The number of males per 100 females.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Sexual activities of animals.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The sequence in which children are born into the family.
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.

Evaluation of life-cycle herd efficiency in cow-calf systems of beef production. (1/1154)

A deterministic beef efficiency model (BEM) was used to evaluate life-cycle herd efficiency (LCHE) in cow-calf beef production systems using four breed groups of beef cattle. The breed groups were Beef Synthetic #1 (SY1), Beef Synthetic #2 (SY2), Dairy Synthetic (DS), and purebred Hereford (HE). The LCHE was defined over the lifetime of the herd as the ratio of total output (lean meat equivalent) to total input (feed equivalent). Breed differences in LCHE were predicted with the larger/slower maturing DS being most efficient at each age of herd disposal and reproductive rate. This was mainly because, at any average age at culling, the dams of DS breed group were less mature and so had been carrying relatively lower maintenance loads for shorter periods and positively influencing LCHE. Higher LCHE was predicted with improvement in reproductive performance if there were no associated extra costs. However, this declined markedly if there was a delay in marketing of offspring. As average age at culling increased from 4 to 6 yr, efficiency declined sharply, but it began to recover beyond this age in most breed groups. We concluded that the slower maturing DS breed group may be more efficient on a herd basis in cow-calf systems and that improvements in reproductive rate not associated with extra costs improve life-cycle efficiency. Culling cows soon after their replacements are produced seems efficient.  (+info)

Placenta previa: preponderance of male sex at birth. (2/1154)

To determine the relation between placenta previa and male sex at birth, the authors conducted two types of analysis: 1) a historical cohort analysis of singleton live births in New Jersey hospitals during 1989-1992 (N = 447,963); and 2) a meta-analysis of previously published studies on the subject. For the cohort analysis, subject mother-infant dyads were identified from linked birth certificate and maternal and infant hospital claims data. The infant's sex for mothers with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, code of 641.0-641.1 for placenta previa (n = 2,685) was compared with infant's sex for mothers without placenta previa (n = 445,270). For the meta-analysis, seven published articles were located and summary effects were calculated using both fixed-effect and random-effects models. In the present cohort study, the male:female ratio at birth was significantly higher in women with placenta previa (1.19) than in those without placenta previa (1.05) (p<0.001). The association of placenta previa with male sex persisted when the analysis was either stratified or adjusted for the effects of maternal age, maternal parity, maternal smoking during the index pregnancy, race/ethnicity, the infant's gestational age, and the infant's birth weight. The meta-analytic results from the fixed-effect and random-effects models showed a 14% excess of placenta previa when women were carrying a viable male fetus as compared with a viable female fetus during pregnancy. The results were the same regardless of whether the present cohort study was included in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, the evidence obtained from these analyses strongly argues for an association between placenta previa and male sex at birth. The mechanism for this association remains to be determined.  (+info)

Spiroplasma poulsonii sp. nov., a new species associated with male-lethality in Drosophila willistoni, a neotropical species of fruit fly. (3/1154)

Progenies from some wild-caught females of Drosophila willistoni and three other sibling species are entirely female. The proclivity for production of unisexual female progeny by these flies was named the sex ratio (SR) trait and was originally thought to be genetic. However, experiments in the laboratory of Donald F. Poulson in the early 1960s demonstrated that this 'trait' was vertically transmitted and infectious, in that it could be artificially transferred by injection from infected females to non-infected females. Motile, helical micro-organisms were observed in females showing the trait. In 1979, the SR organisms were designated as group II in the informal spiroplasma classification system. The organisms proved to be extremely fastidious, but were eventually cultivated in a very complex cell-free medium (H-2) after initial co-cultivation with insect cells. Cultivation in the H-2 medium and the subsequent availability of a triply cloned strain (DW-1T) permitted comparative studies. Cells of strain DW-1T were helical, motile filaments 200-250 nm in diameter and were bound by a single trilaminar membrane. Cells plated on 1.8% Noble agar formed small satellite-free colonies 60-70 microns in diameter with dense centres and uneven edges. The temperature range for growth was 26-30 degrees C; optimum growth occurred at 30 degrees C, with a doubling time in H-2 medium of 15.8 h. The strain passed through filters with 220 nm, but not 100 nm, pores. Reciprocal serological comparisons of strain DW-1T with representatives of other spiroplasma groups showed an extensive pattern of one-way crossing when strain DW-1T was used as antigen. However, variable, usually low-level reciprocal cross-reactions were observed between strain DW-1T and representatives of group I sub-groups. The genome size of strain DW-1T was 2040 kbp, as determined by PFGE. The G + C content was 26 +/- 1 mol%, as determined by buoyant density and melting point methods. The serological and molecular data indicate that strain DW-1T is separated from group I representative strains sufficiently to justify retention of its group status. Continued group designation is also indicated by the ability of SR spiroplasmas to induce male lethality in Drosophila, their vertical transmissibility and their extremely fastidious growth requirements. Group II spiroplasmas, represented by strain DW-1T (ATCC 43153T), are designated Spiroplasma poulsonii.  (+info)

Estimating population size by genotyping faeces. (4/1154)

Population size is a fundamental biological parameter that is difficult to estimate. By genotyping coyote (Canis latrans) faeces systematically collected in the Santa Monica Mountains near Los Angeles, California, we exemplify a general, non-invasive method to census large mammals. Four steps are involved in the estimation. First, presumed coyote faeces are collected along paths or roadways where coyotes, like most carnivores, often defaecate and mark territorial boundaries. Second, DNA is extracted from the faeces and species identity and sex is determined by mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome typing. Third, hypervariable microsatellite loci are typed from the faeces. Lastly, rarefaction analysis is used to estimate population size from faecal genotypes. This method readily provides a point count estimate of population size and sex ratio. Additionally, we show that home range use paternity and kinship can be inferred from the distribution and relatedness patterns of faecal genotypes.  (+info)

Factors affecting the number of teats in pigs. (5/1154)

The factors that affect the number of teats in pigs are of interest for both biological and practical reasons. Previous work indicates that there is a genetic component, principally from the dam. The proportion of males in a litter appears to be related to the anogenital distance of the gilts in the litter, possibly as a result of the intrauterine position effect. The present study investigated whether litter size, litter sex ratio, anogenital distance, crown-rump length, distance from base of skull to base of tail, and the number of teats on the dam and boar affected the number of teats on gilts. Stepwise multiple regression on litter mean values (adjusted r2 = 0.178) indicated that two factors were significant: the number of teats on the dam (standard coefficient 0.311) and the proportion of males in the litter (standard coefficient -0.282). A greater number of teats on the dam and a lower proportion of males in the litter resulted in a greater number of teats on the gilt. When the analysis was run using individual gilts as the independent units (adjusted r2 = 0.073), the number of teats on the dam (standard coefficient 0.207), the proportion of males in the litter (standard coefficient -0.135), and the weaning weight of the gilt (standard coefficient 0.083) were all significant predictors of the number of teats. This evidence suggests that teat number in female pigs is related to the proportion of males in the litter.  (+info)

Allosomal and autosomal control of sex ratio in PHH and PHL mice. (6/1154)

When male mice from inbred PHH (sex ratio .535) and PHL (.435) are mated to females of various inbred lines, the sex ratio follows the male parent. The sex ratios from litters sired by reciprocal cross F1 males (letting A represent a set of autosomes) are 0.510 from AH/AL, XL/YH and 0.469 from AH/AL, XH/YL. The difference is statistically significant but only half the difference between pure strains. The paternal effect, presumably due to the Y, persists in progeny of the two kinds of F2 males. In backcrosses to the female parent, resulting finally in AH/AH, XH/YL and AL/AL, XL/YH, and in outcrosses, the effect of the Y chromosome does not persist, indicating that neither the Y alone, nor the autosomes alone, will cause the sex ratio to depart significantly from equality of sexes. When pairs of males in all possible combinations were presented with C57BL/6 females mating success gave the following ranking: AH-YL, AL-YL, AH-YH, AL-YH. The combination of autosomes from PHH and Y-chromosome from PHL seems to confer the greatest competitive advantage.  (+info)

Muscle growth and development in normal-sex-ratio and all-female diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon. (7/1154)

Muscle development and growth were investigated in diploid populations of normal-sex-ratio and all-female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and their triploid counterparts produced by high-pressure treatment. Somites were formed at the rate of 6 h-1 in both diploids and triploids at 6 degrees C. The rostral-to-caudal development of myotubes, myofibrils and acetylcholinesterase staining at the myosepta was slightly more advanced in triploid than in diploid fish, although the differences were smaller than among individual families. The c-met receptor tyrosine kinase was used as a molecular marker for the satellite cells involved in postembryonic muscle growth. Satellite cell nuclei comprised 17.5 % of total myonuclei in smolts and they were 24 % more abundant in diploid than in triploid fish. Cells expressing the myogenic regulatory factor myf-6, a marker of satellite cells committed to differentiation, represented 14.8 % of total myonuclei in diploids and 12.5 % in triploids. At ambient temperatures, the number of white muscle fibres in normal-sex-ratio fish increased more than 30-fold between the alevin and smolt stages, and approximately 3.5-fold further during the first year of seawater growth. The rate of muscle fibre recruitment in seawater stages was significantly greater in diploid than in triploid fish, reaching 1162 fibres day-1 and 608 fibres day-1, respectively, in all-female groups 800 days post-hatching. For 42 cm fork-length fish, there were approximately one-third more muscle fibres per myotome in diploid than in triploid groups, 649 878 and 413 619, respectively, for all-female fish. The probability density function of muscle fibre diameters in each fish was estimated using non-parametric smoothing techniques, and the mean densities for diploids (fD) and triploids (fT) were calculated. The peak fibre diameter was approximately 20 (micro)m in all age classes, irrespective of ploidy. Distinct bimodal distributions of muscle fibre diameter were evident in all groups 775 days and 839 days post-hatching, reflecting seasonal cycles of fibre recruitment. fD and fT were compared using a non-parametric bootstrap technique and the reference band representing the null-hypothesis indicated that there was no difference with ploidy. Reference bands for normal-sex-ratio fish at 315 days and 470 days indicated that diploids had a higher percentage of smaller-diameter fibres and that triploid distributions had a thicker right-hand tail. Similar differences in fD and fT of muscle fibre diameters were found for all-female fish, although the statistical evidence was less strong. Reference bands indicated differences in the middle range of the distributions of muscle fibre diameter in fish 620-775 days post-hatch, with triploids having a thicker right-hand tail. Thus, a lower density of satellite cells was associated with reduced rates of fibre recruitment but a compensatory increase in muscle fibre hypertrophy in triploid compared with diploid fish.  (+info)

Sex allocation: At the females' whim. (8/1154)

Experimental studies of wild birds suggest that females have a previously unappreciated ability to control the sex ratio of their offspring in response to variation in sex-specific fitness benefits.  (+info)

