Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
A hexosaminidase with specificity for terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminides.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Sexual activities of humans.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.
Replacement for an elbow joint.
The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
The anatomical frontal portion of the mandible, also known as the mentum, that contains the line of fusion of the two separate halves of the mandible (symphysis menti). This line of fusion divides inferiorly to enclose a triangular area called the mental protuberance. On each side, inferior to the second premolar tooth, is the mental foramen for the passage of blood vessels and a nerve.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
Independence from SERBIA was declared on February 17, 2008.
Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.
Sounds used in animal communication.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).

Factor VII deficiency rescues the intrauterine lethality in mice associated with a tissue factor pathway inhibitor deficit. (1/3695)

Mice doubly heterozygous for a modified tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) allele (tfpi delta) lacking its Kunitz-type domain-1 (TFPI+/delta) and for a deficiency of the factor VII gene (FVII+/-) were mated to generate 309 postnatal and 205 embryonic day 17.5 (E17. 5) offspring having all the predicted genotypic combinations. Progeny singly homozygous for the tfpidelta modification but with the wild-type fVII allele (FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta), and mice singly homozygous for the fVII deficiency and possessing the wild-type tfpi allele (FVII-/-/TFPI+/+), displayed previously detailed phenotypes (i.e., a high percentage of early embryonic lethality at E9.5 or normal development with severe perinatal bleeding, respectively). Surprisingly, mice of the combined FVII-/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were born at the expected mendelian frequency but suffered the fatal perinatal bleeding associated with the FVII-/- genotype. Mice carrying the FVII+/-/TFPIdelta/delta genotype were also rescued from the lethality associated with the FVII+/+/TFPIdelta/delta genotype but succumbed to perinatal consumptive coagulopathy. Thus, the rescue of TFPIdelta/delta embryos, either by an accompanying homozygous or heterozygous FVII deficiency, suggests that diminishment of FVII activity precludes the need for TFPI-mediated inhibition of the FVIIa/tissue factor coagulation pathway during embryogenesis. Furthermore, the phenotypes of these combined deficiency states suggest that embryonic FVII is produced in mice as early as E9.5 and that any level of maternal FVII in early-stage embryos is insufficient to cause a coagulopathy in TFPIdelta/delta mice.  (+info)

Prolonged mating in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) increases likelihood of ovulation and embryo number. (2/3695)

Prairie voles are induced ovulators that mate frequently in brief bouts over a period of approximately 24 h. We examined 1) impact of mating duration on ovulation and embryo number, 2) incidence of fertilization, 3) temporal pattern of embryo development, 4) embryo progression through the reproductive tract over time, and 5) embryo development in culture. Mating was videotaped to determine first copulation, and the ovaries were examined and the reproductive tracts flushed at 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h and 2, 3, and 4 days after first copulation. The number of mature follicles and fresh corpora lutea and the number and developmental stage of embryos were quantified. One, two-, and four-cell embryos were cultured in Whitten's medium. Mature follicles were present at the earliest time examined (6 h). Thirty-eight percent of females that had been paired for < 12 h after the first copulation ovulated, whereas all females paired >/= 12 h after the first copulation ovulated. Virtually all (> 99%) oocytes recovered from females paired for >/= 12 h after first copulation were fertilized. Pairing time after first copulation and mean copulation-bout duration were significant (p < 0.05) determinants of embryo number. Embryos entered the uterine horns and implanted on Days 3 and 4, respectively, after first copulation (Day 0). Embryos cultured in vitro underwent approximately one cell division per day, a rate similar to that in vivo. We conclude that prairie voles ovulate reliably after pairing for >/= 12 h, although some females showed exceptional sensitivity not predicted by the variables quantified. Prolonged mating for longer than 12 h increased the total embryos produced. This mechanism likely has adaptive significance for increasing offspring number.  (+info)

Improving the efficiency of artificial selection: more selection pressure with less inbreeding. (3/3695)

The use of population genetic variability in present-day selection schemes can be improved to reduce inbreeding rate and inbreeding depression without impairing genetic progress. We performed an experiment with Drosophila melanogaster to test mate selection, an optimizing method that uses linear programming to maximize the selection differential applied while at the same time respecting a restriction on the increase in inbreeding expected in the next generation. Previous studies about mate selection used computer simulation on simple additive genetic models, and no experiment with a real character in a real population had been carried out. After six selection generations, the optimized lines showed an increase in cumulated phenotypic selection differential of 10.76%, and at the same time, a reduction of 19.91 and 60.47% in inbreeding coefficient mean and variance, respectively. The increased selection pressure would bring greater selection response, and in fact, the observed change in the selected trait was on average 31.03% greater in the optimized lines. These improvements in the selection scheme were not made at the expense of the long-term expectations of genetic variability in the population, as these expectations were very similar for both mate selection and conventionally selected lines in our experiment.  (+info)

Sodefrin: a novel sex pheromone in a newt. (4/3695)

The abdominal gland in the male red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, is the source of a female-attracting pheromone. An attempt was made to isolate and characterize the female-attracting pheromone in the abdominal glands of male newts. The active substance, named sodefrin (from the Japanese 'sodefuri' which means 'soliciting') has been isolated and shown to be a novel decapeptide with the sequence, Ser-Ile-Pro-Ser-Lys-Asp-Ala-Leu-Leu-Lys. Its minimum effective concentration in water is 0.1-1.0 pmol 1-1. Synthetic sodefrin shows a female-attracting activity similar to that of the native peptide, and acts through the olfactory organ of female newts. Electrophysiological studies reveal that sodefrin evokes a marked electroolfactogram response in the vomeronasal epithelium in sexually mature females and in ovariectomized females treated with prolactin and oestrogen. The pheromonal activity of sodefrin appears to be species-specific since it does not attract females of a congeneric species, the sword-tailed newt C. ensicauda. However, C. ensicauda has a variant of sodefrin differing from that in C. pyrrhogaster by substitutions of Leu for Pro at position 3 and Gln for Leu at position 8. The C. ensicauda variant sodefrin does not attract C. pyrrhogaster females. Genes encoding the sodefrin precursor protein have been cloned in both C. pyrrhogaster and C. ensicauda. Immunostaining of the abdominal gland using the antiserum against sodefrin shows that sodefrin occurs in the epithelial cells, predominantly within the secretory granules. Sodefrin content, detected by immunoassay, in C. pyrrhogaster males decreases after castration and hypophysectomy and increases markedly in the castrated and hypophysectomized newts after treatment with androgen and prolactin. This combination of hormones also enhances sodefrin mRNA content in the abdominal gland as assessed by northern blot analysis using sodefrin cDNA.  (+info)

Accurate memory for colour but not pattern contrast in chicks. (5/3695)

The visual displays of animals and plants often look dramatic and colourful to us, but what information do they convey to their intended, non-human, audience [1] [2]? One possibility is that stimulus values are judged accurately - so, for example, a female might choose a suitor if he displays a specific colour [3]. Alternatively, as for human advertising, displays may attract attention without giving information, perhaps by exploiting innate preferences for bright colours or symmetry [2] [4] [5]. To address this issue experimentally, we investigated chicks' memories of visual patterns. Food was placed in patterned paper containers which, like seed pods or insect prey, must be manipulated to extract food and their patterns learnt. To establish what was learnt, birds were tested on familiar stimuli and on alternative stimuli of differing colour or contrast. For colour, birds selected the trained stimulus; for contrast, they preferred high contrast patterns over the familiar. These differing responses to colour and contrast show how separate components of display patterns could serve different roles, with colour being judged accurately whereas pattern contrast attracts attention.  (+info)

Good genes, oxidative stress and condition-dependent sexual signals. (6/3695)

The immune and the detoxication systems of animals are characterized by allelic polymorphisms, which underlie individual differences in ability to combat assaults from pathogens and toxic compounds. Previous studies have shown that females may improve offspring survival by selecting mates on the basis of sexual ornaments and signals that honestly reveal health. In many cases the expression of these ornaments appears to be particularly sensitive to oxidative stress. Activated immune and detoxication systems often generate oxidative stress by an extensive production of reactive metabolites and free radicals. Given that tolerance or resistance to toxic compounds and pathogens can be inherited, female choice should promote the evolution of male ornaments that reliably reveal the status of the bearers' level of oxidative stress. Hence, oxidative stress may be one important agent linking the expression of sexual ornaments to genetic variation in fitness-related traits, thus promoting the evolution of female mate choice and male sexual ornamentation, a controversial issue in evolutionary biology ever since Darwin.  (+info)

Central neuronal circuit innervating the lordosis-producing muscles defined by transneuronal transport of pseudorabies virus. (7/3695)

The lordosis reflex is a hormone-dependent behavior displayed by female rats during mating. This study used the transneuronal tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) to investigate the CNS network that controls the lumbar epaxial muscles that produce this posture. After PRV was injected into lumbar epaxial muscles, the time course analysis of CNS viral infection showed progressively more PRV-labeled neurons in higher brain structures after longer survival times. In particular, the medullary reticular formation, periaqueductal gray (PAG), and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) were sequentially labeled with PRV, which supports the proposed hierarchical network of lordosis control. Closer inspection of the PRV-immunoreactive neurons in the PAG revealed a marked preponderance of spheroid neurons, rather than fusiform or triangular morphologies. Furthermore, PRV-immunoreactive neurons were concentrated in the ventrolateral column, rather than the dorsal, dorsolateral, or lateral columns of the PAG. Localization of the PRV-labeled neurons in the VMN indicated that the majority were located in the ventrolateral subdivision, although some were also in other subdivisions of the VMN. As expected, labeled cells also were found in areas traditionally associated with sympathetic outflow to blood vessels and motor pathways, including the intermediolateral nucleus of the spinal cord, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, the red nucleus, and the motor cortex. These results suggest that the various brain regions along the neuraxis previously implicated in the lordosis reflex are indeed serially connected.  (+info)

Environmental variation shapes sexual dimorphism in red deer. (8/3695)

Sexual dimorphism results from dichotomous selection on male and female strategies of growth in relation to reproduction. In polygynous mammals, these strategies reflect sexual selection on males for access to females and competitive selection on females for access to food. Consequently, in such species, males display rapid early growth to large adult size, whereas females invest in condition and early sexual maturity at the expense of size. Hence, the magnitude of adult size dimorphism should be susceptible to divergence of the sexes in response to environmental factors differentially influencing their growth to reproduction. We show that divergent growth of male and female red deer after 32 years of winter warming and 15 years of contemporaneously earlier plant phenology support this prediction. In response to warmer climate during their early development, males grew more rapidly and increased in size, while female size declined. Conversely, females, but not males, responded to earlier plant phenology with increased investment in condition and earlier reproduction. Accordingly, adult size dimorphism increased in relation to warmer climate, whereas it declined in relation to forage quality. Thus, the evolutionary trajectories of growth related to reproduction in the sexes (i) originate from sexual and competitive selection, (ii) produce sexual size dimorphism, and (iii) are molded by environmental variation.  (+info)

