The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.

Bacterial swimming strategies and turbulence. (1/1135)

Most bacteria in the ocean can be motile. Chemotaxis allows bacteria to detect nutrient gradients, and hence motility is believed to serve as a method of approaching sources of food. This picture is well established in a stagnant environment. In the ocean a shear microenvironment is associated with turbulence. This shear flow prevents clustering of bacteria around local nutrient sources if they swim in the commonly assumed "run-and-tumble" strategy. Recent observations, however, indicate a "back-and-forth" swimming behavior for marine bacteria. In a theoretical study we compare the two bacterial swimming strategies in a realistic ocean environment. The "back-and-forth" strategy is found to enable the bacteria to stay close to a nutrient source even under high shear. Furthermore, rotational diffusion driven by thermal noise can significantly enhance the efficiency of this strategy. The superiority of the "back-and-forth" strategy suggests that bacterial motility has a control function rather than an approach function under turbulent conditions.  (+info)

In vitro characterization and micromechanics of tumor cell chemotactic protrusion, locomotion, and extravasation. (2/1135)

The objective of this paper is to introduce some novel in vitro applications in characterizing human melanoma cell protrusion and migration in response to soluble extracellular matrix protein stimulation. Specifically, we describe two assay systems: (1) dual-micropipette manipulation and (2) flow-migration chamber. Applications of the dual-micropipet technique provided kinetic measure of cell movement, cyclic pseudopod protrusion, and subsequent cell locomotion governed by chemotactic molecular transport dynamics. Chemotactic concentration gradient was found to influence significantly pseudopod protrusion frequency and locomotion speed, but not the protrusion extension. To further characterize active tumor cell extravasation, a process that involves dynamic tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium under flow conditions and subsequent transendothelial migration in response to chemotactic signals from the interstitial space, we developed a flow-migration chemotaxis system. This assay enabled characterization of tumor cell transcellular migration in terms of chemotactic signal gradients, shear forces, and cell-substrate adhesion. Results suggest that shear flow plays significant roles in tumor cell extravasation that is regulated by both tumor cell motility and tumor cell adhesion to endothelial molecules in a cooperative process.  (+info)

Fluid shear stress remodels expression and function of junctional proteins in cultured bone cells. (3/1135)

We tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress (tau) modifies the expression, function, and distribution of junctional proteins [connexin (Cx)43, Cx45, and zona occludens (ZO)-1] in cultured bone cells. Cell lines with osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1 cells) and osteocytic (MLO-Y4 cells) phenotypes were exposed to tau-values of 5 or 20 dyn/cm(2) for 1-3 h. Immunostaining indicated that at 5 dyn/cm(2), the distribution of Cx43, Cx45, and ZO-1 was moderately disrupted at cell membranes; at 20 dyn/cm(2), disruption was more severe. Intercellular coupling was significantly decreased at both shear stress levels. Western blots showed the downregulation of membrane-bound Cx43 and ZO-1 and the upregulation of cytosolic Cx43 and Cx45 at different levels of shear stress. Similarly, Northern blots revealed that expression of Cx43, Cx45, and ZO-1 was selectively up- and downregulated in response to different shear stress levels. These results indicate that in cultured bone cells, fluid shear stress disrupts junctional communication, rearranges junctional proteins, and determines de novo synthesis of specific connexins to an extent that depends on the magnitude of the shear stress. Such disconnection from the bone cell network may provide part of the signal whereby the disconnected cells or the remaining network initiate focal bone remodeling.  (+info)

Shear bond strength of a new dental adhesive used to bond brackets to unetched enamel. (4/1135)

The aims of the present study were to measure the shear bond strength of a new multipurpose dental adhesive, IntegraCem, for direct bonding of stainless steel and ceramic brackets to unetched enamel, and to determine the mode of bond failure. Both stainless steel and ceramic brackets (GAC) were bonded with IntegraCem to unetched extracted human premolars. After bonding, the teeth were either stored in a water bath at 37 degrees C for 3 days or passed 2500 thermocycles from 6 to 60 degrees C. Debonding was then performed with a shearing force using an Instron universal testing machine. The force was recorded at bond failure. The results showed that the shear bond strength achieved was between 6.7 and 10.8 megapascals (MPa). Bond failure occurred at the enamel-adhesive interface, enabling more efficient enamel clean up. The shear bond strengths measured suggest that IntegraCem adhesive may be effectively used in orthodontic treatment.  (+info)

Shear properties of passive ventricular myocardium. (5/1135)

We examined the shear properties of passive ventricular myocardium in six pig hearts. Samples (3 x 3 x 3 mm) were cut from adjacent regions of the lateral left ventricular midwall, with sides aligned with the principal material axes. Four cycles of sinusoidal simple shear (maximum shear displacements of 0.1-0.5) were applied separately to each specimen in two orthogonal directions. Resulting forces along the three axes were measured. Three specimens from each heart were tested in different orientations to cover all six modes of simple shear deformation. Passive myocardium has nonlinear viscoelastic shear properties with reproducible, directionally dependent softening as strain is increased. Shear properties were clearly anisotropic with respect to the three principal material directions: passive ventricular myocardium is least resistant to simple shear displacements imposed in the plane of the myocardial layers and most resistant to shear deformations that produce extension of the myocyte axis. Comparison of results for the six different shear modes suggests that simple shear deformation is resisted by elastic elements aligned with the microstructural axes of the tissue.  (+info)

Comparative analysis of various platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists on shear-induced platelet activation and adhesion. (6/1135)

Platelet accretion into arterial thrombus in stenotic arterial vessels involves shear-induced platelet activation and adhesion. The Cone and Plate(let) Analyzer (CPA) is designed to simulate such conditions in vitro under a rotating high shear rate in whole blood. In the present study, we evaluated various experimental conditions (including aspirin, temperature, and calcium concentration) and investigated the effects of small molecules along with peptide glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists on platelet adhesion using the CPA system. Concentration-dependent effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists on shear-induced platelet adhesion showed marked differences in potencies: IC50 = 34, 35, 91, 438, and 606 nM for DPC802 (a specific glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist), roxifiban, sibrafiban, lotrafiban, and orbofiban (free acid forms), respectively, and IC50 values of 43, 430, and 5781 nM for abciximab, tirofiban, and eptifibatide, respectively. Parallel study was also conducted to evaluate the effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors using optical aggregometry. The potency of fibans in blocking shear-induced platelet adhesion correlated well with their binding affinity to the resting and activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors, as well as their "off-rates". Nevertheless, none of these fibans was able to effectively block shear-induced platelet adhesion at targeted clinical dosing regimens except for abciximab. These data suggest that glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists that show similar efficacy in the inhibition of platelet aggregation in a static in vitro assay may differ substantially in a shear-based system of platelet adhesion. The clinical significance of this phenomenon awaits further investigation.  (+info)

Shear stress magnitude and directionality modulate growth factor gene expression in preconditioned vascular endothelial cells. (7/1135)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to simultaneously monitor the transcriptional levels of 12 endothelial growth factor genes in response to alterations in wall shear stress (WSS) under conditions relevant to the development of intimal hyperplasia, a major cause of arterial bypass graft failure. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were preconditioned in vitro under steady flow (WSS, 15 dynes/cm(2)) for 24 hours before being subjected to WSS at 25 (Delta = +10), 15 (Delta = 0), 5 (Delta = -10), 2.5 (Delta = -12.5), and 0 (Delta = -15) dynes/cm(2) or low magnitude WSS reversal (-2.5 dynes/cm(2)) for 6 hours. A focused complementary DNA array was used to simultaneously measure messenger RNA expression levels for END1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), platelet-derived growth factor A, platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB), acidic fibroblast growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, epidermal growth factor, and angiotensin converting enzyme. RESULTS: Preconditioning significantly (P <.05) increased the fold expression of NOS3 (4.1 +/- 1.4), basic fibroblast growth factor (3.90 +/- 1.16), vascular endothelial growth factor (3.39 +/- 1.04), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (2.8 +/- 0.7) but decreased END1 (0.47 +/- 0.05) and PDGFB (0.70 +/- 0.04) messenger RNA expression levels relative to no-flow controls, an effect that was sustained on removal from flow for 6 hours. Notably, the ratio of END1/NOS3 expression was diminished (0.11 +/- 0.03) relative to that of cells maintained in static culture. Although few differences in gene expression from baseline (15 dynes/cm(2)) were measured in cells exposed to either constant (Delta = 0) or step decreases (Delta = -10, -12.5, or -15 dynes/cm(2)) in WSS, marked changes were seen in the group exposed to a step increase in WSS (Delta = +10) or to WSS reversal. Low magnitude retrograde WSS evoked significant (P <.05) transcriptional changes in multiple genes, including elevated END1 (4.1 +/- 0.5), platelet-derived growth factor A (1.5 +/- 0.2), PDGFB (2.3 +/- 0.3), and transforming growth factor-beta (1.5 +/- 0.2) levels, but depressed NOS3 (0.60 +/- 0.17) levels, and a marked increase in END1/NOS3 (6.7 +/- 1.6) when compared with equal magnitude antegrade WSS (2.5 dynes/cm(2)). CONCLUSION: These results support the implementation of a preconditioning phase for in vitro WSS studies to establish a physiologic baseline. Our findings complement previous macroscale findings and are consistent with a cellular mechanism involving increased END1 and PDGFB levels, but decreased NOS3 levels, leading to intimal hyperplasia at regions of low magnitude reversing WSS.  (+info)