In this study, we demonstrate two main findings. First, Canadas most populous province experienced a decline in the sex ratio at birth 4 months after the 2016 US presidential election, with subsequent recovery in the 5 months thereafter. This time course of changes in the sex ratio matches that which has been previously described after adverse societal events, such as terrorist attacks. Second, the transient decline in the overall proportion of boys to girls born in Ontario in March 2017 was observed in politically liberal-leaning jurisdictions but not in conservative-leaning regions of the province. Taken together, these data suggest that the unanticipated outcome of the 2016 US presidential election was associated with a temporary reduction in the sex ratio at birth in Canada that may have related to its perception as an adverse societal event by the politically liberal-leaning population.. In humans, despite relative balance in the proportion of spermatozoa carrying a Y-chromosome to those ...
When the relative fitness of sons and daughters differs, sex-allocation theory predicts that it would be adaptive for individuals to adjust their investment in different sexes of offspring. Sex ratio adjustment by females in response to the sexual attract. ...
Modification of offspring sex ratios in response to parental quality is predicted when the long-term fitness returns of sons and daughters differ. One factor that may influence a mothers sex allocation decision is the quality (or attractiveness) of her mate. We investigated whether the sex ratios of offspring produced by female Drosophila melanogaster are biased with respect to the age of the males to which they are mated, and whether there is an adaptive basis for this phenomenon. We found that females mated to old males (13 d post-eclosion) initially produced a greater proportion of daughters than did females mated to young males (1 d post-eclosion). This pattern does not appear to be due to a systematic difference in the numbers or mortality of the X- and Y-bearing sperm originating from old and young fathers, as the overall sex ratios of all offspring produced from a single copulation did not differ between broods fathered by the two types of males. The sons of older males fared worse in ...
Many countries with deficits in their female population see banning sex-selective abortion as a way to curb the observed sex imbalance without discussing potentially negative unintended consequences of this ban on female survival rates as parents may be forced to substitute post-natal for pre-natal sex-selection. This paper presents novel empirical evidence on the impact of access to abortion on sex ratios at birth and relative female infant mortality. We use the universe of birth and death registry data from Taiwan and exploit plausibly exogenous variation in the availability of sex-selective abortion caused by the legalization of abortions to identify the causal effects of sex-selective abortion on sex ratios at birth and excess female mortality. We find that sex-selective abortion increased the fraction of males at birth by approximately 0.7 percentage-points, accounting for approximately 100% of the observed increase in sex ratios at birth during the 1980s; and it decreased relative female ...
In utero, the male fetus is more prone to morbidity and mortality from external influences than the female fetus. Moreover, the male fetus is at greater risk of all obstetric complications than the female fetus and readers are referred to the review by Kraemer.21 Despite these adverse factors, males are invariably born in excess of females,2 implying an even higher conception rate of males over females than evinced by the sex ratio at birth.. In the first half of the 20th century, antenatal care improved dramatically in industrialised countries, which led to a fall in stillbirths, most of which would have otherwise been male. This therefore led to an increase in the M/F ratio.9,22. M/F then declined in several countries in the second half of the 20th century, and one study has proposed that M/F could be used as a sentinel health indicator.23 This is supported by data from Italy that showed that in metropolitan areas, M/F declined in comparison with the rest of the country where M/F ...
Parasitic sex ratio distorters were artificially transferred within and between crustacean host species in order to study the effects of parasitism on host fitness and sex determination and to investigate parasite-host specificity. Implantation of Nosema sp. to uninfected strains of its Gammarus duebeni host resulted in an active parasite infection in the gonad of recipient females and subsequent transovarial parasite transmission. The young of artificially infected females were feminized by the parasite, demonstrating that Nosema sp. is a cause of sex ratio distortion in its host. In contrast, we were unable to cross-infect Armadillidium vulgare with the feminizing microsporidian from G. duebeni or to cross-infect G. duebeni with the feminizing bacterium Wolbachia sp. from A. vulgare. ...
The question of how sex ratio is determined has long interested students of reproductive fitness. Most animals give birth to more than one offspring at a time, and in some mammals litter sizes can be upward of a dozen, providing ample opportunity for manipulating the sex ratio even within a single pregnancy. There are 2 mechanisms for altering the number of offspring of a particular sex. The first is fertilization, which sets the primary sex ratio, followed by delivery, which sets the secondary sex ratio. Marked shifts away from a 1:1 ratio can be achieved in only one of 2 ways. Either there is a change in the probability of fertilization of the egg by Y chromosome bearing versus X chromosome bearing sperm, i.e., the primary sex ratio, or there is exaggerated demise of embryos or fetuses of one sex, i.e., the secondary sex ratio. Both are plausible, although evidence in favor of the latter is more abundant.. In animals in which mating systems are biased such that a few winning males impregnate ...
While the effect of Operational Sex Ratio (OSR) on reproductive behaviour of males has been studied extensively, little is known of the response of females facing a female-biased OSR. We investigated the effect of different OSRs on female reproductive behaviour using the rosy bitterling, Rhodeus ocellatus, a freshwater fish that lays its eggs inside the gills of living freshwater mussels. Three levels of OSR (male/female ratio 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5) were tested. We demonstrated that inspection of the mussel (spawning substrate) by individual females increased with increasingly female-biased OSR, but that the rate of following territorial male decreased. Aggression towards other females was not affected by the OSR. Interestingly, when a male bitterling led a non-dominant female towards the mussel, the dominant female would become aggressive to the male and chase the non-dominant female away. Aggression towards male followed a bell-shaped pattern and was highest at an OSR of 1:3. In both the female-biased OSRs
where Wi is the fitness of the ith male, Wj is the fitness of the jth female, and there are m males and f females in the population. If we apportion fitness evenly among individuals of each sex, the fitness of each male is then simply equal to the sex ratio, Wi = f/m. In a female-biased population, members of the rarer sex (males) have higher fitness. Under a model where a sex-ratio distorter invades a population and fixes due to its transmission advantage, selection on a new suppressor is negative frequency dependent. At low frequency, a population is female biased and selection on a suppressor for the maintenance of equal sex ratios is strong; but at high frequency, most copies of the distorter are masked, the population sex ratio is close to 50/50, and selection on a suppressor is much weaker. This result explains why selection for Fisherian sex ratios may be inefficient at removing the last few copies of a nonsuppressor allele, even though under a deterministic model, the suppressor will ...
Sex ratios in social insects have been the subject of intense study since Trivers & Hare (1976) first modified Fishers (1930) sex ratio theory to include kin selection, particularly in species with haplodiploid sex determination. Their argument made specific quantitative predictions about the investment sex ratio and predicted that it would be affected by several aspects of colony structure (mating frequency, worker reproduction, queen number, etc.). In the simplest case, a single queen that mates once, workers are predicted to bias investment in a ratio of 3 : 1 in favour of their sisters, with whom they share higher relatedness. Female-biased sex ratios have subsequently been confirmed in many social Hymenoptera (e.g. Queller & Strassmann 1998; Ratnieks et al. 2006).. When colonies are founded by multiple queens, by a multiply mated queen or when workers reproduce, the predictions about sex ratio also change. Many studies have explored the effect of mating frequency (e.g. Starr 1979; Nonacs ...
The study was carried out to record adverse pregnancy outcomes and to obtain information about sex ratio at birth in rural especially tribal areas in the State of Maharashtra, India. Although the tribal population is considered vulnerable to innumerable adversities, regretfully information about pregnancy wastage among them is not available. About 10% population of the state is tribal. The study of sex ratio at birth was planned as the overall sex ratio and child sex ratio had declined in the state. The cohort of antenatal cases registered in rural areas of Maharashtra in the calendar year 2008 was followed up to study the pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective study was carried out from October 2009 to August 2010. The outcomes of all the registered antenatal cases were recorded by the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives. The summary sheets were obtained by Block Medical Officers. The data was entered at the block level by trained data entry operators in specially designed web-based software. Adverse pregnancy
Sex of the fetus is genetically determined such that an equal number of sons and daughters are born in large populations. However, the ratio of female to male births across human populations varies signi fi cantly. Many factors have been impli- cated in this. The theory that natural selection should favour female o ff spring under suboptimal environmental conditions implies that pathogens may a ff ect secondary sex ratio (ratio of male to female births). Using regression models containing 13 potential confounding factors, we have found that variation of the secondary sex ratio can be predicted by seropreva- lence of Toxoplasma across 94 populations distributed across African, American, Asian and European continents. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was the third strongest predictor of secondary sex ratio, β = − 0·097, P < 0·01, after son pref- erence, β = 0·261, P < 0·05, and fertility, β = − 0·145, P < 0·001. Our preliminary results suggest that Toxoplasma gondii in- fection could be one ...
65 years and over: The number of males for each female one of five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertility patterns. Eventually it could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable to find partners ...
ABSTRACTRecent declines in the secondary sex ratio (SSR), defined as the ratio of males to females at birth, in some industrialized countries may be attributed to exposure to environmental toxicants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). This study aimed to evaluate the association of couples
The group sizes and sex ratios of vampire bat maternity and bachelor roosts are consistent with previous reports in Argentina [6,25,28,29]. Sex ratios were consistently male-biased no matter whether juvenile or adults were sampled at nets, or juveniles were caught inside maternity roosts (table 1).. There is only mixed evidence for a biased sex ratio at birth in other datasets. During a study in Costa Rica, Wilkinson ([15,16,18]; GS Wilkinson 1985, unpublished data) did not detect a male bias in the sex ratios of every newborn bat he captured from roosts at La Pacifica (18 females and 15 males) or in the sample of infant or juveniles from roosts in Palo Verde (19 females and 23 males). On the other hand, all detected pregnancies in a captive population [49] led to the births of four females and 16 males (binomial test, p = 0.012). A second captive breeding colony in Panama produced five females and nine males (nine females versus 25 males: binomial test, p = 0.009).. The male bias we observed in ...
1. WerrenJH. ONeillSL. 1997 The evolution of heritable symbionts. ONeillSL. HoffmannAA. WerrenJH. Influential Passengers Oxford Oxford University Press 1 41. 2. MajerusMEN. HurstGDD. 1997 Ladybirds as a model system for the study of male-killing symbionts. Entomophaga 42 13 20. 3. HurstGDD. HurstLD. MajerusMEN. 1997 Cytoplasmic sex-ratio distorters. ONeillSL. HoffmannAA. WerrenJH. Influential Passengers Oxford Oxford University Press 125 154. 4. WerrenJH. 1987 The coevolution of autosomal and cytoplasmic sex ratio factors. J Theor Biol 124 317 334. 5. HurstLD. 1992 Intragenomic conflict as an evolutionary force. P Roy Soc Lond B Bio 248 91 99. 6. OwenDF. ChanterDO. 1969 Population biology of tropical African butterflies. Sex ratio and genetic variation in Acraea encedon. J Zool 157 345 374. 7. MajerusMEN. MajerusTMO. 2000 Female-biased sex ratio due to male-killing in the Japanese ladybird Coccinula sinensis. Ecol Entomol 25 234 238. 8. UyenoyamaMK. FeldmanMW. 1978 The genetics of sex ratio ...
We investigated the possible effects of ACP1 on the relationship between maternal smoking and sex ratio of offspring. ACP1 is a highly polymorphic enzyme involved in signal transduction of growth factors, glucose metabolism, flavoenzyme activity, and T-cell activation. A sample of 357 consecutive newborns from the population of Rome and a sample of 362 consecutive newborns from the population of Penne were studied. In both populations, among female newborns from smoking mothers there was a higher proportion of the A phenotype (associated with the lowest enzymatic activity) and a lower proportion of carriers of the *C allele (associated with the highest enzymatic activity) compared to female infants from nonsmoking mothers. In newborns from smoking mothers there was a positive correlation between sex ratio and ACP1 activity. The data suggest intrauterine selection induced by smoke that is dependent on sex and the ACP1 genotype of the zygote. It has been shown that low ACP1 activity is associated ...
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (< 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition it appears that there might be variance among doggie breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. studies has revealed sexual dimorphism of embryos in response to glucose during the early stages of embryo-genesis.7 8 The presence of glucose in the culture medium detrimentally impacts the development of female embryos ...
Define primary sex character. primary sex character synonyms, primary sex character pronunciation, primary sex character translation, English dictionary definition of primary sex character. Noun 1. primary sex character - the genetically determined sex characteristics bound up with reproduction primary sex characteristic, primary sexual...
Vivekananda et al(1)report that when controlled for sex, cases of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have a lower mean finger length ratio R [where R = (2D / 4D) and 2D and 4D are the lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits respectively] than healthy controls. These authors interpret their finding as indicating prenatal involvement of high concentrations of intrauterine testosterone, T. However, their interpretation is not the only one : another possibility arises from the reported variation of R with adult sex hormone levels(2). So (some cases of) ALS may arise either as a consequence of high maternal T levels, or of high levels of the patients own postnatal T (or both). Here I offer a means of discriminating between these two hypotheses. I have adduced substantial quantities of data to support the hypothesis that mammalian (including human) offspring sex ratios at birth are partially controlled by parental hormone levels around the time of conception(3-5). Ex hypothesi, high levels of T ...
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There are a record-smashing 2,755 billionaires in the world, according to Forbes 2021 Worlds Billionaires list. How did they make their mega-fortunes? By doing everything from starting hedge funds and tech companies to breeding pigs and brewing kombucha. But certain industries offer a more common route to riches than others. The most likely way to make a billion-dollar fortune: go into finance and investments. That sector has minted the most billionaires in the world, with 371 people, or about 13% of the entire list. It was the top industry for billionaires in 2020-the last time we tabulated the number of billionaires per industry-as well. The number of finance and investment billionaires has grown by 50% in the past year, and has nearly doubled from two years ago, with household names like Berkshire Hathaways Warren Buffett, Carl Icahn and hedge fund titan Ray Dalio. Theres still space for newcomers, however, like the Winklevoss twins, who join the list this year thanks to big bets on ...
Women who want to increase their chances of giving birth to a girl should live closer to the equator, says a University of Georgia researcher, whose recent study sheds light on how temperature and day length can influence human reproduction. Most animal sex ratios are 50:50. But that ratio can be changed by environmental factors like temperature or even by seasonal shifts, said Kristen Navara, a reproductive endocrinologist with the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. Her recent research with certain hamsters and mice shows that more males are born in winter when days are shorter, and that more females are born if day length is longer. Sparked by curiosity and these findings, she wanted to see if the same held true for humans.. She dug through the CIAs The World Factbook and other government publications to gather data on every nation with a decade of uninterrupted statistics. She gathered statistics on 202 nations. Navara then analyzed the figures based on latitude, average ...
Theory predicts that males adapt to sperm competition by increasing their investment in testis mass to transfer larger ejaculates. Experimental and comparative data support this prediction. Nevertheless, the relative importance of sperm competition in testis size evolution remains elusive, because experiments vary only sperm competition whereas comparative approaches confound it with other variables, in particular male mating rate. We addressed the relative importance of sperm competition and male mating rate by taking an experimental evolution approach. We subjected populations of Drosophila melanogaster to sex ratios of 1:1, 4:1, and 10:1 (female:male). Female bias decreased sperm competition but increased male mating rate and sperm depletion. After 28 generations of evolution, males from the 10:1 treatment had larger testes than males from other treatments. Thus, testis size evolved in response to mating rate and sperm depletion, not sperm competition. Furthermore, our experiment demonstrated ...
The population sex ratio of the majority of sexually reproducing organisms is close to 1 1 selection will normally promote the production of the rarer sex, so
The file is for the MS Operational sex ratio and density predict the potential for sexual selection in the broad horned beetle
Sex-selective abortion is the practice of terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the infant. The selective abortion of female fetuses is most common in areas where cultural norms value male children over female children, especially in parts of East Asia and South Asia (particularly in countries such as Peoples Republic of China, India and Pakistan), as well as in the Caucasus, and Western Balkans. Sex-selective abortion affects the human sex ratio-the relative number of males to females in a given age group, with China and India, the two most populous countries of the world, having unbalanced gender ratios. Studies and reports focusing on sex-selective abortion are predominantly statistical; they assume that birth sex ratio-the overall ratio of boys and girls at birth for a regional population, is an indicator of sex-selective abortion. This assumption has been questioned by some scholars. Scholars who support the assumption, suggest that the expected birth sex ratio range is ...
