functional Polymers Low Modulus High Shear Strength Bathroom Sealant Reactive And Functional ... Bathroom Sealant Reactive And Functional Polymers Low Modulus High Shear Strength Eco-friendly SPUR Polymer for Low Modulus Pre ...
Experimental Study on Shear Failure Mechanism and the Identification of Strength Characteristics of the Soil-Rock Mixture ... Shear strengths of the SRM samples with different sets. (a) SBG for the 1st shear. (b) SBG for the 2nd shear. (c) SBG for the ... Experimental Study on Shear Failure Mechanism and the Identification of Strength Characteristics of the Soil-Rock Mixture. ...
Standard Test Method for Strength Properties of Tissue Adhesives in Lap-Shear by Tension Loading , adhesive bond, lap-shear, ... Standard Test Method for Strength Properties of Tissue Adhesives in Lap-Shear by Tension Loading. Active Standard ASTM F2255 , ... ASTM F2255-05(2015), Standard Test Method for Strength Properties of Tissue Adhesives in Lap-Shear by Tension Loading, ASTM ... 1.1 This test method is intended to provide a means for comparison of the adhesive strengths of tissue adhesives intended for ...
... this study reveal that dentin shear bond strength depends on adhesive and dentin depth. Consequently, shear bond strength also ... resulting in higher shear bond strength values.. Another component that may be responsible for the high bond strength values is ... The adhesive shear bond strength values were recorded in kgf/cm2 and were converted into MPa. Means and standard deviations ... Toba S, Veerapravati W, Shimada Y, Nikaido T, Tagami J. Micro-shear bond strength of adhesive resins to coronal dentin versus ...
... Eva Nilsson, LDS/Simon Alaeddin, PhD/Stig Karlsson, LDS, ... Surface topography, roughness, and shear bond strength were evaluated using digital scanning electron microscopy, confocal ... Results: The bond strength is presented both with respect to composite surface pretreatment and with respect to different ... For pretreated surfaces, Targis showed the highest (P < 0.05) bond strength values, followed by Art Glass and Z-100. This ...
D6467-13e1 Standard Test Method for Torsional Ring Shear Test to Determine Drained Residual Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils ... reconstituted specimens~ torsional ring shear test~ cohesive soils~ ... 5.4 The ring shear device keeps the cross-sectional area of the shear surface constant during shear and shears the specimen ... Standard Test Method for Torsional Ring Shear Test to Determine Drained Residual Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils. Active ...
1001 Shear-Bond-Strength of Self-Adhesive Resin Cements (Lithium Disilicate/Zirconia) to Dentin Friday, March 23, 2012: 3:30 p. ... Conclusions: Group 1 and 3 yielded higher shear bond strength compared with Group 2 for both LiDi and Zir .There were no ... Objectives: To compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of an experimental novel fluoride releasing self-adhesive resin cement SI- ... See more of: Dental Materials 1: Adhesion - Bond Strength Testing and Mechanisms ...
The objective of the study was to compare the acid neutralizing ability and shear bond strength (SBS) of three different types ... shear bond strength 45S5 bioactive glass; 45S5F bioactive glass; S53P4 bioactive glass; acid neutralizing ability; shear bond ... Yang S-Y, Kim S-H, Choi S-Y, Kim K-M. Acid Neutralizing Ability and Shear Bond Strength Using Orthodontic Adhesives Containing ... Yang, S.-Y.; Kim, S.-H.; Choi, S.-Y.; Kim, K.-M. Acid Neutralizing Ability and Shear Bond Strength Using Orthodontic Adhesives ...
Results from the direct shear tests show that the shear strength decreases slightly with increasing the ... solutions with different concentrations to study the effect of NaCl solution on the shear strength and its mechanism. ... A series of direct shear and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) tests were performed on a compacted weakly expansive clay ... Results from the direct shear tests show that the shear strength decreases slightly with increasing the NaCl solution ...
Effect of a silane and phosphate functional monomer on shear bond strength of a resin-based luting agent to lithium disilicate ... The corresponding specimens were bonded by using a resin-based luting agent (Panavia V5). Shear bond strengths were determined ... This study examined the effect of silane and phosphate functional monomer on bond strengths between a resin-based luting agent ... Combined use of silane in the acidic environment of a phosphate functional monomer and initiators enhances bond strength of a ...
Other groups did not differ with respect to shear bond strength. All mean values of the tested groups represent bond strength ... After the shear bond strength test, the enamel surfaces of each specimen were classified according to the scores of the ... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in vitro, the shear bond strength of self-curing (ConciseTM - 3M and Alpha Plast - DFL) and light- ... CONCLUSIONS: Shear bond strength was satisfactory and similar between the composites, however Natural Ortho - DFL revealed best ...
Shear domain of fibre-reinforced high-strength concrete beams. Authors: Imam, M ×. Vandewalle, Lucie. Mortelmans, Fernand. Van ... at which there is a maximum reduction of the flexural strength due to shear influence, An analytical approach is developed to ... in singly reinforced high strength concrete beams without stirrups Tailing under the combined effect of flexure and shear. An ... An equation is derived for the critical shear span-to-depth ratio (a/d)(c) ...