In this article, we provide a concise review of the past and current literature on the neglected influence of progesterone on male sexual behavior. Although there has been increased interest in all aspects of male sexual function, and the importance of androgens in the regulation of male copulatory behavior has long been well documented, knowledge of the role of progesterone on male sexual behavior is still patchy. Very little human data exist on this theme, and most of the literature concerns animal research, in particular reptiles and rodents. This review attempts to outline specific progesterone mechanisms involved in male sexual behavior, showing that this hormone plays a more relevant role in the control of male sexual behavior than commonly assumed. Exploring the neuroendocrine mechanisms of progesterone in the sexual behavior of males may provide insights into the regulation of sexuality in this gender. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved ...
There are two reasons why researchers are interested in the phenotypic relationship between the expression of male secondary sexual characters (SSCs) and ejaculate quality (defined as sperm/ejaculate traits that are widely assumed to increase female fertility and/or sperm competitiveness). First, if the relationship is positive then females could gain a direct benefit by choosing more attractive males for fertility assurance reasons (the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis). Second, there is much interest in the direction of the correlation between traits favoured by pre-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. affecting mating success) and those favoured by post-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. increasing sperm competitiveness). If the relationship is negative this could lead to the two forms of selection counteracting each other. Theory predicts that the direction of the relationship could be either positive or negative depending on the underlying genetic variance and covariance in each trait, ...
A large body of literature has centred on whether female resistance evolves as a result of sexual conflict or as a form of female choice for superior mates (also known as resistance as a screen, or resistance as choice) [50,101-103]. According to this hypothesis, open-ended female resistance will ensure that a female copulates only with dominant males that are best able to overcome female resistance; male offspring will be superior competitors/coercers, and female resistance will evolve through the indirect benefits of their superior coercive male offspring [50,101-103]. This type of screening has been hypothesized to occur during pre-copulatory struggles, and during and/or after copulation via cryptic female choice mechanisms [50]. The main argument against the resistance as a screen hypothesis is that the magnitude of the direct costs imposed by coercive males may be much greater than the magnitude of any potential indirect benefit that females may gain [56], but this issue is far from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mounting and lordosis behavior in androgen primed ovariectomized rats. T2 - Effect of dorsal deafferentation of the preoptic area and hypothalamus. AU - Yamanouchi, K.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Daily injections of 500 μg testosterone propionate (TP) for 21 days induced mounting behavior in all of 10 castrated male rats and the mean mount frequency (MF) for 30 min was 32.4±6.6 (mean±S.E.). The same treatment with TP induced mounting behavior in 6 out of 8 ovariectomized rats (female control), but the mean MF was 2.8±0.7. Eight out of 12 ovariectomized rats who received a horizontal half-circle cut anterior to the anterior commissure (anterior roof deafferentation, ARD) with an L-shaped Halasz knife displayed mounting behavior more frequently and their MF was 14.5±5.1. The latent period between the introduction of a receptive female and the occurrence of the first mounting (mount latency, ML) in ARD rats was significantly shorter than that of the female controls. A half ...
Male contests for access to receptive females are thought to have selected for the larger male body size and conspicuous weaponry frequently observed in mammalian species. However, when females copulate with multiple males within an oestrus, male reproductive success is a function of both pre- and post-copulatory strategies. The relative importance of these overt and covert forms of sexual competition has rarely been assessed in wild populations. The Soay sheep mating system is characterized by male contests for mating opportunities and high female promiscuity. We find that greater horn length, body size and good condition each independently influence a males ability to monopolize receptive females. For males with large horns at least, this behavioural success translates into greater siring success. Consistent with sperm-competition theory, we also find that larger testes are independently associated with both higher copulation rates and increased siring success. This advantage of larger testes ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Testosterone, endurance, and Darwinian fitness: Natural and sexual selection on the physiological bases of alternative male behaviors in side-blotched lizards. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
In this study, we show for both sexes of the dark-eyed junco that EPO have higher lifetime reproductive success than WPO. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which EPP has been shown to increase lifetime reproductive success of adult offspring in a free-living songbird. In the only similar previous study, the reproductive success of adult female F1 EPO coal tits (Parus ater) did not differ from that of female F1 WPO, and adult male F1 EPO had lower apparent (social) reproductive success than did male F1 WPO. However, extra-pair siring success of F1 males was not measured, and therefore adult genetic reproductive success could not be calculated [16-18].. In many species, there is no obvious benefit to female fitness from mating with an extra-pair male, and some have even hypothesized that extra-pair mating should carry a cost to offspring production or survival [34,35] (although not in juncos [21]; see also [36]). This lack of a cost to females, combined with the observed twofold benefit ...
The realization of polyandry is also contributing to a much more dynamic view of social conflicts. The most obvious forms of conflict relevant to polyandry are conflicts arising among members of the same sex and between males and females over reproductive decisions.. On the one hand, polyandry creates potential for conflict over some reproductive decisions such as cryptic female choice and parental care. On the other hand, it may reduce potential for sexual conflict over other reproductive decisions such as mating rates by weakening the male and increasing the female Bateman gradient. Although the notion that polyandry creates potential for intra- and inter-sexual conflict is not new, studies of sexual conflict have up until recently ignored the diversity of proximate mechanisms through which mating and sperm competition can impact female fitness. These mechanisms can have fundamental repercussions for the fitness pay-offs of sexual rivals and sexual partners. For example, the gonadotropic ...
EBay is announcing today that its going to start authenticating sneaker sales over $100 in the U.S. This is a clear bite into the dominance of StockX and GOAT in the limited sneaker universe. The authentication will be done by Sneaker Con Digital, a subsidiary of the brand that runs, well, Sneaker Con. Sneaker Con Digital was founded by Alan and Barris Vinogradov was infused with cash by Visionary Private Equity Group in 2018. The quick story here is that eBays rep for authentic merch is, uh, not great -- especially the sneaker universe, where fakes can be virtually indistinguishable from authentic items.
The genome of an infant who lived in Alaska thousands of years ago represents a previously unknown group of humans called Ancient Beringians, who share a common lineage with other Native Americans. 0 Comments. ...
Sperm competition is the competitive process between spermatozoa of two or more different males to fertilize the same egg during sexual reproduction. Competition can occur when females have multiple potential mating partners. Greater choice and variety of mates increases a females chance to produce more viable offspring. However, multiple mates for a female means an individual male has decreased chances of producing offspring. Sperm competition is an evolutionary pressure on males, and has led to the development of adaptations to increase males chance of reproductive success. Sperm competition results in a sexual conflict of interest between males and females. Males have evolved several defensive tactics including: mate-guarding, mating plugs, and releasing toxic seminal substances to reduce female re-mating tendencies to cope with sperm competition. Offensive tactics of sperm competition involve direct interference by one male on the reproductive success of another male, for instance by ...
The seminal fluid of male Drosophila contains a cocktail of proteins that have striking effects on male and female fitness. In D. melanogaster, seminal fluid proteins affect female receptivity, ovulation, oogenesis, sperm storage, sperm competition and mating plug formation. In addition, the seminal fluid contains antibacterial peptides and protease inhibitors. Some seminal fluid-encoding genes also show high rates of evolutionary change, exhibiting both significant between-species divergence and within-species polymorphism. Seminal fluid protein genes are expressed only in males, begging the question of how and why the reproductive processes of females are influenced by males. In this review I address these issues by bringing together evidence for the function, evolution, diversification, and maintenance of variation in, seminal fluid-mediated traits.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sexual behavior of male pigs. AU - Hemsworth, Paul Hamilton. AU - Tilbrook, Alan John. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Two major characteristics of males that affect the likelihood of achieving copulation are the sexual motivation and mating competency of the male. The behavior of domestic animals, including their sexual behavior, is dependent upon a complex interaction between the organism s internal and external environment. In male pigs, as in other mammalian species, it is clear that testicular steroids are required to maintain sexual behavior and testosterone plays a critical role. Consistent with studies in other species, it is apparent in male pigs that there is a threshold circulating concentration of androgens and/or estrogens required to maintain sexual behavior and that the level of sexual motivation is unrelated to levels of sex steroids providing these are adequate for normal sexual behavior. Key aspects of the external environment that affect the sexual behavior of the ...
Sneaker Culture Social Networks - Sneaker culture social networks are a great way to talk to other sneaker enthusiasts. Learn about sneaker culture social networks at HowStuffWorks.
This study showed that two reproductive hormones from different chemical classes, PGF2α and E2, stimulate sexual displays in females of a single fish species. PGF2α, in particular, was very effective in recovering sexual behaviours after ovariectomy. The injection of this hormone 45 min before testing into females ovariectomized 7 days before, recovered the frequency of both female approaches to the males nest and courtship displays towards the nesting male to levels similar to those of intact sham females. The positive effect of this hormone on nuptial coloration was, however, less pronounced. The role of prostaglandins in the induction of sexual behaviour in females has been demonstrated in several fishes with external fertilization: paradise fish, Macropodus opercularis [32], black acara Cichlasoma bimaculatum [33] and barb Puntius gonionotus [34]. Interestingly, administration of PGF2α to non-receptive females of the anuran Bufo americanus induced female phonotaxis behaviour towards male ...
Whether females can obtain genetic benefits from mate choice is contentious, and the main problem faced by previous studies of natural populations is that many factors other than paternal genes contribute to offspring fitness. Here, we use comparisons bet. ...
DA stresses that colour vision is very important in primates, not only because colour is used in sexual displays such as advertising a females receptiveness to mating [p. 275], but also to identify ripe fruit [p.247] and to select nutritious leaves [p. 255]. This section discusses these points in more detail and explains how the visual system in primates is able to detect colour.. White light is composed of light of different wavelengths, from 300-800 nanometres (nm); 1 nm is on ...
Although I enjoyed this paper quite a bit, and it seemed perfect fodder for some clever fun in photoshop (actually by E. Lu, see above), I also felt that that the study had some methodologically weak areas. For instance, the authors failed to take advantage of a new phylogenetic logistic regression procedure by Ives & Garland [2010], which seems ideally suited to their data. (In their defense, the method is brand new.) Consequently, however, the authors found themselves of the unfortunate position of using an arbitrary scoring system to estimate size-related reproductive skew: adding 1 point for the presence of pronounced sexual dichromatism, for example, and subtracting 1 point for alternative reproductive tactics (which might decrease the advantage of large male size) . With a phylogenetic multivariable logistic regression, the authors could have tested for an association between the log-odds of protogyny and each of their proxies for size-based reproductive skew (which also included ...
In the bird world, male and female blue tits are hard to distinguish for the human observer. However, in the UV-range, visible to birds, the male is much more colourful. A closer look at the monogamous mating system of these birds again reveals that all is not what it seems: in every second nest there are chicks that are not related to the care-giving father. An already mated male can increase the number of his offspring by siring extra-pair offspring in other nests than the one he cares for with his mate. Emmi Schlicht and Bart Kempenaers of the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Seewiesen investigated whether this could be the driving force behind the evolution of sexual dimorphism. However, their findings suggest that effects of extra-pair paternity are limited, and cuckoldry can even reduce the intensity of sexual selection.
Hear girl complaining about how men are pigs Explain that its partly her fault, since female mate selection determines course of evolution Science Major Mouse
Sex differences in brain structure and function are widespread (Jazin and Cahill, 2010) and analysis of their functional significance has become a priority in the neurosciences (Clayton and Collins, 2014). Interestingly, these sex differences also affect rapid brain estrogen effects (Krentzel and Remage-Healey, 2015). Blocking brain estrogen action/synthesis decreases male sexual motivation within minutes without affecting sexual performance in quail (Seredynski et al., 2013). Here we confirm that blockade of brain aromatase acutely and robustly alters male sexual motivation. This effect is prevented within 15 min by a central injection of E2 or a specific agonist of ERβ, but not of ERα. Furthermore, E2 cannot restore this behavior when mGluR1a is blocked. Together with the previous demonstration that these effects are membrane initiated (Seredynski et al., 2013), the acute modulation of sexual motivation by E2 thus seems to depend on its binding to membrane ERβ, leading to the ... 100% Natural extra male chromosome in male behavior 100% Natural Formulation, ky male enhancement spray.. The county owner detained Wang Wen and Yang Lu together for trial, and first called Yuzhen to say You are ky male enhancement spray Best Sex Pills a woman, marry injectable erectile dysfunction medicine a chicken and follow a chicken.. Put Erniang on a spring bench, and the two started to work again.. Xizi Huansha, that fish is greedy for beauty, so he sinks into the water and hangs out for a while.. Reluctantly, Sister Feng forced herself to be a matchmaker, and Caixia s mother did not dare to go against ky male enhancement spray Extenze Male Enhancement her.. The young emperor was a little older, understood his own life experience, resented his grandmother for killing his mother, and declared that he would avenge revenge when he grew up.. The upper hand privately released profits extra male chromosome in male behavior Big Sale and earned black hearted money, and said that the ...
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Our research group studies the quantitative and molecular genetics of sexual behaviour in the zebra finch to address fundamental questions in evolutionary biology. One of our main interests lies in the understanding of genes that contribute to sexually antagonistic evolution. For instance, we ask, what are the effects of genes that increase male promiscuity (and hence male fitness), on female promiscuity, female fecundity, but also on male and female parental qualities. These and many other questions are addressed using long term data on a very large captive population of zebra finches. Extensive observational data on extra-pair courtships in a communal aviary setting are complemented with breeding of selection lines and large-scale SNP genotyping that allows us to conduct QTL mapping and subsequent study of candidate genes involved the behaviours that lie at the core of sexual selection ...
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The effect of neonatally administered testosterone propionate (TP) on sexual receptivity and fertility was studied. Dosages of 25 μg and ten μg were used and were administered s.c. in peanut oil on the fifth day of life. Vaginal smears of the animals receiving 25 μg were begun at the age of 61 days and indicated that these animals exhibited modified estrous cycles. By 90 days of age, most of the animals in both dosage groups were in constant vaginal estrus. These prolonged periods of vaginal estrus were often interrupted only by mating. At 97 days of age 40 females which received ten μg of TP were caged individually with males for six nights and 40% mated. At this same dose, out of 128 exposures, 42% of the females bred when exposed to males for one night. The latter group received 15 I.U. of chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) on the day of mating. In females receiving 25 μg of TP, out of 481 exposures, 33.6% of the animals mated. Eighty-nine per cent of the females which copulated had a vaginal smear
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The first rule of thumb in any diet is balancing calories. This is just as important in a female fitness competition diet as in any other. You want to eat only as many calories as you burn in your workouts. If you still need to burn extra fat, you need to burn more calories than you eat, which is accomplished by either eating fewer calories or burning more in your workouts.. You should be eating 10 to 12 times your body weight in calories for a female fitness competition diet. If your body weight changes, your calorie intake should as well. Divide your calories using the following method:. ...