For the 63rd year in a row, the number of boys born in the United States outnumbers births of girls - in 2002 94,232 more boys than girls were born. This is the central finding of a new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that examines total sex ratios at birth for over six decades. The total sex ratio is the number of male births divided by female births times 1,000. ...
Sex Ratio is the ratio of no. of males to females in a population. Sex ratio is used to describe the number of females per 1000 of males. As per provisional census data of 2011, the national average sex ratio shows an increase from 933 in 2001 to 940 in 2011. The population ratio in India 2011 is 940 females per 1000 of males.. The following statewise sex ratio list of india is as per provisional census data of 2011 :. ...
Gynodioecy, a breeding system with females and hermaphrodites, is the most common dimorphic system in plants and found in more species than all other polymorphic systems combined. One unresolved question in gynodioecy evolution is how dramatic sex ratio variation (0-100% female) is maintained among populations. To address this gap, I used complementary empirical and theoretical approaches to ellucidate pollinators role in the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy and variation in gynodioecious sex ratios. I conducted two field studies restricting the types of pollinators available to artificial populations of Silene vulgaris. The first study contrasted pollination by pollen collectors, strongly favoring hermaphrodites, with nectar collectors that readily visit both sexes. Hermaphrodites relative fitness was greatest in the context of pollen collectors whereas females had dramatically higher relative fitness in the context of nectar collectors, demonstrating pollinators potential to restrict ...
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Define Gibbs Josiah Willard. Gibbs Josiah Willard synonyms, Gibbs Josiah Willard pronunciation, Gibbs Josiah Willard translation, English dictionary definition of Gibbs Josiah Willard. Josiah Willard 1839-1903. American mathematician and physicist who formulated the theoretical foundation of physical chemistry, developed vector analysis,...
Abortion in India is legal only up to twenty weeks of pregnancy under specific conditions and situations, which are broadly defined as: the continuance of the pregnancy would involve a risk to the life of the pregnant woman or of grave injury of physical or mental health, or there is a substantial risk that if the child were born, it would suffer from such physical or mental abnormalities as to be seriously handicapped. Recently, the Supreme Court permitted a rape survivor to terminate her pregnancy at 24 weeks, which is beyond the permissible 20 weeks limit prescribed under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. An adult woman requires no other persons consent except her own. In many parts of India, daughters are not preferred and hence sex-selective abortion is commonly practised, resulting in an unnatural male to female population sex ratio due to millions of developing girls selectively being targeted for termination before birth. Gender hierarchies, cultural norms, values and ...
Definition of primary sex c's in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is primary sex c's? Meaning of primary sex c's as a legal term. What does primary sex c's mean in law?
If you thought Punjab and Haryana were the only concern areas in terms of low sex ratio, many other states too are showing long-term ominous trends. Bihar -the only major state apart from Jammu and Kashmir and Gujarat that saw sex ratio decline from 2001 to 2011 -has silently slipped from a leading position on the key gender indicator to a worrisome situation. If Bihar sticks to its trend and Punjab to its present performance, the two could be competing in 2021. Haryana-another historical culprit -maintained abysmal sex ratios in the mid-800s till 2011, when it has made a small improvement of 16 points to a still abysmal 877 ...
One of the major changes that have taken place in India over the last two decades is a significant shift in the sex ratio at birth, as techniques for prenatal sex determination have become more widely available. There has, however, been little analysis of which factors influence the decision to abort female fetuses at the individual level. Furthermore, the sparse literature does not address the relationship between fertility, spacing and the demand for sex selective abortions, which may lead to biased estimates. Using data from the three rounds of the National Family and Health Survey this paper relies on the observed spacing between births to examine the determinants of the demand for sex selective abortions. By employing a discrete hazard model it is possible to simultaneously control for the fertility and abortion decisions, while taking account of censoring and unobservable characteristics that might affect either.. ...
Objective: although numerous studies have reported the association between birth season and sex ratio, few studies have been conducted in subtropical regions in a non-Western setting. The present study assessed the effects of pregnancy season on birth sex ratio in China. Methods: We conducted a national population-based retrospective study from 2006-2008 with 3175 children-parents pairs enrolled in the Northeast regions of China. Demographics and data relating to pregnancy and birth were collected and analyzed. A multiple logistical regression model was fitted to estimate the regression coefficient and 95% confidence interval (CI) of refractive error for mother pregnancy season, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: After adjusting for parental age (cut-off point was 30 years), region, nationality, mother education level, and mother miscarriage history, there is a significant statistical different mother pregnancy season on birth-sex. Compared with mothers who were pregnant in spring, those
Downloadable! The missing women phenomenon in many Asian countries has previously been regarded as the result of son preference. However, some studies have argued half of the missing women can be explained by infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV). We demonstrate that the probability of having a male birth is only slightly higher for HBV mothers than for mothers without HBV. The sex ratio at birth rises for the higher birth order and that in families where the first two children are female. Our findings suggest that HBV status has little impact on the missing women phenomenon. (JEL I12, J16)
some does not influence sex. Instead two X chromosomes signal the fl...A chromosome is a single DNA molecule that may contain different units...Even though it is the presence or absence of the human Y chromosome th...Early in his career Erickson was part of the research team that ident... This signaling process is not unique to embryonic sex differentiation...,Fruit,fly,gene,research,may,shed,light,on,human,disease,processes,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
When it comes to producing billionaires, America is doing great. Until 2005, multimillionaires could still make the Forbes list of the 400 richest Americans. In 2006, the Forbes 400 went billionaires only. This year, youd need a Forbes 482 to fit all the billionaires. A billion dollars is a lot of dough. Queen Elizabeth II, British monarch for five decades, would have to add $400 million to her $600 million fortune to reach $1 billion. And shed need another $300 million to reach the Forbes 400 minimum of $1.3 billion. The average Forbes 400 member has $3.8 billion.
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Results The mortality rate for the cohort was 67.9 per 1000 live births (B=74.4; G=62.4). This declined significantly as wealth index improved (from 102.4 to 25.4 per 1000 live births). The HR for girls declined from 1.57 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.5) in the wealthiest to 0.67 (0.3 to 1.4) in the lowest tertile. There was no change in total or sex specific mortality rates according to caste or fathers education. Mothers education beyond 10th grade resulted in sharp decline in mortality (14 per 1000 live births) but did not impact the sex differential in mortality. The sex ratio at birth was worst for population with highest wealth index and highest level of maternal educational attainment. ...
Background The study was carried out to record adverse pregnancy outcomes and to obtain information about sex ratio at birth in rural especially tribal areas in the State of Maharashtra, India....
Abstract: Motivation: Reproducibility analyses of biologically relevant microarray studies have mostly focused on overlap of detected biomarkers or correlation of differential expression evidences across studies. For clinical utility, direct inter-study prediction (i.e. to establish a prediction model in one study and apply to another) for disease diagnosis or prognosis prediction is more important. Normalization plays a key role for such a task. Traditionally, sample-wise normalization has been a standard for inter-array and inter-study normalization. For gene-wise normalization, it has been implemented for intra-study or inter-study predictions in a few papers while its rationale, strategy and effect remain unexplored.. Results: In this article, we investigate the effect of gene-wise normalization in microarray inter-study prediction. Gene-specific intensity discrepancies across studies are commonly found even after proper sample-wise normalization. We explore the rationale and necessity of ...
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Yoshimura et al1 reported that although exposure to dioxin (TCDD) (after the explosion at Seveso) was associated with a subsequent significant and substantial drop in offspring sex ratio (proportion male),2 there was no obvious similarity in the offspring sex ratios after accidental ingestion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Yusho, Japan,1 and Yucheng, Taiwan.3 PCBs and PCDFs are toxicologically similar to (although less potent than) TCDD. The authors wrote that in Taiwan, despite exposure to chemicals similar to TCDD sufficient to produce obvious clinical disease, the sex ratio was not altered. They inferred that sex ratio is unlikely to be a sensitive indicator of exposures to chemicals such as PCBs, PCDFs, and dioxins. The argument is not decisive and Yoshimura et al1 called for further research.. I had predicted4 Mocarellis low paternal offspring sex ratio on the basis of the known endocrine effects of dioxin on exposed men.5 The basis of my prediction was a ...
Saadat and colleagues1 reported a significantly high sex ratio (proportion male) in births to people exposed to oil and natural gas from an Iranian oilfield. These authors cited a study of Yang and colleagues2 of sex ratios near a petroleum refinery plant in Taiwan. In that study Yang et al failed to find any disturbance in the sex ratios of two polluted municipalities as contrasted with Taiwanese national data. However Saadat et al failed to mention another, more powerful, study by the same group of authors. Yang and colleagues3 contrasted the sex ratios at birth in 16 municipalities in which there was substantial involvement in the petrochemical industry with sex ratios in the other 345 municipalities in Taiwan. Overall, the offspring sex ratios of the polluted municipalities were highly significantly higher … ...
The sex of 746 great reed warbler fledglings (from 175 broods) was determined by the use of single primer polymerase-chain reaction. The reliability of the technique was confirmed as 104 of the fledglings were subsequently recorded as adults of known sex. The overall sex ratio did not differ from unity. Variation in sex ratios between broods was larger than expected from a binomial distribution. Female identity explained some of the variation of brood sex ratio indicating that certain females consistently produced sex ratios that departed from the average value in the population. The theory of sex allocation predicts that parents should adjust the sex ratio of their brood to the relative value of sons and daughters and this may vary in relation to the quality of the parents or to the time of breeding. In the great reed warbler, the proportion of sons was not related to time of breeding, or to any of five female variables. Of five male variables, males with early arrival date tended to produce ...
THE genetics of sex-ratio variation are important in considering the adaptive sex ratios of organisms since they are direct products of sex-ratio evolution (Bull 1983; Werren and Beukeboom 1998) as well as possible constraints (West and Sheldon 2002). An important distinction among the genetic factors producing sex-ratio variation is whether they are cytoplasmic sex factors, nuclear sex-ratio genes, or nuclear sex-determining genes (Werren and Beukeboom 1998). Cytoplasmic sex factors are expressed either in the parent or in the zygote and are usually inherited only through the female lineage; this is demonstrated by the bacterium Wolbachia (Stouthamer et al. 2002). Sex-ratio genes are those expressed in the parent that affect offspring sex ratios, such as X chromosome drive genes in Drosophila spp. (Stouthamer et al. 2002). Sex-determining genes are those expressed in the zygote that determine the zygotes sex.. These genetic factors all affect the brood sex ratios, but they differ in their ...
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In this study, the population dynamics and sex ratios of 12 species of beetles of the tribe Onciderini (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) were investigated from 2002 to 2006 in an Atlantic rain forest of south-eastern Brazil located at the Biological Reserve of the Serra do Japi. The period of activity of adult beetles ranged from October to May, with slight differences among the species. From June to September, adults were not found and we considered them absent. Our findings showed that adults of these beetles were strongly seasonal, and abundances were correlated with climatic factors that occurred up to two months in advance. Sex ratios were skewed to females in most of the species. The factors determining the population dynamic and sex ratios of these insects are discussed. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC ...
Alumni · Jobs at La Trobe · News from La Trobe · Attend a La Trobe event · Security · Contact us Male pattern baldness is associated with high levels of male sex hormones called androgens. How does this work? levels of hundreds of people in the UK with COVID severity supports this theory. The most male-biased sex ratios were found among multiple births to overseas​, with the largest groups originating from the UK, New Zealand, China, India, the Ethics approval was obtained from La Trobe University (SHE This work was supported by La Trobe University, Australia, and View all jobs.. Male sex worker jobs uk in La Trobe
In termites, the soldier caste, with its specialized defensive morphology, is one of the most important characteristics for sociality. Most of the basal termite species have both male and female soldiers, and the soldier sex ratio is almost equal or only slightly biased. However, in the apical lineages (especially family Termitidae), there are many species that have soldiers with strongly biased sex ratio. Generally in termites, since high juvenile hormone (JH) titer is required for soldier differentiation from a worker via a presoldier stage, it was hypothesized that the biased soldier-sex ratio was caused by differences in JH sensitivity and/or JH titer between male and female workers. Therefore, we focused on the presoldier differentiation and the worker JH titer in species with only male soldiers (Nasutitermes takasagoensis) and with both male and female soldiers (Reticulitermes speratus) in natural conditions. In the former species, there are four types of workers; male minor, male medium, female
From an evolutionary point of view, sex differences in intergenerational transmission of income may be influenced by the Trivers-Willard (T-W) effect: Low status parents should invest more in daughters, whereas high status parents are expected to invest more in sons. This bias in parental investment may result in status-dependent sex biased parental support for higher education and educational attainment and should therefore affect the level of intergenerational income transmission for the sons and daughters.We used the data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) to model the effect of parental financial investment on the childs income and educational attainment controlling for the number of siblings. The observed sex differences in intergenerational income transmission demonstrate that sons profited more from parental income and education in terms of their own income than daughters. Furthermore we showed that fathers with a high socioeconomic index (SEI) invest more in their sons education in
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Lactation is a mammalian attribute, and the few known nonmammal examples have distinctly different modalities. We document here milk provisioning in a jumping spider, which compares functionally and behaviorally to lactation in mammals. The spiderlings ingest nutritious milk droplets secreted from the mothers epigastric furrow until the subadult stage. Milk is indispensable for offspring survival in the early stages and complements their foraging in later stages. Maternal care, as for some long-lived vertebrates, continues after the offspring reach maturity. Furthermore, a female-biased adult sex ratio is acquired only when the mother is present. These findings demonstrate that mammal-like milk provisioning and parental care for sexually mature offspring have also evolved in invertebrates, encouraging a reevaluation of their occurrence across the animal kingdom, especially in invertebrates. (paywall) More. Zhanqi Chen1, Richard T. Corlett1, Xiaoguo Jiao2, Sheng-Jie Liu3, Tristan ...
We have identified Laidx, a novel, large, and amplified gene encompassing three previously-annotated genes co-amplified on the mouse X and Y chromosomes. Laidx consists of nine exons and encodes an 8337 amino acid (871 kD) putative protein, which shares sequence similarity with a protein in the Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. Laidx is predominantly expressed in post-meiotic testicular germ cells, suggesting a role in spermatogenesis and reproduction. However, male mice with Laidx deletion and duplication exhibit fertility, fecundity, testis histology, and offspring sex ratio similar to wild-type, indicating the role of Laidx may be uncovered under other conditions (e.g., stress, old age). The reduced sperm counts and sperm motility, though not statistically significant, suggests loss or lower copy number of Laidx could impact the fitness of males in wild populations. Our resolving the entire gene structure of the large and complex Laidx gene sequence combined with the generation of ...
Several studies investigate the effects of a mixture containing equal concentrations of C13, C15, C16, C17, C18, C19n-paraffins, C12, C16, C19isoparaffins and C10cycloparaffin on mallard duck and chicken. In a first study (Hoffman, 1978), the mixture was applied directly on the egg shell (5µl in one application) of mallard duck and chicken for 18 and 15 days respectively: the mixture had no effect on embryo development, or on sex ratio. Dietary studies with mallard ducks fed a diet containing 1% (i.e. 10 g/kg diet) of the same paraffin mixture showed that the paraffin mixture had no effect on body and organ weights, reproduction, histopathology, hematology and serology (Patton, and Dieter, 1980; Coon and Dieter, 1981). ...
