Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.BangladeshDNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Tetrachloroethylene: A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Arsenic Poisoning: Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Water Pollution, RadioactiveGeobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chloroflexi: Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microbial Consortia: A group of different species of microorganisms that act together as a community.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.NebraskaSeawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Ethylene Dichlorides: Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Dichloroethylenes: Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Isopoda: One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.MiningTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Benzene DerivativesCoral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Water Resources: Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Potamogetonaceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass Alismatidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Arsenates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of arsenic acid.ChlorobenzenesEnterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.HydrocarbonsAtlantic OceanZooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Thiothrix: A genus of colorless, filamentous, rod-shaped bacteria in the family THIOTRICHACEAE, containing sulfur globules. Thiothrix species are found as components of BIOFILMS in irrigation systems and wastewater treatment plants, and in marine environments as endosymbionts.FloridaBromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)MaineComamonas: A genus of gram-negative, straight or slightly curved rods which are motile by polar flagella and which accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate within the cells.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Rhodocyclaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Rhodocyclales, class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. It includes many genera previously assigned to the family PSEUDOMONADACEAE.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Kansas
  • Finally, it was observed that invading CHSs are capable of dissolving and subsequently mobilizing in-situ soil contaminants. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • GC/MS analysis revealed these mobilized soil contaminants to be polyaromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • However, recent data from the EPA's Second Five Year Review indicates that volatile contaminants were migrating from the soil to groundwater reservoirs including reservoirs that are used for domestic water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Groundwater in the area may also contain contaminants from another nearby Superfund site (Montrose Superfund Site). (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical contaminants detected in the on-site soil included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and inorganics (e.g., arsenic, lead and heavy metals). (epa.gov)
  • If a well is not sealed properly with clay (surface seal) and a secure cover (well seal) is not fitted, contaminants such as animal droppings and runoff can enter into the groundwater. (tru.ca)
  • Bioremediation is a general term used to describe the destruction of contaminants by biological mechanisms, including microorganisms ( e.g. yeast, fungi, or bacteria), in contaminated soil and water. (cpeo.org)
  • This circulates through the contaminated groundwater zone to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of organic contaminants by naturally occurring microbes. (cpeo.org)
  • This study investigated shallow groundwater (SGW) nutrient dynamics in septic areas at the northern part of the Lower St. Johns River Basin, Florida, USA. (usda.gov)
  • Developing and applying STELLA-based models to predict woody biomass production and CO2 emission from bioenergy plantations as affected by soil nutrient and water availability as well as by hydrological and climatic conditions. (fed.us)
  • It is reflected also in a third focus of research, which has involved a succession of research students in investigation of the soil hydrological processes affecting management of salinity in irrigated land. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Here we focus on the partitioning of ET into bare soil E and plant T . Because T depends on plant processes, whereas E depends on shallow soil moisture and energy availability, these two factors respond differently to physical drivers and stress. (sciencemag.org)
  • Quantifying the role of groundwater is important, because if partitioning is tied to water table depth and lateral flow, accurate predictions of future water availability will require a more detailed understanding of the underlying processes controlling groundwater surface water interactions than are currently included in most Earth system simulators. (sciencemag.org)
  • The current landscape of the Mallee and its soils and landscape features are the result of geological processes that occurred over vast periods of geological time. (issuu.com)
  • Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Ex-situ bioremediation processes involve removing the contaminated soil or water to another location before treatment. (cpeo.org)
  • This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Interface models for fresh-salt groundwater flow. (uu.nl)
  • Maxwell and Condon incorporated dynamic groundwater flow into an integrated hydrologic model simulation for the entire United States. (sciencemag.org)