Schuldt, C.; Birlbauer, S.; Pitchika, V.; Crispin, Alexander; Hickel, R.; Ilie, N.; Kuhnisch, J. (2015): Shear Bond Strength ...
  • Objective: This study examined the shear bond strength of bonding agents to normal or fluoridated enamel following use of weak or strong acids to prepare enamel surfaces and after contamination with a measured amount of saliva at various stages of the bonding procedure. (quintpub.com)
  • 1.1 This test method is intended to provide a means for comparison of the adhesive strengths of tissue adhesives intended for use as surgical adhesives or sealants, or both, on soft tissue. (astm.org)
  • The objective of the study was to compare the acid neutralizing ability and shear bond strength (SBS) of three different types of orthodontic adhesives containing bioactive glasses (BAGs). (mdpi.com)
  • Kim, K.-M. Acid Neutralizing Ability and Shear Bond Strength Using Orthodontic Adhesives Containing Three Different Types of Bioactive Glass. (mdpi.com)
  • Yang S-Y, Kim S-H, Choi S-Y, Kim K-M. Acid Neutralizing Ability and Shear Bond Strength Using Orthodontic Adhesives Containing Three Different Types of Bioactive Glass. (mdpi.com)
  • Lap Shear determines the shear strength of adhesives for bonding materials when tested on a single-lap-joint specimen. (ptli.com)
  • RESULTS: Contamination with the resin infiltrant alone did not impair shear bond strength, while contamination with hydrochloric acid or with hydrochloric acid and the resin infiltrant reduced shear bond strength (MPa) of the adhesives (Optibond FL: 20.5 ± 3.6, iBOND Self Etch: 17.9 ± 2.6) significantly. (uzh.ch)
  • CONCLUSION: The contamination with the caries infiltrant system impaired the shear bond strength of conventional dental adhesives. (uzh.ch)
  • To determine the shear bond strength (SBS) of different established (Resulcin Aqua Prime & Monobond N: RA, Prompt L-Pop III: PLP) and experimental (AC-Bond: AC, AC-Bond + Desensitizer: ACD) self-etching adhesives in comparison to fourth (Optibond FL: FL) and fifth generation (Excite: EX, Gluma Comfort Bond: CB) adhesives. (nih.gov)
  • Adhesives requiring preliminary etching ensure optimal bond strength to primary enamel. (nih.gov)
  • 2. The creation of round microretention pits compromises these adhesives' bond strength to dentin. (sparrho.com)
  • Background: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values to enamel and dentin. (openaire.eu)
  • To compare the shear bond strength (SBS) after thermocycling of four universal adhesives applied in self -etch mode on dentin and etch-and-rinse mode on enamel . (bvsalud.org)
  • The bond strengths obtained in this study are compared to the bond strengths obtained in earlier studies with the first and second generation oxalate adhesives whose components were supplied as powders and required mixing. (elsevier.com)
  • Shear bond strength of different adhesives to Er:YAG laser-prepared dentin. (ege.edu.tr)
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Er:YAG laser on the shear bond strength of three different adhesives to lased dentin. (ege.edu.tr)
  • Seven different adhesives were evaluated for durability as plywood adhesives by exposing panels and shear-test specimens to weathering at the Madison exposure site for nearly 8 years. (usda.gov)
  • Results: The highest mean shear bond strength without 10% NaOCl immersion was in group 1, while the highest mean with 10% NaOCl immersion was in group 3. (scirp.org)
  • It was found that the mean shear bond strength of Transbond XT was 25.5 MPa and that of Heliosit orthodontic was 10.54 MPa. (bvsalud.org)
  • After thermocycling, the specimens with 10% HF surface treatment showed lower shear bond strength values when compared to those treated by sandblasting with Al2O3 particles. (unicamp.br)
  • 1. Group I showed lower shear bond strength than control group but no statistically significant difference was found(P>0.05). (kapd.org)
  • In the dentin groups, group DC had significantly lower shear bond strength than group DSE. (kci.go.kr)
  • This study reviewed 31 technical papers which contain analysis of shear strengths for clay and sands with varying mixtures of rock particles. (cdc.gov)
  • NMR-based analysis of shear strength of weakly expansive clay in sodium chloride solution. (americanelements.com)
  • Yu H, Sun D', Tian H. NMR-based analysis of shear strength of weakly expansive clay in sodium chloride solution. (americanelements.com)
  • The same specimens prepared for the evaluation of superficial dentin shear resistance were used to evaluate the different depths of dentin. (scielo.br)
  • Results from the direct shear tests show that the shear strength decreases slightly with increasing the NaCl solution concentration when the concentration is less than 1.0 mol/L. The results of NMR tests show that the smaller transverse relaxation times (T) of specimens saturated by NaCl solutions with concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mol/L are less than that of the specimen saturated by deionized water. (americanelements.com)
  • For both the e.max and quartz specimens, the Clearfil Photo Bond Universal with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator group had the highest pre- and post-thermocycling bond strength values. (go.jp)
  • The specimens were then mounted and tested to determine shear bond strength. (quintpub.com)
  • Specimens in group E and group C had significantly lower bond strengths than did control specimens (group A). In the fluoridated groups etched with the phosphoric acid, statistically significant reductions in bond strengths were obtained in all contamination groups and in the control group. (quintpub.com)
  • After storing the specimens for 24 h in distilled water at 37o C, we tested them in shear mode by using a shear knife-edge blade in a universal testing machine (Instron Corporation, Canton, MA, USA) with a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/ second. (alliedacademies.org)
  • After, the specimens were submitted to shear bond strength test at 0.5 mm/min and evaluated for adhesive remnant index (ARI). (bvsalud.org)