Abstract: Length and mass data for 1260 (536 females, 683 males, 41 sex unknown) striped marlin Kajikia audax were collected at the fish markets of Tungkang, Singkang and Nanfangao from July 2004 to September 2010. Of these samples, 534 gonads (236 females and 298 males) ranging from 95 to 206 cm in eye‐to‐fork length (LEF) and 8 to 88 kg in round mass (MR), were collected. Chi‐square tests indicated sex ratios were homogeneous among months in 2004 and 2006-2008, but not in 2005, 2009 and 2010; and there were significant differences in sex ratio by size. The overall sex ratio (RS) differed significantly from the expected 0·5. Kajikia audax are sexually dimorphic and the proportions of females increased with size between 140 and 210 cm LEF. Reproductive activity was assessed using a gonado‐somatic index (IG), external appearance of the gonads and histological examination and results indicated that the spawning season occurred from April to August with a peak in June to July. Based on ...
The sex ratios of our populations shift during the season. The long-distance migrants are predominantly female. A sex ratio of 25 females to 1 male was recorded entering an alfalfa field in May in Pennsylvania. All females were gravid and able to initiate a new generation. The sex ratio changed to approximately 3:1 on second harvest and 1:1 on third harvest. The sex ratio of eggs is 1:1 and adult populations maintain stable 1:1 sex ratios by midseason and thereafter.. Potato leafhopper develops 3 to 4 generations during its residence in its summer range. One important factor that regulates populations is alfalfa harvest. Harvest destroys eggs and nymphs, and sends adults flying. Recolonization of alfalfa regrowth and vegetable crops occurs by invasion of adults from those populations adjacent to alfalfa fields or neighboring alfalfa fields on adjacent farms.. Eggs are deposited within the plant. Most are in the upper more succulent tissue. On alfalfa, eggs are laid in the top 17 cm or upper one ...
Another way of compensation could be looking for extra-pair copulation to gain compensation or help in parental care from extra-pair males, a phenomenon largely described in bird species previously supposed to be genetically monogamous and interpreted with adaptive hypotheses [2, 60, 61]. In the absence of extra-pair help, the brood might grow up in a disrupted rearing condition, i.e., reduced amount of male care, with possible consequences on the future socio-sexual behavior, such as in partner preference. Therefore, once an effect on paternal care is expected/observed, it will be necessary to take into account life-history parameters including clutch size, percentage of second clutches, primary and secondary sex ratio, as well as the engagement of females in extra-pair activity or the genetic paternity of the offspring.. What species may be considered as sentinels of EDC effects? In principle, a broad view of the use of sentinels may lead to relevant outcomes of interest. The biology of a ...
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Introduction During the last decade, numerous studies have been published, reporting an increase in male reproductive organ anomalies, as well as in testicular cancer, and a decline in the relative number of male births, and in semen quality. At the same time, a growing number of therapeutical as well as environmental chemicals with recognized estrogenic, anti-androgenic or other hormonal activity have been focused on, as being potentially responsible for the mentioned anomalies. Many studies have been carried out, on experimental animals, as well as through observation of exposed human cohorts, in an attempt to gather evidence on the suspected developmental toxicity of these substances, in general referred to as endocrine disruptors. Observed anomalies and trends Sex ratio Sex ratio is measured as the ratio of male to female births, and its normal value, with slight deviations, is considered to be of 1.06, that is 106 males for every 100 females born (Davis et al., 1998). Numerous factors have ...
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It is not just the skewed child sex ratio that reflects gender bias in the national capital. Delhis voter list, too, reflects how women voters lag in terms of numbers.
Abstract A two-year field study of the population of Macrobrachium olfersi from the Guaecá River, São Sebastião, Brazil, revealed a predominance of adult females over adult males, which is expressed by an overall sex ratio of 4.3:1. Relationship between sex-ratio is a function of body size and is related to differential growth with males attaining larger body size than females. Ovigerous females were present in every monthly collection, indicating that reproductive activity was continuous. Periods of higher reproductive activity were observed during the warmer and rainy months. The smallest ovigerous female sampled was 28.1 mm of total body length. Mean fecundity was 1,227 eggs per female (mean total length: 39.9 mm) with a positive correlation between fecundity and female body size. Mean egg sizes (shortest and longest axes) were 0.449 and 0.579 mm at early embryonic development and 0.489 × 0.648 mm at late embryonic development. Based on color and size of ovaries, five distinct developmental
Unlike several billionaire heiresses, she would not tread the beaten path and engage in commercial pursuits related to her fathers business empire like many of her peers from filthy-rich families. Tolani chooses to be different, seeking out her livelihood and acclaim in her passion for music.. There is something about the Otedola girls, from Tolani, Florence (DJ Cuppy) to Temi, that inspires. Sometimes it manifests as envy and dread among their peers in high society. Although their father, Femi, is no music maestro, his wards radiate a rare artistry that must be ingrained somewhere along the depths of their lineage, according to pundits.. They radiate the essence of creative spirit, passion and acclaim that the odds can never tame. Thus they manifest on the world like scenic spokes of the rainbow across a dystopic world. And she made such a grand entrance courtesy her musical showcase. The event, which had in attendance, the creme of Nigerias high society, featured the coming-out of the ...
Title : Turbulent Intentions Author : Melody Anne Series : Billionaire Aviators #1 Release date : 09 Aug 2016 Rating : 4 Stars. Blurb : The Armstrong brothers are wealthy, wild-at-heart bad boys-until their fathers will demands they prove themselves and marry in order to inherit their fortune.Eldest brother Cooper channels his reckless spirit into becoming CEO of his own airline. The only thing better than the adrenaline rush of flying is his one-night stand with a stunning stranger. At first he doesnt recognize the fiery barista he clashes with years later at an airport coffee shop. But when Stormy Halifax turns up as his new house sitter, Cooper knows shes his Cinderella. And he doesnt just want her in his mansion. He wants her back in his bed.Stormy cant believe shes living under Coopers roof. Gorgeous and arrogant, hes convinced shell surrender again-and hes right. But just as Stormy is succumbing to a world of pleasure, her trust is shattered. And the biggest challenge Cooper has ...
Chris Saccas signature cowboy shirts, seen here in Forbes 2015 cover shoot, were once a fixture in … [+]. In 2015, venture capitalist Chris Sacca was one of Silicon Valleys most influential investors, No. 3 on the Midas List with more than one million Twitter followers well before VC memes were the norm, and a regular appearance on Shark Tank. The Lowercase Capital partners early stakes in companies including Instagram, Twitter and Uber minted him a billionaire, putting him on the cover of Forbes.. Two years later, Sacca announced his retirement from startup investing and the show. He dropped off the Midas List. To a new generation of founders, hes no longer the go-to name for early funding if building the next buzzy social app. In February, however, Sacca officially resurfaced with a new firm name and focus. Called Lowercarbon Capital, the fund, which Sacca is managing with wife Crystal and partner Clay Dumas, is focused on an area that has historically proven kryptonite for VC ...
At the other end of the scale, billionaires have seen their fortunes hit record highs during the pandemic, with top executives from technology and industry earning the most.. The worlds richest saw their wealth climb 27.5% to $10.2tn (£7.9tn) from April to July this year, according to a report from Swiss bank UBS.. Pooja Rangaprasad, Director, Policy and Advocacy, Financing for Development (FfD) at the Rome-based Society for International Development (SID), told IPS philanthropy or charity is not a substitute for systemic solutions. Many developing countries are already on the brink of debt crises which is further exacerbated by a broken international tax system that allows wealthy corporations and individuals to pay little to no taxes, she pointed out. Unless global economic solutions are prioritised to ensure developing countries have the fiscal space to respond to the crisis, the consequences will be devastating with millions being pushed back into extreme poverty, she warned. ...
According to the most recent evidence, the United States has 313 billionaires now. The total wealth of these people would be enough to buy the gross national products of many, many countries. To be quite honest, I think that there is something extremely distasteful in one person owning so much that a whole struggling nation could be lifted up from poverty with the same amount of money. Any argument that relies on the deserved fruits from the effort of the single individual leaves me cold as for it to apply Id need to assume that one person could actually be worthier than a whole nation. I also cant see what kind of pleasure one could get from earning another billion on top of a big pile of them: we can only eat and drink and wear so much, and its not possible to live in more houses than one at the same time. In short, successive dollars are worth less to you the richer you are ...
So how do you pull this off, when every one of these things hurts average Americans?. Easy. Just embark on a 40-year-long campaign, through think tanks, right-wing media, and massive PR efforts to convince average Americans that government is the cause of, not the solution to, their problems. Convince working-class Americans that gutting government is a good thing that will ultimately help them in some mystical, magical way through the incredible invisible hand of the marketplace.. Lewis Powell, a lawyer for Big Tobacco, launched the movement to do just this with his infamous memo in 1971, and billionaires have funded and promoted politicians who jump on board the government is evil bandwagon ever since.. And its largely worked, if the trust in government statistics compiled by the Pew Research Center since 1958 are accurate.. Back in 2011, I was up late one night watching Bloomberg News on a hotel TV. The American host was interviewing a very wealthy German businessman at a conference in ...
OKLAHOMA CITY (KFOR) - An Oklahoma billionaire is making it his mission to change the high cost of insulin in our country. Harold Hamm founded Continental Resources, one of the biggest companies in the state. Hamm is also the namesake behind the Harold Hamm Diabetes Center in Oklahoma City. Hamm, who has Type 1 diabetes, […]
Free online read now - For Billionaire playboy Sebastien, marriage was never an option. Until his mistress Monika gives him an ultimatum, and he risks losing everything&hell...
However, Ji and I used to live on the same street in Bangkok. We taught at the same university. But we really disagree on our analysis of the Red Shirts. I believe the Red Shirts are a fascist movement. I believe the poverty is real. The need, the hunger, for a systemic change, a kind of change in Thailand, is there. Its in the air. But there is nothing about the Red Shirts - I listen to them every day. I monitor their broadcasts. Im doing a media study of that. And they insult foreigners. They insult gays. They engage in ridiculous ad hominem attacks. They are playing to the crowd. Its kind of like a cross between - with Thaksin. And they sing songs in dedication to Thaksin. I mean, its sort of like, you know, Mussolini or something like that. Some people compare Thaksin to Berlusconi. I think its a little more like Mussolini. It is fascism, and it is a shame, because these people are hijacking the poor people, hijacking the genuine grievances of the poor, to serve a billionaire in exile ...
He is Houstons most reluctant billionaire. He hates to do interviews and seldom opens up. But he took the stage and shared tons to help out M.D. Anderson. by Kalee Brown, Collective Evolution At the age of 101 years old, former Chase Manhattan Chief Executive and billionaire David Rockefeller died as a result of congestive heart failure. According to family spokesperson Fraser P. Seitel, David died in his home earlier this Monday morning. Heres an excerpt from the Rockefeller Foundations statement on…
Billionaire Paul Allen plans to part with a trophy from his prized art collection. A vibrant abstract painting by Willem de Kooning,
The new billionaire owner of the Abbey Leix House mansion and sprawling estate in Laois is part of a consortium buying up an airport up to the road in Kildare. ...
Microsoft blew it. The company could have been Amazon, too-at least the e-book side around the turn of the century.. I can recall going to an industry-government conference eons ago where Microsofts e-book crew set the tone. But today Microsoft Reader is dead, and Bill Gates so far hasnt lived up to his promise as a potential funder of electronic libraries.. Could one reason for the above be that Gates himself either has never embraced e-books at the personal level or has given up on them?. In Bill Gates: The Billionaire Book Critic, Katherine Rosman of the New York Times writes about him as a new Oprah, turbocharging the careers of authors he blesses. Along the way, she reports: Mr. Gates says he reads about 50 books in a year, eschewing digital readers for old-fashioned books on paper. When he is busy with work, he reads about a book or two a week but will consume four or five in the same period while vacationing with family.. Notice the last sentence? Gates shuns e-books nowadays at the ...
A billionaire diamond trader has died during a procedure to enlarge his penis. Ehud Arye Laniado, 65, died of a heart attack on the operating table at hospital in Paris. His death was reportedly triggered when a substance was injected into his penis. Laniados company, Omega Diamonds, confirmed his death:
Is it the first million or billion that is the hardest? See how long it took these entrepreneurs to go from millionaire to billionaire.
Why would a billionaire energy trader-turned-philanthropist throw his foundation's dough behind a new think tank that wants to challenge scientific
We need to rein in the destructive power of corporations and billionaires before its too late. These five ideas would do that, while leaving global capitalism intact. Ultimately, only a complete transformation of our economic system will save our future, but these proposals could set changes in motion that might eventually take us there. Transnational…
We need to rein in the destructive power of corporations and billionaires before its too late. These five ideas would do that, while leaving global capitalism intact. Ultimately, only a complete transformation of our economic system will save our future, but these proposals could set changes in motion that might eventually take us there. Transnational…
The blue slush by billionaire is a sweet and sharp mix of freshly prepared juicy blueberries. The sweet and fruity blueberries excite your taste buds with their freshness and the twist of slush give you an extra blow of sugary freshness on exhale. The blue slush is a unique, light, and refreshing blend for all-day vapi
Sex ratio[edit]. At birth: 1.086 male(s)/female. Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female. 15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female. 65 ...
Sex ratio[edit]. At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female. Under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female. 15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female. 65 years ... Dependency ratios[edit]. total dependency ratio: 55.4 (2015 est.). youth dependency ratio: 48.4 (2015 est.). elderly dependency ... potential support ratio: 14.4 (2015 est.). See also[edit]. See also: List of Cape Verdeans, Cape Verdean American, and Cape ... these results indicate that gene flow from multiple sources and sex-specific patterns have been important in the formation of ...
Sex ratio[edit]. at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years ...
1 sex ratio in B. terrestris populations.[17] This is unusual for monogamous social insects, which usually have a 3:1 sex ratio ... resulting in an overall sex ratio of 1:4 (female to males).[10] However, most studies show that this balance of bimodal sex ... Sex ratios[edit]. Due to the variability in the switch point to male production from worker production of B. terrestris ... Late-switching colonies have fewer males and a more even sex ratio of 1:1:3, thus indicating the queen's control over her ...
Sex ratio[edit]. Age. Ratio. (males/females) Total:. 1.02 At birth:. 1.07 ... Dependency ratios. total dependency ratio: 52.6 (2015 est.). youth dependency ratio: 43 (2015 est.). elderly dependency ratio: ... potential support ratio: 10.5 (2015 est.). Life expectancy at birth. total population: 76.2 years. male: 73.2 years. female: ...
Sex ratio[edit]. at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female. 0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female. 15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female. 25-54 years: ... Dependency ratios[edit]. total dependency ratio: 84.5 (2015 est.). youth dependency ratio: 78.3 (2015 est.). elderly dependency ... potential support ratio: 16.1 (2015 est.). Urbanization[edit]. urban population: 66.9% of total population (2018). rate of ...
Sex ratio[edit]. (2010 est.) at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female. under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female. 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/ ...
Sex ratio[edit]. at birth 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over ... Dependency ratios[edit]. total dependency ratio: 84.2 (2015 est.). youth dependency ratio: 78.6 (2015 est.). elderly dependency ... potential support ratio: 17.8 (2015 est.). Life expectancy at birth[edit]. total population: 62.1 years (2018 est.). male: 60.4 ...
1:1 sex ratio[edit]. Fisher's principle outlines why almost all species using sexual reproduction have a sex ratio of 1:1. W. D ... Many ectothermic vertebrates have no sex chromosomes. If they have different sexes, sex is determined environmentally rather ... For example, female birds, snakes, and butterflies have ZW sex chromosomes, and males have ZZ sex chromosomes.[citation needed] ... For example, the platypus relies on an XY sex-determination system based on five pairs of chromosomes.[11] Platypus sex ...
Sex ratio. Total. 0.91 males/female (2014 est.). At birth. 0.84 males/female (2014 est.). ... and the estimated gender ratio of the population is 0.91 males per one female. ...
Kutch has a sex ratio of 908 females for every 1000 males,[14] and a literacy rate of 71.58%.[14] ...
Dungarpur had a sex ratio of 990 females for every 1000 males,[14] and a literacy rate of 60.78%.[14] ...
Pauri Garhwal has a sex ratio of 1103 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 82.02%.[6] ...
The sex ratio of patients with congenital malformations Congenital anomaly. Sex ratio, ♂♂:♀♀ ... "Sex ratio among offspring of childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy". British Journal of Cancer. 88 (3): 382-7. ... Following studies showed elevated risks for other tumors and congenital malformations of the sex organs for both sexes. ... Fernando, J; Arena, P; Smith, D. W. (1978). "Sex liability to single structural defects". American Journal of Diseases of ...
Mandi had a very high sex ratio - 1013 girls for every 1000 boys in 2011. Mandi has a mixed population of Hindus, Sikhs, ... Mandi, in the state is having second highest sex ratio of 1013 females per thousand males. ...
"Sex Ratio". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 September 2014.. ... a sex ratio of 945 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[8] 124,471 children are in the age ... a sex ratio of 941 females per 1000 males and 142,826 children are in the age group of 0-6 years. There are a total of 846,952 ... group of 0-6 years, of which 64,522 are boys and 59,949 are girls -a ratio of 929 girls per 1000 boys. There are 769,593 ...