Recent studies show early exposure to BPA can change male behavior in adulthood. Male mice showed less masculine behavior (less territorial marking).
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Remarkably, we have actually kind of obtained a similar result in one of our previous study (Svensson et al. 2006 Evolution), where we found that strong divergent sexual selection was accompanied by a significant decrease of female response towards conspecifics from other populations. This is corroborated by another study yet from our group, that found reduced gene flow between some of these populations (Svensson et al. 2004 Heredity), like it has been found in other systems (Rice and Pfennig 2010). I had myself never really thought about it that way, and this opened my mind a lot I must say on what Erik and others of our group have done in the past. And what about learning then? Well, we know it is likely to play an important role in divergence of mate preferences in our system (Svensson et al. 2010 Evolution), and all things considered it might even facilitate this process, as mate choice may change faster and thus the constraining effects of gene flow in the early stages will then not be an ...
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In Chapter 9, Darwin in Denial, author Tim Birkhead explains how Darwins failure to recognize avian female promiscuity resulted in a century of misconceptions about sexual selection. 0 Comments. ...
by Vetscite. It may be hard to imagine competing over who gets to kiss a frog, but when it comes to mating, a new study concludes that some frogs have moved out of the pond onto land to make it easier for the male in the pair to give sexual rivals the slip.. Biologists have long thought that some frog species evolved to mate on land - sometimes in unusual places - instead of in open water to better guard eggs and tadpoles from easily being eaten by fish and other predators. But the new research by a team of U.S. and Brazilian frog biologists suggests that mating on land in many species might in part be a strategy that male frogs use to ensure that their own DNA gets passed on, instead of the DNA of their rivals. Sexual selection may trump natural selection in the evolution of these reproductive behaviors, according to the new study, to be published online ahead of print on July 26 in The American Naturalist.. Frogs have a dizzying array of reproductive strategies, according to Rayna Camille ...
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The analysis of all of those components together forms part of the new discipline of Systems Biology. Systems biologists study, among other things, the phenomenon of emergence, whereby properties, functions and behaviors of living systems arise though not exhibited by any individual component of the system, and not explainable or predictable from complete understanding the components properties/behaviors considered in isolation from the system that embeds them. Every cellular system exhibits emergent behaviors. Emergent behaviors of living systems include such things as locomotion, sexual display, flocking, and conscious experiencing. Even the biological components of living cells, such as mitochondria and other organelles, exhibit emergent properties. Some biologists might find it tempting to see a type of vitalism, or life force, in living systems, given that some whole-system properties/behaviors of organisms, including even the activity of living itself, exemplify such emergent ...
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Get information, facts, and pictures about secondary sexual character at Make research projects and school reports about secondary sexual character easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
Reproduction and immunity are fitness-related traits that trade-off with each other. Parasite-mediated theories of sexual selection suggest, however, that higher-quality males should suffer smaller costs to reproduction-related traits and behaviours (e.g., sexual display) from an immune challenge because these males possess more resources with which to deal with the challenge. We used Gryllus texensis field crickets to test the prediction that attractive males should better maintain the performance of fitness-related traits (e.g., calling effort) in the face of an immune challenge compared with unattractive males. We found no support for our original predictions. However, that immune activation causes attractive males to significantly increase their calling effort compared with unattractive males suggests that these males might terminally invest in order to compensate for decreased future reproduction.
A large number of studies have analyzed social and sexual interactions between rodents in relation to neural activity. Computerized video analysis has been successfully used to detect numerous behaviors quickly and objectively; however, to date only 2D video recording has been used, which cannot determine the 3D locations of animals and encounters difficulties in tracking animals when they are overlapping, e.g., when mounting. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel 3D video analysis system for examining social and sexual interactions in rats. A 3D image was reconstructed by integrating images captured by multiple depth cameras at different viewpoints. The 3D positions of body parts of the rats were then estimated by fitting skeleton models of the rats to the 3D images using a physics-based fitting algorithm, and various behaviors were recognized based on the spatio-temporal patterns of the 3D movements of the body parts. Comparisons between the data collected by the 3D system and those by
Probably gyne polymorphism is not rare in Cardiocondyla, but undetected in many species because of the small available sample size. It is expressed by strong variation in mesosoma dimensions and weak differences in postocular distance (a result of larger eye size of the flying macrosomatic gynes), whereas other characters are equal. Thus, gyne polymorphism in Cardiocondyla deviates from gyne polymorphism in Leptothorax, Tetramorium, Messor, or Myrmica in which measurements of all body parts differ between micro- and macrogynes. Hence, the use of the terms macro- and microgynes is problematic in Cardiocondyla; instead the terms macro somatic and microsomatic gynes are used here. Gyne polymorphism was observed in Cardiocondyla ulianini (see also Marikovsky & Yakushkin 1974), Cardiocondyla batesii, Cardiocondyla bicoronata, Cardiocondyla nigra, Cardiocondyla elegans, and Cardiocondyla sahlbergi. All these species are inhabitants of Palaearctic deserts, semi deserts or dry steppes and three of them ...
William Caldwell (WC) Young, a founder of behavioral neuroendocrinology, had a career spanning almost forty years. Trained with Carl Moore at The University of Chicago, Young was interested in hormonal influences on behavior, but Moore dissuaded him saying: … the behavior of animals was utterly capricious, unordered by hormonal events, and unrelated to variables of significance to reproductive biology (Goy, 1967). Fortunately, Young ignored Moore and while at Brown University in 1928 studied hormonal modulation of female sexual receptivity. His studies demonstrated that female guinea pig sexual receptivity varied reliably with cyclic changes in ovarian morphology (Young, Dempsey & Myers, 1935; Myers, Young & Dempsey, 1936). Subsequent classic experiments varied the timing and dosages of estrogen and progesterone given to ovariectomized females, demonstrating that female sexual receptivity required sequential estrogen and progesterone treatment (Dempsey, Hertz, & Young, 1936; Collins, et ...
Attractiveness is a major component of sexual selection that is dependent on sexual characteristics, such as pheromone production, which often reflect an individuals fitness and reproductive potential. Aging is a process that results in a steady decline in survival and reproductive output, yet little is known about its effect on specific aspects of attractiveness. In this report we asked how aging impacts pheromone production and sexual attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster. Evidence suggests that key pheromones in Drosophila are produced as cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC), whose functions in attracting mates and influencing behavior have been widely studied. We employed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to show that the composition of D. melanogaster CHC is significantly affected by aging in both sexes and that these changes are robust to different genetic backgrounds. Aging affected the relative levels of many individual CHC, and it ...
ABSTRACT: The effect of various social environments on sociosexual behavior was examined in six young female cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus) and in three established breeding females. Behavioral observations and hormonal samples were collected on young females while they were living with their families, when they were isolated from conspecifics, and after they were paired with an unrelated male. While living with the family, all females showed a suppression of fertility and low frequencies of sociosexual behavior. Following removal from the family, isolated females displayed an increase in rate of scent marking and an increase in hormonal levels. When young females were paired with males, they were exposed to scent secretions from their natal families, from an unfamilar family, and from a control for a total of 24 weeks. After pairing, hormonal levels increased dramatically, and ovarian cyclicity began. An increase in sociosexual behavior and elevated levels of scent marking ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coevolution of female ovulatory signals and male-male competition in primates. AU - Nakahashi, Wataru. PY - 2016/3/7. Y1 - 2016/3/7. N2 - Visual signals of ovulation vary among primate species. Although slight ovulatory signals are considered primate ancestral traits of which some species still exhibit, some show prominent swelling of their perineal skin (exaggerated sexual swellings) and others do not exhibit any signals of ovulation (concealed ovulation). These signals strongly affect male mating behaviors. I develop an evolutionary model of female ovulatory signals and male-male competition. I assume that each male allocates his effort between attraction of females and male-male competition for dominance. Each female gains a benefit if she is fertile and free from the alpha male who always guards one of the most fertile females in the group, but suffers a cost if she expresses a different ovulatory signal from an ancestral trait. I show that various types of ovulatory signals ...
Environmental stimulation results in an increased expression of transcription factors called immediate early genes (IEGs) in specific neuronal populations. In male Japanese quail, copulation with a female increases the expression of the IEGs zenk and c-fos in the medial pre-optic nucleus (POM), a key nucleus controlling male sexual behavior. The functional significance of this increased IEG expression that follows performance of copulatory behavior is unknown. We addressed this question by repeatedly quantifying the performance of appetitive (learned social proximity response) and consummatory (actual copulation) sexual behavior in castrated, testosterone-treated males that received daily intra-cerebroventricular injection of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting c-fos or control vehicle. Daily antisense injections significantly inhibited the expression of copulatory behavior as well as the acquisition of the learned social proximity response. A strong reduction of the proximity response ...
That fru acts during development to establish the potential for male sexual behavior is suggested by the patterns of expression of male-specific P1 products. The FRUM proteins are expressed almost exclusively in the CNS, where they are first detected in a small number of cells at the end of the larval period. Expression is maximal about two days into the pupal period when ca. 1700 cells (2% of the CNS) express FRUM proteins; this time coincides with the period of major morphogenetic events that shape the adult CNS (Figure 1). Cells expressing the FRUM proteins are not localized to one part of the CNS. They are scattered throughout the brain and VNC, most frequently found in small groups of cells, and less frequently as single cells. There are approximately 20 groups of FRUM neurons (Fig. 2). Some of these groups are in specific regions of the CNS previously shown to be involved in particular steps of courtship behavior. In addition, a number of regions containing FRUM neurons had not been ...
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In ecological character displacement, traits involved in reproductive isolation may not evolve in arbitrary directions when changes in these traits are by-products of adaptation to an ecological niche. In reproductive character displacement, however, selection acts directly on reproductive characters to enhance the degree of reproductive isolation between sympatric populations. Thus, the direction of change in reproductive characters may be arbitrary in relation to changes in other morphological characters. We characterized both tegminal characters and characters indicative of body size in sympatric and allopatric populations of Gryllus fultoni, a species displaying character displacement in its calling song characters in areas of sympatry with G. vernalis populations, to infer the nature and direction of selection acting on reproductive and morphological characters in sympatry. Except for mirror area, the number of teeth in a file, and ovipositor length of G. fultoni, all male and female morphological
The controversy engendered by this first book caused Kinseys second book, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, to be eagerly anticipated by his critics, his defenders, the media, and the public. Its publication in was met with an equal if not greater storm than the publication of the book on men.3/5(15).. Statistical problems of the Kinsey report on sexual behavior in the human male;: Statistical problems of the Kinsey report on sexual behavior in the human male book report of the American Statistical Association, Committee to advise Committee for Research in Problems of Sex, [Cochran, William Gemmell] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.. Statistical problems of the Kinsey report on sexual behavior in the human male;: A report of the American Statistical Author: William Gemmell Cochran. Get this from a library. Statistical problems of the Kinsey report on sexual behavior in the human male: a report of the American Statistical Association committee to advise the National Research Council, ...
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Precise estimates of costs and benefits, the fitness economics, of mating are of key importance in understanding how selection shapes the coevolution of male and female mating traits. However, fitness is difficult to define and quantify. Here, we used a novel application of an established analytical technique to calculate individual- and population-based estimates of fitness-including those sensitive to the timing of reproduction-to measure the effects on females of increased exposure to males. Drosophila melanogaster females were exposed to high and low frequencies of contact with males, and life-history traits for each individual female were recorded. We then compared different fitness estimates to determine which of them best described the changes in life histories. We predicted that rate-sensitive estimates would be more accurate, as mating influences the rate of offspring production in this species. The results supported this prediction. Increased exposure to males led to significantly ...
In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB) and main (MOB) olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced) the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1) males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2) males that were exposed to female odors, 3) males that mated for 1 h and could not
Most single-species population models assume either that one sex dominates the growth dynamics (usually the female), or that the life cycles of the two sexes are identical; however, sexual differences in ontogenetic features can render this assumption invalid. Further, the interaction between sexes is necessarily nonlinear, and the dependence of dynamic behavior on sexual interactions can be complicated. Here we examine a two-sex population model, related to the well-known logistic model, with explicit sexual interactions. The model is bistable and, by the addition of diffusion, admits traveling wave solutions. Dominance of states via this spatial dynamic are examined. A simple condition for neutral dominance is obtained; sexual interactions inhibit the dominance of the nonzero population, making persistence more difficult.
In Drosophila ananassae, artificial selection was carried out for fast and slow remating speed for 10 generations. Response to selection resulted in rapid divergence in remating time in each of two replicates of both fast and slow lines. There were significant differences in mean remat-ing time in females among fast, slow, and control lines. Regression coefficients for both fast and slow lines are significantly different from zero. The realized heritability over 10 genera-tions of selection is from 0.26 to 0.33 for two replicates of fast line and from 0.23 to 0.27 for two replicates of slow line. These findings suggest that female remating time in D. ananassae is under polygenic control. Remating frequency of females showed a correlated response in both fast and slow lines. At generation 10, correlated response to selection was also investigated. Mating propensity of D. ananassae of fast and slow lines was observed in an Elens-Wattiaux mating chamber. Fifteen pairs per test showed that on the ...
The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) plays a central role in the regulation of the female reproductive behavior lordosis, a behavior dependent upon the sequential activation of receptors for the ovarian steroid hormones estradiol (E) and progesterone (P). These receptors function as transcription factors to alter the expression of target genes. To discover behaviorally relevant genes targeted by E and P in the VMH, we used the differential display PCR to identify messenger RNAs that are differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized (ovx) rats treated with E alone compared with ovariectomized rats treated with E and P. We show here that one interesting mRNA within the hypothalamus that is repressed by P after E priming encodes the protein 25-Dx, the rat homolog of the human membrane-associated P-binding protein Hpr6.6. Neurons in the brain containing the highest levels of 25-Dx are located in several nuclei of the basal forebrain, including the VMH. 25-Dx expression is also higher ...
Female mammals appear to evolve promiscuity as a defence against infanticide by dominant males, and this in turn swells the males testicles