  • The use of piezoelectric ceramics to measure shear wave velocity in laboratory soil specimens is discussed. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The constant-volume ring shear apparatus is equipped with a mechanism to adjust the normal stress during shear and a new specimen container that allows undisturbed specimens to be trimmed directly into the container. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Objectives: The shear bond strength of three glass ionomer cements (GIC) to enamel and dentine was evaluated. (uva.nl)
  • Glass ionomer cements (GICs) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) containing resin composites were introduced to overcome this disadvantage but the variability in the bond strengths of these materials have always been topics of discussion. (ijsr.net)
  • To compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of an experimental novel fluoride releasing self-adhesive resin cement SI-R21003 (Group 1, Shofu), to Maxcem Elite (Group 2, Kerr) and RelyX Unicem2 Clicker (Group 3, 3MESPE) luting systems when luting lithium disilicate (LiDi) or zirconia (Zir) ceramic to dentin. (umich.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the shear bond strength of two self-etching primer systems to primary teeth contaminated with saliva and blood. (kapd.org)
  • Etching of normal enamel surfaces with phosphoric acid in the presence of contamination may provide higher shear bond strength than etching with maleic acid. (quintpub.com)
  • Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it acan be concluded that Dual cure resin cements showed a higher Shear bond strength as compared to light cure resin cements. (unicamp.br)
  • Surface topography, roughness, and shear bond strength were evaluated using digital scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning profilometry, and a Lloyd LRX equipped for shear bond testing, respectively. (quintpub.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of various methods of chlorhexidine application on shear bond strength. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare two methods of chlorhexidine application of shear bond strength degradation between composite resin and dentin. (scirp.org)
  • The effects of noncovalent bonding and mechanical interlocking of carbon nanotubes (CNT) coating on tensile and interfacial strength of glass fiber were investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • The obtained results showed that the optimum CNT concentration and soaking time were 1 mg/mL and 60 min, respectively, which led to significant improvement of tensile strength and interfacial shear stress. (hindawi.com)
  • The interfacial shear strength between Si microwires and a Nafion membrane has been tailored through surface functionalization of the Si. (caltech.edu)
  • The interfacial shear strength between the functionalized Si microwire surfaces and the Nafion matrix was quantified by uniaxial wire pull-out experiments in an in situ nanomechanical instrument that allowed simultaneous collection of mechanical data and visualization of the deformation process. (caltech.edu)
  • The shear strength between poly(methyl methacrylate) bone-cement and sand blasted cobalt-chromium and titanium alloy surfaces was measured to investigate the relationship between interfacial shear strength and surface topology. (niom.no)
  • We found that the interfacial shear strength is directly proportional to the exponent of the surfaces power spectra (P2) and Rdq, but not to Ra and Rr. (niom.no)
  • To evaluate, in vitro, the shear bond strength of self-curing (Concise TM - 3M and Alpha Plast - DFL) and light-curing composites (Transbond TM XT - 3M and Natural Ortho - DFL) used in orthodontics bonding, associated to Morelli metal brackets, with further analysis of adhesive remnant index (ARI) and enamel condition in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (scielo.br)
  • The 10%55D sample group had the highest mean bonding shear strength at .5602 MPa, but to observe the aging stability of all sample groups, all combinations were used in Phase II. (calpoly.edu)
  • It exhibits high peel strength, outstanding impact strength, and superior resistance to vibration and shock. (embedded.com)
  • Based on the bonding shear strength results of the initial screening, the best performing combinations were artificially aged to simulate their resistance to degradation in vivo. (calpoly.edu)
  • Statistical difference between G3 and G4 groups was recorded, as G4 showing higher strength resistance than G3. (scielo.br)
  • The material must seal the interface while providing sufficient strength and wear resistance to assure function of the tooth for, ideally, the lifetime of the patient. (ebscohost.com)
  • Strength training, or resistance training, is a way to increase muscular strength where levels of resistance are increased over time. (nspt4kids.com)
  • Strength training can also be performed with activities like tug of war or climbing in the playground where resistance is provided by the child's own body weight. (nspt4kids.com)
  • Stainless socket screws have less tensile and yield strength than alloy sockets, but superior corrosion resistance. (nusnelafvallenmetshakes.nl)
  • In Dentistry, the nanofilled resin composites show improved physical and mechanical properties, with higher fracture resistance and bond strength to enamel 2,5,15,17,27 . (bvsalud.org)
  • A series of direct shear and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) tests were performed on a compacted weakly expansive clay saturated by sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions with different concentrations to study the effect of NaCl solution on the shear strength and its mechanism. (americanelements.com)