"Distribution of Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Sex-Ratio and Population Density". 2011 census of India. Government of India. ...
According to the 2011 census, Kodaikanal had a population of 36,501 with a sex-ratio of 1,004 females for every 1,000 males, ...
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female. 0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female. 15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female. 25-54 years: 1.04 ...
The sex ratio was 918 females per 1000 males.[71] Almost 58% of Bihar's population was below 25 years age, which is the highest ... In fact, the ratio of private spending on health care relative to public spending in Bihar is the second highest in India.[90] ... and maternal mortality ratio decreased by 10.2%.[90] ... Sex ratio (2011). 918 ♀/1000 ♂[11]. Website. gov. .bih. .nic. . ...
Sex ratio (no. of females per 1,000 males) 30. 912. 399. 162. -. -. -. 695. 835 ... Sex Ratio in Kupwara District in 2011 Census.. (no. females per 1,000 males). ... Kupwara has a sex ratio of 843 females for every 1000 males (this varies with religion), and a literacy rate of 75.60%.[ ... Gender ratio (% female) 2.9%. 47.7%. 28.5%. 13.9%. 22.7%. 28.2%. 30.8%. 41.0%. 45.5% ...
Shimla has a sex ratio of 916 females for every 1000 males,[1] and a literacy rate of 84.55%.[1] It has the highest urban ...
Sex ratio. 1:1 ♂/♀. Literacy. 100%. Website. www. .rewari. .gov. .in. Sundroj is a village in Khol Block of Rewari Tehsil, ...
Sex ratio. 1.093 ♀/♂[11]. Literacy. 96.8%[11]. Website. www. .kozhikode. .nic. .in. ...
Sindhudurg has a sex ratio of 1037 females for every 1000 males which is second highest in Maharashtra,[2] and a literacy rate ... "Sindhudurg District Population Census 2011, Maharashtra literacy sex ratio and density". Retrieved 6 ...
Gender ratio[edit]. Age range (years). Sex ratio (males/females) (2015 est.)[2]. ...
The sex ratio in the city area is 888 females per 1000 males, whereas in the urban agglomeration it is 880 per 1,000.[6][47] ... "Sex Ratio of India". 2011 census of India. Retrieved 7 December 2012.. ...
Daman has a sex ratio of 533 females for every 1,000 males,[5] and a literacy rate of 88.06%.[5] ...
Sex ratio: *at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female. *under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female ...
Sex ratio: at birth: male(s)/female 1.0500 1.01 1.0424 1.0310 Sex ratio: under 15 years: male(s)/female 1.0408 n.a. 1.0153 ... Sex ratio: 60 years and over: male(s)/female 0.8169 0.80 n.a. 0.7933 ... Sex ratio: 15-59 years: male(s)/female 1.0003 n.a. 0.9414 0.9379 ... Sex ratio: total population: male(s)/female 1.0002 0.9947 n.a. ... Potential support ratio: persons aged 15 to 64 per persons aged 65 or older 17.47 17 n.a. 16.33 ...
... a high waist-hip ratio is often present.[13] Smoking appears to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.[33] A lack of sleep has ... "Differences by sex in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in sub- ...
The legs and bill are black; the iris is dark brown.[20] The plumage of the sexes is similar but females are slightly smaller. ... their total brain-to-body mass ratio is equal to most great apes and cetaceans.[42] A 2004 review suggests that the ... The tail feathers of both sexes are quite long, about 12-28 cm long. Males of the nominate subspecies weigh 210-272 g (7.4-9.6 ... Ageing and sexing (PDF; 2.9 MB) by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze ...
"Impact of Red Fox Predation on the Sex Ratio of Prairie Mallards". USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. 3 August ... Both sexes have an area of white-bordered black or iridescent blue feathers called a speculum on their wings; males especially ... Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yury N.; McCracken, Kevin G. (2004). "Asymmetric hybridization and sex-biased gene flow between ... which is notably darker-hued in both sexes than the mallard,[34] and the mottled duck (A. fulvigula), which is somewhat darker ...
"Sex-Based Roles Gave Modern Humans an Edge, Study Says". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2008-02-03.. ... The formation of an Arctic ice cap around 3 million years ago is signaled by an abrupt shift in oxygen isotope ratios and ice- ... the sexes were more equal during Paleolithic millennia than at any time since.. Page 9 ... and it is likely that both sexes participated in decision making.[65] The earliest known Paleolithic shaman (c. 30,000 BP) was ...
"Mixed Sex Toilets in Schools". Retrieved January 24, 2019.. *^ a b Kogan, Terry (2007). "Sex-Separation in ... They sometimes also work to eliminate the longer wait time females often face by creating a ratio of more female toilets than ... Sex-separation in public toilets (also called sex segregation), as opposed to unisex toilets, is the separation of public ... The opposite of unisex toilets is referred to as either "sex-separated" or "sex-segregated" toilets, or "conventional public ...
49 years.The male to female sex ratio of total infection came down from 2.15 of 2006 to 1.95 for the year 2013 and projected to ... Life Expectancy at birth for both sexes increased by 6 years over the year 2010 and 2012.In 2012, healthy expectancy in both ... The epidemic in Nepal is driven by injecting drug users, migrants, sex workers and their clients, and MSM. Results from the ... Labor migrants make up 41 percent of the total known HIV infections in Nepal, followed by clients of sex workers (15.5 percent ...
The octopus (along with cuttlefish) has the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of all invertebrates, and is also greater than ... "Absurd Creature of the Week: The Beautiful Octopus Whose Sex Is All About Dismemberment". Wired: Science. Retrieved 20 May ...
Education was a controversial topic in the 1930s,[14]" and sex-segregated school systems protected "the virtue of female high ... "The Male-Female Ratio in College". Forbes.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes ... The court held that the single-sex admissions policy of the Mississippi University for Women violated the Equal Protection ... 1972: Title IX was passed, making discrimination against any person based on their sex in any federally funded educational ...
... sex-ratio bias[13] ... and the ratios among the major nutrients are helpful guides to ...
It is also expected to disrupt sex ratios in many reptiles which have temperature-dependent sex determination. ...
"UNdata , record view , Population by religion, sex and urban/rural residence - Filter to Zambia". Retrieved 2020- ... Srinivasan, Sharada; Bedi, Arjun Singh (18 Sep 2008). "Daughter Elimination in Tamil Nadu, India: A Tale of Two Ratios". The ...
Sex Lies and Handlebar tape, p237-239.. (Paul Howard) Anquetil set a record time in 1967 of 47.493 km but the record was never ... Pinarello Bolide HR, SRAM Crankset,[45] modified front fork, custom printed handlebars,[46] 58/14 gear ratio.[47]. Set new ... Cervelo T4 track bike with double Mavic Comete discwheels, running 56/14 gear ratio.[66][74]. Beat her own national record of ... Triathlon handlebar, Trek carbon fibre tubing frame, disc wheels,[31] chain on a 55/14 gear ratio.[32]. First attempt under the ...
Hönekopp J, Watson S. Meta-Analysis of Digit Ratio 2D:4D Shows Greater Sex Difference in the Right Hand. „American Journal of ... Voracek M, Pietschnig J, Nader IW, Stieger S. Digit Ratio (2D:4D) and Sex-Role Orientation: Further Evidence and Meta-Analysis ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Manning JT, Kilduff L, Cook C, Crewther B, Fink B. Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A Biomarker for Prenatal ... a b c d e de Sanctis V, Soliman AT, Elsedfy H, Soliman N, Elalaily R, Di Maio S. Is the Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) a ...
... secondary sex ratio, selection intensity, and genetic load: a cross-sectional study from Northern India". Pediatric Research. ... Philopatry, Inbreeding, and the Evolution of Sex. Print. 50-69. *^ Meagher S, Penn DJ, Potts WK (March 2000). "Male-male ... Shields WM (1982). Philopatry, inbreeding, and the evolution of sex. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0- ... However, in species such as horses, animals in wild or feral conditions often drive off the young of both sexes, thought to be ...
Other characteristics of MFS include an increased arm span and decreased upper to lower body ratio.[36] ... of a gene that are beneficial for one sex causes expression of potentially harmful traits by the same gene in the other sex, ...
Chadwick, Derek; Goode, Jamie (2002). The genetics and biology of sex ... ISBN 978-0-470-84346-8. . Retrieved March 16, 2010 - ... In large reptiles, like leatherback turtles, the low surface-to-volume ratio allows this metabolically produced heat to keep ... Some reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TDSD), in which the incubation temperature determines whether a ...
Markianos M, Alevizos V, Stefanis C (1991). "Plasma sex hormones and urinary biogenic amine metabolites during treatment of ... "Moclobemide treatment causes a substantial rise in the sparteine metabolic ratio. Danish University Antidepressant Group". Br ...
Sex ratio. 0.928 are ♀/♂[5]. Literacy Rate. 87.38% (Male) 74.02% (Female)[5]. ...
... the global sex ratio is approximately 1.01 males to 1 female. The greater number of men is possibly due to the significant sex ... "Sex-ratio imbalance in Asia: Trends, consequences and policy responses" (PDF). UNFPA. 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2012.. ...
In some cases, sex is arbitrarily determined in large part based on perceived size and apparent robustness in the absence of ... the humerus to femur ratio of OH 62 and the A. afarensis specimen AL 288-1 are both within the range of variation for modern ... more reliable elements in sex identification (namely the pelvis). Mating systems are also based on dental anatomy, but early ...
The student-teacher ratio is 10.2:1, and class sizes are limited to 16 in the ELC and, with few exceptions, 22 for grades K-12. ... Challenging Marriage Taboos and Paving the Road to Same-Sex Marriage (2015); Which Chosen People? Manifest Destiny Meets the ...
... such as risk of death or sex ratio) of a given age cohort within a population. Age and sex are crucial variables in the ... In reviewing the sexing of Egyptian skulls from Qua and Badari, Mann found that 20.3% could be assigned to a different sex than ... Sex-based differences are not inherently a form of inequality, but become an inequality when members of one sex are given ... Sexing skeletons of young people who have not completed puberty is more difficult and problematic than sexing adults, because ...
Oats and barley differ in the ratio of trimer and tetramer 1-4 linkages. Barley has more 1-4 linkages with a degree of ...
The sex ratio is 894 per 1,000 males for Nashik city. Child sex ratio is 865 girls per 1,000 boys. In Nashik, 11.42% of the ...
Trut, L. N. (1996). "Sex ratio in silver foxes: effects of domestication and the star gene". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. ... Levels of the sex hormones estradiol and progesterone differed. Belyaev[5] stated: "Perhaps the most important observation ...
Further evidence of sex-based disparities in radiation-induced cancers was published in the 2006 report by the National ... For example, the FGR 13 has estimated that the ratio of thyroid cancer incidence for women as compared to men is 2.14, while ... the sex disparities are even greater. The BEIR VII Committee concluded that, given the same level of radiation exposure, women ... Sex, age, race, culture, occupation, class, location, and simultaneous exposure to additional environmental toxins are also ...
Shojaee S, Teimouri A, Keshavarz H, Azami SJ, Nouri S «The relation of secondary sex ratio and miscarriage history with ... La infecció materna pel paràsit origina nombrosos avortaments espontanis i altera la normal proporció entre els dos sexes de la ...
Without histones, the unwound DNA in chromosomes would be very long (a length to width ratio of more than 10 million to 1 in ... Autosome/Sex chromosome (or allosome or heterosome). *Macrochromosome/Microchromosome. *Circular chromosome/Linear chromosome ... most likely because this allows them to achieve an even higher packaging ratio.[33] ...
Social conservatives, many of them religious, often oppose abortion, same-sex marriage, and civil unions, and would define ... In business and engineering, liberals outnumber conservatives by a 2:1 ratio. The study also found that more women, practicing ... They oppose abortion, same-sex marriage, civil unions, and anti-discrimination laws against homosexuals.[95] The libertarian ... and that marriage should be defined as between one man and one woman and not between two members of the same sex. Many attack ...
... of the ratio of testosterone to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is high[15][61]and is meant to be a predictor of free ... Common cut-offs to designate abnormally high LH/FSH ratios are 2:1[65]or 3:1[61]as tested on Day 3 of the menstrual cycle. The ... The ratio of LH (Luteinizing hormone) to FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone), when measured in international units, is elevated ... Banaszewska B, Spaczyński RZ, Pelesz M, Pawelczyk L. Incidence of elevated LH/FSH ratio in polycystic ovary syndrome women with ...
For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due ... Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance ... Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance ... Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance ...
... the sex ratio for the world sans these three countries stands good at 101.4. Had the sex ratio for these three countries been ... The sex ratio inched forward in the first two decades of the countrys life to reach 87.5 in the 1972 census - it experienced ... The next census was conducted 17 years later in 1998 and it put the sex ratio at 92.2. The annual average increase came down to ... Starting from a dismal sex ratio of 85.9 females per 100 males in the 1951 census, Pakistan has now improved the figure by 9.3 ...
The sex ratio of both the rural and urban population has recorded an increase. ... The sex ratio in Haryana has improved with 877 females in 2011, from 861 in 2001, for every 1,000 males, said an official ... "The sex ratio of both the rural and urban population has recorded an increase. The sex ratio in rural areas increased to 880 ... Rural child sex ratio declining sharply: Census - Jul 16, 2011. *Declining child sex ratio matter of concern: Tirath - Mar 31, ...
... also found that both sexes were more polygamous when the ratio was skewed towards the opposite sex. ... Researchers found that when the sex ratio was skewed, divorce and infidelity was more common. (Credit: O. Kruger). A joint ... "We found that a female bias in sex ratio destabilises the pair bond system, although it is unclear as to whether this is due to ... Bird mating behaviour influenced by sex ratios. Birds in female-dominated populations are more likely to ditch and divorce ...
Sex Ratios.. Offspring sex ratio varied as a function of land use. Overall, the percentage of females was greater (t test: n = ... only the percent of Developed Land Use was a significant predictor of frog sex ratios (Fig. 3); sex ratios became increasingly ... 2000) Maternal control of sex ratio in Rana rugosa: Evidence from DNA sexing. Mol Ecol 9(11):1711-1715. ... Suburban frogs: Sex ratios and estrogens. Max R. Lambert, Geoffrey S. J. Giller, Larry B. Barber, Kevin C. Fitzgerald, David K. ...
Association of placenta praevia and sex ratio at birth. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 294 :544 ... Association of placenta praevia and sex ratio at birth.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 294 doi: ...
... for the sex ratio and having mood swings whenever there are short-term fluctuations in the ratio is treating the sex ratio as ... Yet it is not unreasonable for the authorities to be concerned about the sex ratio. The problem with the DOH is that it imposes ... As the department sees it, if the sex birth ratio goes any higher than 1.06, it means that female fetuses are being aborted. ... Even more laughably, as soon as the sex ratio fell from 1.09 to 1.079, the department claimed that it had saved 993 girl babies ...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
Find Sex ratio latest News and Headlines today along with Sex ratio Photos and Videos at All Sex ratio News ... Bengal rhino population up 14% in 4 years, adverse sex ratio a concern: Report ...
INTERSPECIFIC TRANSFER OF THE SEX-RATIO CONDITION IN DROSOPHILA Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... INTERSPECIFIC TRANSFER OF THE "SEX-RATIO" CONDITION IN DROSOPHILA. Chana Malogolowkin, G. G. Carvalho and M. C. da Paz ... INTERSPECIFIC TRANSFER OF THE "SEX-RATIO" CONDITION IN DROSOPHILA. Chana Malogolowkin, G. G. Carvalho and M. C. da Paz ... INTERSPECIFIC TRANSFER OF THE "SEX-RATIO" CONDITION IN DROSOPHILA. Chana Malogolowkin, G. G. Carvalho and M. C. da Paz ...
... analogous to Fisherian sex ratio selection, that favours increased parental investment by whichever sex faces more intense ... We emphasize the need to distinguish between the ASR and the operational sex ratio (OSR). If mortality is higher when caring ... The second argument takes the reasonable premise that anisogamy produces a male-biased operational sex ratio (OSR) leading to ... Conventional sex roles imply caring females and competitive males. The evolution of sex role divergence is widely attributed to ...
Health news on Indian Governements tough stand on infant female foeticide and the falling ratio of male to female child in the ... Fresh Stakes in the Oldest Trade Sexual Intercourse Facts Safe Sex Top Ten Trivial Sex Facts Top Ten Sex Tips for Men Sex ... Government Takes Tough Stand Against Falling Sex Ratio. by Medindia Content Team on November 7, 2005 at 9:15 PM Indian Health ... The falling sex ratio is a genuine cause for concern in India, where even today the birth of a girl child inspires ...
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Most animal sex ratios are 50:50. But that ratio can be changed by environmental factors like temperature or even by seasonal ... "Sex ratios are not necessarily tied to socioeconomic status or natural disasters, as those are always changing. There are all ... What her first-ever global analysis on birth sex ratio shows is that people living in areas with longer, darker winters - such ... Navara is currently studying the cues that affect the sex ratios in poultry. ...
It is first reported that the virus associated with parasitoid wasps has the key role in regulating wasp offspring sex ratio ... Newly discovered virus affects sex ratio of insect-killing wasps A higher proportion of male wasps could promote widespread ... 2017) A novel negative-stranded RNA virus mediates sex ratio in its parasitoid host. PLoS Pathog 13(3): e1006201. doi:10.1371/ ... Newly Discovered Virus Affects Sex Ratio of Insect-Killing Wasps (IMAGE) view more ...
... and a rising sex-ratio imbalance that threatens to leave tens of millions of Chinese men without wives. However, an official in ... The use of sex-selective abortions has also caused a huge imbalance in the sex ratio there, and the Indian legislature has made ... China acknowledges a relationship between its so-called "one-child policy" and a rising sex-ratio imbalance that threatens to ... "There are a lot of factors contributing to the imbalanced sex ratio. Chinese society has for several thousands of years ...
Pregnancies complicated by abnormally adherent placenta and sex ratio at birth. BMJ 1991; 302 :625 ... Pregnancies complicated by abnormally adherent placenta and sex ratio at birth.. BMJ 1991; 302 doi: ...
A recent report from the NITI Aayog said sex ratio at birth (SRB) nationwide had dropped from 906 in 2012-2014 to 900 in 2013- ... What are the consequences of Indias falling sex ratio? Priyanka Pulla March 03, 2018 21:10 IST Updated: March 03, 2018 21:45 ... This evens out the sex ratio of a population as it grows older. But India is a special case. Its SRB is far lower than 952 ... A recent report from the NITI Aayog said sex ratio at birth (SRB) nationwide had dropped from 906 in 2012-2014 to 900 in 2013- ...