Background. The genetic benefits of mate choice are limited by the degree to which male and female fitness are genetically correlated. If the intersexual correlation for fitness is small or negative, choosing a highly fit mate does not necessarily result in high fitness offspring.. Methodology/Principal Finding. Using an animal-model approach on data from a pedigreed population of over 7,000 collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), we estimate the intersexual genetic correlation in Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) in a natural population to be negative in sign (−0.85±0.6). Simulations show this estimate to be robust in sign to the effects of extra-pair parentage. The genetic benefits in this population are further limited by a low level of genetic variation for fitness in males.. Conclusions/Significance. The potential for indirect sexual selection is nullified by sexual antagonistic fitness effects in this natural population. Our findings and the scarce evidence from other studies ...
VIDAL MALDONADO, Marcela. A. Eye orbit geometric shape in Liolaemus as an indicator of polygyny or monogamy. Gayana (Concepc.) [online]. 2011, vol.75, n.2, pp.155-160. ISSN 0717-6538. Most animal groups have sexual dimorphism in morphological characters, especially body size. In many cases, sexual dimorphism may be a consequence of a hierarchical social organization within populations. However, polygyny or monogamy may evolve independently of sexual dimorphism. Two Liolaemus species are known to be good model species to study the relationship between sexual dimorphism and sexual social system: Liolaemus tenuis (polygyny) and Liolaemus copiapoensis (monogamy). In this study, I evaluate the morphological variation in the geometric shape of the orbit between sexes in the two species, comparing their social condition (polygyny, monogamy) and applying a geometric morphometrical methodology. The results show morphological differentiation in orbit ...
In field and laboratory studies of birds, positive associations between male phenotype and success at obtaining extra-pair copulations or extra pair fertilizations are often interpreted as providing evidence that females are using extra-pair copulations to obtain indirect benefits for their offspring, either through genes for increased viability, or for a fisherian mating advantage. I describe a simple model, in which functional fertility (the success of ejaculates in fertilizing eggs) covaries with male phenotype, which can explain the observed associations equally well. Under such a model, females pursue extra-pair copulations as insurance against the functional infertility of their mate, and obtain only direct benefits for themselves in their current reproductive event. Several studies of birds suggest that a relation between male phenotype and functional fertility is often likely to exist and that there are many potential causes of functional infertility. Non-manipulative field studies are unlikely
Currently, I am a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Department of Biological Sciences and the Eck Instititue for Global Health at the University of Notre Dame. The Severson Lab studies the genetics and genomics of mosquitoes that transmit human diseases. I study genetic mechanisms that underlie complex traits associated with bloodfeeding in Culex pipiens and Aedes aegypti. West Nile Virus is just one disease transmitted by the Culex pipiens complex and Aedes aegypti is a vector of multiple neglected tropical diseases including Dengue and Chikungunya. As no vaccine exists for these diseases, transmission is prevented through mosquito control. A more complete understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that regulate female reproductive behaviors will inform development and implementation of vector control methods. Our ability to generate informative genetic markers (SNPs) and infer quantitative trait loci (QTL) has increased dramatically with the advent of massively parallel sequencing ...
Currently, I am a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Department of Biological Sciences and the Eck Instititue for Global Health at the University of Notre Dame. The Severson Lab studies the genetics and genomics of mosquitoes that transmit human diseases. I study genetic mechanisms that underlie complex traits associated with bloodfeeding in Culex pipiens and Aedes aegypti. West Nile Virus is just one disease transmitted by the Culex pipiens complex and Aedes aegypti is a vector of multiple neglected tropical diseases including Dengue and Chikungunya. As no vaccine exists for these diseases, transmission is prevented through mosquito control. A more complete understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that regulate female reproductive behaviors will inform development and implementation of vector control methods. Our ability to generate informative genetic markers (SNPs) and infer quantitative trait loci (QTL) has increased dramatically with the advent of massively parallel sequencing ...
In addition to aggressive contexts, many fishes produce water movements that could be used as mechanosensory signals during their courtship repertoire. For example, body quivers, in which males display and vibrate their bodies while in close proximity to a female, are a common courtship behavior. Furthermore, some male fish produce tail waggles to encourage a sexually receptive female to spawn. Male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) use a zig-zag dance to court gravid females (Tinbergen, 1951; Tinbergen and Van Iersel, 1947), and in many species of wrasses, terminal-phase (i.e. dominant, territory-holding and reproductively competent) males combine intense body vibrations with rapid tail beats while swimming back and forth over a potential mate (Robertson and Hoffman, 1977). Despite the obvious use of hydrodynamic signal-generating behaviors, only a few studies have examined the role of mechanosensation during reproductive encounters. Because any signals produced during ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Topography in the preoptic region: Differential regulation of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviors. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Colour signals play a pivotal role in sexual selection (for review see Andersson 1994; Whiting et al. 2003). Of particular recent interest are ultraviolet (UV; 300-400 nm) signals, which are invisible to the human eye. In some taxa, UV signals are used by females to assess mates (e.g. Andersson et al. 1998; Johnsen et al. 1998; Siitari et al. 2002), but few studies have considered how UV signals are used during male contest competition (Alonso-Alvarez et al. 2004; Siebeck 2004; Siefferman & Hill 2005; Whiting et al. in press). Male traits such as colour, body size, and alternative reproductive tactics (ART; territorial and floater) are the most consistent and widespread predictors of aggressive behaviour and contest outcome (Neat et al. 1998; Johnsson & Forser 2002; Kemp & Wiklund 2004); however, few studies disentangle their roles (Qvarnstrom 1997; Pryke & Andersson 2003) and none have considered how UV may interact with body size and residency to influence rival assessment and contest outcome. ...
Mating strategies vary between species, populations, individuals, and even within an individual. For instance, an individual might use different strategies to maximise its fitness when it is old, compared to when it is young. In most bird species, both females and males engage in copulations outside their pair bond (extra-pair copulations). Extra-pair males are commonly older males. However, whether older males get better at outcompeting younger rivals (the observed effect takes place within an individual) or are simply the ones that live longest (the observed effect arises through cross-sectional comparison between individuals) remains to be clarified. In my PhD, I use an experimental breeding design in a captive population of house sparrows, as well as a long-term dataset from a wild population to study the occurrence of extra-pair offspring and its interaction with parental age. I compare the fitness of within- and extra-pair offspring associated with parental age, quantify fitness ...
By Melinda Carstensen Published October 10, 2014 Previous research shows that the hormone oxytocin stimulates social behavior in humans, but a study published Thursday in the journal Cell suggests the hormone plays an especially strong role in regulating female sexual behavior. Scientists at The Rockefeller University in New York City genetically modified female mice…
Greenwood, A. W. andCrew, F. A. E. (1926). Studies on the Relation of Gonadic Structure to Plumage in the Domestic Fowl. I. Heuny Feathering in an Ovariotomised Hen with an Active Teatis Graft.P.R.S. B, XCIX, 232-249.. ...
Asymmetries in courtship signals can result from both developmental instability during ontogeny and from temporary or permanent damage following mating, fighting, or interactions with predators. These two types of asymmetries, which can be divided into fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and damage asymmetry (DA), have both been suggested to play an important role in mate choice as potential honest indicators of phenotypic and/or genetic quality, while at the same time, DA may affect ornament asymmetry in a random manner. Interestingly, despite the massive research effort that has been devoted to the study of asymmetry during the past decades, very little is known about how an individuals behaviour relates to asymmetry. Here, we measure and characterise asymmetry in morphological courtship signals in Corynopoma riisei, a fish where males carry elaborate paddle-like appendices on each side of the body that they display in front of females during courtship. Moreover, we investigate whether male courtship ...
Male [I]Drosophila subobscura[/I] courtship behavior is composed of tapping, scissoring, proboscis extension, midleg swing, nuptial gift, dance, wing extension and attempted copulation.
For more information on Caregivers Response to Sex Play, click here.. What are some diagnostic considerations for professionals? Problematic sexual behaviors are not a diagnosable condition. Rather, these behaviors are clinically concerning behaviors. At times, the problematic sexual behaviors represent an isolated problem of a child who is otherwise functioning well. Other times, the sexual behaviors may be part of a pattern of disruptive or delinquent behaviors. Some children with problematic sexual behaviors have also experienced trauma, and the problematic sexual behaviors may be one of the symptoms related to the trauma. The following section provides guidance for diagnostic consideration, as well as more information about specific diagnoses: American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.. What do I need to know about problematic sexual behaviors as an isolated problem?. Problematic sexual behaviors may be an isolated problem. This is more often the case with older ...
Animals perform or terminate particular behaviors by integrating external cues and internal states through neural circuits. Identifying neural substrates and their molecular modulators promoting or inhibiting animal behaviors are key steps to understand how neural circuits control behaviors. Here, we identify the Cholecystokinin-like peptide Drosulfakinin (DSK) that functions at single-neuron resolution to suppress male sexual behavior in Drosophila. We found that Dsk neurons physiologically interact with male-specific P1 neurons, part of a command center for male sexual behaviors, and function oppositely to regulate multiple arousal-related behaviors including sex, sleep and spontaneous walking. We further found that the DSK-2 peptide functions through its receptor CCKLR-17D3 to suppress sexual behaviors in flies. Such a neuropeptide circuit largely overlaps with the fruitless-expressing neural circuit that governs most aspects of male sexual behaviors. Thus DSK/CCKLR signaling in the sex ...
Animal and human psychology 692-692.5......Psychology of sex. Sexual behavior 697-697.5......Differential psychology. ...
See also: Animal sexual behavior § Mammals. Annual breeding cycles sometimes apply to mammals, with regulating environmental ... Breeding in the wild is the natural process of animal reproduction occurring in the natural habitat of a given species. This ... Certain common characteristics apply to various taxa within the animal kingdom, which traits are often sorted among amphibians ... terminology is distinct from animal husbandry or breeding of species in captivity. Breeding locations are often chosen for very ...
See also: Animal sexual behavior § Seahorse. The male seahorse is equipped with a pouch on the ventral, or front-facing, side ... Alcock, John (2005). Animal Behavior (8th ed.). Massachusetts: Sinauer. pp. 370-1. ISBN 0878930051.. ... Scientists believe the courtship behavior synchronizes the animals' movements and reproductive states so the male can receive ... Both animals then sink back into the seagrass and she swims away.[citation needed][19] ...
Archives of Sexual Behavior. 47 (1): 27-31. doi:10.1007/s10508-017-1092-4. PMID 28986707. S2CID 33422845. Gavrilets, Sergey; ... Poiani, Aldo (2010-08-19). Animal Homosexuality: A Biosocial Perspective. Cambridge University Press. p. 378. ISBN 978-1-139- ... Archives of Sexual Behavior. 47 (1): 27-31. doi:10.1007/s10508-017-1092-4. ISSN 1573-2800. PMID 28986707. S2CID 33422845. ... In 1999, journalist Caleb Crain published an article in the gay magazine Out in which he spoke with several sexual orientation ...
Kinsey, A. C.; Pomeroy, W. B.; Martin, C. E.; Gebhard, P. H. (1998). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Indiana University ... Breed, Michael D.; Moore, Janice (2010). Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-08-045336-1. Retrieved 28 May ... Veening, J.G.; Coolen, L.M. (1998). "Neural activation following sexual behavior in the male and female rat brain". Behav Brain ... Dunn, M.E.; Trost, J.E. (1989). "Male Multiple Orgasms: A Descriptive Study". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 18 (5): 377-387. doi ...
Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10(1), 21-24. Braun, M. F., & Bryan, A. (2006). Female waist-to-hip and male waist-to-shoulder ... Animal Behaviour, 50(6), 1601-1615 Hughes, Susan M.; Harrison, Marissa A.; Gallup, Gordon G. Jr. (May 2002). "The sound of ... Thornhill, R., & Gangestad, S. W. (1994). Human fluctuating asymmetry and sexual behavior. Psychological Science, 5(5), 297-302 ... Low FA males report more sexual partners across a lifetime, an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and have more offspring ...
... it is derived from sexual behavior but is used for social communication. It involves the animal spreading his thighs and having ... Sarkar, A. (2003). Sexual Behaviour In Animals. Discovery Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-7141-746-9. Modern Livestock and ... Dixson, AF (1989). "Sexual Selection, Genital Morphology, and Copulatory Behavior in Male Galagos". International Journal of ... A penis (plural penises or penes /-niːz/) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive ...
For the animal sexual posture, see Lordosis behavior.. Lordosis. Diagram showing normal curvature (posterior concavity) of the ...
"A note on the sexual behavior of male camel (Camelus dromedarius)". The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 43 (12): 1092-4. ... Camels have a slow growth rate and reach sexual maturity slower than sheep or goat. The age of sexual maturity varies ... Knoess, K.H. (1977). "The camel as a meat and milk animal". World Animal Review. Archived from the original on 2016-02-03. ... King, S.A. (2007). Animal Dreaming: The Spiritual and Symbolic Language of the Australasian Animals (Revised and expanded ed ...
Violence against women Animal sexual behaviour: coercive sex Sexual selection Sexy son hypothesis Connor, Richard and Vollmer, ... "Thornhill introduces this theory by describing the sexual behavior of scorpionflies. In which the male may gain sex from the ... Forced sex in animals Abele, L.; Gilchrist, S. (1977). "Homosexual rape and sexual selection in Acanthocephalan worms". Science ... We can see behavior resembling rape in humans in the animal kingdom, including ducks and geese[citation needed], bottlenose ...
Copulation refers to sexual behaviors observed in animals. Most adult moths mate on the day that they emerge from pupation. ... Courting is a behavior that displays the attempt of one sex of the species to attract the other sex for copulation. Antennae ... Oviposition refers to a process in which animals lay eggs. There are three different oviposition sites of S. littoralis females ... Pheromones refer to chemical factors secreted by an organism that effect the social behavior of other organisms that receive ...
... it is derived from sexual behavior, but is used for social communication. It involves the animal spreading his thighs and ... Blitz, J.; Ploog, D. W.; Ploog, F. (1963). "Studies on the social and sexual behavior of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus ... effects of endocrine status of females on behavior within heterosexual pairs". Hormones and Behavior. 8 (1): 100-106. doi: ... Feeding ecology directly affects the females of the group which in turn affects the behavior of the males in the group. The ...
Crépault, Claude; Couture, Marcel (1980). "Men's erotic fantasies". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 9 (6): 565-81. doi:10.1007/ ... It features avatars who are anthropomorphic animals.. *^ Baldwin, Denis (August 2006). "Walk With the Animals: Local furries ... is sometimes used to indicate sexual activity or sexual material within the fandom-this applies to sexual activity and ... One of the most universal behaviors in the furry fandom is the creation of a fursona - an anthropomorphic animal representation ...
Archives of Sexual Behavior. 40 (3): 559-64. doi:10.1007/s10508-010-9632-1. PMID 20480220. Hamilton, W. J.; Arrowood, P. C. ( ... Animal Behaviour. 48 (3): 687-694. doi:10.1006/anbe.1994.1288. Stockley, P (1997). "Sexual conflict resulting from adaptations ... Archives of Sexual Behavior. 40 (3): 559-64. doi:10.1007/s10508-010-9632-1. PMID 20480220. Hamilton, J.; Arrowood, P. C. (1978 ... Archives of Sexual Behavior. 41 (5): 1121-1125. doi:10.1007/s10508-011-9874-6. ISSN 0004-0002. PMC 3563256. PMID 22089325. ...
Effects of olfactory cues on sexual-behavior in the brown lemming, Lemmus trimucronatus. Journal of Comparative Psychology, ... Early development of climbing skills in harvest mice, Micromys minutus (Muridae, Rodentia). Animal Behavior, 58, 203-209. https ... Animal Behaviour, 64, 11-21. Brandt, R.; Macdonald, D.W. 2011. To know him is to love him? Familiarity and female preference in ... In: Animal Behaviour, 82(2):353-358. Harris, S. & Trout, R. C. 1991. Harvest mouse Micromys minutus. In: The Handbook of ...
See also: Animal sexual behavior § Seahorse. Seahorse life-cycle. The male seahorse is equipped with a pouch on the ventral, or ... Alcock, John (2005). Animal Behavior (8th ed.). Massachusetts: Sinauer. pp. 370-1. ISBN 978-0878930050. .. ... Scientists believe the courtship behavior synchronizes the animals' movements and reproductive states, so that the male can ... Animals sold as "freshwater seahorses" are usually the closely related pipefish, of which a few species live in the lower ...
A series of heavy/dirty jokes about disgusting sexual or scatological facts of animal behavior. Talks about the size of ...