  • This study has been designed to evaluate the effect of strong (MTAD) or soft (1- hydroxyethylidene - 1, 1- bisphosphonate (HEBP) final irrigating solution on the shear bond strength of AH plus sealer to coronal dentin . (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dentin shear bond strength of four adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond 2, Adper Prompt L-Pop, Magic Bond DE and Self Etch Bond) in regards to buccal and lingual surfaces and dentin depth. (scielo.br)
  • The objective of this study was to compare dentin shear bond strength (DSBS) of dentin bonding agents (DBAs) cured with a plasma arc (PAC) light curing unit (LCU) and those cured with a light emitting diode (LED) LCU. (koreamed.org)
  • Dentin shear bond strength of a new 'all in one' adhesive. (marmara.edu.tr)
  • Dentin shear bond strength of a new 'all. (marmara.edu.tr)
  • This material showed lowest shear bond strength among all tested materials in both enamel and dentin groups, showing insignificant difference with some adhesive systems. (kci.go.kr)
  • Due to different factors that affect the bond strength of composite resin and dentin, it is important to evaluate the influence of the adhesive system, the type of acid-etching and the dentin depth as they relate to the shear bond strength of the dentin-composite resin interface at the same dentin locations. (scielo.br)
  • Background: Chlorhexidine could have effect on shear bond strength of composite resin-dentin. (scirp.org)
  • Conclusion: Method of using bonding contains chlorhexidine can increase and inhibit degradation shear bond strength between composite resin and dentin. (scirp.org)
  • Rahmayanti study in 2011 compared the effects of chlorhexidine and glutaraldehyde on shear bond strength of composite resin-dentin by the method of storage on artificial saliva for 1 and 30 days. (scirp.org)
  • The bond strength of this oxalate adhesive (Tenure Solution) to dentin was determined by bonding composite resin cylinders to extracted teeth. (elsevier.com)
  • After bonding of composite resin(Z100, 3M, USA) to contaminated sample surfaces and thermocycling(1,000 cycles), shear bond strengths were measured using Universal Testing Machine(Zwick Z020, Zwick Co., Germany). (kapd.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of chlorhexidine with or without a sealant, to the etched enamel will affect the shear bond strength and the bracket/adhesive failure modes of orthodontic brackets. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This system enables us to study the flow induced changes in plasma membrane of a representative cancer cell line HeLa as the function of imparted shear stress and importantly, cell-substrate adhesion strength. (eurekaselect.com)
  • 2) At least 3 reversals or cumulative 20 mm shear displacement of direct shear box is recommended to reach residual condition. (metu.edu.tr)
  • A conventional direct shear box was modified to accommodate the testing of an unsaturated soil. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The friction coefficient of thin polymer sheets under high loads can be accounted for by a simple extension of the adhesion theory of friction in which the pressure dependence of the shear strength of the polymer is taken into consideration. (springer.com)
  • We have shown while transient changes in membrane fluidity depend on the orientation of flow and are largely independent of cellsubstrate adhesion landscape, long term membrane fluidization is controlled by the cell-substrate adhesion strength that is represented by maximum traction stress that cell exerts on the microchannel wall. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Tamal Das, Tapas K. Maiti and Suman Chakraborty, "Flow Shear Induced Changes in Membrane Fluidity: Dependence on Cell- Substrate Adhesion Strength", Current Analytical Chemistry (2013) 9: 9. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The cone penetration test (CPT) has been widely used in Louisiana to classify soils, measure undrained shear strength ( S u ), and identify bearing stratum for driven piles. (astm.org)
  • Laboratory and field tests were performed to compare the parameters of shear strength of granite, migmatite, granulite, granitoid, gneiss and rhyolite residual soils from the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro. (springer.com)
  • American Society for Testing and Materials: ASTM D3080: Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions. (springer.com)
  • Khoury, C., Miller, G.A.: Influence of flooding on Borehole Shear Test (BST) results in unsaturated soils. (springer.com)
  • The paper describes a constant volume ring shear apparatus that allows the measurement of the undrained peak and residual shear strengths of cohesive soils. (environmental-expert.com)
  • No comments were found for Multistage Direct Shear Testing of Unsaturated Soils . (environmental-expert.com)
  • Kandaswamy, D, Rajan, KJ, Venkateshbabu, N, Porkodi, I. Shear bond strength evaluation of resin composite bonded to glass-ionomer cement using self-etching bonding agents with different pH: In vitro study. (openaire.eu)
  • The shear strength along a discontinuity in a soil or rock mass in geotechnical engineering is governed by the persistence of the discontinuity, roughness of discontinuity surfaces, infill material in the discontinuity, presence and pressure of gasses and fluids (e.g. water, oil), and possible solution (e.g. karst) and cementation along the discontinuity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Independent of the composite inlay system, the sandblasted and silane-treated surface was found to give the highest bond strength values, followed by the sandblasted and ground surfaces. (quintpub.com)
  • Effects of remineralization procedures on shear bond strengths of brackets bonded to demineralized enamel surfaces with self-etch systems. (medworm.com)
  • Results: If normal enamel surfaces were rinsed and dried immediately after contamination, there was no significant reduction of shear bond strength of adhesive to enamel. (quintpub.com)
  • The shear strength obtained from the nanomechanical measurements correlated with the chemical bond strength and the functionalization density of the molecular layer, with values ranging from 7 MPa for Si-CH3 surfaces to ∼16-20 MPa for oxygen-containing surface functionalities. (caltech.edu)
