Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Syphilis, Congenital: Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Syphilis, Cutaneous: Cutaneous lesions arising from infection with Treponema pallidum. In the primary stage, 18-21 days following infection, one or more chancres appear. If untreated, the subsequent stages of the disease appear as syphilids. These eruptions are superficial, nondestructive, exanthematic, transient, macular roseolas that may later be maculopapular or papular polymorphous or scaly, pustular, pigmented eruptions.(Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p409)Syphilis Serodiagnosis: Serologic tests for syphilis.IndianaEconomic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial: Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Chlamydia: A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Chills: The sudden sensation of being cold. It may be accompanied by SHIVERING.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Panic: A state of extreme acute, intense anxiety and unreasoning fear accompanied by disorganization of personality function.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.

Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (1/2672)

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

Anaerobes in pelvic inflammatory disease: implications for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. (2/2672)

In preparing the 1998 sexually transmitted disease treatment guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we reviewed evidence regarding the need to eradicate anaerobes when treating pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Anaerobes are present in the upper genital tract during an episode of acute PID, with the prevalence dependent on the population under study. Vaginal anaerobes can facilitate acquisition of PID and cause tissue damage to the fallopian tube, either directly or indirectly through the host inflammatory response. Use of several broad-spectrum regimens appears to result in excellent clinical cure rates, despite the fact that some combinations fall short of providing comprehensive coverage of anaerobes. There are limited data on the long-term effects of failing to eradicate anaerobes from the upper genital tract. Concern that tissue damage may continue when anaerobes are suboptimally treated has prompted many experts to caution that therapeutic regimens should include comprehensive anaerobic coverage for optimal treatment of women with PID.  (+info)

Sexually transmitted diseases in abused children and adolescent and adult victims of rape: review of selected literature. (3/2672)

Sexual assault (defined as sexual relations with another person obtained through physical force, threat, or intimidation) of children includes genital fondling, photographing, or viewing for sexual gratification; exposure of the child to pornographic material or to adult sexual activity; and attempted or successful penetration of any of the child's orifices. The purpose of this investigation was to review the medical literature published since 1988 that reported on the prevalence of particular sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in populations of sexually assaulted adults and adolescents and sexually abused children, as well as the prevalence of sexual abuse among children who present with an STD. These data will be helpful for managing cases of sexual assault involving children, adolescents, or adults; estimating the risk of abuse among children with specific STDs; and identifying research priorities in this area.  (+info)

Diagnosis and treatment of sexually acquired proctitis and proctocolitis: an update. (4/2672)

Sexually transmitted gastrointestinal syndromes include proctitis, proctocolitis, and enteritis. These syndromes can be caused by one or multiple pathogens. Routes of sexual transmission and acquisition include unprotected anal intercourse and oral-fecal contact. Evaluation should include appropriate diagnostic procedures such as anoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, stool examination, and culture. When laboratory diagnostic capabilities are sufficient, treatment should be based on specific diagnosis. Empirical therapy for acute proctitis in persons who have recently practiced receptive anal intercourse should be chosen to treat Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections. In individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other infections that are not usually sexually acquired may occur, and recurrent herpes simplex virus infections are common. The approach to gastrointestinal syndromes among HIV-infected patients, therefore, can be more comprehensive and will not be discussed in this article.  (+info)

Where do people go for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases? (5/2672)

CONTEXT: Major public health resources are devoted to the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) through public STD clinics. However, little is known about where people actually receive treatment for STDs. METHODS: As part of the National Health and Social Life Survey, household interviews were performed from February to September 1992 with 3,432 persons aged 18-59. Weighted population estimates and multinomial response methods were used to describe the prevalence of self-reported STDs and patterns of treatment utilization by persons who ever had a bacterial or viral STD. RESULTS: An estimated two million STDs were self-reported in the previous year, and 22 million 18-59-year-olds self-reported lifetime STDs. Bacterial STDs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, nongonococcal urethritis, pelvic inflammatory disease and syphilis) were more common than viral STDs (genital herpes, genital warts, hepatitis and HIV). Genital warts were the most commonly reported STD in the past year, while gonorrhea was the most common ever-reported STD. Almost half of all respondents who had ever had an STD had gone to a private practice for treatment (49%); in comparison, only 5% of respondents had sought treatment at an STD clinic. Respondents with a bacterial STD were seven times more likely to report going to an STD clinic than were respondents with a viral STD--except for chlamydia, which was more likely to be treated at family planning clinics. Men were significantly more likely than women to go to an STD clinic. Young, poor or black respondents were all more likely to use a family planning clinic for STD treatment than older, relatively wealthy or white respondents. Age, sexual history and geographic location did not predict particular types of treatment-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: The health care utilization patterns for STD treatment in the United States are complex. Specific disease diagnosis, gender, race and income status all affect where people will seek treatment. These factors need to be taken into account when STD prevention strategies are being developed.  (+info)

Women's interest in vaginal microbicides. (6/2672)

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection and genital ulcer disease among persons attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Italy. (7/2672)

To assess the relative importance of ulcerative and non-ulcerative sexually transmitted disease in the transmission of HIV, a seroprevalence study was conducted on 2210 patients at the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic of the S. Maria e S. Gallicano Hospital in Rome, between 1989 and 1994. Among male patients, by univariate analysis, strong predictors of HIV infection were homosexuality, sexual exposure to a HIV-positive partner, hepatitis B virus infection, and positive syphilis serology. An increased risk was estimated for patients with past genital herpes (odds ratio (OR) 3.86, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.40-18.2), and primary syphilis (OR 5.79, 95% CI 0.59-28.6). By multivariate analysis, a positive association was found with homosexuality (OR 6.9, 95% CI 2.9-16.5), and positive syphilis serology (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3-9.2). An adjusted OR of 2.41 was calculated for current and/or past genital herpes. These results, although not conclusive, suggest a role of ulcerative diseases as risk factors for prevalent HIV infection, and indicate that positive syphilis serology is an unbiased criterion for identifying individuals at increased risk of HIV infection.  (+info)