Microrheology of human lung epithelial cells measured by atomic force microscopy. (8/1135)

Lung epithelial cells are subjected to large cyclic forces from breathing. However, their response to dynamic stresses is poorly defined. We measured the complex shear modulus (G(*)(omega)) of human alveolar (A549) and bronchial (BEAS-2B) epithelial cells over three frequency decades (0.1-100 Hz) and at different loading forces (0.1-0.9 nN) with atomic force microscopy. G(*)(omega) was computed by correcting force-indentation oscillatory data for the tip-cell contact geometry and for the hydrodynamic viscous drag. Both cell types displayed similar viscoelastic properties. The storage modulus G'(omega) increased with frequency following a power law with exponent approximately 0.2. The loss modulus G"(omega) was approximately 2/3 lower and increased similarly to G'(omega) up to approximately 10 Hz, but exhibited a steeper rise at higher frequencies. The cells showed a weak force dependence of G'(omega) and G"(omega). G(*)(omega) conformed to the power-law model with a structural damping coefficient of approximately 0.3, indicating a coupling of elastic and dissipative processes within the cell. Power-law behavior implies a continuum distribution of stress relaxation time constants. This complex dynamics is consistent with the rheology of soft glassy materials close to a glass transition, thereby suggesting that structural disorder and metastability may be fundamental features of cell architecture.  (+info)

Shear strength is a property of a material that describes its ability to withstand forces that cause internal friction and sliding of one portion of the material relative to another. In the context of human tissues, shear strength is an important factor in understanding how tissues respond to various stresses and strains, such as those experienced during physical activities or injuries.

For example, in the case of bones, shear strength is a critical factor in determining their ability to resist fractures under different types of loading conditions. Similarly, in soft tissues like ligaments and tendons, shear strength plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of these structures during movement and preventing excessive deformation or injury.

It's worth noting that measuring the shear strength of human tissues can be challenging due to their complex structure and anisotropic properties. As such, researchers often use specialized techniques and equipment to quantify these properties under controlled conditions in the lab.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a type of plastic) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to improve its appearance. According to the American Dental Association (ADA), dental bonding can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Repairing chipped or cracked teeth
2. Improving the appearance of discolored teeth
3. Closing spaces between teeth
4. Protecting a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gum recession
5. Changing the shape and size of teeth

Dental bonding is generally a quick and painless procedure, often requiring little to no anesthesia. The surface of the tooth is roughened and conditioned to help the resin adhere properly. Then, the resin material is applied, molded, and smoothed to the desired shape. A special light is used to harden the material, which typically takes only a few minutes. Finally, the bonded material is trimmed, shaped, and polished to match the surrounding teeth.

While dental bonding can be an effective solution for minor cosmetic concerns, it may not be as durable or long-lasting as other dental restoration options like veneers or crowns. The lifespan of a dental bonding procedure typically ranges from 3 to 10 years, depending on factors such as oral habits, location of the bonded tooth, and proper care. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help extend the life of dental bonding.

Osseointegration is a direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of an implant. It's a process where the bone grows in and around the implant, which is typically made of titanium or another biocompatible material. This process provides a solid foundation for dental prosthetics, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures, or for orthopedic devices like artificial limbs. The success of osseointegration depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the quality and quantity of available bone, and the surgical technique used for implant placement.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

Bone cements are medical-grade materials used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to fill gaps between bone surfaces and implants, such as artificial joints or screws. They serve to mechanically stabilize the implant and provide a smooth, load-bearing surface. The two most common types of bone cement are:

1. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of powdered PMMA and liquid methyl methacrylate monomer. When mixed together, they form a dough-like consistency that hardens upon exposure to air. PMMA cement has been widely used for decades in joint replacement surgeries, such as hip or knee replacements.
2. Calcium phosphate (CP) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of a powdered CP compound and an aqueous solution. When mixed together, they form a paste that hardens through a chemical reaction at body temperature. CP cement has lower mechanical strength compared to PMMA but demonstrates better biocompatibility, bioactivity, and the ability to resorb over time.

Both types of bone cements have advantages and disadvantages, and their use depends on the specific surgical indication and patient factors.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Muscle strength, in a medical context, refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can produce during contraction. It is the maximum amount of force that a muscle can generate through its full range of motion and is often measured in units of force such as pounds or newtons. Muscle strength is an important component of physical function and mobility, and it can be assessed through various tests, including manual muscle testing, dynamometry, and isokinetic testing. Factors that can affect muscle strength include age, sex, body composition, injury, disease, and physical activity level.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

Hand strength refers to the measure of force or power that an individual can generate using the muscles of the hand and forearm. It is often assessed through various tests, such as grip strength dynamometry, which measures the maximum force exerted by the hand when squeezing a device called a handgrip dynanometer. Hand strength is important for performing daily activities, maintaining independence, and can be indicative of overall health and well-being. Reduced hand strength may be associated with conditions such as neuromuscular disorders, arthritis, or injuries.

Compressive strength is a measure of the maximum compressive load that a material or structure can withstand before failure or deformation. It is typically expressed in units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa). Compressive strength is an important property in the design and analysis of structures and materials, as it helps to ensure their safety and durability under compressive loads.

In medical terminology, compressive strength may refer to the ability of biological tissues, such as bone or cartilage, to withstand compressive forces without deforming or failing. For example, osteoporosis is a condition characterized by reduced bone density and compressive strength, which can increase the risk of fractures in affected individuals. Similarly, degenerative changes in articular cartilage can lead to decreased compressive strength and joint pain or stiffness.

Hemorheology is the study of the flow properties of blood and its components, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Specifically, it examines how these components interact with each other and with the walls of blood vessels to affect the flow characteristics of blood under different conditions. Hemorheological factors can influence blood viscosity, which is a major determinant of peripheral vascular resistance and cardiac workload. Abnormalities in hemorheology have been implicated in various diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and sickle cell disease.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

A muscle strength dynamometer is a medical device used to measure the force or strength of a muscle or group of muscles. It typically consists of a handheld handle connected to a spring scale or digital force gauge, which measures the amount of force applied by the individual being tested. The person being tested pushes or pulls against the handle with as much force as possible, and the dynamometer provides an objective measurement of their muscle strength in units such as pounds or kilograms.

Muscle strength dynamometers are commonly used in clinical settings to assess muscle weakness or dysfunction, monitor changes in muscle strength over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. They can be used to test various muscle groups, including the handgrip, quadriceps, hamstrings, biceps, triceps, and shoulder muscles.

When using a muscle strength dynamometer, it is important to follow standardized testing protocols to ensure accurate and reliable measurements. This may include positioning the individual in a specific way, providing standardized instructions, and averaging multiple trials to obtain an accurate measure of their muscle strength.