  • Half the molar surfaces were treated to create round microretention (pits) to determine whether these could influence bond strength to dentin. (sparrho.com)
  • Bond strength was highest in moist condition, because the moist surface permits more porous collagen network and hence greater infiltration of adhesive monomers, than do surfaces that are air dried. (bvsalud.org)
  • To compare, with a shear bond test, the bond strength to dentin of a total-etch and a self-etching bonding agent. (sparrho.com)
  • 2. To determine whether creating microretention improves the bond strength to dentin.Two bonding agents were assayed, Optibond FL® (Kerr), two-bottle adhesive requiring acid etching, and Clearfil SE Bond® (Kuraray), two-bottle self-etching adhesive. (sparrho.com)
  • Glass-ionomer restoratives and liners: shear bond strength to dentin. (elsevier.com)
  • T2 - shear bond strength to dentin. (elsevier.com)
  • The residual shear strength envelopes of stiff clays are curved, but for practical purposes represented by linear envelopes. (metu.edu.tr)
  • This study investigates the nonlinearity of the residual shear strength envelope using experimental evidence (i) from laboratory reversal direct shear tests on two stiff clays (Ankara clay and kaolinite) at 25 to 900 kPa effective normal stresses and (ii) from laboratory data collected from literature. (metu.edu.tr)
  • Conclusions of this study are: (1) The residual shear strength envelopes of both Ankara clay and kaolinite are nonlinear, and can be represented by a power function (cohesion is zero). (metu.edu.tr)
  • A. Maghsoudloo, "Nonlinearity of the residual shear strength envelope in stiff clays," M.S. - Master of Science, Middle East Technical University, 2013. (metu.edu.tr)
  • The effects of weld parameters such as weld area, weld pressure and meltdown have been assessed using a compression shear test. (sae.org)
  • Furthermore, most cutting experiments have been conducted using pendulum type apparatus or shearing rig, which may not fully represent the cutting process using reciprocating knives. (media.pl)
  • A force sufficient to shear the die from its mounting or equal to twice the minimum specified shear strength ( figure 2019-4 ), whichever occurs first, shall be applied to the die using the apparatus of 2 above. (xyztec.com)
  • An apparatus-discussed in this paper-has been developed that is capable of performing both pullout and direct shear tests. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In general: ductile materials (e.g. aluminum) fail in shear, whereas brittle materials (e.g. cast iron) fail in tension. (wikipedia.org)
  • AbstractThe effect of particle size on shear strength of granular materials are investigated using direct shear tests. (dulem.es)
  • By means of two dimensional contact dynamics simulations, we analyzed the effect of the particle size distribution (PSD) on the shear strength of granular materials composed of un-breakable discs. (srkturkiye.com)
  • Shear modulus Shear stress Shear strain Shear strength (soil) Shear strength (Discontinuity) Strength of materials Tensile strength Hibbeler, Russell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shear strength of a discontinuity in a soil or rock mass may have a strong impact on the mechanical behavior of a soil or rock mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many slopes, natural and man-made, fail due to a low shear strength of discontinuities in the soil or rock mass in the slope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deformation characteristics of a soil or rock mass are also influenced by the shear strength of the discontinuities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the shear strength of discontinuities influences the stress distribution in a soil or rock mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was determined that the soil classification is the only parameter showing clear trends that affect CPT estimates of the undrained shear strength. (astm.org)
  • The shear strength values obtained by DST and BST were similar, but the differences in the soil effective cohesion intercept parameter were more significant. (springer.com)
  • The results illustrate the relationship between suction and shear strength for a glacial till soil. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The shear strength of an unsaturated soil and the soil-water characteristic curve are dependent on soil structure or the aggregation, which in turn is dependent. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The undrained peak and residual strengths are applicable to seismic stability evaluations of slopes comprised of or founded on cohesive soil. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Pullout and direct shear tests have been conducted to investigate the soil-reinforcement interaction behavior in pullout and direct shear mechanisms. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In this study, we run thousands of explicit finite element simulations using Abaqus-Explicit version 6.14 with microplane model M7, each with a random input of material strength and Young's modulus for each finite element in the structure. (umn.edu)
  • The shear modulus in metals is typically within the range 20 000 to 150 000 MPa indicating a predicted shear stress of 3 000 to 24 000 MPa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shear strength can be measured by a torsion test where it is equal to their torsional strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct shear test or (Golder) shearbox test Punch-through shear test Tilt test (geotechnical engineering) Triaxial test Barton-Bandis shear criterion Sliding criterion Hoek, E. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, the Direct Shear Test (DST) in the laboratory is used to determine these parameters. (springer.com)
  • However, recently, the use of the Borehole Shear Test (BST) in Brazil is being evaluated to supplement or substitute for DST. (springer.com)