Unrecognized sexually transmitted infections in rural South African women: a hidden epidemic. (8/2672)

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are of major public health concern in developing countries, not least because they facilitate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The present article presents estimates of the prevalence, on any given day, of STIs among women in rural South Africa and the proportion who are asymptomatic, symptomatic but not seeking care, and symptomatic and seeking care. The following data sources from Hlabisa district were used: clinical surveillance for STI syndromes treated in health facilities, microbiological studies among women attending antenatal and family planning clinics, and a community survey. Population census provided denominator data. Adequacy of drug treatment was determined through quality of care surveys. Of 55,974 women aged 15-49 years, a total of 13,943 (24.9%) were infected on any given day with at least one of Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Treponema pallidum. Of the women investigated, 6697 (48%) were asymptomatic, 6994 (50%) were symptomatic but not seeking care, 238 (1.7%) were symptomatic and would seek care, and 14 (0.3%) were seeking care on that day. Only 9 of the 14 women (65%) were adequately treated. STIs remained untreated because either women were asymptomatic or the symptoms were not recognized and acted upon. Improved case management alone is therefore unlikely to have a major public health impact. Improving partner treatment and women's awareness of symptoms is essential, while the potential of mass STI treatment needs to be explored.  (+info)

  • How to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Women? (
  • The reason: "There isn't presently a method women can use to prevent [ sexually transmitted diseases ] without the cooperation of their partner," says Business Development Manager Kathryn LaMaina. (
  • How do I prevent sexually transmitted diseases? (
  • What alternatives to monogamy can prevent sexually transmitted diseases? (
  • They are less likely to take precautions, such as using condoms, to prevent the spread of disease. (
  • Be safe - use protective condoms if you are a swinger or sexually active. (
  • Read this fact sheet from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on how to use condoms correctly . (
  • Jan. 3, 2001 -- They're an effective means of preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases , but condoms can't do any good unless they're used consistently and properly. (
  • Latex condoms are effective at preventing the disease . (
  • 4 Our results help explain how transmission of HIV may be facilitated by concomitant sexually transmitted diseases and add further support for an aggressive approach to treating sexually transmitted diseases in HIV infected patients, as a means of reducing transmission of HIV and for reinforcing the benefits of using condoms. (
  • Based on key trends tracked, it is anticipated that the diagnostic testing market for sexually transmitted diseases is forecast to reach $167.4 billion by 2020, registering a CAGR of 8.5% during 2014-2020. (
  • Sexually-transmitted diseases are spreading like wildfire, and those on the front lines are not optimistic that we will be able to turn this health crisis around any time soon. (
  • In fact, in good health, elders can and do remain sexually active well into the seventh, eighth, and ninth decades of life. (
  • As a health reporter, I feel as if I'm always a bit of a downer, reporting sobering news like this new government report that finds that sexually transmitted diseases are rising and that women bear the brunt of the burden. (
  • EDMONTON - Alberta health officials say online hookup sites and anonymous sexual partners have contributed to an increase of sexually transmitted diseases to outbreak levels. (
  • In carrying out this mission the Center serves as the primary focus for assisting States and localities, through grants and other mechanisms, in establishing and maintaining prevention and control programs directed toward health problems, such as vaccine-preventable diseases, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other sexually transmitted diseases. (
  • More young people are impacted by the diseases than any other age group, according to a report released by the county health department this month. (
  • The information provided through should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or a disease. (
  • Most epidemiologic studies of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are based on patients seeking help or advice at various health care settings. (
  • The days are over when sexually transmitted diseases were minor health problems that could be cured with a dose of antibiotics. (
  • Rates of sexually transmitted diseases continue to increase in California and are at an all-time high, according to new statistics released Tuesday by the California Department of Public Health. (
  • Non-professional community leaders may be at a great advantage in reaching otherwise hard to reach populations for the purpose of advising on sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention (lay health advisors), health care access, and model health behavior. (
  • The government and health organizations have been trying to spread the word for decades: Get tested for sexually transmitted diseases. (
  • STD testing is simple and while there is no one test for all of the different sexually transmitted diseases, your health practitioner can help you decide which test is right for you. (
  • Montgomery and Dallas counties have four times the national rate for the diseases, according to an average of five years of county data obtained from the Alabama Department of Public Health. (
  • Sexually transmitted diseases are dangerous, which is why people need to utilize STD testing services for the sake of not just their own health, but of their future sexual partners as well. (
  • There are 12 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases every year. (
  • Some of the natural remedies being advanced for the treatment and control of sexually transmitted diseases include the extracts of local herbs such as Allium cepa, Senna alata and Plumbago zeylanica. (
  • What are the ACOG guidelines on partner therapy for chlamydial and gonorrheal sexually transmitted diseases? (
  • 3 No studies have looked at the serial viral load of genital fluids during treatment for other sexually transmitted diseases, although a single case report has suggested that chlamydial urethritis may increase shedding of HIV-1 in the semen. (
  • A cross-sectional study of 2776 heterosexual men attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in 1988 was used to investigate the relationship between circumcision and sexually transmitted diseases. (
  • STD or sexually transmitted diseases are caused by viruses or bacterias that are transmitted through exchanged of body fluids through sexual activities, blood transfusions or sharing of needles during drug abuse. (