In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human ... has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa. This son preference is manifest in sex- ... Abnormal sex ratios in human populations: Causes and consequences. Therese Hesketh and Zhu Wei Xing ... Measures to reduce sex selection must include strict enforcement of existing legislation, the ensuring of equal rights for ...
An increase in the sex ratio of births to India-born mothers in England and Wales: evidence of sex-selective abortion. Popul ... For these models, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) (i.e., the ratio of 2 odds or 2 male:female ratios). To account for small ... Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion. Marcelo L. Urquia, Rahim Moineddin, Prabhat Jha, Patricia J. OCampo, Kwame ... Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion. Marcelo L. Urquia, Rahim Moineddin, Prabhat Jha, Patricia J. OCampo, Kwame ...
Adaptive reasons for variation in sex ratios. João Alpedrinha and Geoff Wild ...
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TABLE 1: Child Sex RAtio (CSR) and Overall Sex Ratio (OSR) 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 ... However, during the same decade, the Overall Sex Ratio (OSR, which looks at the ratio of all females to males, and not just ... Sex ratio: the hidden horrors Millions of males are falling victim to illnesses at much faster rates, skewing the demographic ... During the final decade of the last millennium, the Child Sex Ratio (CSR, the number of girls in the age group of 0 to 6 years ...
Influence of latent toxoplasmosis on the secondary sex ratio in mice - Volume 134 Issue 12 - Š. KAŇKOVÁ, P. KODYM, D. FRYNTA, R ... The sex ratio may be influenced by many factors, such as stress and immunosuppression, age of parents, parity and sex of ... Therefore, we speculate that Toxoplasma can alter the secondary sex ratio (i.e. male to female ratio in the offspring) of ... Milki, A. A., Jun, S. H., Hinckley, M. D., Westphal, L. W., Giudice, L. C. and Behr, B. (2003). Comparison of the sex ratio ...
Age at onset and sex ratio in cluster headache: observations over three decades.. Ekbom K1, Svensson DA, Träff H, Waldenlind E. ... In women with CCH age at onset was evenly distributed from 10 to 69 years, whereas in men with CCH and in both sexes with ECH, ... The nature of the sex- and age-related pattern of cluster headache onset remains to be elucidated but mechanisms associated ... female ratio with respect to age at onset, being largest between 30 and 49 years of age (ECH 7.2 : 1; CCH 11.0 : 1) and lowest ...
Sex ratio is the number of males for each female. Current world sex ratio at birth: 1.07:1 male(s)/female (107 baby boys to 100 ... Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of cer ... This map shows worldwide human sex ratio at birth. ... Sex ratio is the number of males for each female.. Current world sex ratio at birth: 1.07:1 male(s)/female (107 baby boys to ... Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance ...
Employed persons and employment-population ratios by age and sex, seasonally adjusted. Age and sex. Number of employed persons ... Employment-population ratios. Feb.. 2017. Jan.. 2018. Feb.. 2018. Feb.. 2017. Oct.. 2017. Nov.. 2017. Dec.. 2017. Jan.. 2018. ...
... evidence is provided in support of the idea that the DZ unlike/like sexed ratio has gradually shifted (since 1900) from unity ... Changes in the DZ unlike/like sex ratio in The Netherlands Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma). 1991;40(3-4):319-23. doi: 10.1017/ ... evidence is provided in support of the idea that the DZ unlike/like sexed ratio has gradually shifted (since 1900) from unity ...
Sex,Ratio,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news ... Sex ratio in India has declined over the century from 972 in 1901 to 9...Some of the reasons commonly put forward to explain ... The sex ratio has since gone up to 933 in 2001. In contrast, the child sex ratio for the age group of 0-6 years in 2001 is 927 ... Declining Sex Ratio. Sex ratio in India has declined over the century from 972 in 1901 to 9...Some of the reasons commonly put ...
Im not evolutionary biologist, but, in humans, isnt the long run consequence of a male biased sex-ratio an equal sex ratio. ... The sex ratio imbalance during the California Gold Rush was very brief. Most of the Forty-Niners failed to find much gold, gave ... The long-run consequences of male-biased sex ratios. by Tyler Cowen June 11, 2018 at 12:32 am in *Data Source ... In areas with more male-biased sex ratios, women were historically more likely to get married and less likely to work outside ...
  • This number, called the sex ratio, is traditionally calculated as the number of males per 100 females. (
  • Starting from a dismal sex ratio of 85.9 females per 100 males in the 1951 census, Pakistan has now improved the figure by 9.3 percentage points. (
  • Chandigarh, Aug 12 (IANS) The sex ratio in Haryana has improved with 877 females in 2011, from 861 in 2001, for every 1,000 males, said an official Friday. (
  • In urban areas, the ratio has gone up to 871 in 2011 compared to 847 in 2001, a net gain of 24 females per 1,000 males," she said. (
  • We found that a female bias in sex ratio destabilises the pair bond system, although it is unclear as to whether this is due to lots of unpaired females luring males away from their mate or if the male, given a greater choice of partners, decides to switch partners more frequently. (
  • Conventional sex roles imply caring females and competitive males. (
  • The state of Punjab 'boasts'of the lowest sex ratio with 793 females per 1000 males. (
  • This is because both males and female wasps appear to be able to pass PpNSRV-1 to offspring, and since males can mate with multiple females, a higher ratio of males could spread the virus farther. (
  • However, during the same decade, the Overall Sex Ratio (OSR, which looks at the ratio of all females to males, and not just those in the 0-6 age group) recorded its highest gain, rising 6 points from 927 to 933. (
  • The number of females would have been even higher (and thus improved the sex ratio even more) if nature had been allowed to take its course. (
  • Therefore, we speculate that Toxoplasma can alter the secondary sex ratio (i.e. male to female ratio in the offspring) of infected females to increase the proportion of (congenitally infected) male offspring, which are the more migratory sex in most rodent species. (
  • In the later phase of infection, mice with congenital toxoplasmosis had a lower sex ratio than controls, which is in accord with the Trivers-Willard hypothesis of sex ratio manipulation, suggesting that females in poor physical condition give birth to more female offspring. (
  • As far as worldwide sex ratio is concerned, it is 1.01 male (s)/females as in 2006. (
  • The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. (
  • A study performed by Danforth observed no significant difference in the number of males and females from the 1:1 sex ratio. (
  • Sex-ratio of adult populations of pelagic copepods is usually skewed towards dominance of females. (
  • Whilst three populations of plover had a balance in the sex ratio of males to females and shared parenting of their offspring, the scientists found that in populations where there were more males than females, or vice versa, the parenting roles shifted leaving the males to look after the chicks. (
  • In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. (
  • In humans, the natural ratio between males and females at birth is slightly biased towards the male sex, being estimated to be about 1.05 or 1.06 or within a narrow range from 1.03 to 1.06 males/per female born. (
  • The sex ratio for the entire world population is 101 males to 100 females (2020 est. (
  • Human sex ratios, either at birth or in the population as a whole, are reported in any of four ways: the ratio of males to females, the ratio of females to males, the proportion of males, or the proportion of females. (
  • This article uses the ratio of males to females, unless specified otherwise. (
  • Some scholars suggest that countries considered to have significant practices of prenatal sex-selection are those with birth sex ratios of 1.08 and above (selection against females) and 1.02 and below (selection against males). (
  • Consequently, the sex ratio tends to reduce as age increases, and among the elderly there is usually a greater proportion of females. (
  • Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. (
  • The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. (
  • In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. (
  • However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. (
  • The ratio of adult males and females is an important demographic trait in wild populations. (
  • The sex ratio of a species defines the proportion of males to females. (
  • In this case, the females are the heterogametic sex. (
  • Males were generally taller than females, suggesting that a different allocation of resources may occur in both sexes. (
  • Additionally, no differences in spatial sex segregation and microhabitat preferences were found between males and females at a fine scale within the studied populations. (
  • The child sex ratio in the capital registered an increase from 886 females per 1,000 males in 2012 to 895 in 2013, the Delhi government said on Friday. (
  • Naturally, in most species, the ratio of females to males should be 50:50 which is due to evolutionarily stable strategy. (
  • They also found that exposure to fallen oak leaves also significantly altered the sex ratios in the frog populations, as well as the size of individual females in some cases. (
  • This article studies the relationship between sex ratio at Birth (males per females) of USA and the Chinese Baby Gender Prediction Chart to help American women to choose desired gender for their next babies. (
  • The US sex ratio between males and females is 1.048 . (
  • We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. (
  • Well, the sex ratio at birth in the United States, as in Britain, is 105, meaning 105:100, or 105 males born for every 100 females. (
  • With regard to the sex ratio, more reproductive females were captured than males in January and March, 2009, which suggests a pattern of segregation related to the reproductive process. (
  • Recent declines in the secondary sex ratio (SSR), defined as the ratio of males to females at birth, in some industrialized countries may be attributed to exposure to environmental toxicants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). (
  • In this study, females were crossed with pollen from related and unrelated males in single-donor and two-donor crosses, and the sex ratio of offspring (n = 866, 60 crosses), sons'in vitro pollen germination and sex ratios in parental families were scored. (
  • Sex ratios can also influence the sexual and reproductive fitness of males and females (Michalczyk, ?ukasz 2011). (
  • I tested the effects of physiological changes caused by down-regulated stress during in utero development, and showed significant physiological changes in females, as a result of mismatching pre- and post-natal environments, that skewed sex ratios in the next generation. (
  • However, artificially lowering the stress of these females at conception will cause the sex ratio to return to parity, as the pre- and postnatal environments match again. (
  • The dioecy model provides a comprehensive framework for sex allocation that is based on the pay-offs to the colony via production of males and females, and is independent of the genetic variation among colonies. (
  • the ratio between the toxic effects of a substance on adults (humans or animals, especially pregnant females) and such effects on developing embryos or fetuses. (
  • 2. the ratio of the numbers of males to females affected by a particular disease or trait. (
  • The distribution at birth is usually 106 boys to 100 girls, but the ratio shifts in adulthood, so that, because men have a lower life expectancy, the proportion of females is greater. (
  • In fact, in humans there are often slightly more males born than females (105:100 is typical) due either to preferential fertilization of eggs by Y-carrying sperm causing an unequal primary ratio or to preferential survival of males during GESTATION . (
  • Sex-ratio distorting (SRD) parasites are able to enhance their transovarial vertical transmission from infected females to their offspring by causing infected hosts to produce more female offspring than do uninfected individuals. (
  • The sex ratio of males to females at live birth is normally approximately 1.05. (
  • In 1973, Trivers and Willard 12 suggested that natural selection may favour parental ability to adjust the sex ratio based on ability to support the offspring and used animal data to demonstrate that as the maternal condition declines, the adult female produces a lower ratio of males to females. (
  • Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios. (
  • Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. (
  • In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. (
  • The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination. (
  • 2 The male to female ratio of live births is generally expressed as the ratio of male live births divided by total live births (M/F), and the human M/F is expected to be 0.515, with approximately 3% more males born than females. (
  • In fish exposed to TC, sex determination occurred earlier, because 90% of soles were males/females at 110 DPH, whereas 45% of fish under CT were undifferentiated at that time. (
  • Regarding sex ratio, juveniles exposed to TC showed a higher proportion of females than fish under CT or constant temperature. (
  • Females mating with high quality males should, therefore, be expected to produce brood sex ratios biased towards sons, as male offspring would receive a relatively greater advantage from inheritance of their father's characteristics than would their female siblings. (
  • This suggests that females in our population were either unable to manipulate offspring sex allocation or did not do so because selection pressures were not strong enough to produce a significant shift away from random sex allocation. (
  • Sex ratio manipulation by ovipositing females was surveyed in 3 solitary ectoparastic wasp species,Dinarmus basalis (Pteromalidae),Anisopteromalus calanrae (Pteromalidae), andHeterospilus prosopidis (Braconidae), that parasitize azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis (L) (Coleoptera: Buruchidae)) larvae within azuki beans (Vigna angularis). (
  • While the effect of Operational Sex Ratio (OSR) on reproductive behaviour of males has been studied extensively, little is known of the response of females facing a female-biased OSR. (
  • Theoretical models propose that the adjustment of offspring sex ratio by females may pre-dispose the evolution of monogeny in gall midges however empirical studies in this field are superficial. (
  • This report provides a comprehensive picture and analysis of the increasingly imbalanced sex ratios at birth occurring in Viet Nam. (
  • During the final decade of the last millennium, the Child Sex Ratio (CSR, the number of girls in the age group of 0 to 6 years per thousand boys of the same age group) recorded its highest fall, dropping 18 points from 945 to 927. (
  • In contrast, the child sex ratio for the age group of 0-6 years in 2001 is 927 girls per thousand boys against 945 recorded in 1991 Census. (
  • The study, which examined the pair bonding and mating behaviour of 197 different species of bird, found the divorce rate was higher in species with a female-biased sex ratio. (
  • Biased sex ratios may destabilise pair-bonds and increase marital infidelity, although relevance of these findings for other species need to be thoroughly tested. (
  • Sampling populations of a local frog species, we found a strong association between the degree of landscape development and frog offspring sex ratio. (
  • In most sexually reproducing species, the ratio tends to be 1:1. (
  • For various reasons, however, many species deviate from anything like an even sex ratio, either periodically or permanently. (
  • In most species, the sex ratio varies according to the age profile of the population. (
  • The theory of sex ratio is a field of study concerned with the accurate prediction of sex ratios in all sexual species, based on a consideration of their natural history. (
  • He defines five major questions, both for his book and the field in general (slightly abbreviated here): For a dioecious species, what is the equilibrium sex ratio maintained by natural selection? (
  • Fisher's principle explains why for most species, the sex ratio is approximately 1:1. (
  • This ratio has been observed in many species, including the bee Macrotera portalis. (
  • For species where the cost of successfully raising one offspring is roughly the same regardless of its sex, this translates to an approximately equal sex ratio. (
  • Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia cause skewed sex ratios in some arthropod species as they kill males. (
  • He said: "We found that the chicks had a 50:50 sex ratio at hatching in all these species, and that the skewed adult sex ratios were caused by a difference in survival of male and female juveniles, although it's still unclear why this happens. (
  • More data are available for humans than for any other species, and the human sex ratio is more studied than that of any other species, but interpreting these statistics can be difficult. (
  • Like most sexual species, the sex ratio in humans is close to 1:1. (
  • 1 Among other species, the ratios vary. (
  • For instance, in bird species the more prevalent sex tends to be the one raising the offspring. (
  • Heterogamety may play a natural role in sex selection, but unnatural causes can also skew a species' sex ratio. (
  • Adaptive sex allocation has frequently been studied in sexually size dimorphic species, but far less is known about patterns of sex allocation in species without pronounced sexual size dimorphism. (
  • Our results suggest lines for future studies on adaptive sex allocation in sexually nearly monomorphic species, where adjustment of sex ratio related to parental factors and differential allocation between the offspring may also occur. (
  • From 2012 through 2014, we sought to determine the distribution of Diamond-Backed Terrapins within the Deltaic Plain region of Louisiana, describe sex ratios and size class structure within select management basins, and establish marked populations to promote continued study of the species. (
  • Naturally occurring chemicals found in road salts commonly used to de-ice paved surfaces can alter the sex ratios in nearby frog populations, a phenomenon that could reduce the size and viability of species populations, according to a new study by scientists at Yale and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). (
  • The research raises the possibility that many other aquatic species could be affected by road salts in sub-lethal ways, not only in terms of altered sex ratios, but potentially in many other traits," Relyea added. (
  • For understanding driving factors for Collembola density and diversity this study investigated (1) trophic niche differentiation of Collembola species using stable isotope analysis, (2) mode of reproduction and sex ratios in the field, (3) colonization of new habitats by parthenogenetic and sexual species and (4) the genetic variation in parthenogenetic and sexual species in Europe. (
  • The sex ratios of Collembola species were assessed in a temperate oak-beech forest in two months intervals during one year. (
  • The sex ratio of bisexual Collembola species in the litter layer generally was more female biased than that in the mineral soil. (
  • Parasitic sex ratio distorters were artificially transferred within and between crustacean host species in order to study the effects of parasitism on host fitness and sex determination and to investigate parasite-host specificity. (
  • We also argue that extremely female-biased sex ratios of the host species, combined with overall sex ratio parity in the parasite, may help ameliorate disparity in effective population sizes between these two species which are locked in an evolutionary arms race. (