  • Bechtum, T.: Automation and further development of the borehole shear test. (springer.com)
  • Handy, R.L.: Borehole Shear Test and Slope Stability. (springer.com)
  • Borehole Shear Test in a Shallow Marine Environment, Strength Testing of Marine Sediments: Laboratory and In-Situ Measurements. (springer.com)
  • Lutenegger, A.J., Timian, D.A.: Reproducibility of borehole shear test results in marine clay. (springer.com)
  • Borehole Shear Test in Geotechnical Investigations. (springer.com)
  • Evaluation of Bond Strength of Tack Coat Materials in Field: Development of Pull-Off Test Device and Methodology. (nap.edu)
  • TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Report 878: Validation of the Louisiana Interlayer Shear Strength Test for Tack Coat evaluates and validates a test method to determine the interlayer shear strength of asphalt pavement layers. (nap.edu)
  • 4.2 The complexity and variety of individual applications for tissue adhesive devices, even within a single indicated use (surgical procedure) is such that the results of a single-lap-shear test are not suitable for determining allowable design stresses without thorough analysis and understanding of the application and adhesive behaviors. (astm.org)
  • The test is applicable for determining adhesive strengths, surface preparation parameters and adhesive environmental durability. (ptli.com)
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  • The test results indicate that the bearing strength for large washers is lower than that proposed by Eurocode 5. (diva-portal.org)
  • Apr 22, 2019 · Ultimate Shear Strength See average test values as listed in the tables on pages 8-9. (nusnelafvallenmetshakes.nl)
  • How the Direct Shear Test is conducted? (extrudesign.com)
  • In the previous tutorial, we have discussed the list of Material Testing Methods, and in this tutorial, we are going to discuss how to conduct the Direct Shear Test. (extrudesign.com)
  • Direct Shear Test The shear test is conducted to measure the shear strength of the material. (extrudesign.com)
  • The t-test revealed that there was a significant difference between the shear bond strength of the two groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tensile Strength Mpa Min 700 770 850 930 1000 Max 850 930 1000 1080 1150 0.20% Proof Stress Mpa Min 525 585 680 755 850 Elongation on 5.65S 0 % Min 12 11 9 9 9 Hardness Brinell HB Min 201 223 248 269 293 Max 255 277 302 331 352 *Material stocked generally in condition T Check test certificate if critical for end use. (dulem.es)
  • Small direct shear test (60 mm by 60 mm by 24 mm deep) were conducted for particles passing the sieves with opening size of 2.36 mm. (dulem.es)
  • test to measure the shear strength of isotropic materi-als (metals). (dulem.es)
  • The results show that shear stresses of the order of 15 MPa are attainable for a wide variety of processing conditions. (sae.org)
  • During its metastatic journey from primary tumor to distant locations of body, a cancer cell is exposed to stresses of diverse origin and kind, of which fluid shear stresses of interstitial and haematogenic nature have been least studied in relation to their impact in cancer progression. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This was difficult to reconcile with measured shear stresses in the range of 0.5 to 10 MPa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with local measurements of boundary stresses and deformations, systematic analysis of photographs of the deforming specimen allowed for measuring deformations and computing strain fields inside and outside the shear band. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Purpose: This article analyzes the influence of different pretreatments on the bond strength between inlays and the resin cement of three different composite inlay systems: Z-100, Targis, and Art Glass. (quintpub.com)
  • This study examined the effect of silane and phosphate functional monomer on bond strengths between a resin-based luting agent joined to a lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max) and silica (quartz) materials. (go.jp)
  • Combined use of silane in the acidic environment of a phosphate functional monomer and initiators enhances bond strength of a resin-based luting agent to e.max ceramic and quartz materials. (go.jp)
  • Purpose: This study reports the effect of five surface treatments on the bond strength established between three denture reline materials and a denture base resin. (ebscohost.com)
  • 8. Aguiar TR, Di Francescantonio M, Ambrosano GM, Giannini M. Effect of curing mode on bond strength of self‐adhesive resin luting cements to dentin. (unicamp.br)
  • Effects of surface treatments, thermocycling, and cyclic loading on the bond strength of a resin cement bonded to a lithium disilicate glass ceramic. (unicamp.br)
  • Long-term studies had proved that bond strength of resin-bonded dentin decreased over time due to collagen degradation (De Munck et al. (conicyt.cl)
  • Moreover, those dentin bonding agents whose primers are based on acetone show improved bond strength, because acetone aggressively pursues and displaces water in the substrate, resulting in the primer resin being carried into tissue channels and porosities . (bvsalud.org)
  • When the dentin is air dried, the water that is supporting the collagen network evaporates causing the collagen network to collapse network is greatly reduced, which in turn decreases the premeability of intertubular dentin to adhesive resin and as a result causes decrease in bond strength. (bvsalud.org)
  • Effects of various final irrigants on the shear bond strength of resin-based sealer to dentin. (bvsalud.org)
  • The resin containing selenium showed clinically acceptable but statistically lower bond strength as compared to standard resin but its mode of failure was more favorable because most of the adhesive remained on enamel. (nova.edu)