Kinsey, A. C.; Pomeroy, W. B.; Martin, C. E.; Gebhard, P. H. (1998). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Indiana University ... Breed, Michael D.; Moore, Janice (2010). Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-08-045336-1. . Retrieved 28 May ... Gray, Peter B. (1 April 2013). Evolution and Human Sexual Behavior. Harvard University Press. pp. 9-. ISBN 978-0-674-07437-8. ... Dunn, M.E.; Trost, J.E. (1989). "Male Multiple Orgasms: A Descriptive Study". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 18 (5): 377-387. doi ...
Not much is known about the sexual behavior of worm pearlfish. Sexually mature male-female pairs of worm pearlfish been found ... "Encheliophis vermicularis Finless pearlfish". Animal Diversity. Retrieved 3 February 2013. "Encheliophis vermicularis". ...
The redback spider is one of only two animals known where the male has been found to actively assist the female in sexual ... Forster, L. M. (1992). "The Stereotyped Behavior of Sexual Cannibalism in Latrodectus-Hasselti Thorell (Araneae, Theridiidae), ... Animal studies also support its use against envenomation from other widow spiders, having successfully been tested against ... The redback is one of few arachnids that usually display sexual cannibalism while mating. After mating sperm is stored in the ...
Animal studies have shown that stimulating the amygdala appears to increase both sexual and aggressive behavior. Likewise, ... Such studies suggest that animals lacking an amygdala have less fear expression and indulge in non-species-like behavior. Many ... Swaab DF (September 2007). "Sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior". Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology ... If a drug that activates the amygdalae is injected into the amygdalae, the animals had better memory for the training in the ...
It is not clear if sodomy even had any specific representation of sexual behavior between men. It could be used for sexual ... He puts an emphasis in distinguishing between intellectual lover, or love of the mind, and animal love, or love of the body. ... What is more, the words we would use to describe homosexual behavior is either anachronistic to the time period or it carried ... The sonnets are writing about a pure platonic form of love and modern readers are injecting too much sexual politics into his ...
They also compare the sexual behavior of humans with that of other animals. Sorry I was unfaithful, my brain chemicals made me ... animal kingdom New Scientist Monogamy not the norm among animals Providence Journal Can we learn about monogamy from animals? ... The Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People is a 2001 book by psychologist David P. Barash and ...
If the animals are caged, the rats show no increase in sexual behavior. Females rats will even show aggression if her genitalia ... Heermann's kangaroo rat rarely show increased levels of sexual behavior. Copulation is rather quick, and typically only lasts a ... Heermann's kangaroo rats are burrowing animals, and they manipulate the tunnels already made by other burrowing animals to make ... This behavior consists of them lying on their bellies with they hind limbs extended or alternating keeping either their fore or ...
O'Loghlen, A.L. & Beecher; M.D. (1997): Sexual preferences for mate song types in female song sparrows. Animal Behavior 53(4): ...
In animals[edit]. A single study has shown that T. terrestris can alter sexual behavior in castrated rats.[22] It appears to do ... The spines of the nutlets point upward, where they stick into feet and fur of animals, and are thereby dispersed.[2] This ... Animal studies in rats, rabbits, and primates have demonstrated ambiguous results. One study found that administration of ... Gokshura is believed to contribute to overall physical, as well as sexual, strength by building all the tissues, especially ...
Elgar, Mark (1991). "Sexual Cannibalism, Size Dimorphism, and Courtship Behavior in Orb-Weaving Spiders (Araneidae)". Evolution ... "Animal Behaviour. 59 (3): 603-611. doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1327. ISSN 0003-3472. PMID 10715183. S2CID 41339367.. ... Sexual size dimorphism[edit]. Sexual dimorphism refers to physical differences between males and females of the same species. ... Elgar, M. A. (1990). "Sexual dimorphism in leg-length among orb-weaving spiders: a possible role for sexual cannibalism". ...
Humans and animals that inhale the pollen exhibit strange behavior, sexual activity, and violence. The original colonists had ... This animal is never clearly described. It may be partly a joke based on the Jackalope or the Wolpertinger. The ice-rabbit ... It apparently hunts by seeking warmth, and it will attack any warm-blooded animal. It catches its prey by screaming to paralyze ... Some of them are fairly wealthy, owning lands and raising crops or animals, or having successful businesses, such as tailoring ...
"The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Promote Sexual Health and Responsible Sexual Behavior". U. S. Department of Health and ... "The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals". The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. "People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals". PETA. Retrieved 9 June 2015. The ... These types of behavior have strong adverse influences on mental health. As such, psychologists must be particularly vigilant ...
The physiological basis of sexual behavior in male reptiles. In C. Gans and D. Crews, Hormones, brain and behavior: Biology of ... Some biologists have used shemale to refer to male non-human animals displaying female traits or behaviors, such as female ... Archives of Sexual Behavior. 35 (4): 501-506. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9040-8. PMID 16900416. S2CID 23425058. Shine, R.; Phillips ... SAGE, ISBN 978-1-4129-0999-0 Blanchard, R.; Collins, P. I. (1993). "Men with sexual interest in transvestites, transsexuals, ...
Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive - carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores ... McKenna, R. J. (1972). "Some Effects of Anxiety Level and Food Cues on the Eating Behavior of Obese and Normal Subjects: A ... Physiologically, animals must be able to obtain both energy and nutrients from plant and animal materials to be considered ... Other animals[edit]. Mammals[edit]. This section is transcluded from Mammal#Feeding. (edit , history) ...
Elton CS (1927) Animal Ecology. Republished 2001. University of Chicago Press. *^ Allee, W. C. (1932). Animal life and social ... Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 253-269. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01460.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-16.. ... One of the earliest descriptions of a food chain was described by a medieval Afro-Arab scholar named Al-Jahiz: "All animals, in ... In a detrital web, plant and animal matter is broken down by decomposers, e.g., bacteria and fungi, and moves to detritivores ...
... animal behavior and other factors may trigger outbreaks among animal populations.[82] ... Ebola can stay in some body parts like the eyes,[143] breasts, and testicles after infection.[4][144] Sexual transmission after ... Other animals. Wild animals. Ebola has a high mortality rate among primates.[241] Frequent outbreaks of Ebola may have resulted ... Blood samples were taken from 178 animal handlers during the incident.[249] Of those, six animal handlers eventually ...
Amphibians are predatory animals. They mostly eat live invertebrates and animals that do not move too quickly. These include ... The ecology & behavior of amphibians. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226893340 *↑ "American Bullfrog". ... This means they get to sexual maturity and reproduce while still in a larval form. ... Fish and other animals eat most of their eggs. Male midwife toads carry their eggs on their backs. When they are ready to hatch ...
The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animal.. *^ a b Sharman Apt Russell (2006). Hunger an unnatural ... "The Predatory Behavior and Ecology of Wild Chimpanzees".. *^ Milton, Katharine (1999). "A hypothesis to explain the role of ... Sexual division of labor may have been developed to allow humans to acquire food and other resources more efficiently.[63] ... and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals (such as ...
"Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2013-08-21.. *^ a b c d e f g h Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide ... Sexual behaviour by the male at this time includes stretching low, ears down, sniffing of the female's vulva, performing ritual ... The animal is placed in the genus Connochaetes and family Bovida] and was first described by the German zoologist Eberhard ... In some animals, the auditory bullae are highly deformed, and in others, the radius and ulna are fused.[13] ...
Other animals[edit]. Acne can occur on cats,[198] dogs,[199] and horses.[200][201] ... sexual dysfunction, and decreased bone mineral density, make its use for male acne impractical in most cases.[114][115][116] ... which has been shown in animal studies, and the caution that "Unnecessary use of this drug should be avoided."[77][119] ... the list of causes was believed to include excessive sexual thoughts and masturbation.[181] Dermatology's association with ...
Sexual dimorphism[edit]. Pickerel frogs display sexual dimorphism; the females are typically larger and darker in color than ... At the ponds, pickerel frogs are usually observed in large groups in the water.[8] Mating behavior is not much different from ... Arnold, K. (2000). Lithobates palustris Pickerel Frog (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed August 29, 2014. ... In general, secondary sexual characteristic are not typically evident outside of the breeding season; therefore, pickerel frogs ...
Sexual reproduction[edit]. Most barnacles are hermaphroditic, although a few species are gonochoric or androdioecious. The ... Martin Walters & Jinny Johnson (2007). The World of Animals. Bath, Somerset: Parragon. ISBN 978-1-4054-9926-2. .. .mw-parser- ... Their physiology and role in the control of behavior". Progress in Neurobiology. 4: 211-239. doi:10.1016/0301-0082(75)90002-7. ... The geological history of barnacles can be traced back to animals such as Priscansermarinus from the Middle Cambrian (on the ...
"Interspecific Evaluation of Octopus Escape Behavior" (PDF). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. Lawrence Erlbaum ... Uhlenbeck, Chris; Margarita Winkel; Ellis Tinios; Amy Reigle Newland (2005). Japanese Erotic Fantasies: Sexual Imagery of the ... "What behavior can we expect of octopuses?". The Cephalopod Page.. *^ Lee, Henry (1875). "V: The octopus out of water". Aquarium ... World Animal Foundation. Retrieved 12 April 2017.. *^ Simon, Matt (16 January 2015). "Absurd Creature of the Week: The ...
Reuber M, Elger CE (June 2003). "Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: review and update". Epilepsy & Behavior. 4 (3): 205-16. doi ... Sexual. *Ego-dystonic sexual orientation. *Paraphilia *Fetishism. *Voyeurism. *Sexual maturation disorder. *Sexual relationship ... Reuber M, Elger CE (June 2003). "Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: review and update". Epilepsy & Behavior. 4 (3): 205-16. doi ... Asadi-Pooya AA, Sperling MR (May 2015). "Epidemiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures". Epilepsy & Behavior. 46: 60-5. doi ...
"Ohio State dissolves Sexual Civility and Empowerment unit". Ohio State dissolves Sexual Civility and Empowerment unit. ... Neuroscience & Behavior. 81 Oncology. 16 Pharmacology & Toxicology. 50 Physics. 31 Plant & Animal Science. 43 ... "Ohio State closes sexual-assault center, fires 4 after complaints". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved July 20, 2018.. ... "Ohio State shuts down its Sexual Civility and Empowerment unit". The Lantern. Retrieved July 20, 2018.. ...
Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine. Non-human animals. Homosexual behavior in animals (List). ... Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia, & Swaab, Dick F., Sexual Hormones and the Brain: An Essential Alliance for Sexual Identity and Sexual ... Talaksan:Sexual orientation hakdog - 4 symbols.svg,thumb,right]] Ang kamalayang pangkasarian, kamulatang pangkasarian, ... "Sexuality, What is sexual orientation?". American Psychological Association. Hinango noong 2008-08-12.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
Behavior[edit]. African pygmy squirrels live in trees, they are diurnal squirrels that spend time searching for food, due to ... These calls may warn young or nearby animals of a threat. Food habits[edit]. Unlike most squirrels, African pygmy squirrels ... There is slight sexual dimorphism between males and females, with female body size moderately smaller than males but male ... Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (compilers and editors) (1996). 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, ...
Sexual harassment[edit]. Main article: Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is behavior that denigrates or mistreats an ... Greenberg, E.S., & Grunberg, L. (1995). Work alienation and problem alcohol behavior. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36 ... Organizations can play a role in the health behavior of employees by providing resources to encourage healthy behavior in areas ... G. Everly & R.H.L. Feldman (Eds.), Occupational health promotion: Health behavior in the workplace (pp. 188-207). New York: ...
Webb, J. C.; Sivinski, J.; Litzkow, C. (1984-06-01). "Acoustical Behavior and Sexual Success in the Caribbean Fruit Fly, ... In animals[edit]. Invertebrates[edit]. Insects[edit]. Communication is very important for animals all throughout the animal ... Display behaviour is a set of ritualized behaviours that enable an animal to communicate to other animals (typically of the ... This auditory courtship behavior is also seen in fruit flies like A. suspensa when they perform calling and pre-copulatory ...
AnimalsEdit. Wild animalsEdit. Few studies have found evidence of regular incest avoidance in mammals but banded mongooses are ... "ADVS 3910 Wild Horses Behavior", College of Agriculture, Utah State University. *^ Freilich S, Hoelzel AR, Choudhury SR. " ... Thus, similar immune systems may be more vulnerable to infectious diseases (see Major histocompatibility complex and sexual ... Small animals such as cats and dogs may be sterilized, but in the case of large agricultural animals, such as cattle, culling ...
International Fund for Animal Welfare. Retrieved 29 August 2015.. *. Viegas, Jennifer (23 February 2010). "Thousands Mourn Dead ... Miller, P. J. O.; Aoki, K.; Rendell, L. E.; Amano, M. (2008). "Stereotypical resting behavior of the sperm whale". Current ... Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, in that the females are larger than males. Baleen whales have no teeth; instead they ... These animals have very large heads, which can make up as much as 40% of their body mass, and much of the head is the mouth. ...
In mating, for many animals the signals and receptors of sexual communication may have evolved simultaneously as the expression ... All of these morphological deviations influence the behavior and Metabolism of the mouse. For example, mice with the Mini ... A study on seed beetles found that intralocus sexual conflict arises when selection for certain alleles of a gene that are ... Pleiotropy not only affects humans, but also animals, such as chickens and laboratory house mice, where the mice have the "mini ...
... and sometimes switch between monogamy and promiscuity in their sexual behavior.[citation needed] One study found that wood ... "Animal Planet :: Ferocious Crocs". 2008-09-10. Retrieved March 16, 2010.. ... a b Colbert, E.H. & Morales, M. (2001): Colbert's Evolution of the Vertebrates: A History of the Backboned Animals Through Time ... The oldest known animal that may have been an amniote is Casineria (though it may have been a temnospondyl).[35][36][37] A ...
Animal Behaviour. vol 65, p. 923-934.. *Hoover JP. (2006). Water depth influences nest predation for a wetland-dependent bird ... 1995). Roosting behavior of Prothonotary Warblers in the non-breeding season. The Wilson Bulletin. vol 107, no 2. p. 374. ... Lopez Ornat A & Greenberg R. (1990). Sexual Segregation by Habitat in Migratory Warblers in Quintana Roo Mexico. Auk. vol 107, ... Animal Behaviour. vol 72, p. 881-890.. *Knutson MG & Klaas EE. (1997). Declines in abundance and species richness of birds ...
... the position holding that all behavior is caused by prior behavior. "Predeterminism" is the position holding that all behavior ... and between the behaving animal and its environment".[141] In this view, mind and neurological functions are tightly coupled in ... Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?. MIT Press. pp. 119-21. ISBN 0262512572.. *^ Wegner D., 2002. The Illusion of Conscious Will ... Responsibility does not require that behavior be uncaused, as long as behavior responds to praise and blame.[163] Moreover, it ...
Mate searching behavior and male-male conflict[edit]. A female attracts males by perching atop the host plant feeding area and ... There is slight sexual dimorphism, with males having more patterns and a distinct white spot on each of their forewings. The ... "Southern and Eastern African countries agree on urgent actions to tackle armyworm and other crop pests and animal diseases". ... The term "armyworm" can refer to several species, often describing the large-scale invasive behavior of the species' larval ...
Urination and sexual activity. Urolagnia is an inclination to obtain sexual enjoyment by looking at or thinking of urine or ... Animal Behaviour Abstracts. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts. 1998. Retrieved 22 March 2013.. *^ Ecology Abstracts. Cambridge ... Case, Linda P. (2010). Canine and Feline Behavior and Training: A Complete Guide to Understanding our Two Best Friends: A ... Field Guide to Animal Tracks and Scat of California. Retrieved 10 February 2013.. ...
Clinical behavior analysis. *List of cognitive-behavioral therapies. *List of counseling topics ... Animal-assisted therapy. *Art therapy. *Attack therapy. *Attachment-based psychotherapy. *Attachment-based therapy (children) ... Sexual identity therapy. *Sex therapy. *Social therapy. *Solution focused brief therapy. *Somatic experiencing ...
Rates of sexual dimorphism are difficult to determine as early hominin anatomy is poorly known, and are largely based on few ... Ingold, T. (2000). "Building, dwelling, living: how animals and people make themselves at home in the world". The Perception of ... Marchi, D.; Harper, C. M.; Chirchir, H.; Ruff, C. B. (2019). "Relative fibular strength and locomotor behavior in KNM-WT 15000 ... The degree of sexual dimorphism and the size disparity between males and females is often used to correlate between polygyny ...
With these findings, animal model research has served to identify what these roles are - with regards to animal development and ... Frequent human handling of the rat pups may cause their mother to exhibit more nurturant behavior, such as licking and grooming ... "Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood". JAMA. 284 (5): 592- ... In animal experiments, exposure to prenatal stress has been shown to cause a hyper-reactive HPA stress response. Rats that have ...