  • This suggests that lateral groundwater flow, which is generally simplified or excluded in Earth system models, may provide a missing link for reconciling observations and global models of terrestrial water fluxes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although theory to estimate and simulate evapotranspiration has evolved much over past decades ( 11 ), lateral groundwater flow has yet to be incorporated in continental-scale partitioning estimates ( 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Phosphorus leaching to groundwater is greatly increased in sandy soils with limited capacity to retain P, in soils with high P saturation, and in ditch drained soils containing preferential flow pathways [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Phosphorus sorbing materials can be applied directly to soil or manure, broadcast into ditches, or used in flow-through structures [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Finite element models utilized to simulate water and heat flow in variably saturated soil under unsteady-state condition. (springer.com)
  • Subsurface phosphorus (P) transport mechanisms appeared to be a combination of adsorption, precipitation, leaching from the soil media and through macropore flow with the latter two playing an important role in the wet season. (diva-portal.org)
  • Vertical hydraulic gradients in the island piezometers indicated the vertical component to groundwater flow was downward over the observation period. (unl.edu)
  • It is also plausible that low-flow conditions in the river facilitated upgradient denitrification by increasing groundwater residence times. (unl.edu)
  • Therefore, in this study, the thermal-mechanical properties of saline soils are systematically investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • Experimental results showed that saline soils generally have higher dry density and lower optimum moisture content at higher salt contents. (hindawi.com)
  • Jing, C. L., Z. C. Xu, P. Zou, Q. Tang, Y. Q. Li, X. W. You and C. S. Zhang (2019) Coastal halophytes alter properties and microbial community structure of the saline soils in the Yellow River Delta, China. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • The required courses ensure a sound scientific and analytical basis for professional studies through courses in solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, soil mechanics, environmental engineering, water resources management, structural analysis, systems analysis, and mathematics. (mcgill.ca)
  • For instance, in soils, environmental parameters at micro-scale are strongly correlated with the soil texture, pore space, and local topography (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • The losses in soil productivity may also be accompanied by ecological obliteration and environmental degradation of the whole area. (intechopen.com)
  • Amongst other things, more emphasis is now being placed on recycling technology to prevent the depletion of resources and to limit environmental degradation due to overloading of soil and atmosphere with residues/byproducts of chemical and physical processing industries. (intechopen.com)
  • The degradation of groundwater quality is due to human activities and the lack of environmental protection policies. (mdpi.com)
  • A multimedia approach considers all environmental compartments (such as air and soil) simultaneously, so intercompartmental transfers of TCDD are considered at the same time as the movement of TCDD within a single compartment. (nap.edu)
  • To receive news and publication updates for Applied and Environmental Soil Science, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • Because the microbes in groundwater and other environmental habitats are well adapted to life in these habitats, few of them have the ability or the need to infect and cause illness in humans and other animals. (waterencyclopedia.com)
  • The study reveals that intervention measures to improve the environmental sanitation and protect the shallow groundwater in the peri-urban settlements are of a multidisciplinary nature necessitating action research with community participation. (diva-portal.org)
  • The measured pH values are acceptable according to Moroccan standards of the quality of groundwater and which are generally between 5.5 and 8.5 (Ministry of Environment, 2002). (scirp.org)
  • The excessive salt amounts adversely affect soil physical and mechanical properties, as well as the heat transfer performance, all of which are key factors with regard to the design of geothermal-related earth structures such as geothermal energy piles (GEP), ground source heat pumps (GSHP), and earth-air tunnel heat exchangers (EATHE). (hindawi.com)
  • It becomes a clogging agent when present in amounts that can block soil pores. (ufl.edu)
  • The reduction is more pronounced with shallower water tables. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Gleysols are related to the Entisol and Inceptisol orders of the U.S. Soil Taxonomy , wherever the latter occur under waterlogged conditions sufficient to produce visual evidence of iron reduction. (britannica.com)
  • In search for practical means to adapt existing forests to the ecological challenges of warmer weather, especially to accrued potential evapotranspiration, ETp, this paper examines the effect of stand density reduction on soil water regime. (eco-web.com)
  • Shallow groundwater (0.5 m -1.2 m deep) beneath a vegetated and non-vegetated fluvial island was observed in the lower Platte River, Nebraska, USA during exceptional summer drought. (unl.edu)
  • Additionally, soil respiration likely increased as a result of increasing air temperatures and the drought-induced water table decline. (unl.edu)