Shear modulus Shear stress Shear strain Shear strength (soil) Shear strength (Discontinuity) Strength of materials Tensile ... and shear strengths: USS: Ultimate Shear Strength, UTS: Ultimate Tensile Strength, SYS: Shear Yield Stress, TYS: Tensile Yield ... "Shear Strength of Metals". www.roymech.org. "Shear Strength - Instron". www.instron.us. Archived from the original on 2020-02- ... In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure when ...
The shear strength of a discontinuity is often considerably lower than the shear strength of the blocks of intact material in ... the shear strength of discontinuities influences the stress distribution in a soil or rock mass. The shear strength along a ... or have the asperities been sheared off). Only for simple models of discontinuities the shear strength can be analytically ... or empirical calculations based on characterizing the discontinuity are used to establish the shear strength. Direct shear test ...
The drained shear strength is the shear strength of the soil when pore fluid pressures, generated during the course of shearing ... "Undrained Shear Strength of Anisotropically Consolidated Clays", ASCE Speciality Conference on Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils ... Thus there are three commonly identified shear strengths for a soil undergoing shear: Peak strength τ {\displaystyle \tau } p ... Shear strength is a term used in soil mechanics to describe the magnitude of the shear stress that a soil can sustain. The ...
The test using the direct shear machine determines the consolidated drained shear strength of a soil material in direct shear. ... low shear strength. The test is, however, standard practice to establish the shear strength properties of discontinuities in ... A direct shear test is a laboratory or field test used by geotechnical engineers to measure the shear strength properties of ... "Direct Shear Test; To Determine Shear Strength of Soil. - CivilPie". CivilPie. 2018-05-31. Retrieved 2018-06-06. Hencher, S. R ...
The shear vane test is a method of measuring the undrained shear strength of a cohesive soil. The test is carried out with ... The equipment has also been used since at least 1967 to assess the shear strength of packs of snow at risk of forming a slab ... The equipment has also been used since at least 1967 to assess the shear strength of packs of snow at risk of forming a slab ... The test has also been used to measure the shear strength of mortar mixes, where it has been shown to correlate with the slump ...
"Shear Strength". The Spectacular Spider-Man. Season 2. Episode 4. July 6, 2009. Disney XD. "Disney XD's Ultimate Spider-Man ... causing him to increase in size and strength while his features become progressively more deformed. Inside the Temple, he ... Marvel Comics characters with superhuman strength, Marvel Comics film characters, Marvel Comics male supervillains, Marvel ...
"Shear strength of slab". Railway Gazette. 1 October 2005. Retrieved 9 September 2014. "Winning Corus Design Grants Historic ... 120 tonnes (118.1 long tons; 132.3 short tons) of steel and 600 cubic metres (21,000 cu ft) of high strength concrete were used ...
... the sample will fail due to shear displacement along the discontinuity, and hence, the shear strength of a discontinuity can be ... The triaxial test can be used to determine the shear strength of a discontinuity. A homogeneous and isotropic sample fails due ... Shear strength tests (effective stress)Triaxial Compression Test ISO/TS 17892-8:2004 Geotechnical investigation and testing- ... known as shear bands. The geometry of the shearing in a triaxial test typically causes the sample to become shorter while ...
DeGroot, D. J., & Lunne, T. (2007). Measurement of Remoulded Shear Strength. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute. Report, 20061021 ... Erdogan, F.; Sih, G. C. (1 December 1963). "On the Crack Extension in Plates Under Plane Loading and Transverse Shear". Journal ... Kenny, T. C. (1967). The influence of mineral composition on the residual strength of natural soils. TRID, 1, 123-129. Mitra, ... Hoover, S.R; Cashman, K.V; Manga, M (June 2001). "The yield strength of subliquidus basalts - experimental results". Journal of ...
"TDA sizes and shear strength" (PDF). "Applications for Tire Derived Aggregated produced byTDA Manufacturing". TDA Manufacturing ...
In the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently ... Johnston, W. M.; O'Brien, W. J. (August 1980). "The shear strength of dental porcelain". Journal of Dental Research. 59 (8): ... The characteristic strength is defined as the strength of the concrete below which not more than 5% of the test results are ... Compressive strength is a key value for design of structures. Compressive strength is often measured on a universal testing ...
"Failure mechanisms and interfacial shear strength in brittle-matrix composites," IM Daniel, G Anastassopoulos, JW Lee, ASME- ... "Failure mechanisms and interfacial shear strength paper". "International Accreditation Service". "IAS profile". September 28, ...
The shear strength is calculated from the tensile strength using a factor which relates the two strengths. In this case 0.6 ... ie the area across which the shearing action takes place, and the shear strength of the material. A round bar of steel is used ... The shear force only becomes relevant when the bolts are not torqued. A bolt with property class 12.9 has a tensile strength of ... A bolt with property class 4.6 has a tensile strength of 400 MPa (1 MPa = 1 N/mm2) or 0.4 kN/mm2 and yield strength is 0.60 ...
The resulting composite structure exhibits a high strength-to-weight ratio and shear strength. Shear strength is the measured ... 2009). What is the definition of "shear strength"? Plascore AS9100 and ISO-9001 Certificate "Plascore receives awards from CERN ... Plascore honeycomb is designed to increase shear strength while adding minimal additional weight. Plascore is a global ... where it allows boat designers to add strength to hull manufacturing and also save weight, for example by using thin layers of ...
Bhimaseni - focuses on sheer strength. In Sanskrit, mallayuddha literally translates to "wrestling combat". Strictly speaking, ... Hanuman, a Ramayana character, is worshipped as the patron of wrestlers and general feats of strength. The Mahabharata epic ... Matches were traditionally codified into four types which progressed from purely sportive contests of strength to actual full- ... size and strength. It also outlines how the wrestlers were to exercise and what they were to eat. In particular the king was ...
... has very good shear strength as a block. Lateral load involves sideways force - the wind load on the entire area of ... However, its strength in model structures has been proven, and homes and small commercial buildings are being constructed. ... Dried papercrete has very low strength, but fails by slow compression (due to the large air content and hence compressibility) ... Papercrete was also tested for its tensile strength. Fuller noted that a papercrete block was the equivalent of hundred of ...
Shear force is significantly impacted by drainage conditions. Increasing water content would lead to a weaker shear strength, ... the cohesion of a soil is defined as the shear strength at zero normal pressure on the surface of failure. The shear force is a ... Active pore water pressure can reduce the shear strength by up to 60% and lower cohesion through leaching and eluviation. The ... Huang, Kun; Wan, J.-W; Chen, G.; Zeng, Y. (2012-09-01). "Testing study of relationship between water content and shear strength ...
Burland, J. B. (1990). "On the compressibility and shear strength of natural clays". Géotechnique. 40 (3): 329-378. doi:10.1680 ... "On the compressibility and shear strength of natural clays". Moreover, he was awarded the Institution of Structural Engineers ...
Equivalent rate of rotation when measuring the undrained shear strength using the mini shear vane test. A summary of different ... Furthermore, the undrained shear strength for each one of those measured water content can be computed as proposed by Hansbo: c ... Hansbo, S (1957). "A new approach to the determination of the shear strength of clay by the fall cone test". R. Swed. Geotech. ... Other advantages of the fall cone test include the alternative to estimate the undrained shear strength of a soil based on the ...
Burland, J. B. (1990). "On the compressibility and shear strength of natural clays". Géotechnique. 40 (3): 329-378. doi:10.1680 ... Hoek, E. (1984). "Strength of jointed rock masses". Géotechnique. 34 (3): 187-223. doi:10.1680/geot.1983.33.3.187. Wroth, C.P ... Bishop, A. W. (1966). "The Strength of Soils as Engineering Materials". Géotechnique. 16 (2): 91-130. doi:10.1680/geot.1966.16. ...
"By sheer strength the Tarheels won". The State. October 27, 1905. Retrieved January 22, 2022 - via Newspapers.com. "A. & M. ...
"By sheer strength the Tarheels won". The State. October 27, 1905. Retrieved January 22, 2022 - via Newspapers.com. "Six to four ...
Its strength is its sheer simplicity. Any band would give their eye teeth to have a hit record like that. I'm very proud of it ... The song appeared in Get Real (1998) directed by Simon Shore, screenplay by Patrick Wilde. After its use in Four Weddings and a ...
To seal together tissues the human body uses collagen and elastin to obtain superior shear strength. Type I collagen which ... Sierra, David H.; Feldman, Dale S.; Saltz, Renato; Huang, Shu (1992). "A method to determine shear adhesive strength of fibrin ... had shear strength of only 17.6 kiloPascals. Furthermore, another study performed at the University of California determined ...
Shear strength is assumed to be equal to σ/2. The following equations need to be adjusted if the shear strength is greater than ... However, α=45° will be stronger than α=90° if shear strength is greater than σ/2. The joint is strongest between these two ... The second equation accounts for failure in shear. Some special angles should be noted or the graphs of two equations should be ... The plain scarf is not preferred when strength is required, so it is often used in decorative situations, such as the ...
The polymer should exhibit sufficient peel, shear and tensile strengths. The polymer should be readily available and should not ...