The increased consumption of legumes, or animals that eat them, causes 15N in the body to decrease. Nitrogen isotopes in bone ... Bioarchaeology: interpreting behavior from the human skeleton. Cambridge University Press. S. Mays, 1998. The archaeology of ... Humans are sexually dimorphic, although overlap in body shape and sexual characteristics is possible. Not all skeletons can be ... There are numerous researchers studying violence, exploring a range of different types of violent behavior among past human ...
As early as 1962 changes in the animals reproductive behavior started taking place. They found that some of the "tame" foxes ... Experimenters offered food from their hand while trying to stroke and handle the pup; at sexual maturity, at seven or eight ... "On correlation of behavior characteristics with reproductive function in fur bearing animals of the Canidae family" from the ... "Measurement of segregating behaviors in experimental silver fox pedigrees". Behavior Genetics. 38: 185-194.. ...
Fluctuating asymmetry Neoteny Sexual selection Langlois, J.H.; Roggman, L. (1990). "Attractive faces are only average". Psychol ... Thus symmetry may serve as an honest signal of mate quality in both humans and animals. However Langlois, Roggman and Musselman ... Evolution and Human Behavior. 20: 295-307. doi:10.1016/s1090-5138(99)00014-8. Morris, M.R.; Casey, K. (1998). "Female swordtail ... fish prefer symmetrical sexual signal". Animal Behaviour. 55: 33-39. doi:10.1006/anbe.1997.0580. Swaddle, J.P.; Cuthill, I.C. ( ...
"Sexual Behavior, Animal" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Sexual Behavior, Animal" was a major or ... "Sexual Behavior, Animal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Sexual Behavior, Animal*Sexual Behavior, Animal. *Animal Sexual Behavior. *Animal Sexual Behaviors ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Sexual Behavior, Animal" by people in Profiles. ...
... Ah-King, Malin Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and ...
Non-reproductive sexual behavior consists of sexual activities animals participate in that do not lead to the reproduction of ... Although procreation continues to be the primary explanation for sexual behavior in animals, recent observations on animal ... among non-human animals is sexual activity in which one animal rubs his or her genitals against the genitals of another animal ... The behavior of laboratory animals demonstrates a mental experience wherein the animals instincts tell it if it carries out a ...
FURTHER READING: Lee A. Dugatkin, Principles of Animal Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 2013), chap. 7, "Sexual ... FURTHER READING: Lee A. Dugatkin, Principles of Animal Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 2013), chap. 7, "Sexual ... FURTHER READING: Lee A. Dugatkin, Principles of Animal Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 2013), chap. 7, "Sexual ... FURTHER READING: Lee A. Dugatkin, Principles of Animal Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York: Norton, 2013), Chap. 7, "Sexual Selection ...
Adult Altered State Animals Consciousness Female Humans Hypnosis Male Middle Aged Psychological Psychophysiology Wellness More ... In animals of the same species, the reflexes, having evolved similarly, in a few milliseconds, automatically activate the ... These neurophysiological functions have allowed the animals to be free from predators and increasy their longevity and, as a ... Substantial insights into the nature of this sexual antagonism have recently come from studies of two different fly species. ...
Research: Intergenerational Sexual Behaviors in Animals. From NewgonWiki. Revision as of 04:53, 12 October 2013 by Jillium ( ... Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31 (6), 467-471. Citing: De Waal, F. (1990). "Sociosexual behavior used for tension regulation in ... sexual behavior between adults and juveniles is widespread in these species. About a quarter of all courtship and sexual ... Wapiti, Elk, or Red Deer and Barasingha (Cervus elaphus) or Swamp Deer (Cervus duvauceli): "Sexual behavior by calves - ...
Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral ... This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, ... This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, ... Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by ...
The results of a battery of behavior tests for socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors, the numbers of vasopressin- ... Males in the low-dose group also showed a significant increase in sexual and aggressive behaviors. In contrast, neither the ... Males in the low-dose group also showed a significant increase in sexual and aggressive behaviors. In contrast, neither the ... socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors, as well as testosterone level and the number of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells in ...
Why animals court their own sex. Press Releases • May 13, 2016 01:00 BST Same-sex sexual behavior is common in animals but ... A study from Uppsala University sheds new light on the pervasiveness of same-sex sexual behavior in the animal kingdom. ... Male same-sex sexual behavior. Image • May 13, 2016 01:00 BST ... the same obvious benefits as heterosexual courtship behavior ...
Why Is Same-Sex Sexual Behavior So Common in Animals?. Its long been considered an evolutionary puzzle, but new research ...
Sexual behavior in the human male. [Alfred C Kinsey; Wardell B Pomeroy; Clyde E Martin] -- Based on surveys made by members of ... Animal contacts --. Clinical tables.. Responsibility:. Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell B. Pomeroy, Clyde E. Martin.. ... behavior> # Sexual Behavior a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Sexual Behavior"@en ;. . ... Age and sexual outlet --. Marital status and sexual outlet --. Age of adolescence and sexual outlet --. Social level and sexual ...
... and religious adherence are reflected in patterns of sexual behavior. The authors make comparisons of female and male sexual ... Originally published in 1953, the material presented in Sexual Behavior in the Human Female was derived from personal ... and male patterns of behavior and provide some measure of the social significance of the various types of sexual behavior. ... The study revealed the incidence and frequency with which women participate in various types of sexual activity and how such ...
See also: Animal sexual behavior § Mammals. Annual breeding cycles sometimes apply to mammals, with regulating environmental ... Breeding in the wild is the natural process of animal reproduction occurring in the natural habitat of a given species. This ... Certain common characteristics apply to various taxa within the animal kingdom, which traits are often sorted among amphibians ... terminology is distinct from animal husbandry or breeding of species in captivity. Breeding locations are often chosen for very ...
See also: Animal sexual behavior § Seahorse. The male seahorse is equipped with a pouch on the ventral, or front-facing, side ... Alcock, John (2005). Animal Behavior (8th ed.). Massachusetts: Sinauer. pp. 370-1. ISBN 0878930051.. ... Scientists believe the courtship behavior synchronizes the animals movements and reproductive states so the male can receive ... Both animals then sink back into the seagrass and she swims away.[citation needed][19] ...
6 Uncouth Sexual Behaviors Of Penguins Were Banned From Publication. In the early 1900s, explorer George Murray Levick and his ... Some say that animals are better than us because animals do not start wars. However, many animal behaviors have shown that ... 10 Animal Behaviors That Mimic Many Of The Worst Behaviors In Humans. ... Although these behaviors may sound cold, the instinctual drive in the animal kingdom is to survive and procreate. From this ...
Definitions of the important terms you need to know about in order to understand Animal Behavior: Learning, including Altricial ... Sexual imprinting A type of general imprinting in which individuals recognize and, later in life, are attracted to features of ... A young animal that recognizes and is attracted to another animal is said to be imprinted upon that animal. The process of ... Animal Farm. The Merchant of Venice. The Taming of the Shrew. To Kill a Mockingbird. $value$. hidden> ...
Sexual Harassment & Abusive Behavior Training Requirement. California businesses with five or more employees must provide ... Animal Abuse Reporting Requirements. *Animal Transportation / Health Certificates Information *Interstate Health Certificate ... Animal Abuse Reporting Requirements. *Animal Transportation / Health Certificates Information *Interstate Health Certificate ... List of Reportable Conditions for Animals and Animal Products - CDFA. *Marijuana and Veterinary Practice Resources *AB 2215 ( ...
Homosexuality in Animals: An Analysis of Sexual Behavior Theories Amanda Gibbs. Department of Biology. Lake Forest College. ... Animal Welfare Legislation and Standards for Farmed Animals: The Lack Thereof Brittany Schweiger. Department of Environmental ... Isotopes: Unconventional Tools in Illuminating Patterns of Animal Movement Emily Ong. Department of Biology Lake Forest College ...
Animal sexual behavior Is the Subject Area "Animal sexual behavior" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Animal migration Is the Subject Area "Animal migration" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Sexual Behavior, Animal* ... 1 Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, ...
For flying animals, wing asymmetry is particularly costly and it is unclear if behavioural side-biases will be expressed in ... Animal sexual behavior Is the Subject Area "Animal sexual behavior" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Animal behavior Is the Subject Area "Animal behavior" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Behavior Is the Subject Area "Behavior" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
4 Sexual Behavior 83. 5 Maternal Behavior 127. 6 Development of Behavior 163. 7 Learning 191. 8 Ingestive Behavior: Food and ... Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists In der 6. Auflage von Domestic Animal Behavior for ... Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists. Houpt, Katherine A.. 6. Auflage März 2018. 448 Seiten, ... In der 6. Auflage von Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists wurde dieser beliebte Klassiker, der ...
... illustrates one caudal section from an animal that received 6 weeks of sexual experience and was tested for sexual behavior. ... Sexual behavior effects on c-Fos expression in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens. Sexual behavior testing increased c ... Sexual behavior measures. The lordosis durations during the test for sexual behavior on week 7 were compared between the ... Our findings not only indicate that female sexual behavior can activate neurons in the nucleus accumbens but also that sexual ...
Sexual behavior (Animals), Wild turkeys. Less. Common terms and phrases. .cloud9 {color: #7777cc;font-size: 10px;}.cloud8 { ...
Sexual Behavior, Animal* * Testis / physiology* * Testosterone / administration & dosage * Testosterone / pharmacology* * ...
... primate behavior • Sex Characteristics • Sex Factors • Sexual Behavior, Animal • Social Dominance • Time Factors. Duties: ... Aggression • AnimalsAnimals, Wild • Animals, Zoo • behavioral thermoregulation • Callithrix • callitrichines • Copulation • ... Digby, LJ, Sexual behavior and extragroup copulations in a wild population of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)., Folia ... In addition, I examine how animals mitigate the costs of temperature extremes through behavior and the use of microhabitats. ...
Sexual Behavior, AnimalSexual Maturation • Silicon Dioxide • Social Behavior • Species Specificity • Spectrum Analysis, ... AnimalsAnimals, Laboratory • Animals, Newborn • Animals, Wild • Anthropology, Physical • Arm • Asian Langurs • Behavior, ... and hormonal variation to environmental conditions in free-ranging animals, we are able to interpret primate behaviors in the ... diurnal or cathemeral behavior (Erkert and Cramer, 2006). The debate over the evolution of lemur nychthemeral behavior ...
Ethology has existed as a concept since 1762 when it was defined in France as the study of animal behavior. In this sense it ... see SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, article on ANIMAL SEXUAL BEHAVIOR.] This susceptibility of animals to supernormal releasers provides us ... 2001). Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer. The standard college textbook of animal behavior, ... 1993). Perspectives on Animal Behavior. New York: Wiley. A solid introduction to animal behavior that seeks to introduce both ...
Dominguez J. M. and Hull E. M. (2005). Dopamine, the medial preoptic area, and male sexual behavior. Physiology and Behavior 86 ... Tenter A. M., Heckeroth A. R. and Weiss L. M. (2000). Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. International Journal for ... Hull E. M., Muschamp J. W. and Sato S. (2004). Dopamine and serotonin: influences on male sexual behavior. Physiology and ... Szczypka M. S., Zhou Q. Y. and Palmiter R. D. (1998). Dopamine-stimulated sexual behavior is testosterone dependent mice. ...
Often, the value of the research depends on how well the animal ... animal models to study how an intervention influences behavior ... Animal Behavior Similar to Human Response. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ... Researchers frequently use animal models to study how an intervention influences behavior. Often, the value of the research ... Home » News » Animal Behavior Similar to Human Response. .fn{margin:-2px 0 0 0;font-size:90%!important}.time-read{color:#777; ...
  • Once this flexibility is established, it becomes in and of itself a selective force that can drive selection on other aspects of physiology, life history, social behavior and even morphology," explains Dr. Bailey. (
  • Sex is the most potent selective force acting on animal behavior, shaping many aspects of animals' behavior and physiology. (
  • My research has centered on the evolution primate social and reproductive behavior (including female-female competition) for many years. (
  • We compare ethical concerns about pharmaceutical fertility control with alternative strategies for managing animals' reproductive behavior including (where appropriate) spaying and neutering, sex separation, sex sorting, culling, and doing nothing. (
  • These data illustrate why it is also necessary to consider gamete production capacity in order to analyze reproductive behavior. (
  • Dave Mosher for Scientific American states that modern scientists have recently begun to question whether amoebas are actually purely asexual or if the reproductive behavior scientists have studied in the past is merely the result of controlled laboratory conditions. (
  • Abilitation of reproductive behavior. (
  • Non-reproductive sexual behavior consists of sexual activities animals participate in that do not lead to the reproduction of the species. (
  • Several species in the animal kingdom turn to sexual activity as a way to solve a disagreement. (
  • Bonobos are one species notoriously known for using sexual behavior to relieve their aggression with each other. (
  • Intergenerational sexual activity has been documented in numerous species. (
  • Breeding in the wild is the natural process of animal reproduction occurring in the natural habitat of a given species. (
  • This terminology is distinct from animal husbandry or breeding of species in captivity . (
  • Understanding this type of behavioral thermoregulation and use of microhabitats could have far reaching implications for why animals are restricted to certain types of forest, geographic locations and even how species respond to long-term climate variation. (
  • they are thus interested in the biology of a species, and their prime interest is behavior as it occurs under natural conditions. (
  • The ethologist always begins by compiling an "action catalogue," or ethogram of the species in question, that is, as complete a description as possible of the behavior throughout the animal's life cycle. (
  • The various behavior patterns are then classified and compared with those of other species, especially with closely related species. (
  • Although learning is considered to be very important in animal behavior, the first concern of the ethologist is with behavior patterns typically performed by all animals of a species, because it is necessary for him to know the basic predetermined responses before proceeding to study changes brought about by learning. (
  • This paper explores ethical issues raised by the application of non-surgical, pharmaceutical fertility control to manage reproductive behaviors in domesticated and wild animal species. (
  • The behavior of Ateles geoffroyi and related species. (
  • Dr. Bailey, along with co-author Dr. Marlene Zuk, sought to broaden the study of same-sex sexual behavior in animals by examining how these sexual interactions might alter evolutionary dynamics within populations or species. (
  • The authors also acknowledge that the issue of same-sex sexual behavior is controversial for some people and that research results from studies of non-human species have been cited in media articles addressing human gay rights issues. (
  • Most of the animal kingdom view sexual encounters within their own species as a means to a procreative end and do not spend time consumed by intercourse outside of heat cycles. (
  • Hence, sound communication within the species was considered to be the main mechanism that is responsible for sexual partner selection and determines the chromosome associations observed earlier in individual karyotypes. (
  • Animals should be housed with a goal of maximizing species-specific behaviors and minimizing stress-induced behaviors. (
  • The environment in which animals are maintained should be appropriate to the species, its life history, and its intended use. (
  • Expert advice might be sought for special requirements associated with the experiment or animal subject (for example, hazardous-agent use, behavioral studies, and immunocompromised animals, farm animals, and nontraditional laboratory species). (
  • Among other things, our members protect the health and welfare of our nation's animals, help conserve endangered species, and protect animal and human health through prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. (
  • Aggressive behavior is adaptive for most species. (
  • This varies widely throughout the animal kingdom, depending on the dynamics of the species. (
  • Same-sex behavior is a nearly universal phenomenon in the animal kingdom, common across species, from worms to frogs to birds, concludes a new review of existing research. (
  • The review also reports that same-sex behaviors are not the same across species, and that researchers may be calling qualitatively different phenomena by the same name. (
  • Putting gene X into another species and expecting to see a behavior is unrealistic--a 'flight' gene from Drosophila, if it existed, is not going to make a mouse fly," Dickson explains, noting that only members of the same species might be expected to share the same set of "normal" behaviors. (
  • So you need to put gene X in a normal animal of the same species that doesn't normally do Y. This is really only possible with sex-specific behaviors" like courtship, he says. (
  • LS: What are some of the risks that animals in certain species face during sex? (
  • Multiplicity of gamete types within a species would still be considered a form of sexual reproduction. (