  • We test predictions of the model with data from a long-term study of harvester ants, and show that it correctly predicts the intermediate sex ratios we observe in our study species. (
  • Sex ratios in social insects have been the subject of intense study since Trivers & Hare (1976) first modified Fisher's (1930) sex ratio theory to include kin selection, particularly in species with haplodiploid sex determination. (
  • It may also explain the frequent co-occurrence of several sex-ratio distorting parasite species in nature. (
  • Nonetheless, sexual differences are often observed in parasite species including dimorphism in size, mobility, behaviour, competitive ability, or even genetic structure [ 4 - 6 ], likely to result in sex-specific fitness maximisation strategies, similarly to their hosts. (
  • It is likely that the skewed sex ratio in most species of monogenous gall midges is a consequence of differential mortality of male and female progenies under harsh conditions. (
  • Research on endocrine disruption in frog populations, such as shifts in sex ratios and feminization of males, has predominantly focused on agricultural pesticides. (
  • In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. (
  • When the balance of the sexes is skewed towards one gender, parents are more likely to split up, leaving the father to care for the offspring, says a study from an international team of scientists studying bird populations. (
  • By influencing mate availability, adult sex ratio bias can alter social behaviour with divorce, infidelity, and parental antagonism being more common in sex-biased populations. (
  • So we wanted to look at what factors were related to imbalances in adult sex ratio of plover populations. (
  • The researchers hope in the future to investigate the effects of sex ratio on social behaviour in other animal populations including humans. (
  • In plovers, closely related populations express strikingly different adult sex ratios. (
  • Families in populations with biased adult sex ratios were predominantly tended by a single parent - typically the father - whereas in balanced populations, generally both parents take care of the young, suggesting that parental cooperation breaks down under an unbalanced sex ratio. (
  • In all six populations, the hatching sex ratio was balanced. (
  • The researchers found that the adult sex ratio in a population was tightly linked to parental cooperation: In unbiased populations, it was more likely that both parents worked together to care for the young, whereas in male- or female-biased populations, there were higher rates of single parent care. (
  • We have determined whether isolated subalpine populations of Salix lapponum exhibit a biased secondary sex ratio, measured the size of the plants, and tested the spatial and ecological correlations of the bias at fine and broad scales. (
  • However, in populations where the conditions for the Boomsma-Grafen model hold, kin selection will still lead to an association between sex ratio and relatedness. (
  • Background A reduction in sex ratio at live birth has been proposed as a sentinel health indicator that can be used to monitor the health of populations. (
  • Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. (
  • We found that mating type frequency varied among the three populations we examined, with only one of the three showing an even sex ratio, which does not support balancing selection. (
  • Deviation of sex ratios from unity in wild animal populations has recently been demonstrated to be far more prevalent than previously thought. (
  • Angola, Botswana and Namibia have reported birth sex ratios between 0.94 and 0.99, which is quite different from the presumed "normal" sex ratio, meaning that significantly more girls have been born in such societies. (
  • The study was located in the Comilla district from the eastern region which had adverse sex ratio at birth and the Rangpur district from the western region having normal sex ratio. (
  • Y-linked modifiers that restore a normal sex ratio might be abundant and favored when a X-linked distorter is present. (
  • However, among mothers with no prior abortion, second-generation mothers had a normal sex ratio, while first-generation mothers gave birth to 142 boys for every 100 girls (95% CI 125 to 162 boys for every 100 girls). (
  • A joint study by the University of Bath and University of Sheffield gives the first conclusive proof that rates of divorce and infidelity in birds are affected by the adult sex ratio of the population they live in - a theory previously discounted by biologists. (
  • These results suggest that adult sex ratio may have an important role in shaping mating behaviour in a wide range of organisms, and deserve further investigations both in humans and non-human animals. (
  • Factors that promote conventional sex roles are sexual selection on males (but non-random variance in male mating success must be high to override the Fisher condition), loss of paternity because of female multiple mating or group spawning and patterns of mortality that generate female-biased adult sex ratios (ASR). (
  • It is generally divided into four subdivisions: primary sex ratio - ratio at fertilization secondary sex ratio - ratio at birth tertiary sex ratio - ratio in sexually mature organisms Also called adult sex ratio and abbreviated to ASR. (
  • Moreover, in human societies, adult sex variation is shown to be linked to economic decisions, community violence, and disease prevalence. (
  • A biased adult sex ratio has consequences for the availability of mating partners in a population and hence social behaviour, with divorce, infidelity, and parental antagonism being more frequent. (
  • The research group around Luke Eberhart-Phillips examined during which developmental stage biases in adult sex ratio evolved. (
  • They then explored the association of adult sex ratio variation with patterns of parental care. (
  • The researchers found that mortality during the juvenile stage contributed the most to sex ratio bias of the adult population: "Sex biases in juvenile survival was on average eight times more important than sex biases in adult survival and 327 times more important than sex biases at hatching", says Eberhart-Phillips, first author of the study. (
  • The study demonstrates that breeding strategies may respond flexibly to local mating opportunities provided by a bias in adult sex ratio - a result with profound implications for population dynamics and the evolution of social behaviour in animals. (
  • It's known that adult sex ratios may change animal behavior and mating preferences. (
  • What's not known, however, is exactly why adult sex ratios may be unbalanced. (
  • By 2035, the surplus adult men would amount to 10 per cent or more of the female population, if the sex ratio does not return to its normal level of 105 male births per 100 female births, in the next two decades. (
  • We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. (
  • These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. (
  • The falling sex ratio is a genuine cause for concern in India, where even today the birth of a girl child inspires commiserations rather than accolades. (
  • In India, some villages in Haryana and Punjab have such poor sex ratios that men "import" brides from other States. (
  • Declining Sex Ratio ( Sex ratio in India has declined over th. (
  • Sex ratio in India has declined over the century from 972 in 1901 to 9. (
  • For example, the male to female ratio falls from 1.05 for the group aged 15 to 65 to 0.70 for the group over 65 in Germany, from 1.00 to 0.72 in the United States, from 1.06 to 0.91 in mainland China, and from 1.07 to 1.02 in India. (
  • Some scholars argue that strong socioeconomic factors such as the dowry system in India and the one child policy of China are responsible for prenatal sex selection. (
  • First, rising sex ratios in India have been recorded since the early 1980s, and have since continued increasing with no sign, so far, of reversing course. (
  • Second, even if sex-ratio values in India are still beneath those of China, its potential contribution to the overall "masculinization" of Asia (and, consequently, of the world's population) is particularly formidable in view of India's demographic weight.1 The prospect of further worsening of India's sex composition requires close monitoring of current sex-ratio trends in the country. (
  • According to United Nations Statistics Division, the sex ratio at China is 1.15 , India is 1.107, Armenia 1.129, Azerbaijan 1.125 and Vietnam is 1.097. (
  • My guess would be that the sex ratio at birth in India would definitely improve over the next four years, and while the PCPNDT activists may want to take credit for this, my guess is that it will movies like this which would have a far greater impact, and the tragedy is we'll never be able to give them the credit they deserve. (
  • How to Use 2019 Chinese Baby Calendar for Chinese Baby Gender Prediction Chart based on Sex Ratio at birth statistic data in China, USA, India, Canada and Singapore. (
  • Without understanding the seasonal sex ratio birth data from China, USA, India, Singapore and Germany, you don't know how to use the Chinese Baby Gender Prediction Chart. (
  • The ratio at China is 1.15 , India is 1.107, Armenia 1.129, Azerbaijan 1.125 and Vietnam is 1.097. (
  • Sex ratios at birth (SRBs), that is, number of male births per 100 female births, have long been shown to be skewed in China, South Korea, some states of India and in some other East and South Asian and North African countries, but evidence suggests that since the 1990s, skewed sex ratios are emerging in other Asian countries such as Pakistan and Vietnam. (
  • Charlesworth D (2016) Plant sex chromosomes. (
  • Here we investigated natural variation of Y-linked suppressors of sex-ratio in the Winters systems and the ability of these chromosomes to modulate gene expression in Drosophila simulans. (
  • Seventy-eight Y chromosomes of worldwide origin were assayed for their resistance to the X-linked sex-ratio distorter gene Dox. (
  • Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed hundreds of genes differentially expressed between isogenic males with sensitive (high sex ratio) and resistant (low sex ratio) Y chromosomes from the same population. (
  • The ratio is controlled by the SEGREGATION of SEX CHROMOSOMES in the HETEROGAMETIC SEX during MEIOSIS (see SEX DETERMINATION ). (
  • BULL J.J. 1983: The Evolution of Sex Chromosomes and Sex Determining Mechanisms. (
  • China acknowledges a relationship between its so-called "one-child policy" and a rising sex-ratio imbalance that threatens to leave tens of millions of Chinese men without wives. (
  • The use of sex-selective abortions has also caused a huge imbalance in the sex ratio there, and the Indian legislature has made it illegal for doctors to tell prospective parents the sex of a fetus. (
  • Measures to reduce sex selection must include strict enforcement of existing legislation, the ensuring of equal rights for women, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of gender imbalance. (
  • Especially California, where the sex ratio imbalance during the Gold Rush period was quite notable. (
  • And as we all know, California today is marked by women getting married and being stay at home mothers in notably higher proportion than other parts of the U.S., such as Utah, where the sex ratio imbalance was not so extreme, right? (
  • Fascinating anecdotes that having nothing to do with the California Gold Rush and its notable sex ratio imbalance. (
  • Though it is possible that you feel prostitution is a fine way to exploit supply and demand in a situation of an extreme sex ratio imbalance, of course. (
  • The sex ratio imbalance during the California Gold Rush was very brief. (
  • Sex imbalance may arise as a consequence of various factors including natural factors, exposure to pesticides and environmental contaminants, war casualties, sex-selective abortions, infanticides, aging, femicide and problems with birth registration. (
  • The evolution of sex role divergence is widely attributed to anisogamy initiating a self-reinforcing process. (
  • The result of frog sex ratios varying as a function of human land use implicates a role for environmental modulation of sexual differentiation in amphibians, which are assumed to only have genetic sex determination. (
  • Easy availability of the sex determination test and abortion services may also be facilitating the process which may be further stimulated by pre-conception sex selection facilities. (
  • According to the study, "The genetic sex-determination system explains 24% of interspecific variation in ASRs in amphibians and 36% in reptiles. (
  • Aaron S, Passera L, Keller L (1999) Evolution of social parasitism in ants: size of sexuals, sex ratio and mechanisms of caste determination. (
  • benefit-risk ratio a determination of the potential of a research study for positive effects on patients compared to the risks of doing harm. (
  • Sex-ratio distorting parasites are of interest due to their effects upon host population dynamics and their potential to influence the evolution of host sex determination systems. (
  • Sex determination in Drosophila: sis-b, a major numerator element of the X:A ratio in the soma, does not contribute to the X:A ratio in the germ line. (
  • In soma and germ cells of Drosophila, the X:A ratio builds a primary signal for sex determination, and in both tissues Sex-lethal (Sxl) function is required for cells to enter the female pathway. (
  • BENATTI T.R., VALICENTE F.H., AGGARWAL R., ZHAO C., WALLING G.J., CHEN M.S., CAMBRON S.E., SCHEMERHORN B.J. & STUART J.J. 2010: A neo-sex chromosome that drives postzygotic sex determination in the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). (
  • Our study highlights the knock-on effects that differences in survival rates between the sexes can have on population dynamics and social behaviour. (
  • A genetic study of vitamin D deficiency rickets: 2-sex differences and ABO typing. (
  • In a further attempt to study the role of genetics in vitamin D deficiency rickets, 400 rachitic infants randomly chosen and aged from 6 months to 2 years (14.3 +/- 3.5 months) were investigated for sex differences and ABO typing. (
  • This has been explained by sex differences in genetic and biological makeup, with boys being biologically weaker and more susceptible to diseases and premature death. (
  • It has been proposed that these environmental factors also explain sex differences in mortality. (
  • This variation is mainly driven by sex differences in the survival of juveniles. (
  • Additionally, we find that: (1) estimated SRB of second-order births conditional on the first being a girl is significantly higher than the biological SRB in our study and (2) multiparous women are more likely to have prenatal knowledge of the sex of their fetus and to have male births than primiparous women with the differences increasing with increasing levels of education. (
  • While adaptive modification of sex ratios can result in differences among colonies that have different genetic structure, it does not require sex ratios to fall into two discrete categories. (
  • Accounting for sex differences in hosts and their parasites is therefore of equal importance when a better understanding of host-parasite systems is targeted. (
  • What her first-ever global analysis on birth sex ratio shows is that people living in areas with longer, darker winters - such as in temperate and subarctic climates - have more baby boys, accounting for 51.3 percent of births. (
  • Michel Garenne reports that many African nations have, over decades, witnessed birth sex ratios below 1.00, that is more girls are born than boys. (
  • US National Center for Biotechnology Information published a study of The Association between Season of Pregnancy and Birth-Sex among Chinese in 2014. (
  • The human sex ratio is of particular interest to anthropologists and demographers. (
  • The number of males for each female is called human sex ratio . (
  • Is the human sex ratio at birth a sentinel health indicator that is associated with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis prevalences in the 21st century? (
  • In some societies in Asia and Africa, for instance, baby boys are favored over girls and the rise in selective abortions and infanticide has skewed the overall sex ratio in favor of males. (
  • 2017) A novel negative-stranded RNA virus mediates sex ratio in its parasitoid host. (
  • According to the 2017 data bank from United Nations Population Division shows the sex ratio of male births per female births is 1.073. (
  • The sex ratio at birth of USA was 1.0479 in 2017. (
  • Some of the reasons commonly put forward to explain the consistently low levels of sex ratio are son preference, neglect of the girl child resulting in higher mortality at younger age, female infanticide, female feticide, higher maternal mortality and male bias in emuneration of population. (
  • Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. (
  • In mammals, however, the extent of the sex bias at birth is often unpredictable, suggesting that mothers may be constrained in their ability to adjust sex ratios. (
  • In the simplest case, a single queen that mates once, workers are predicted to bias investment in a ratio of 3 : 1 in favour of their sisters, with whom they share higher relatedness. (
  • Ectoparasites are prominent examples of this bias, given that their sex ratios vary from strongly female- to strongly male-biased both among hosts and at the metapopulation level. (
  • The sex ratio may be influenced by many factors, such as stress and immunosuppression, age of parents, parity and sex of preceding siblings. (
  • Population-wide sex ratios and sex-specific mortality did not differ from parity, but clutch size, mass of the father, maternal breeding experience and to some extent year quality correlated with hatching sex ratio. (
  • We show that the sex ratio of this inquiline varies with its brood number, it is female-biased in the smallest broods, but becomes more even in larger broods, where the population-wide sex ratio is close to parity. (
  • We use data on ultrasound use to quantify links between prenatal knowledge of sex, parity and skewed SRBs. (
  • Sex ratio at birth versus women's eligibility status, age, parity, number of miscarriages or terminations of pregnancy, and number of fetuses were analysed using the Chi squared test. (
  • I showed evidence of variations in sperm sex ratios, both in the literature and through observational studies where we would expect parity as a result of meiosis during sperm production. (
  • The intention was that the Act would stop people from resorting to sex selective abortions. (
  • It has become a very punitive act , which focuses on punishing doctors who are allegedly performing sex selective abortions. (
  • But that ratio can be changed by environmental factors like temperature or even by seasonal shifts, said Kristen Navara, a reproductive endocrinologist with the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. (
  • quaternary sex ratio - ratio in post-reproductive organisms These definitions can be somewhat subjective since they lack clear boundaries. (
  • Spending equal amounts of resources to produce offspring of either sex is an evolutionarily stable strategy: if the general population deviates from this equilibrium by favoring one sex, one can obtain higher reproductive success with less effort by producing more of the other. (
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonal pattern of the gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (K), and sex ratio in the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) as an approach to identify its reproductive period. (
  • Sex allocation theory predicts that mothers would benefit from sex-biased differential investment into offspring in relation to their current local condition when it maximizes their lifetime reproductive return. (
  • Reproductive specialization results from the instability of the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) sex ratio, and is independent of variation in relatedness. (
  • Sex allocation theory predicts that parents should manipulate brood sex ratio in order to maximise the combined reproductive value of their progeny. (