This assumes that yield occurs when the shear stress τ {\displaystyle \tau \!} exceeds the shear yield strength τ y {\ ... If the uniaxial tensile strength of the material is σ t {\displaystyle \sigma _{t}} and the uniaxial compressive strength is σ ... Structural failure Strength of materials Ultimate failure Damage mechanics Size effect on structural strength Concrete fracture ... the prediction of the ultimate failure strength of a ductile material. Several models for predicting the ultimate strength have ...
These van reduce the shear strength of silty and clay soils. A sudden, large release may temporarily reduce water density ... Ch 4.3 Minimum yield strength Minimum ultimate strength Minimum elongation at rupture Notch toughness at low temperatures ... In-place strength may be greater than conventional sampling methods indicate, and sampling methods may not recover and identify ... This system is commonly used in bridge construction.: Ch 4.4.2 Special shear connectors in the form of transverse bars or ...
The bonded materials typically exhibit excellent shear and tensile strength, but poor peel strength. In a fusion bond, either ... The resultant bond exhibits excellent tensile strength, but poor peel and shear strength. Resistance seam welding is a process ... While the shear strength of each weld is high, the fact that the weld spots do not form a continuous seam means that the ... When high strength in shear is needed, spot welding is used in preference to more costly mechanical fastening, such as riveting ...
Frenzel, Michael; Curbach, Manfred (26 October 2017). "Shear strength of concrete interfaces with infra-lightweight and foam ... Curbach produced significant results on the multiaxial loading of concrete, especially ultra-high-strength concrete, and built ... made of high-strength fine concrete and high-performance fibres (made of different materials such as alkali-resistant glass, ...
Shear modulus Shear stress Shear strain Shear strength (soil) Shear strength (Discontinuity) Strength of materials Tensile ... and shear strengths: USS: Ultimate Shear Strength, UTS: Ultimate Tensile Strength, SYS: Shear Yield Stress, TYS: Tensile Yield ... "Shear Strength of Metals". www.roymech.org. "Shear Strength - Instron". www.instron.us. Archived from the original on 2020-02- ... In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure when ...
An analytical model for estimating shear and bending stresses during canning of cordierite ceramic catalyst supports is ... Shear Strength of Cordierite Ceramic Catalyst Supports 2001-01-0935. An analytical model for estimating shear and bending ... If these stresses approach the corresponding strength of substrate, a shear crack may develop during or after the canning ... A special test fixture was developed to measure the shear strength of ceramic catalyst supports, with different cell sizes, ...
Test method for shear impact strength of adhesive bonds ... Adhesives - Test method for shear impact strength of adhesive ...
... Angle (Phi b). By specifying an Unsaturated Shear Strength Angle (Phi b) for a material, the shear ... The Unsaturated Shear Strength option in the Strength tab of the Material Properties dialog is only enabled if the Failure ... Unsaturated Shear Strength. After a finite element seepage analysis has been computed in RS3, the resulting pore pressure ... The Unsaturated Shear Strength Angle is usually not a well known quantity. To obtain an appreciation of its importance, a ...
We demonstrate a technique for determining the intrinsic shear strength and strain of thin films using a nano-cutting technique ... a shear strength of approximately 310 MPa with a shear strain of 1.57 for the electroplated Cu film and a shear strength of 389 ... Measurement of Shear Strengths of Cu Films Using Precise Chip Forming Materials (Basel). 2022 Jan 26;15(3):948. doi: 10.3390/ ... We demonstrate a technique for determining the intrinsic shear strength and strain of thin films using a nano-cutting technique ...
Significance and Use 5.1 Determination of shear strength of a rock specimen is an important aspect in the design of structures ... During the test, shear strength is determined at various applied stresses normal to the sheared plane and at various shear ... Relationships derived from the test data include shear strength versus normal stress and shear stress versus shear displacement ... shear strength is derived from a combination base material friction and overriding of asperities (dilatancy), shearing or ...
Undrained and Drained Shear strength for the same clay layer. Undrained and Drained Shear strength for the same clay layer. ... Undrained and Drained Shear strength for the same clay layer. marc2016 (Geotechnical). 17 Mar 16 17:16. Use undrained strength ... RE: Undrained and Drained Shear strength for the same clay layer. ntschwanz (Geotechnical). 28 Jan 16 18:21. You probably want ... RE: Undrained and Drained Shear strength for the same clay layer. moe333 (Geotechnical). 26 Feb 16 21:00. I think you need to ...
The undrained shear strength was found to have a normalized shear strength ([tau]peak/[sigma]c) of about 1.0 for specimens ... Specimens consolidated to 500 psf resulted in a normalized shear strength ([tau]peak/[sigma]c) of greater than 2.0. It is ... ACCESS RESTRICTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI AT AUTHORS REQUEST.] Shear strength parameters of flue gas desulfurization ( ... The effective strength (drained strength) envelope for the compacted FGD resulted in an effective stress friction angle of 34 ...
Shear strength. INTRODUCTION. The longevity of restorations and their bond strength depends on the extent of polymerized resin ... deviations of shear bond strength (MPa) in all groups. Treatment. Adhesive system. Mean ± Std. deviation. ... Shear bond strength (MPa) was tested by a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020, Germany), and the data were ... How to cite this article Sharafeddin F, Safari M. Effect of Papain and Bromelain Enzymes on Shear Bond Strength of Composite to ...
Finite Element Analysis on Shear Strength of Cold-Formed Steel Shear Walls Using Corrugated Sheet Sheathing. Cold-formed steel ... Finite Element Analysis on Shear Strength of Cold-Formed Steel Shear Walls Using Corrugated Sheet Sheathing ... In this paper, Finite element models of cold-formed steel framed shear walls sheathed by corrugated steel sheets were created ... indicated that the proposed numerical model was able to accurately predict the shear resistance of cold-formed steel shear ...
Effect of uncertainties in geometry, inter-layer boundary and shear strength properties on the probabilistic stability of a 3D ... Effect of uncertainties in geometry, inter-layer boundary and shear strength properties on the probabilistic stability of a 3D ... and 3D spatial variability in the shear strength properties of the slope and foundation materials. The relative influence of ...
This study focuses on the evaluation of the horizontal shear strength across a broom finished interface. Experiments were ... This finding is limited to situations where the nominal average shear stress does not exceed 115 psi. A minimum of 4 shear ... Specimens 1 and 5 had no shear connectors and specimens 2, 3 and 6 had four shear connectors across the interface. Specimen 4 ... The performance of this type of deck as a composite unit is only possible if the horizontal shear stress resulting from bending ...
"دانلود و دریافت مقاله The Effect of Steel Fiber on Shear Behavior of R.C. Beams Made of High Strength Concret ... The Effect of Steel Fiber on Shear Behavior of R.C. Beams Made of High Strength Concret. محل انتشار: دومین کنفرانس بین المللی ... In this research the effect of short and corrugated steel fiber with low strength on the shear behavior and cracking moment of ... The Effect of Steel Fiber on Shear Behavior of R.C. Beams Made of High Strength Concret ...
... where it will quickly lose strength. It is no longer expected to reach Baja. Sadly, its now being reported that 58 people are ... Wednesday night update (8:50 p.m.): Manuel achieved hurricane strength Wednesday afternoon but its projected path is now ... Tropical storm Manuel gains strength, takes aim toward Baja Californias eastern shore ... has gained strength and will take aim toward Baja Californias eastern shore. ...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of an added flocculant on the flow behavior and undrained shear strength ... Flow table tests and vane shear strength tests were performed to investigate the influence of the background solution type on ... The specimens were consolidated in columns over a range of low stresses to create soft, relatively low strength specimens. ... The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of an added flocculant on the flow behavior and undrained shear strength ...
Does metal corrugated roofing have the sheer strength that is needed? Is there perhaps fastners that are specifically made for ...
Shear bond strength was measured by Zwick machine with crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test with p. ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of SSC to composite resin using different surface treatments and ... No significant difference was observed in mean shear bond strength of composite among the three kinds of adhesives (P>0.05). ... The effect of different surface treatments of stainless steel crown and different bonding agents on shear bond strength of ...
Strength properties can then be normalized by the augmented consolidation stress, (p′c+p′ r). 3) The shear strength properties ... Strength properties can then be normalized by the augmented consolidation stress, (p′c+p′ r). 3) The shear strength properties ... Strength properties can then be normalized by the augmented consolidation stress, (p′c+p′ r). 3) The shear strength properties ... Strength properties can then be normalized by the augmented consolidation stress, (p′c+p′ r). 3) The shear strength properties ...
title = "HDPE geomembrane/geotextile interface shear strength",. abstract = "This paper describes torsional ring shear tests on ... HDPE geomembrane/geotextile interface shear strength. / Stark, Timothy D.; Williamson, Thomas A.; Eid, Hisham T. In: Journal of ... Stark, T. D., Williamson, T. A., & Eid, H. T. (1996). HDPE geomembrane/geotextile interface shear strength. Journal of ... Stark, Timothy D. ; Williamson, Thomas A. ; Eid, Hisham T. / HDPE geomembrane/geotextile interface shear strength. In: Journal ...
P S = p s A s. where: p s is the shear strength of the bolt A s is the shear area of the bolt. When no shear strength is given ... Shear strengths of bolts by diameter. Program to calculate the thread stripping strength, shear strength of the thread in ... The shear strength of a metal bolt is approximately 0.6 times its tensile strength. From the table at right, for a strength ... tensile strength is 150,000 lbs per square inch ultimate shear strength When the bolt is subjected to shear load, also use a ...