  • All members of the group are potential sex partners, males participate in sexual activity with other males, as do females with other females. (
  • Both males and females also engage in masturbation, and younger animals frequently participate in nonpenetrative sexual activity. (
  • In contrast, neither the anxiety levels nor the sexual behaviors of females were altered. (
  • To validate that female sexual behavior can sensitize neurons in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, the locomotor responses of sexually experienced and sexually naive females to an amphetamine injection were then compared. (
  • Studies included research on sexual behavior in males and females, spermatogenesis and oogenesis, sperm and oocyte preservation, artificial insemination, embryo culture and cloning. (
  • Since males carrying different inversion combinations significantly differed in acoustic characteristics, females were assumed to play a main role in selecting the sexual partner. (
  • Upon reaching adulthood, these male rates were introduced to females and had their sexual behavior assessed based on the number of mounts. (
  • In females, high activity of the brain OT system has been linked to the fine-tuned regulation of parturition and milk letdown ( 4 ), to the performance of maternal behaviors ( 3 ), and to the low stress response characteristic for the peripartum period ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Sexual dimorphism refers to differences between males and females in appearance and behavior. (
  • They discovered that female flies with the male version of fruitless behave like males, directing at other females a sexual display nearly identical to their male counterparts. (
  • The finding suggests that the "essential difference in sexual behavior between males and females lies in the functioning of this circuit and not its construction," according to the researchers. (
  • Unfortunately, there's a massive dichotomy between sexual cells of males and females, so males have incredibly abundant sperm , and females have very rare and expensive eggs. (
  • The behavior of laboratory animals demonstrates a mental experience wherein the animal's instincts tell it if it carries out a certain action, it will then receive what it needs. (
  • These data on internal temperatures are then related to ambient temperature at the animal's location while documenting natural behaviors. (
  • This course will introduce students to Behavioral Neuroscience, first by providing an in-depth introduction to behavior, and then focusing on two different approaches that are common in the field: One approach ("neuropsychological") is to study animals in artificial well-controlled tasks, the other ("neuroethological") approach utilizes the animal's natural behaviors. (
  • It is normally dynamic but finally results to a stable relationship and is helpful to study captive animal's behaviors. (
  • Through extensive research, scientists have been able to conclude that the brain reward system in animals is extremely similar to that of humans. (
  • The mechanism of core pleasure reaction is significantly important for animals and humans. (
  • However, many animal behaviors have shown that animals are just as or even more evil than humans. (
  • Intelligent animals seem to exhibit the same personality defects as humans when they are not properly socialized. (
  • In a new study, scientists have identified an alteration to the DNA of a gene that imparts similar anxiety -related behavior in both humans and mice, demonstrating that laboratory animals can be accurately used to study these human behaviors. (
  • Tremendous changes in reproductive biotechnologies of animals and humans have occurred during the past 50 years, more than occurred in the previous millenium. (
  • This means that members of the animal kingdom would have to choose humans as preferred partners for sexual interaction as well. (
  • Most scientists would say that there is little evidence that humans rely very much upon pheromones as a sexual attractant. (
  • In mating, other animals rely upon the sense of smell much more than we humans do. (
  • Sexual activity and mating are accompanied by a high level of arousal, whereas anecdotal and experimental evidence demonstrate that sedation and calmness are common phenomena in the postcoital period in humans. (
  • Because nonhuman primates pose significant risks to the health of the public and domestic animals - including the possibility of severe injury to the humans and domestic animals with which they come in contact - the AVMA opposes private ownership of these animals. (
  • The risks posed to and by nonhuman primates maintained by private individuals fall into four broad categories: inadequate husbandry, physical injury to humans and other domestic animals, disease transmission, and ecosystem concerns. (
  • Privately owned nonhuman primates have attacked humans and other animals, and they have escaped from their cages to roam freely in communities. (
  • We have estimates, for example, of the heritability of sexual orientation in humans, but none that I know of in other animals," he said. (
  • Recently, Bondar spoke with Live Science about the unusual sexual behaviors and equipment used by humans' closest relatives and most distant cousins on the tree of life, and what people's interest in animal sex reveals about them. (
  • Because glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, we tested whether glutamate in 2 min microdialysate samples from the MPOA of male rats increases during sexual activity and whether increasing glutamate levels by reverse dialysis of glutamate uptake inhibitors into the MPOA facilitates sexual behavior. (
  • This study investigated the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on sexual behavior, organ weight, and testosterone levels in adult rats. (
  • Results showed that both cadmium doses disrupted sexual behavior in male rats, and postnatal treatment with testosterone reversed the toxic effects of 10 mg kg -1 cadmium and attenuated the effects of 20 mg kg -1 cadmium. (
  • Cage sizes for mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbit, dogs, cats and farm animals determined by 4BS formula and that for non-human primates are fortunately in much conformity with American and European standards. (
  • The effect of cage size on sexual behavior pattern in male rats' Laboratory Animal Science (USA). (
  • Objective: To evaluate the effects of prenatal and postnatal stress on the sexual behavior of rats. (
  • Methods: Thirty-two 2-month-old male Wistar rats were divided as follows: the EG Group (comprised of 10 rats whose mothers underwent gestational stress), the EO Group (11 rats subjected to postnatal stress), and the SE Group (control group, comprised of 11 animals that went through no stress whatsoever). (
  • We opted to use the sexual drive in rats, measured by counting the number of mounts, as a gender index of the animal. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that sexual activity and mating with a receptive female reduce the level of anxiety and increase risk-taking behavior in male rats for several hours. (
  • In male rats and mice, OT is an important regulator of sexual function ( 10 ), of anxiety ( 11 ), and of stress-coping circuitries ( 12 - 14 ). (
  • Male Wistar rats, which were successfully mated with a receptive female for 30 min during the dark phase, showed significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior, both on the elevated plus maze ( 22 ) ( Fig. 1 a ) and in the black-white box ( 23 ) ( Fig. 1 b ), 30 min after removal of the female rat. (
  • Male Sexual Satiety and the Coolidge Effect in Rats: Relation between Behavioral and Seminal Parameters. (
  • When hungry, the female bonobo will approach a male bonobo and engage in sexual activity to avoid aggression. (
  • Drakaea are pollinated solely by the sexual deception of male thynnine wasps. (
  • Sexual behavior between adults and infants of both sexes is common - about a third of the time it is initiated by the infant and may involve genital rubbing and full copulatory postures (including penetration of an adult female by a male infant). (
  • suppress male sexual behavior in rodents. (
  • These results suggest the possibility that in utero and lactational ACE exposure interferes with the development of the neural circuits required for executing socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors in male mice specifically. (
  • The authors make comparisons of female and male sexual activities and investigate the factors which account for the similarities and differences between female and male patterns of behavior and provide some measure of the social significance of the various types of sexual behavior. (
  • Female hamsters, given either 6 weeks of sexual experience or remaining sexually naive, were tested for sexual behavior by exposure to adult male hamsters. (
  • Seventy seven percent of female and 67 percent of male high school students endorse some form of sexual coercion, including unwanted kissing, hugging, genital contact, and sexual intercourse. (
  • The black scavenger fly Sepsis punctum exhibits striking among-population variation in the direction and magnitude of sexual size dimorphism, modification to the male forelimb and pre-copulatory behaviour. (
  • Here, we investigate whether large male body size and modified forefemur are associated with higher male mating success within populations, whether these traits are associated with higher mating success among populations, and if these traits carry viability costs that could constrain their response to sexual selection. (
  • The medial preoptic area (MPOA) is a critical regulatory site for the control of male sexual behavior. (
  • The medial preoptic area (MPOA) is a central integrative site for the regulation of male sexual behavior. (
  • These data support the conclusion that neural activity in the MPOA is important for male sexual behavior. (
  • Male homosexual behavior in a free-ranging all-male group of Japanese macaques at Minoo, Japan. (
  • Male sexual behavior, histological analysis and weight of organs as well as serum testosterone levels were assessed. (
  • Maternal cadmium exposure effects in sexual parameters of male rat offspring were explained by the altered masculinization of the hypothalamus. (
  • Studies from our laboratory conducted by Salvatori, Talassi, Salzgeber, Spinosa, & Bernardi (2004) demonstrated that prenatal maternal cadmium exposure, particularly during the organogenesis period, damaged male and female sexual behavior by acting as an endocrine disruptor. (
  • The former entails permanent actions that support typical male copulatory behaviors and patterns of gonadotropin secretion. (
  • The effect of cage size on sexual behavior pattern in male mice. (
  • And at this age kids begin to associate certain behaviors, called gender roles , with being male or female. (
  • The EP group comprised 11 male animals whose mothers had not been stressed during gestation. (
  • These beetles are a nice example of sexual dimorphism, the male being larger than the female and sporting a long horn used to move other males out of his way. (
  • It is the final stage and natural objective of male sexual stimulation , and an essential component of natural conception . (
  • A usual precursor to ejaculation is the sexual arousal of the male, leading to the erection of the penis , though not every arousal nor erection leads to ejaculation. (
  • For men, the same behavior -- cuckholding a lower-rank male -- is a mark of overt power. (
  • Numerous animal studies male rat sexual behavior. (
  • If there is no demonstrable relationship between the sexes except with extreme caution with doxazosin to include the hypothalamus the pvn abolished nces and dramatically increased mount, intromission, and ejaculation of semen in diabetic male population over the shoulders and arms but not effeminate behavior in the united states in the. (
  • Interestingly, the depletion of cystic proliferation also impacted male sexual behavior, with a decrease of mating vigor. (
  • Most animals reproduce sexually through the act of traditional male and female embryonic insemination. (
  • A male fly's sexual courtship of a female fly is a complicated business of tapping, singing, wing vibration, and licking, but a single gene is all that is needed to produce this complex behavior, according to new research published in this week's issue of the journal Cell. (
  • Now, Barry J. Dickson and Ebru Demir of the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences show just how intimately fruitless is linked to these stereotypically male behaviors. (
  • Taking the male role is more favorable because it's less work, so these sexual encounters tend to become extremely violent. (
  • We use a uniquely appropriate fish model system dominance is reflected in maintaining a territory so when a vacated territory becomes available, a low-ranking male must quickly detect his absence, seize the opportunity to acquire this valuable resource, and initiate a dramatic transformation that spans from whole-organism behavior and coloration changes, to hormonal, cellular, and transcriptional-level changes throughout the body. (
  • The socio-sexual behavior of Japanese monkeys. (
  • Like many bonobos at the sanctuary and in the wild, these individuals practiced g-g rubbing, where two female bonobos rub their clitorises together, penis fencing between males, and a myriad of other socio-sexual behavior. (
  • There have also been observations of animals engaging in homosexual behaviors, as well as sex with dead animals and sex involving juveniles. (
  • Homosexual behavior is defined as genital contact or genital manipulation between same-sex individuals. (
  • Now, a paper published by Cell Press online June 16th in the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution , highlights the importance of not just focusing on the origins of same-sex sexual behaviors but identifying the influence of such behaviors as agents of evolutionary change. (
  • Published June 16 in the journal Trends in Ecology & Evolution , the review by Bailey and Marlene Zuk, a professor of biology at UCR, also finds that although many studies are performed in the context of understanding the evolutionary origins of same-sex sexual behavior, almost none have considered its evolutionary consequences. (
  • Examines work done to test hypotheses about the origins of same-sex behavior in animals. (
  • Hormonal mechanisms of behavior. (
  • Sexual behaviors and their neural mechanisms (Kimchi). (
  • These remarkable behavioral consequences of sexual activity contribute to a general feeling of well being, but underlying neurobiological mechanisms are largely unknown. (
  • and brain and spinal cord mechanisms in sexual behavior and analgesia. (
  • Bailey, who works in Zuk's lab, noted that researchers in the field have made significant strides in the past two and a half decades studying the genetic and neural mechanisms that produce same-sex behaviors in individuals, and the ultimate reasons for their existence in populations. (
  • We often hear about new 'genome sequences,' commercial kits that can tell you about your ancestry (including pre-human) from your DNA or disease predispositions, debates about the truth of evolution, why animals behave the way they do, and how people found 'genetic evidence for natural selection. (
  • Scientists have also targeted locations on the human genome that may contribute to sexual orientation , but aside from the fruit fly, we have no such detailed knowledge of the genetic architecture of same-sex behavior in other animals. (
  • Sexual reproduction creates genetic diversity, reducing the possibility of harmful mutations in every individual. (
  • while not the same as sexual reproduction, this also results in the mixture of genetic traits. (
  • Sexual reproduction is a process where organisms form offspring that combine genetic traits from both parents. (
  • How is vertebrate sexual maturation and behavior controlled? (
  • Mhaouty-Kodja S, Naulé L, Capela D. Sexual Behavior: From Hormonal Regulation to Endocrine Disruption. (
  • By directly linking subcutaneous and core body temperature, available energy, and hormonal variation to environmental conditions in free-ranging animals, we are able to interpret primate behaviors in the context of the environmentally dictated selection pressures these animals experience. (
  • Hormonal modulation of pheromone production - The main focus of my research is to develop an understanding of how sex hormones like estrogen and testosterone regulate the production of sexual signals used in mate choice. (
  • Ethology has existed as a concept since 1762 when it was defined in France as the study of animal behavior. (
  • Neurobiology of sexual behavior. (
  • The Domestic Rabbit (Oryctolagus Cuniculus) as a Model Animal: From Reproductive Neurobiology to Developmental Psychobiology. (
  • Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists, Sixth Edition is a fully updated revision of this popular, classic text offering a thorough understanding of the normal behavior of domestic animals. (
  • Animals have been observed to engage in sex for social interaction, demonstration of dominance, aggression relief, exchange for significant materials, and sexual stimulation. (
  • Sexual interaction has also been witnessed in female bonobos to avoid aggression. (
  • What these facilities fail to point out is that forcing sex on an animal is an act of unwanted aggression and is therefore harmful in nature. (
  • But like any other behavior that doesn't lead directly to reproduction-such as aggression or altruism-same-sex behavior can have evolutionary consequences that are just now beginning to be considered," he said. (
  • Grappling is a rare and complex behavior, which most frequently occurs between same-sex individuals of the genus Ateles and can include mutual manipulation of the genitalia. (
  • Switch genes that trigger the development of a particular anatomical feature like wing structure have been studied extensively, but there are very few studies of switch genes that control a complex behavior, the researchers note. (
  • A fetish can also come from seeing inappropriate sexual behavior during childhood or from sexual abuse, says Kenneth Rosenberg, MD. He's a psychiatry professor at Weill Cornell Medical College. (
  • Discusses what has been discovered about the genetics of same-sex behavior, especially in the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila, and in human beings. (
  • In addition, we record variation in weather conditions throughout the animals' forest habitats during wet and dry seasons allowing us to relate this environmental variation to the behavioral and physiological data from free-ranging monkeys. (
  • Physiological level: the animals which have not modified continue with arousal that generates general adaptive syndrome. (
  • Moreover, the causal involvement of brain OT in the reduced anxiety-related behavior found after copulation was examined by using a selective OT receptor antagonist administered immediately after mating. (
  • Such as decreased muscle mass and bmd occur throughout the body are as much sex with her hardworking single-parent mother, effect of apomorphine on penile reflexes and copulation in the folklore of sexual function. (
  • Brain sexual differentiation occurs during the perinatal period after an abrupt discharge of testicular testosterone in males. (