  • citation needed] In the United States, the sex ratios at birth over the period 1970-2002 were 1.05 for the white non-Hispanic population, 1.04 for Mexican Americans, 1.03 for African Americans and Indians, and 1.07 for mothers of Chinese or Filipino ethnicity. (
  • We simply list out the sex ratios more than 1.05. (
  • Results The mean global sex ratio was 1.05. (
  • Results of this study do not support the theory of sex ratio regulation proposed for monogenous gall midges. (
  • There was no clear association between sex ratios and larval survival or growth. (
  • If mortality is higher when caring than competing this diminishes the likelihood of sex role divergence because this strongly limits the mating success of the earlier deserting sex. (
  • This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, both of which lead to higher female mortality. (
  • Since that time, improved health care and conditions for women have resulted in reductions in female mortality, but these advances have now been offset by a huge increase in the use of sex-selective abortion, which became available in the mid-1980s. (
  • We investigated whether hatching and fledging sex ratio and sex-specific chick mortality correlated with the ecological environment (laying date, clutch size, hatching order and year quality) and parental traits (condition, arrival date, experience and breeding success), over seven consecutive years. (
  • No clear patterns of sex-specific mortality were found, neither global nor related to parental traits. (
  • Basin-specific analyses revealed variation in mean size, and sex ratios skewed toward males within all basins indicating higher female mortality rates or male-biased recruitment. (
  • The sex ratio of both the rural and urban population has recorded an increase. (
  • The National Population and Family Planning Commission announced earlier this month that China's overall newborn gender ratio in 2005 was 118 boys to every 100 girls. (
  • This evens out the sex ratio of a population as it grows older. (
  • Operational sex ratio abbreviated as OSR is the proportion of adults in the sexually active population that are males. (
  • Wildlife Demography and Population Sex Ratios Conference aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Wildlife Demography and Population Sex Ratios Conference. (
  • It also provides a premier interdisciplinary platform for researchers, practitioners, and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns as well as practical challenges encountered and solutions adopted in the fields of Wildlife Demography and Population Sex Ratios Conference. (
  • I. Colonization, sex and age structure of a population of Salix cinerea . (
  • This sex-ratio (SR) drive is an especially interesting SGE because a secondary effect of this biased transmission is that it can cause the population-level sex ratio to become female biased in a way that may not be adaptive for the host population. (
  • We are barking up the wrong tree , because we are more focused on measuring population-based numbers such as sex ratios, while we should be encouraging each individual couple not to discriminate between having a son or a daughter. (
  • Sex ratios can influence the population biology of organisms (Wade, M.j. 1984 and Lee, Smith 1978). (
  • Regardless of the average sex ratio in the population, the frequency distribution for single colonies is U-shaped. (
  • These conflicts of interest shift the colony sex ratios until the population reaches an equilibrium where colonies specialize in the production of one sex or the other. (
  • Objective To test the hypothesis that a lower sex ratio is associated with adverse national population health using the prevalences of HIV and tuberculosis as measures of societal well-being. (
  • Conclusions The data are consistent with the hypothesis that a reduced sex ratio at live birth is a potential sentinel health indicator of lower population health. (
  • 1 , 2 Davis et al 2 reported that the sex ratio at live birth decreased in the second half of the 20th century in Denmark, the Netherlands, Canada and the USA and speculated that this may represent a sentinel health indicator that may be of use in identifying environmental changes that modify population health. (
  • However, reliable data to test the hypothesis that environmental exposures impact on the sex ratio in humans at live birth at the population level relies on opportunistic studies utilising observational data from comparative studies. (
  • DORCHIN N., CLARKIN C.E., SCOTT E.R., LUONGO M.P. & ABRAHAMSON W.G. 2007: Taxonomy, life history, and population sex ratios of North American Dasineura (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on goldenrods (Asteraceae). (
  • Child population is 256 which makes up 10.59% of total population of village with sex ratio 939. (
  • Saadat and colleagues 1 reported a significantly high sex ratio (proportion male) in births to people exposed to oil and natural gas from an Iranian oilfield. (
  • No effect of parental quality or extra-pair paternity on brood sex ratio in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus). (
  • In addition, we found no significant effect on brood sex ratio of the individual quality of either parent as indicated by their biometrics, feather mite loads, time of breeding, or parental survival. (
  • As of 2014, the global sex ratio at birth is estimated at 107 boys to 100 girls (1,000 boys per 934 girls). (
  • Kinnaur -- where improved literacy is leading to dismal sex ratio! (
  • Numerical simulations using biologically realistic parameters suggest that a feminising parasite is only likely to lose the capability for horizontal transmission if its host occurs at low density and/or has a male-biased primary sex ratio. (
  • There are all kinds of factors that affect the sex of a baby, but latitude does not change throughout evolutionary time. (
  • Navara is currently studying the cues that affect the sex ratios in poultry. (
  • Their studies reported that the seasons and regions affect the sex ratio at birth. (
  • The Boomsma-Grafen model predicts that sex ratios will be split when the following three conditions hold: (i) relatedness varies among colonies, (ii) workers control investment, and (iii) workers can determine whether they are in a high or low relatedness colony. (
  • Aenmey TK, Tierney SM, Pillay N, Schwarz MP (2006) Nesting biology of an African allodapine bee Braunsapis vitrea: female biased sex allocation in the absence of worker-like behavioural castes. (
  • Bull NJ, Schwarz MP (2001) Brood insurance via protogyny: a source of female biased sex allocation. (
  • Boron-associated shifts in sex ratios at birth were suggested earlier and attributed to a decrease in Y- vs. X-bearing sperm cells. (
  • CRAIG T.P., PRICE P.W. & ITAMI J.K. 1992: Facultative sex ratio shifts by a herbivorous insect in response to variation in host plant quality. (
  • Using time series methods, we find that cold ambient temperatures during gestation predict lower secondary sex ratios and longer life span of males in annual birth cohorts composed of Danes, Finns, Norwegians, and Swedes born between 1878 (earliest year with complete life tables) and 1914 (last birth cohort for which male life span can be estimated). (
  • For twenty years, W.H. James has been proposing that the sex hormone level of both parents could control at least a quota of the secondary sex ratio variation at the time of conception. (
  • This result suggests an effect of the HLA-B15 allele on the secondary sex ratio, mediated by a low testosterone level. (
  • In accordance with our hypothesis and results of previous retrospective cohort studies on human subjects, mice with toxoplasmosis produced a higher sex ratio than controls, in the early phase of latent infection. (
  • April, May, June and July have higher sex ratios. (
  • In modern language, the 1:1 ratio is the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS). (
  • The sex ratio in rural areas increased to 880 from 866 in the 2001 census," Director of Census Operations Neerja Shekhar said. (
  • What explains this surge in the sex ratio which has favoured the female in the 2001 Census, in spite of inconvertible evidence that mass scale female foeticide was responsible for the highest ever drop in the CSR during the same period? (
  • The sex ratio has since gone up to 933 in 2001. (
  • Among Western European countries around 2001, the ratios ranged from 1.04 in Belgium to 1.07 in Switzerland, Italy, Ireland and Portugal. (
  • From 2001 to 2010, the sex ratio at birth increased from being balanced to becoming unbalanced in eligible persons, and became more unbalanced in non-eligible persons. (
  • Compared with 2001-2005, the sex ratio at birth became unbalanced in 2006-2010. (
  • Bill Hamilton expounded Fisher's argument in his 1967 paper on "Extraordinary sex ratios" as follows, given the assumption of equal parental expenditure on offspring of both sexes. (
  • HAMILTON W.D. 1967: Extraordinary sex ratios. (
  • Proximate explanations for a shift in the sex ratio include the following: 1) differential sperm motility due to psychological stress in men (e.g. (
  • Sex-ratio (SR) meiotic drive occurs when an X-chromosome causes Y-bearing sperm to die during male spermatogenesis, so that it is passed on to all of the male's offspring, which are all daughters. (
  • X-linked sex-ratio distorters that disrupt spermatogenesis can cause a deficiency in functional Y-bearing sperm and a female-biased sex ratio. (
  • In essence, the present results do not support an association between boron exposure and decreased Y:X sperm ratio in males, even under extreme boron exposure conditions. (
  • Lastly, paternal influences such as sperm sex ratios and seminal plasma constituents have been largely overlooked but may influence and constrain maternal ability to adjust sex ratios. (
  • I also presented the first evidence of paternal sex allocation, through changes in sperm sex ratios and seminal plasma constituents in relation to coital rate, as a proxy of male attractiveness. (
  • Paternal-Sex-Ratio (PSR) is a B chromosome that causes all-male offspring in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. (
  • The gene network that modulates sex ratio distortion by the Y chromosome is poorly understood, other than that it might include interactions with mitochondria and enriched for genes expressed in post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. (
  • arm ratio a figure expressing the relation of the length of the longer arm of a mitotic chromosome to that of the shorter arm. (
  • In 1994, the government took notice and introduced the Prenatal Diagnostics Techniques Act which punishes healthcare professionals for telling expectant parents the sex of a child with imprisonment and hefty fines. (
  • Access to ultrasound has made it easy for many couples to determine the sex of a baby in the womb, and to abort female fetuses in the hope of later having a boy, thus contributing to the huge preponderance of male births. (
  • In 2004, Nawanshahr in the northern state of Punjab was notorious for its abysmal sex ratio, recording just 795 female births for every 1,000 male births annually. (
  • The sex ratio of male births per female births varies from country to country. (
  • In the wake of shortage of brides due to an imbalanced sex ratio, present-day Haryana is witnessing a rise in inter-caste marriages, mostly in the form of cross-region unions. (
  • What are the consequences of India's falling sex ratio? (
  • Clark AB (1978) Sex ratio and local resource competition in a Prosimian primate. (
  • Professor András Liker, Marie Curie Research Fellow at the University of Sheffield during the study, said: "If there is more of one sex than another, members of the rarer sex have a higher chance of getting a new partner for breeding than members of the common sex. (
  • The non-exhaustive list of these practices includes preconception sex selection, female foeticide, a preference for sons, honour crimes and poor maternal health, as well as obstacles to women's mobility and the lack of old-age care. (
  • I would thus not hesitate in saying that the sex ratio in our specific context predominantly represents the collective impact of all the discriminatory practices in terms of female lives. (
  • Here, we show that sex ratios of metamorphosing frogs become increasingly female-dominated along a suburbanization gradient. (
  • The problem with the DOH is that it imposes a cast-iron standard of 1.06 for the ratio of male to female babies. (
  • As the department sees it, if the sex birth ratio goes any higher than 1.06, it means that female fetuses are being aborted. (
  • Union Health Minister Anbumani Ramadoss has said that the government is very concerned about the falling sex ratio in the country and plans to take several steps to check female foeticide, which is the main cause for the same. (
  • But people soon realised this method could be used to determine the child's sex and to abort it, if female. (
  • But instead, what if the increased ratio is not due to improved female indicators but due to the disappearance of significant numbers of males instead? (
  • the male : female ratio was significantly higher among patients with onset before rather than after 1970. (
  • Sex ratio is the number of males for each female. (
  • In a study around 2002, the natural sex ratio at birth was estimated to be within a narrow range of 1.07 to 1.03 males/female. (
  • Birds tend to have male-skewed sex ratios while many mammals are female-skewed. (
  • Genus Salix is a notable example of the female-biased sex ratio. (
  • We tested both mechanisms in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum , where male-biased sex ratios increase female fitness relative to unbiased or female-biased groups. (
  • According to the study, frogs reared in oak leaf litter in the absence of salt exhibited a female-biased sex ratio (63 percent). (
  • Ultimate explanations in sex ratio changes include the Trivers-Willard hypothesis [ 18 ], which suggests that if a female is in poor condition, or of low social status, it is beneficial to her to invest into the offspring sex that is less reproductively variable. (
  • When I arrived at Dartmouth in 1975, coeducation had only recently begun, and the ratio of male to female undergraduate students was 3:1. (
  • Nationally, the sex ratio at birth in Bangladesh has persisted at its natural level of 105 male per 100 female newborns for the past half century. (
  • Perchlorate exposure skewed the sex ratio toward female in a concentration-dependent manner, and co-treatment with T4 not only blocked the feminizing effect of perchlorate but also overcompensated by skewing the sex ratio towards male. (
  • In our study -among other variables- when we estimated sex ratio among male and female patients, it was 62:38(2). (
  • Additionally, a boron-associated shift in sex ratio at birth towards female offspring was not visible. (
  • I tested this using three different male-female ratios and three replicates of each. (
  • Split sex ratios, when some colonies produce only male and others only female reproductives, is a common feature of social insects, especially ants. (
  • Female-biased sex ratios have subsequently been confirmed in many social Hymenoptera (e.g. (
  • Workers from colonies that have a relatively high relatedness will prefer a more female-biased sex ratio while those from colonies with lower relatedness will prefer sex ratios that are biased towards males. (
  • The ratio of male to female progeny in humans. (
  • Can these male-female correlation ratios alone account for the correlation between IQ and godlessness? (
  • Several theories have been put forward to explain why this ratio should not be 0.5, with equal number of male and female births. (
  • We report a balanced sex ratio at the metapopulation level and a highly variable sex ratio among infrapopulations ranging from 100% male to 100% female. (
  • Sex ratio is highly male biased in small and highly female biased in large infrapopulations. (
  • Three levels of OSR (male/female ratio 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5) were tested. (
  • Two consecutive generations of female gall midges were presented with either a low or high abundance of aphids in each generation and the sex ratio of their progenies determined. (
  • Parental investment, sexual selection and sex ratios. (
  • However, given each offspring has precisely two genetic parents (the Fisher condition), a biased OSR generates frequency-dependent selection, analogous to Fisherian sex ratio selection, that favours increased parental investment by whichever sex faces more intense competition. (
  • We demonstrate that the consequences of uneven sex ratios on cultural attitudes, labor supply decisions, and occupational choices can persist in the long run, well after sex ratios are back to the natural rate. (
  • Our results underscore the importance of nonsexual interference competition that may often underlie the fitness consequences of skewed sex ratios. (
  • The current growth of 1 point per year since 2006 means that the ratio might cross the 115 mark within three years, which would significantly affect the country's demographic and sex structure. (
  • Sex ratios were not significantly correlated between generations. (
  • Sons'in vitro pollen germination was significantly negatively correlated with the 'sex-ratio phenotype' of maternal grandfathers, but not of fathers. (
  • Contrary to these predictions, we found no evidence that the distribution of sex ratios in a sample of 1483 chicks from 154 broods of blue tits (Parus caeruleus) deviated significantly from that of a binomial distribution around an even sex ratio. (
  • To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the potential mitigating effect of their partners' income. (
  • The nature of the sex- and age-related pattern of cluster headache onset remains to be elucidated but mechanisms associated with sex hormone regulation, perhaps of hypothalamic origin, may be involved, as well as environmental factors related to lifestyle. (
  • The theory that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which women subjected to environmental stressors abort frail male fetuses implies that climate change may affect sex ratio at birth and male longevity. (
  • Because most analyses of sex ratio focus on sexual interactions, the relative importance of sexual versus nonsexual mechanisms remains unclear. (
  • Sex ratio polymorphism has been extensively studied in Silene latifolia, but it is neither known whether inbreeding (which is likely to occur under field conditions) affects it, nor which of the proposed mechanisms (Y degeneration, X-linked drive) is more important. (
  • None of the current hypothesized mechanisms of peri-conceptual mammalian maternal sex allocation fully explain the amount of variation observed, and as such I suggested three possible physiological constraints on maternal sex allocation. (
  • We suggest that, in addition to the weakness of selection pressures, the possible mechanisms responsible for the allocation of sex may not be sufficiently accurate to control offspring sex at the level of the individual egg. (
  • However, in recent years, the DOH has been devoting its limited energy and resources to the often-controversial issue of the sex ratio of newborn babies. (
  • Multivariate regression was used to determine the effects of multiple factors on the sex of the newborn. (
  • Bierzychudek P, Eckhart V (1988) Spatial segregation of the sexes of dioecious plants. (
  • Schwarz MP (1988) Local resource enhancement and sex ratios in a primitively social bee. (
  • But in the Seventies, sex selection technologies like amniocentesis came about, in which doctors can test the amniotic fluid around a developing foetus for genetic abnormalities. (
  • Field releases of two genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly ( Ceratitis capitata Wied. (
  • In the present study on 1102 healthy Italian families, we investigated the potential effect on the offspring sex ratio of HLA-B alleles on the basis of a genetic model. (
  • It is first reported that the virus associated with parasitoid wasps has the key role in regulating wasp offspring sex ratio before which only bacterial symbionts such as Wolbachia are considered to be related to regulate its host wasp sex ratio. (