  • To evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets fixed with different materials (two light-cured nanofilled low-viscosity resins - Transbond Supreme LV and Flow Tain LV and two light-cured traditional resins - Transbond XT and Transbond Plus Color Change) after 10 min and 24 h, and to evaluate the type of failure. (bvsalud.org)
  • Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets fixed with different materials (two light-cured nanofilled low viscosity resins - Transbond Supreme LV and Flow Tain LV and two light-cured traditional resins - Transbond XT (control) and Transbond Plus Color Change) after 10 minutes and 24 hours. (bvsalud.org)
  • In SBS, SD (11.63±2.07MPa) showed statistically lower bond strength than XT (15.16±4.68MPa) but both resins were in the clinically acceptable range. (nova.edu)
  • Then, 4 samples in each sub-group were used to measure shear bond strength using Universal Testing Machine, and 1 sample was examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). (scirp.org)
  • In real world applications, this equation only gives an approximation and the maximum shear stress would be higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to explore the origins of the invariance of the shear strength with PSD, we analyzed the connectivity, force transmission, and friction mobilization in terms of anisotropies, finding that the constant shear strength is due to a subtle compensation of anisotropies. (srkturkiye.com)
  • The application of high shear stress is a key methodological determinant accelerating the process of tissue decellularization while maintaining ECM protein composition, 3D-architecture and physico-chemical properties of the native tissue. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanical properties were evaluated using shear bond strength testing (SBS) and an adhesive remnant index scoring (ARI). (nova.edu)
  • Shear Bond Strength was measured using Instron Universal Testing machine. (bvsalud.org)
  • The difference in the shear-peel bond strength between the light 40-second buccal (13.31 MPa) and the light 40-second lingual (11.95 MPa) groups was not statistically significant. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RMGI (6.03±3.95MPa) showed a statistically lower bond strength at a clinically unacceptable degree. (nova.edu)
  • As a very rough guide relating tensile, yield, and shear strengths: USS: Ultimate Shear Strength, UTS: Ultimate Tensile Strength, SYS: Shear Yield Stress, TYS: Tensile Yield Stress There are no published standard values for shear strength like with tensile and yield strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • All strength measurements are in ksi (kilo-pound per square inch). (dulem.es)
  • In structural and mechanical engineering, the shear strength of a component is important for designing the dimensions and materials to be used for the manufacture or construction of the component (e.g. beams, plates, or bolts). (wikipedia.org)
  • Refer to the Mechanical Properties Chart for the subtle strength differences within each grade. (nusnelafvallenmetshakes.nl)
  • en] Mechanical properties of materials are strongly dependent of their atomic arrangement as well as the sample dimension, particularly at the micrometer length scale. (iaea.org)
  • The mechanical behavior of the icosahedral Y-Cd quasicrystal is also compared to understand the influence of translational symmetry on the shear localization process in both YCd 6 and Y-Cd quasicrystal micropillars. (iaea.org)
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  • There are a variety of ASTM single-lap-joint shear tests including ASTM D1002 which specifies lap shear for metal to metal, ASTM D3163 for plastics joints, and ASTM D5868 for fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) against itself or metal. (ptli.com)
  • For shear stress τ {\displaystyle \tau } applies τ = σ 1 − σ 3 2 , {\displaystyle \tau ={\frac {\sigma _{1}-\sigma _{3}}{2}},} where σ 1 {\displaystyle \sigma _{1}} is major principal stress and σ 3 {\displaystyle \sigma _{3}} is minor principal stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Average shear stress can also be defined as the total force of V {\displaystyle V} as V = ∫ τ d A {\displaystyle V=\int \tau dA} This is only the average stress, actual stress distribution is not uniform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stress is not often equally distributed across a part so the shear strength would need to be higher to account for the estimate. (wikipedia.org)
  • For bolt joint loaded in shear -three stress areas result, the below chart shows the Single shear strength of 4.6, 8.8, 10.9 Grade 2, Grade 5 and Grade 8 Bolts. (nusnelafvallenmetshakes.nl)
  • 4) Nonlinearity is especially important for landslides where average effective normal stress on the shear plane is less than 50 kPa, both for translational and rotational failures. (metu.edu.tr)
  • The 0.57*TYS is probably taken from the von Mises/distortion energy/octahedral shear stress criterion, and it should be stated as shear yield strength = 0.577*tensile yield strength. (dulem.es)
  • Yield strength, or working load limit, is the amount of stress a material can withstand without permanent deformation. (dulem.es)
  • Tensile strength is the maximum amount of axial stress that a material can take before breaking. (dulem.es)
  • What is the Max Shear Stress of Mild Steel? (dulem.es)
  • In effect, a half plane of atoms is moved in response to shear stress by breaking and reforming a line of bonds, one (or a few) at a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under blood-contaminated conditions, both primers showed significantly lower shear bond strengths. (elsevier.com)
  • The two primary reasons for this are: 1) a lack of agreement concerning the influence of rock particles on material strength, and 2) the expense and difficulty of testing clay-rock mixtures with existing laboratory procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • Testing on various scales in the laboratory or in the field, or empirical calculations based on characterizing the discontinuity are used to establish the shear strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Geotechnical Mapping Laboratory of Federal University of Santa Catarina (LAMGEO-UFSC) is conducting research comparing DST and BST data which proposes to validate BST use in projects that demand a huge number of shear strength tests. (springer.com)