  • Same-sex behaviors-courtship, mounting or parenting-are traits that may have been shaped by natural selection, a basic mechanism of evolution that occurs over successive generations," Bailey said. (
  • This study does involve what the animals do as well as when, why, where and how the behavior occurs. (
  • Intracellular Signaling Involved in Progestin Regulation of Female Sexual Behavior in Rodents. (
  • In 1992 the rst multidisciplinary, community-based, random-sample epidemiologic survey on ed is estimated to be in jeopardy as a result of damage from smoking, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, 61 and consider themselves members of sexual behavior of rodents. (
  • The common vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster is a very well-studied animal. (
  • Although the pheromones that inhibit mating in Drosophila were known, the positive pheromone signal that elicits courtship behavior and mating remained a mystery. (
  • the signal molecule which attracts males and triggers mating behavior of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster remained until recently unidentified. (
  • Studies of the brain have proven that pleasure and displeasure are an important component in the lives of animals. (
  • 2002). Brain activation and sexual arousal in healthy, heterosexual males. (
  • The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is a well acknowledged neuromodulator/neurotransmitter of the brain regulating emotionality, stress coping, and prosocial behaviors ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • In combination, these findings lead us to hypothesize that mating results in reduced anxiety-related behavior, possibly mediated by an elevation in local OT release within the brain, specifically within the PVN. (
  • Pioneering Studies on the Effects of Steroid Hormone Metabolism on the Brain and Behavior. (
  • Multisignaling Approach to the Study of Sexual Differentiation of Brain and Behavior in Mammals. (
  • But how is this aggressive behavior mediated in the brain? (
  • Same-sex sexual behavior is common in animals but puzzles evolutionary biologists since it doesn't carry the same obvious benefits as heterosexual courtship behavior that leads to mating and production of offspring. (
  • However, after Jane Goodall observed chimpanzees repeatedly cannibalizing infants without an evolutionary reason, some started to suspect that chimpanzees and many similar creatures could perhaps be capable of such problem behaviors. (
  • Sensory ecology: evolutionary adaptations of animal sensory systems to their environment (Ulanovsky). (
  • Same-sex sexual behavior has long been viewed as a fascinating puzzle from the evolutionary perspective. (
  • The authors reviewed many studies examining same-sex sexual behavior in non-human animals and identified several research strategies that could be employed to enhance the understanding of how same-sex sexual behavior might have evolutionary consequences. (
  • Bailey recommends that fellow evolutionary biologists studying same-sex behavior in animals adopt some of the research approaches that have been successful in human studies. (
  • Therefore, Mosher states that at some point within the evolutionary history of animal life, amoebas must have begun to reproduce sexually. (
  • How important are genes to the expression of these behaviors, compared to environmental factors? (
  • Students in my lab are actively involved in the extraction and analysis of specific genes, isolation of pheromones, animal care, surgical manipulations, field work, and behavioral studies with this project. (
  • Dickson also says there is "something of a debate going on between the view that single genes can have profound effects on behavior, versus the more holistic view that behavior is so complex that we can never learn anything meaningful about a behavior by studying the action of a single gene. (
  • Pfaff D, Tabansky I, Haubensak W. Tinbergen's challenge for the neuroscience of behavior. (
  • She leads the way into the intriguing world of animal sexual practices in her new book, "Wild Sex: The Science Behind Mating in the Animal Kingdom" (Pegasus Books, 2016). (
  • Researchers have been collecting data on human sexual deviant behavior since 1908. (
  • To encourage societal complacency towards bestiality could very easily allow the growth of sexually deviant behavior, setting the groundwork for child molestation issues. (
  • Aversion therapy applied to taped sequences of deviant behavior in exhibitionism and other sexual deviation: A preliminary report. (
  • the term "animal psychology" is still occasionally used but on purely historical grounds. (
  • Animal and human psychology 692-692.5. (
  • The pheromone methyl laurate triggers courtship behavior in males and is responsible for mating success. (
  • In males, methyl laurate triggers courtship behavior. (
  • Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) via the opioidergic pathway. (
  • This alarm pheromone is a suitable candidate to analyze the effects of stress on sexual behavior because the natural stress responses were induced through the olfactory system. (
  • The sexual attractant used by female silkworm moths, bombykol, was the first pheromone to be identified and its effect on males proven (this occurred in the late 1950s). (
  • 2014. A novel mechanism regulating a sexual signal: the testosterone-based inhibition of female sex pheromone expression in garter snakes. (
  • Animal models of social disorders (Kimchi). (
  • The Social Behavior of Animals and Men. (
  • Social behavior of wild pygmy chimpanzees ( Pan paniscus ) of Wamba: A preliminary report. (
  • Same-sex sexual behaviors are flexibly deployed in a variety of circumstances, for example, as alternative reproductive tactics, as cooperative breeding strategies, as facilitators of social bonding or as mediators of intrasexual conflict. (
  • Female Reproductive Advertisement and Social Factors Affecting the Sexual Behavior of Captive Spider Monkeys, by R. Pastor-Nieto. (
  • Nations that allow bestiality as a legal recreational option are culpable for societal degradation by giving approval to the masses to practice animal cruelty, in turn weakening our global social structure through redefining our collective mores. (
  • The ability of the animals to form social groups with conspecifics through sight, smell, and possibly contact, whether the animals are maintained singly or in groups. (
  • Sex for fun in bonobos, and many other animals, plays a social function. (
  • Nonhuman primates are highly intelligent and social animals that present unique husbandry challenges. (
  • When we think of selective forces, we tend to think of things like weather, temperature, or geographic features, but we can think of the social circumstances in a population of animals as a selective force, too," Bailey said. (
  • Same-sex behavior radically changes those social circumstances, for example, by removing some individuals from the pool of animals available for mating. (
  • Social behaviors involve the buildup of relationships developed on regular patterns with one another around their environment. (
  • vision and some special senses, sexual behavior and social organization. (
  • Appalachian adult residents and review social, psychologi- with other parts of Ohio, the Appalachian region has been cal, and biological variables associated with these risky characterized by low socioeconomic status (SES), including behaviors. (
  • Ultimately, males regulate reproductive opportunity and success through their behavior and social interactions, selecting a mate from among males on offer. (
  • At first, the idea that animals could have antisocial personality disorder or any trait so similar to a human disorder seemed utterly ridiculous to scientists. (
  • Auflage von Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists wurde dieser beliebte Klassiker, der alles Wissenswerte rund um das normale Verhalten von Haustieren vermittelt, vollständig überarbeitet. (
  • Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, have succeeded in identifying a relatively simple molecule that is able to regulate complex mating behavior in vinegar flies: a fatty acid methyl ester called methyl laurate. (
  • The scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Animal Behavior ask how animals coordinate themselves. (
  • The scientists aim to achieve a quantitative and predictive understanding of animal decision-making and movement in the natural world. (
  • Scientists have documented thousands of examples of same-sex sexual behavior in non-human animals and have put forth many intriguing theories to explain why such behaviors are so prevalent. (
  • When primatolgist Frans de Waal first saw the outlandish sexual acts of bonobos, other scientists remarked that the behavior must have arisen because those bonobos were locked in a zoo. (
  • It is full of clear and informative examples that highlight major concepts in animal behavior, leaving students not with a list of terms to memorize, but a better understanding of how scientists think about animal behavior more broadly. (
  • Nevertheless, some scientists contend that a tiny sense organ in our nasal cavity, the Vomeronasal Organ (VNO) which is sometimes called Jacobson's Organ, is capable of detecting chemical sexual attractants passed on unconsciously between people. (
  • Scientists believe that all animal life sprung forth from the evolution of single-celled organisms such as amoebas. (
  • If the theory is accurate, it would not indicate that amoebas necessarily reproduced with the use of typical sexual organs but would instead cause scientists to redefine the basic assumptions about which behaviors might define the act of sex. (
  • The first modern ethology textbook, The Study of Instinct , was written by Nikolaas Tinbergen in 1951, and E. H. Hess (1962) and Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1966) recently produced summaries of the modern concepts of behavior. (
  • Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals, by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS). (
  • The current state of technology in the laboratory assessment of sexual arousal patterns. (
  • Laboratory workers dealing with these animals also are at increased risk of contracting LCM. (
  • We will finally propose the present work to Japanese society, initially to Association of Animal Experimentation Facilities of National University and Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science. (
  • Publications] 佐藤徳光: 'ケージサイズについて考える' Laboratory Animal and Environment. (
  • Publications] Norimitsu L.Sato: 'On the cage size' Laboratory Animal and Environment. (
  • Laboratory Animal Science (USA). (
  • Dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens can be activated by drugs, stress, or motivated behaviors, and repeated exposure to these stimuli can sensitize this dopamine response. (
  • Animal behaviors express an effort to adjust the response to stimuli. (
  • Many serial predators were found to have first started their patterns of behavior by indulging their fantasies through animal opportunistic means and refined their attacking methods from there. (
  • We focus on methods that interfere with the effects of GnRH, making animals infertile and significantly suppressing sexual behavior in both sexes. (
  • these sexual dimorphisms can reflect the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience. (
  • However, sexually experienced animals responded sooner to amphetamine than did sexually naive animals. (
  • Calling someone sexually explicit names, showing someone's private sexual photos, or not allowing your partner to use birth control are all sexually abusive acts. (
  • The role of sexual selection and conflict in mediating among-population variation in mating strategies and sexually dimorphic traits in Sepsis punctum. (
  • This board collects examples of highly sexually dimorphic animals. (
  • 3. the instinct or attraction drawing one individual sexually toward another, or the cultural phenomena, behavior, or activities that it motivates. (
  • We suggest that cadmium damaged cerebral sexual differentiation by its actions as an endocrine disruptor and supported by the changes discretely observed from early life during sexual development to adult life, reflected by sexual behavior. (
  • There were no adult bonobos to "teach" them sexual behavior. (
  • Female bonobos have been observed to engage in sexual activities to create bonds with dominant bonobos. (
  • Although incestuous matings between adults are not common, mothers engage in sexual activity with their infant son fairly often. (
  • In some cases, though, "aunts" engage in aggressive or sexual interactions with the infants as well and may even try to "kidnap" another female's baby. (
  • The most obvious mystery is why animals would engage in sexual behaviors that do not directly result in reproduction," says lead author Dr. Nathan W. Bailey from the Department of Biology at the University of California, Riverside. (
  • Also describe the places where you would engage in masturbatory behaviors. (
  • have sex, to engage in sexual relations, esp. (
  • In addition to animals, plants, and fungi, other eukaryotes (e.g. the malaria parasite) also engage in sexual reproduction. (
  • Sexual activity in bonobos is very high, yet the rate of reproduction is the same as a chimpanzee. (
  • Sexual behavior is very important for reproduction in animals. (
  • Beyond Castration and Culling: Should we use Non-Surgical, Pharmacological Methods to Control the Sexual Behavior and Reproduction of Animals? (
  • According to psychologists, the actions of animals are triggered by need for survival and reproduction. (
  • what mechanism the animal uses to accomplish its behaviors, how the behaviors contribute to the animals continued existence and reproduction, the way in which the behavior develop in its life time and how such behavior developed. (
  • Lower ranking animals often have limited access to food and reproduction and are reproductively incompetent. (
  • Sexual reproduction involves combining specialized cells ( gametes ) to form offspring that inherit traits from both parents. (
  • It is considered that sexual reproduction first appeared about a billion years ago, evolved within ancestral single-celled eukaryotes. (
  • Sexual reproduction is a process specific to eukaryotes , organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and mitochondria. (
  • What is considered defining of sexual reproduction is the difference between the gametes and the binary nature of fertilization. (
  • We simply do not know how to account for individual differences in sexual arousal patterns. (
  • the arousal and satisfaction of sexual desires within or by oneself, usually by masturbation. (
  • The term "ethology" is now attached to the scientific investigation of the behavior of animals and of some aspects of human behavior. (
  • Psychiatrists like to joke that everything is about sex except for sex itself, which is another way of saying that just about every human behavior is permeated with hidden sexual meaning. (
  • The results of a battery of behavior tests for socio-sexual and anxiety-related behaviors, the numbers of vasopressin-immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and testosterone levels were used as endpoints. (
  • Testosterone supplementation after birth reversed some crucial parameters directly related to sexual behavior. (
  • Same-sex sexual behavior and evolution. (
  • Knowing this information would help us better understand how the behaviors evolve, and how they affect the evolution of other traits. (
  • Researchers frequently use animal models to study how an intervention influences behavior. (
  • The researchers identified other examples where same-sex sexual behavior was potentially a force that might shape the selection of other traits. (
  • Maternal Behavior 6. (
  • A View of Rabbit Maternal Behavior from the Perspectives of Complex Systems and Chronostasis. (
  • Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry , 1 , 58-66. (
  • Take one capsule and swallow with a bit of liquid (best warm water) about 20 minutes before sexual intercourse. (
  • African black ant pills can quickly elongate, thicken and enlarge the penis to effectively rescue you from short intercourse sexual time, take good therapeutic effect on preventing impotence and premature ejaculation, prolonging the time of sexual intercourse, treating endurable erection. (
  • Intercourse with animals is becoming an expansive legal trade throughout European subcultures. (
  • European bestiality brothels state that it is illegal to harm an animal while engaging in intercourse. (
  • It does not just mean sexual intercourse. (
  • Meaning "sexual intercourse" first attested 1929 (in writings of D.H. Lawrence ). (
  • We analyzed the facial behavior of 100 volunteers who video-recorded their own expressions while experiencing an episode of sexual excitement that concluded in an orgasm, and then posted their video clip on an Internet site. (
  • With respect to sexual activity, preclinical ( 18 ) and human ( 19 ) research has shown elevated OT secretion into the blood during mating behavior and orgasm, respectively. (
  • Penile sexual stimulation during masturbation or vaginal , anal , oral , or non-penetrative sexual activity may provide the necessary stimulus for a man to achieve orgasm and ejaculation. (
  • The process by which a behavior not normally associated with a given stimulus becomes associated by combination with a positive or negative stimulus. (
  • Behavior level: it is the first level of stress management, when the animal removes itself from stress, it avoids unpleasant stimulus. (
  • Observed non-procreative sexual activities include non-copulatory mounting (without penetration, or by the female), oral sex, genital stimulation, anal stimulation, interspecies mating, and acts of affection. (
  • After their quick sexual activity, the female will take a portion of the male's food. (
  • The objectives of this study were to determine whether female sexual behavior activates nucleus accumbens neurons and whether past sexual experience cross-sensitizes neuronal responses in the nucleus accumbens to amphetamine. (
  • Using immunocytochemical labeling, c-Fos expression in different subregions (shell vs core at the rostral, middle, and caudal levels) of the nucleus accumbens was examined in female hamsters that had varying amounts of sexual experience. (
  • These data indicate that female sexual behavior can activate neurons in the nucleus accumbens and that sexual experience can cross-sensitize neuronal responses to amphetamine. (
  • Because the nucleus accumbens is a heterogeneous nucleus, it is not clear whether responses to female sexual behavior are localized to specific subregions of the nucleus accumbens or spread throughout the entire nucleus. (
  • Thus, the first purpose of this experiment was to determine whether cellular activation after female sexual behavior is localized to specific subregions of the nucleus accumbens. (
  • Female animals are oftentimes sedated, some are bound, and many experience physical complications from being exposed to repeated acts. (
  • Why does it benefit the female human to remain inscrutable about her sexual cycle? (
  • 3 Risks of human injury and zoonotic disease are often greatest in the very populations such animals serve. (