... also known as a shear vane apparatus, tests the stability of the athletic field turfgrass root system with a scientifically- ... Measure shear strength on professional playing fields before the game with the Turf-Tec shear strength tester. Made in the USA ... The Turf-Tec Shear Strength Tester, also known as a shear vane apparatus, tests the stability of the athletic field turfgrass ... Must Purchase 1 for Shear Strength Tester The cart will thereforce automatically set Qty to 1 when you order this product ...
... shear strength test, shear strength testing, shear strength testing machine, shear test ... Direct Shear Test The shear test is conducted to measure the shear strength of the material. Shear strength test comes under ... Filed Under: Material Science, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Tagged With: direct shear test apparatus, direct shear test lab report, ... How the Direct Shear Test is conducted?. September 9, 2018. by Sundar Leave a Comment ...
Shear bond strength of brackets bonded to amalgam with different intermediate resins and adhesives ... The aims of this study were to compare, in vitro, the shear bond strength (SBS) of stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded ...
Direct shear test or Box shear test is used to determine the shear strength of the soil.It is more suitable for cohesionless ... As thinner specimens are used in shear box, they facilitate drainage of pore water from a saturated sample in less time. This ... Direct shear test is simple and faster to operate. ... Direct Shear Test is calculated as. Shear Stress(τ) = =. H. o. ... A Direct shear test is a laboratory or field test used by geotechnical engineers to measure the shear strength properties of ...
MORAIS, Danielle Rodrigues et al. Shear bond strength of brackets bonded with nanofilled flowable resins. RSBO (Online) [online ... Introduction and Objective : To evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets fixed with different materials (two light-cured ... the specimens were submitted to shear bond strength test at 0.5 mm/min and evaluated for adhesive remnant index (ARI). The data ...
Rigid cellular plastics - Determination of shear strength
Remoulded Undrained Shear Strength. The magnitude of the shear stress that a disturbed soil can sustain in an undrained ...
Home > Ordnance Documents and other related manuals > > Figure 1. Tensile, Shear, and Compressive Strength: Malleability: ...
Comparison of the Microleakage and Shear Bond Strength to Dentine of Different Tricalcium Silicate-based Pulp Capping Materials ... Microleakage and Shear Bond Strength of Biodentine at Different Setting Time. Yong Ho Song, Nanyoung Lee, Sangho Lee, ... Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Various Orthodontic Bracket Bonding Agents2022 August;49(3) ... An Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of New Dentin Bonding Agents2017 August;44(3) ...
... exhibit a higher peak strength which quickly devolves to a residual strength after reaching a threshold shear displacement; (2 ... Influence of fracture roughness on shear strength, slip stability and permeability: A mechanistic analysis by three-dimensional ... A shearing apparatus was used in conjunction with a Hassler-style core holder to incrementally shear fractured shale cores ... DOE PAGES® Journal Article: Design and implementation of a shearing apparatus for the experimental study of shear displacement ...
  • Average shear stress can also be defined as the total force of V {\displaystyle V} as V = ∫ τ d A {\displaystyle V=\int \tau dA} This is only the average stress, actual stress distribution is not uniform. (wikipedia.org)
  • This finding is limited to situations where the nominal average shear stress does not exceed 115 psi. (purdue.edu)
  • Tests have shown that the average shear stress at failure decreases as the size of the cross section increases [5] (size effect). (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • An analytical model for estimating shear and bending stresses during canning of cordierite ceramic catalyst supports is presented. (sae.org)
  • The model helps relate shear and bending stresses to substrate size and orientation, elastic modulii, cell size and wall porosity. (sae.org)
  • If these stresses approach the corresponding strength of substrate, a shear crack may develop during or after the canning process depending on the magnitude of stress. (sae.org)
  • The shear and bending stresses at failure, as predicted by the model, were compared with the measured values. (sae.org)
  • The model should prove valuable in optimizing the packaging system such that the shear and bending stresses during canning are kept below the threshold limit of substrate. (sae.org)
  • 1) from volume changes such as loading from the dam trying to consolidate the underlying clay as evidenced by the bulbs of pressue, and (2) from shear or shape change, such as shear stresses that develop due to the loading. (eng-tips.com)
  • Keep in mind that you don't need to reach failure to develop shear stress, the shear stresses throughout the foundation change as the embankment is constructed. (eng-tips.com)
  • Compacted FGD specimens were consolidated to three different confining stresses (500 pounds per square foot (psf), 3000 psf, 6000 psf) then sheared at a deformation rate of 0.0002 inches per minute while the specimens' volume was maintained constant. (umsystem.edu)
  • During the constant volume shearing stage, increases in effective normal stresses were observed indicating that the compacted and consolidated FGD specimens were trying to dilate which would generate negative pore water pressure when sheared under truly undrained conditions. (umsystem.edu)
  • It is assumed that horizontal shear stresses are transmitted across the interface due to bond between the precast panel and cast-in-place concrete acting in conjunction with the horizontal shear connectors provided across the interface. (purdue.edu)
  • The specimens were consolidated in columns over a range of low stresses to create soft, relatively low strength specimens. (tennessee.edu)
  • At high normal stresses, the strength loss can be caused by damage to or removal of the texturing on the geomembrane surface. (illinois.edu)
  • therefore, postbuckling shear strength solely results from the development of tensile stresses within a defined diagonal tension field. (princeton.edu)
  • This test method does not produce pure shear, but the specimen length is prescribed so that the secondary stresses have a minimum effect. (astm.org)
  • In terms of strength, it is the point at which the strength of the soil deviates from its saturated effective Mohr-Coulomb behavior. (rocscience.com)
  • In this research the effect of short and corrugated steel fiber with low strength on the shear behavior and cracking moment of concrete beams made of high strength concrete were investigated. (civilica.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of an added flocculant on the flow behavior and undrained shear strength of fine coal refuse (FCR) from an active impoundment in eastern Kentucky. (tennessee.edu)
  • Flow table tests and vane shear strength tests were performed to investigate the influence of the background solution type on the flow behavior and undrained shear strength. (tennessee.edu)
  • Jedari, C., Palomino, A.M., and Drumm, E.C. (2020), Data in support of "Influence of Flocculant on Flow Behavior and Undrained Shear Strength of Fine Coal Refuse", Fuel, accepted for publication 06 October 2020. (tennessee.edu)
  • By integrating this modified core holder with a computed tomography scanner, we show a new methodology for understanding the interdependent behavior between fracture structure and flow properties during intermediate steps in shearing. (osti.gov)
  • Difficult questions have emerged: Is the behavior of members with or without shear reinforcement similar enough that they can be analyzed with the same model? (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • The beam slenderness is closely related to the member behavior, and it plays a role in determining the failure mode of shear-critical elements. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • Essential concepts of shear stress-displacement behavior and shear strength interpretation are presented, including long-term performance issues, followed by detailed discussions on the laboratory measurement of the shear strength of GCLs and GCL interfaces. (psu.edu)
  • Conclusions are drawn with regard to GCL shear strength behavior and current GCL strength testing practice, improvements for GCL strength testing and reporting are suggested, and future research needs are identified. (psu.edu)
  • 1.1 This test method establishes requirements and laboratory procedures for performing direct shear strength tests on rock specimens under a constant normal load. (astm.org)
  • It includes procedures for both intact rock strength and sliding friction tests, which can be performed on specimens that are homogeneous, or have planes of weakness, including natural or artificial discontinuities. (astm.org)
  • Shear strength parameters of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge were investigated by conducting a series of constant volume direct simple shear tests on FGD specimens compacted using standard Proctor energy. (umsystem.edu)
  • Results from the consolidation tests indicated that the FGD specimens used in performing the direct simple shear tests completed primary consolidation in a very short time. (umsystem.edu)
  • The undrained shear strength was found to have a normalized shear strength ([tau]peak/[sigma]c) of about 1.0 for specimens consolidated to 3000 psf or greater. (umsystem.edu)
  • Specimens consolidated to 500 psf resulted in a normalized shear strength ([tau]peak/[sigma]c) of greater than 2.0. (umsystem.edu)
  • Specimens 1 and 5 had no shear connectors and specimens 2, 3 and 6 had four shear connectors across the interface. (purdue.edu)
  • A comparison of the performance of the specimens in this study with and without shear connectors indicates that specimens with four shear connectors were stiffer near failure load. (purdue.edu)
  • In order to evaluate the effects of cementation on the mechanical properties of cement-treated soil, a series of isotropic consolidation and undrained triaxial compression shear tests were performed for cement-treated specimens of Ariake clay, Akita sand, Rokko Masado and Toyoura sand. (elsevierpure.com)