  • Comparison of Shear Strength Values Derived from Laboratory Triaxial, Borehole Shear, and Cone Penetration Tests. (springer.com)
  • A laboratory study of the long-term bond strength. (unicamp.br)
  • Results: The mean (±sd) of shear bond strength (MPa), on enamel and dentine, were: KM (6.4±1.4 and 7.6±1.5), FJ (5.9±1.5 and 6.0±1.9) and MX (4.2±1.5 and 4.9±1.5), respectively. (uva.nl)
  • Results: The bond strength is presented both with respect to composite surface pretreatment and with respect to different composite inlay systems. (quintpub.com)
  • Results: None of the surface treatments significantly improved the bond strength of Kooliner. (ebscohost.com)
  • The results indicated that the static shear strength was more dependent on cement type than cement viscosity and volume. (hud.ac.uk)
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  • The results of this study will provide an important insight in a fundamental understanding of shear localization process in novel complex intermetallic compounds. (iaea.org)
  • Typical results from direct shear tests are presented. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Conclusion: Surface pretreatment and roughness as well as the inlay material have an impact on the bond strength and the retention of composite inlays. (quintpub.com)
  • Enamel and dentin bond strengths of a new self-etch adhesive system. (sparrho.com)
  • Influence of adhesive application time on enamel bond strength of single-step self-etch adhesive systems. (openaire.eu)
  • A Zwick Universal Testing Machine was used to determine shear bond strengths. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The shear bond strength was tested in a universal testing machine. (uva.nl)
  • These groups were submitted to shear strength tests in universal testing machine, at 0.5 mm per minute speed. (scielo.br)
  • For shear bond strength evaluation, universal testing machine was used with a wedge technique. (kapd.org)
  • The bonding agent used in group A was Transbond XT and that of group B was Heliosit Orthodontic, Every effort was made to control the cofounding variables including light tip distance, force of application of bracket, storage of teeth before and after bonding and orientation of bracket in the acrylic block this was followed by debonding of the brackets by shearing in a universal testing machine. (bvsalud.org)
  • An instron universal testing machine was used to measure the shear bond strength at a crosshead speed of 5mm/min. (ijsr.net)
  • In a partially anchored shear wall the leading stud is not fully anchored against uplift and corresponding tying down forces are developed in the sheathing-to-framing joints along the bottom rail in the sheathing segments close to the leading stud. (diva-portal.org)
  • To characterize the size dependence of the strength CoV, an analytical formula is developed based on the statistics of the sample quantiles of a series of random variables. (umn.edu)
  • Furthermore, the yield strengths show the size dependence with a power law exponent of 0.4. (iaea.org)
  • Evaluation of the Influence of Tack Coat Construction Factors on the Bond Strength Between Pavement Layers. (nap.edu)
  • Another important factor is the post-fixation time that can influence the brackets bond strength and is important for the installation of the arches or accessories in the oral cavity. (bvsalud.org)
  • In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure when the material or component fails in shear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of nitrogen fertilizer on the yield components and stem shearing strength of three canola ( Brassica napus L.) varieties Okapi , Opera , and Zarfam were conducted in 2008. (media.pl)
  • Shear localization on {101} planes and size-dependent yield strength are explained in terms of a large interplanar spacing between {101} planes and the energetics of shear localization process, respectively. (iaea.org)
  • The yield strength of harder material is difficult to determine. (dulem.es)
  • In practice, screws may be stressed by tightening and underworking load no more than up to the yield strength or the 0,2 limit. (dulem.es)
  • May 22, 2010 · Most mild carbon steel is equivalent in strength to the properties defined in ASTM A36 for structural steel, which defines the minimum yield strength to be 36,000 psi and the minimum ultimate strength to be 58,000 psi. (dulem.es)
  • Mar 17, 2012 · The Shear Yield point is usually given as a percentage of the Tensile Yield Strength and the percentage used depends upon the material. (dulem.es)
  • For mild steel the value usually used is shear yield point = 0.58 x tensile yield point. (dulem.es)
  • A shear load is a force that tends to produce a sliding failure on a material along a plane that is parallel to the direction of the force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple Modes of Shear Failure in Rock. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, in all the experimental groups in which the chlorhexidine varnish was applied as a layer on the etched enamel surface or over the sealant, shear bond strength values and bracket failure rates were of a magnitude that made them clinically unacceptable. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In shear failure, reinforced concrete (RC) beams always develop, in a stable manner, a finite length crack before the maximum load is reached. (umn.edu)
  • This size effect on the CoV is similar to that in ductile failure governed by a Gaussian distribution of strength and contrasts with that in brittle failures following the Weibull distribution, for which the CoV is size independent. (umn.edu)
  • Wet-strength loss and wood-failure changes were measured as a function of exposure time. (usda.gov)