  • After, the specimens were submitted to shear bond strength test at 0.5 mm/min and evaluated for adhesive remnant index (ARI). (bvsalud.org)
  • Then specimens were stressed in shear at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min until the bond failed. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • Group OVF specimens produced the highest mean shear bond strength. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • All specimens were aged for 24 h and thermocycled (5000 cycles, 5-55 °C). Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured (MPa) and data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA , Tukey, and Weibull moduli estimation (α = 0.05). (bvsalud.org)
  • No significant difference was observed in mean shear bond strength of composite among the three kinds of adhesives (P>0.05). (ac.ir)
  • The aim of this study was to compare different dentin treatments and adhesive systems on shear bond strength (SBS) of composite to superficial dentin. (thejcdp.com)
  • Application of adhesive systems and dentin treatment can influence the bond strength. (thejcdp.com)
  • This can occur when the applied shear stress exceeds the strength of the adhesive bond, causing the two materials to separate. (physicsforums.com)
  • Shear failure of adhered polystyrene can be caused by a variety of factors, including improper surface preparation, inadequate adhesive selection, or excessive shear stress from external forces. (physicsforums.com)
  • To prevent shear failure of adhered polystyrene, it is important to carefully select the appropriate adhesive and ensure proper surface preparation. (physicsforums.com)
  • Bond strength is mostly affected by the porcelain type, surface conditioning, bracket material and retention mode, properties of the bonding adhesive, the light-curing source, as well as the skill of the clinician (3, 4). (docksci.com)
  • This test method provides an estimate of the shear strength of an adhesive on various machinable and nonmachinable substrate materials. (tensomax.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate dentin bond strength and microleakage of a self-adhering flowable resin with or without adhesive resin. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • Self-adhering flowable composite resin combined with adhesive resin provided stronger dentin bond strength and a better marginal seal than when it was used individually. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • New adhesive protocol improves shear bond strength of Polyetherketoneketone (PEKK). (bvsalud.org)
  • The use of the silane agent in a separate step presents better bonding strength results when compared to the universal type adhesive system with silane incorporated in the formula. (bvsalud.org)
  • This paper evaluates factors affecting the shear strength of these cement-treated soils. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Also, draw shear and moment diagrams, specifying values at all change of loading positions and at points of zero shear. (mathalino.com)
  • Give numerical values at all change of loading positions and at all points of zero shear. (mathalino.com)
  • 5.1 Determination of shear strength of a rock specimen is an important aspect in the design of structures such as rock slopes, dam foundations, tunnels, shafts, waste repositories, caverns for storage, and other purposes. (astm.org)
  • 5.3 Using this test method to determine the shear strength of an intact specimen may generate overturning moments which could result in an inclined shear break. (astm.org)
  • Specimen 4 had four shear connectors and the top of the precast panel was sprayed with a bond breaking agent (form oil) to eliminate chemical bonding between the precast panel and cast-in-place concrete topping. (purdue.edu)
  • The shear box withthe specimen, plain grid plate over the base plate at the bottom of the specimen and plain grid plate at the top of the specimen should be fitted into position in the load frame. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • The rate of shear should be such that water does not drain from the specimen at the time of application of the shear load. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • 1.1 These test methods determine the shear properties of structural panels associated with shear distortion of the planes parallel to the edge planes of the panels. (astm.org)
  • In general: ductile materials (e.g. aluminum) fail in shear, whereas brittle materials (e.g. cast iron) fail in tension. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stress will only be a function of the thermal expansion of the aluminum and the shear strength of the foam.In summary, the previous engineer did not consider the thermal expansion difference between the foam and the metal panels, and the foam has begun to fail in shear. (physicsforums.com)
  • The problem is that the previous engineer did not consider the difference in thermal expansion between the foam and the aluminum, and the foam has begun to fail in shear, and detach from the metal panels. (physicsforums.com)
  • The embankment loading is attempting to cause both volume changes and shear changes even beyond the 0.1 pressure bulb. (eng-tips.com)
  • Color changes and shear bond s. (siu.edu.ar)
  • The Turf-Tec Shear Strength Tester, also known as a shear vane apparatus, tests the stability of the athletic field turfgrass root system with a scientifically-tested shear vane foot. (tigersupplies.com)
  • We present an experimental apparatus based on slight modifications to a commonly available Hassler core holder that allows for shearing of rocks, while measuring the hydraulic and mechanical changes to geomaterials during intermediate steps. (osti.gov)
  • article{osti_1491099, title = {Design and implementation of a shearing apparatus for the experimental study of shear displacement in rocks}, author = {Moore, Johnathan and Crandall, Dustin and Gill, Magdalena and Brown, Sarah and Tennant, Bryan}, abstractNote = {Fluid flow in the subsurface is not well understood in the context of "impermeable" geologic media. (osti.gov)
  • In situ direct shear testing limits the inherent scale effects found in rock mechanics problems where the laboratory scale may not be representative of the field scale. (astm.org)
  • How the Direct Shear Test is conducted? (extrudesign.com)
  • In the previous tutorial, we have discussed the list of Material Testing Methods, and in this tutorial, we are going to discuss how to conduct the Direct Shear Test. (extrudesign.com)
  • Direct Shear Test The shear test is conducted to measure the shear strength of the material. (extrudesign.com)
  • A Direct shear test is a laboratory or field test used by geotechnical engineers to measure the shear strength properties of soil or rock material, or of discontinuities in soil or rock masses. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • The origins of shear strength are reviewed in the context of direct shear testing of rock discontinuities. (onepetro.org)
  • One option is to carry out direct shear tests on small samples even though it is generally recognised that these may be unrepresentative of the discontinuities in the field, particularly with respect to roughness. (onepetro.org)
  • Reported direct shear test data tend to show the same general trends of increasing shear strength with increasing roughness, especially at low normal stress levels, but often little consistency in the results achieved. (onepetro.org)
  • It is apparent that currently many geotechnical engineers consider direct shear tests on rock discontinuities to be of limited use for providing reliable design parameters. (onepetro.org)
  • Horizontal Shear Strength of Bridge Deck P" by Phani Kumar Nukala, J. A. Ramirez et al. (purdue.edu)
  • The performance of this type of deck as a composite unit is only possible if the horizontal shear stress resulting from bending of the deck if effectively transferred across the interface of the two elements. (purdue.edu)
  • This study focuses on the evaluation of the horizontal shear strength across a broom finished interface. (purdue.edu)
  • The test may now be conducted by applying horizontal shear load to failure or to 20 percent longitudinal displacement, whichever occurs first. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • This test method has been used to develop shear properties of plywood and oriented strand board for the purpose of confirming design values. (astm.org)
  • As a very rough guide relating tensile, yield, and shear strengths: USS: Ultimate Shear Strength, UTS: Ultimate Tensile Strength, SYS: Shear Yield Stress, TYS: Tensile Yield Stress There are no published standard values for shear strength like with tensile and yield strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you're interested in the force required to break the bolt, simply substitute the Ultimate Shear Strength for Yield Shear Strength. (hialuronic.ro)
  • Thus, it is not rare to find a slenderness ratio as an input parameter in shear strength equations. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • Write shear and moment equations for the beams in the following problems. (mathalino.com)
  • Without writing shear and moment equations, draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beams specified in the following problems. (mathalino.com)
  • The aims of this study were to compare, in vitro, the shear bond strength (SBS) of stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded to silver amalgam with the use of three different intermediate resins and two different adhesives, and to evaluate bond failure mode. (itu.edu.tr)
  • Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconium Crowns. (docksci.com)
  • The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP) complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strengths (SBSs) of orthodontic brackets. (apospublications.com)
  • For shear stress τ {\displaystyle \tau } applies τ = σ 1 − σ 3 2 , {\displaystyle \tau ={\frac {\sigma _{1}-\sigma _{3}}{2}},} where σ 1 {\displaystyle \sigma _{1}} is major principal stress and σ 3 {\displaystyle \sigma _{3}} is minor principal stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • In real world applications, this equation only gives an approximation and the maximum shear stress would be higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stress is not often equally distributed across a part so the shear strength would need to be higher to account for the estimate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shear modulus Shear stress Shear strain Shear strength (soil) Shear strength (Discontinuity) Strength of materials Tensile strength Hibbeler, Russell (9 November 2017). (wikipedia.org)
  • Now you have positive PP's develop due to overall stress increase and positive PP's that develop due to shear, so your analysis would represent the clay using undrained shear strengths throughout the clay foundation. (eng-tips.com)
  • You will also want to complete an effective stress analysis using drained strengths and seepage forces. (eng-tips.com)
  • The shear stress in the clay, beyond the pressure bulbs shown in your example, is increasing and as the shear stress increases one would expect the PP to increase (for your normally consolidated clay). (eng-tips.com)
  • The effective strength (drained strength) envelope for the compacted FGD resulted in an effective stress friction angle of 34 degrees and effective stress cohesion intercept of zero. (umsystem.edu)
  • It is hypothesized that the higher effective confining stress may destroy some bonding in the compacted FGD thereby lowering the undrained shear strength. (umsystem.edu)
  • 2) Changes in cohesive strength due to cement-treatment can be represented by a tensile effective stress, p′ r . (elsevierpure.com)
  • Metric bolt grades and strength calculator to show proof strength, tensile strength, Vickers / Brinell hardness, minimum breaking torque and stress area of metric bolts and screws made of carbon steel and alloy steel with designations 4.6, 4.8, 5.8, 8.8, 9.8, 10.9 and 12.9. (hialuronic.ro)
  • The shear stress or strain can be applied in the dividing plane of the two parts of the shear box. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • The required normal stress should be applied and the rate of longitudinal displacement/shear stress application so adjusted that no drainage can occur in the sample during the test. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • The shear test should be conducted only after complete consolidation has occurred under the particular normal stress. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • Consolidated Drained Test The shear box with sample and perforated grid plates and porous stones should be fitted into the load frame After application of normal stress, which is done in increments, the sample should be allowed to consolidate. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • The magnitude of the shear stress that a disturbed soil can sustain in an undrained condition. (iadclexicon.org)
  • When the pressure regime is altered, these formations, which are often already fractured, move via shear to reduce the imbalance in the stress state. (osti.gov)
  • 1.3.5 Test Method B, Planar Shear Induced by Five Point Bending -Planar shear stress is induced on the panel while loaded in bending using two continuous spans. (astm.org)
  • Basically what I have done is set the thermal stress due to restricting thermal expansion (σ=EαdT) equal to the shear strength of the styrofoam (452kPa) and solved for the dT. (physicsforums.com)
  • The only thing I can think of is that I can't directly use the thermal stress due to restriction of thermal expansion directly as a shear force. (physicsforums.com)
  • The thermal stress (σ) value will then be compared to the shear strength of the Styrofoam SM. (physicsforums.com)
  • The thermal stress (σ) will then be set to the shear strength (F_v) of Styrofoam SM in order to find the minimum temperature differential which shearing in the Styrofoam SM will occur. (physicsforums.com)
  • Rather then calculating the shear stress in the foam, I calculated the force exerted to the aluminum layer BY the resistance of thermal expansion of the foam. (physicsforums.com)
  • Shear failure of adhered polystyrene refers to the failure of the bond between polystyrene and aluminum due to shear stress. (physicsforums.com)
  • A series of parametric analysis were then conducted, including the thickness of framing members, cross section of stud members, yield strength of frame members, stud spacing, and the influence of gravity load. (aisc.org)
  • Yield Strength (MPa) Min. (hialuronic.ro)
  • The test results indicated that shear connectors are not required to achieve adequate composite action at service and ultimate load levels in panels with broom finished top surface. (purdue.edu)
  • Ajami B, Ghavam Nassiri M, Noorbakhsh F. The effect of different surface treatments of stainless steel crown and different bonding agents on shear bond strength of direct composite resin veneer. (ac.ir)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of SSC to composite resin using different surface treatments and adhesives. (ac.ir)
  • The purposes of this study were to evaluate microleakage of Biodentine, one of the tricalcium silicate based pulp-capping materials, and to compare the shear bond strength between composite resin and Biodentine with different setting times. (kapd.org)
  • In samples with setting time of 24 hours or longer period, the microleakage between composite resin and Biodentine was reduced significantly while the shear bond strength increased to offset the polymerization shrinkage of the composite resin. (kapd.org)
  • In this study, electroplated Cu films with thicknesses of 1.5 μm and 5 μm and a sputtered Cu film with a thickness of 130 nm were fabricated to evaluate the mechanical strength. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets fixed with different materials (two light-cured nanofilled low-viscosity resins - Transbond Supreme LV and Flow Tain LV and two light-cured traditional resins - Transbond XT and Transbond Plus Color Change) after 10 min and 24 h, and to evaluate the type of failure. (bvsalud.org)
  • To evaluate shear bond strength, 210 acrylic resin blocks with central grooves were prepared, and the grooves were filled with Biodentine. (kapd.org)
  • As a result, comparison of the data shows the shear wave velocity is a suitable index to evaluate the degree of soil improvement the grouted silty sand at the site. (ac.ir)
  • Open-pit mines are deeper than ever before, and because rock mass strength at these large scales is difficult to evaluate, massive slope failure can occur with little warning. (cdc.gov)
  • Both shear strength and modulus of rigidity may be determined. (astm.org)
  • The method determines shear strength and modulus of rigidity. (astm.org)
  • 6] M. Mollamahmutoglu, Y. Yilmaz, Pre-and post-cyclic loading strength of silica-grouted sand, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers[1]Geotechnical Engineering, 163(6) (2010) 343-348. (ac.ir)
  • 12]] I. Nouri Delavar, R. Noorzad, Drained shear strength parameters of silty sand grouted by colloidal silica, International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, (2017) 1-8. (ac.ir)
  • 16]R. Salgado, P. Bandini, A. Karim, Shear strength and stiffness of silty sand, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 126(5) (2000) 451-462. (ac.ir)
  • Finite-element analyses have found this fundamental assumption to be invalid and a new theory (compression theory) was proposed that bases the development of postbuckling shear strength mostly on the compressive response of the plate (tension plays a secondary role). (princeton.edu)
  • This paper shows that compression theory can predict the ultimate postbuckling shear strength of steel web plates up to temperatures of 1,100°C. This finding is significant because steel plate girders subjected to fire loading are highly susceptible to web shear buckling. (princeton.edu)
  • Experimentally validated finite-element models are used to develop temperature-dependent multiplicative parameters to permit the use of compression theory to calculate ultimate postbuckling shear strength at elevated temperatures. (princeton.edu)
  • Comparisons with published experimental data show that predictions of ultimate postbuckling shear strength from compression theory closely agree with the literature. (princeton.edu)
  • Epiphyseal injuries are usually due to shearing and avulsion forces, although compression also plays a significant role. (medscape.com)
  • In this paper, Finite element models of cold-formed steel framed shear walls sheathed by corrugated steel sheets were created in Abaqus software. (aisc.org)
  • In structural and mechanical engineering, the shear strength of a component is important for designing the dimensions and materials to be used for the manufacture or construction of the component (e.g. beams, plates, or bolts). (wikipedia.org)
  • For metric bolts strength is according ISO 898 Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel described by "property classes" with designations 4.6, 4.8, 5.8, 8.8, 9.8, 10.9 and 12.9. (hialuronic.ro)
  • Here, we include a case study of this device function which is shown here through shearing of a fractured shale core and simultaneous observation of the mechanical changes and evolution of the hydraulic properties during shearing. (osti.gov)
  • To obtain an appreciation of its importance, a parametric study can be carried out, in which the Unsaturated Shear Strength Angle is varied between 0 and the Friction Angle of the material. (rocscience.com)
  • If matric suction exceeds the air entry value, the strength is assumed to follow a linear envelope with Phi_b as the friction angle. (rocscience.com)
  • 5.2 For nonplanar joints or discontinuities, shear strength is derived from a combination base material friction and overriding of asperities (dilatancy), shearing or breaking of the asperities, and rotations at or wedging of the asperities. (astm.org)
  • No vibrations should be transmitted to the sample during the test and there should not be any loss of shear force due to friction between the loading frame and the shear box container assembly. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • In 6 beams, the concrete strength was equal to 60 MPa and in the other 6 beam, the concrete strength was equal to 90 MPa. (civilica.com)
  • The increasing of strength of concrete caused the increase of stiffness and reduction of deflection in tested beams, also by adding steel fiber in concrete, in addition to increase the ultimate strength, the ductility in the beams increase. (civilica.com)
  • in Mortar Beams Containing Fibers and Shear؛، 3. (civilica.com)
  • This study proposes a Eurocode based Strut and Tie Model (STM) to assess the shear strength of FRP reinforced deep beams without web reinforcement. (tu-dresden.de)
  • Some shear strength models use the geometric slenderness ratio, a/d, which is only directly applicable to the maximum moment and shear force for simply supported beams loaded with concentrated loads. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • Then, which are the appropriate moment and shear values for continuous beams and uniformly loaded members? (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • We demonstrate a technique for determining the intrinsic shear strength and strain of thin films using a nano-cutting technique based on an orthogonal cutting model with precise control of the cutting system. (nih.gov)
  • Experiments revealed a shear strength of approximately 310 MPa with a shear strain of 1.57 for the electroplated Cu film and a shear strength of 389 MPa with a shear strain of 2.03 for the sputtered Cu film. (nih.gov)
  • I have calculated the shear strength of the foam using the elastic strain at which it will fail. (physicsforums.com)
  • The longevity of restorations and their bond strength depends on the extent of polymerized resin infiltrating into the demineralized dentin. (thejcdp.com)
  • Shear bond strength was measured by Zwick machine with crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. (ac.ir)
  • Shear bond strength of brackets bonded t. (itu.edu.tr)
  • VF is a useful material with an acceptable bond strength and marginal seal. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • Brackets bonded with conventional technique showed greater bond strengths as compared to those bonded with SEP. (apospublications.com)
  • This test method is able to determine shear strength at any moisture condition. (astm.org)
  • 5.5 In some cases, it may be desirable to conduct tests in situ rather than in the laboratory to determine the representative shear strength of the rock mass, particularly when design is controlled by discontinuities filled with very weak material. (astm.org)
  • The shear strength of natural rock discontinuities is often difficult to predict largely because of their roughness. (onepetro.org)
  • one should use undrained shear strength for the clay layer. (eng-tips.com)
  • Will it make sense to analyze this problem using both drained and undrained shear strength of the clay? (eng-tips.com)
  • In the second case, the clay is normally consolidated so the likely tendancy is for the clay to contract during shear under drained conditions, so you would expect positive pore-water pressures (PP) to develop during shear due to the embankment loading. (eng-tips.com)
  • This paper presents a comprehensive source of information on the shear strength and shear strength testing of geosynthetic' clay liners (GCLs). (psu.edu)
  • This study reviewed 31 technical papers that analyze shear strengths for clay and sands containing rock particles. (cdc.gov)
  • However, UNBRAKO Fn = Nominal shear strength, Fv = 0.50 Fu for bolts when threads are excluded from shear planes, i.e. (hialuronic.ro)
  • Shear strength can be measured by a torsion test where it is equal to their torsional strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • A special test fixture was developed to measure the shear strength of ceramic catalyst supports, with different cell sizes, before and after the application of washcoat. (sae.org)
  • Agreement of the FEA results and test results indicated that the proposed numerical model was able to accurately predict the shear resistance of cold-formed steel shear walls with corrugated steel sheathing. (aisc.org)
  • The main parameters of the test are the amount of steel fiber, amount of longitudinal bars and the changes in the strength of concrete. (civilica.com)
  • When the consolidation has completely occured, the shear test should be done at such a slow rate so that at least 95 percent pore pressure dissipation occurred during the test in this calculated time factor. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • 1.3.1 Test Method A -Planar shear loaded by plates. (astm.org)
  • 1.3.2 Test Method B -Planar shear induced by five-point bending. (astm.org)
  • 1.3.4 Test Method A, Planar Shear Loaded by Plates -This test method uses a rectangular panel section adhered between steel plates with protruding knife edges to create load at the panel faces. (astm.org)
  • This test method determines planar shear strength consistent with panel applications under transverse loading. (astm.org)
  • It is argued that the corrected strength envelope for the test as a whole can be used to derive appropriate lower bound strength parameters for design. (onepetro.org)
  • When the bolt is subjected to shear load, also use a dowel pin. (hialuronic.ro)
  • Nevertheless, the primary resistance mechanisms have been identified [1] shear transfer through uncracked concrete, aggregate interlock along cracks, dowel action of longitudinal reinforcement, arch action for short and deep members, and amount of shear reinforcement. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • 17]F. Askari, R. Dabiri, A. Shafiee, M.K. Jafari, Liquefaction resistance of sand-silt mixtures using laboratory based shear Wave velocity, International Journal of Civil Engineering, 9(2) (2011) 135-144. (ac.ir)
  • These are: 1D spatial variability in the external geometry of the slope along its length, 2D spatial variability in the depth of the boundary between the embankment material and the foundation layer, and 3D spatial variability in the shear strength properties of the slope and foundation materials. (tudelft.nl)
  • The shear in AB is from -w o (downward w o ) to zero or increasing, thus, the slope of shear at AB is increasing (upward parabola). (mathalino.com)
  • See tensile strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, it is common for it to be estimated as 60% of the ultimate tensile strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shear strength of a metal bolt is approximately 0.6 times its tensile strength. (hialuronic.ro)
  • The above formulae are sufficient to enable the tensile strength to be calculated and to allow the depth of thread to be confirmed for a tapped hole. (hialuronic.ro)
  • In the case of a 8.8 grade bolt the first figure signifies that the Tensile Strength is at least 800MPa. (hialuronic.ro)
  • The combination of several surface treatments in the same region to be repaired produces better tensile strength. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results show that shear strength gradually increases with increasing percentages of floating particles in unsaturated clays. (cdc.gov)
  • It is known that matric suction can contribute to the shear strength of a soil. (rocscience.com)
  • This paper describes torsional ring shear tests on interfaces comprised of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes/nonwoven geotextiles and a drainage geocomposite. (illinois.edu)
  • It is assumed that the shear strength is the sum of the concrete contribution and the shear reinforcement contribution. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • Is the assumption of a 45° angle in the truss model for shear reinforcement contribution reasonably accurate? (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • Some researchers have suggested the use of an angle flatter than 45° for the shear reinforcement contribution [3,4]. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • It remains controversial whether it should be considered for members with and without shear reinforcement, or only for members without shear reinforcement. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • If I remember correctly, overconsolidated clays tend to lose their strength over time and usually drained conditions are more critical to analyze. (eng-tips.com)
  • Measure shear strength on professional playing fields before the game with the Turf-Tec shear strength tester. (tigersupplies.com)
  • Proving Ring - Force measuring of suitable capacity, fitted with a dial-gauge accurate to 0.002 mm to measure the shear force. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • Primarily, the tests measure the planar shear (rolling shear) strength developed in the plane of the panel. (astm.org)
  • We Measure Strength. (tensomax.com)
  • Fox, PJ & Stark, TD 2004, ' State-of-the-art report: GCL shear strength and its measurement ', Geosynthetics International , vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 141-175. (psu.edu)
  • In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure when the material or component fails in shear. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the table at right, for a strength class of 10.9 and a maximum allowable load of 200 kgf, the suitable bolt is a 318[kgf]M8. (hialuronic.ro)
  • I am looking for a temperature gradient which is 'allowable' before the styrofoam will shear. (physicsforums.com)
  • I'm putting together a report basically laying out the problem, and what I want to find is a temperature gradient which is 'allowable' before the styrofoam will shear. (physicsforums.com)
  • Additional strength may be allowable to account for roughness at the field scale, but as an alternative approach, it is recommended that the dilation-corrected strength be used directly for design with a lower factor of safety on shear strength than would normally be adopted. (onepetro.org)
  • 14]J. Yang, X. Liu, Shear wave velocity and stiffness of sand: the role of non[1]plastic fines, Géotechnique, (2016). (ac.ir)
  • Four textured geomembranes with three different manufacturing techniques are utilized to investigate the effect of geomembrane texturing on interface shear resistance. (illinois.edu)
  • Shear strength of concrete members has always been a complex topic, and even today, there is no widespread agreement regarding a shear resistance model. (crimsonpublishers.com)
  • Sliding on and shearing of the asperities can occur simultaneously. (astm.org)
  • F_v, then shear failure will occur. (physicsforums.com)
  • The Unsaturated Shear Strength option in the Strength tab of the Material Properties dialog is only enabled if the Failure Criterion = Mohr-Coulomb in the Material Properties dialog. (rocscience.com)
  • The shear load readings indicated by the proving ring assembly and the corresponding longitudinal displacements should be noted at regular intervals. (civil-engineering-calculators.com)
  • All results showed that the samples with 10% fine content have a greater value of shear strength parameter as shear wave velocity at 28 days curing time. (ac.ir)
  • In a reinforced concrete beam, the main purpose of reinforcing bar (rebar) stirrups is to increase the shear strength. (wikipedia.org)