A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Acridines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of a planar, unsaturated ring system, which have been widely used in chemotherapy and have also found applications in dye industries and fluorescence microscopy.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Sexual activities of humans.

Regional survey of femoral neck fractures. (1/28941)

In the South-west Thames Region 2619 patients (2105 women and 514 men) were discharged with a diagnosis of femoral neck fracture in 1974. The equivalent of a 250-bedded hospital was occupied throughout the year. The incidence, average length of stay, and mortality rate rose with increasing age and there were differences in these indices in the five health areas. These results confirm the enormous burden placed on the hospital service by patients with fracture of the femoral neck but suggest that differences in practice in the five areas may contribute to the size of the problem.  (+info)

Determination of human body burden baseline date of platinum through autopsy tissue analysis. (2/28941)

Results of analysis for platinum in 97 autopsy sets are presented. Analysis was performed by a specially developed emission spectrochemical method. Almost half of the individuals studied were found to have detectable platinum in one or more tissue samples. Platinum was found to be deposited in 13 of 21 tissue types investigated. Surprisingly high values were observed in subcutaneous fat, previously not considered to be a target site for platinum deposition. These data will serve as a human tissue platinum burden baseline in EPA's Catalyst Research Program.  (+info)

A quantitative three-dimensional model of the Drosophila optic lobes. (3/28941)

A big step in the neurobiology of Drosophila would be to establish a standard for brain anatomy to which to relate morphological, developmental and genetic data. We propose that only an average brain and its variance would be a biologically meaningful reference and have developed an averaging procedure. Here, we present a brief outline of this method and apply it to the optic lobes of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type Canton S. Whole adult brains are stained with a fluorescent neuropil marker and scanned with the confocal microscope. The resulting three-dimensional data sets are automatically aligned into a common coordinate system and intensity averages calculated. We use effect-size maps for the fast detection of differences between averages. For morphometric analysis, neuropil structures are labelled and superimposed to give a three-dimensional probabilistic map. In the present study, the method was applied to 66 optic lobes. We found their size, shape and position to be highly conserved between animals. Similarity was even higher between left and right optic lobes of the same animal. Sex differences were more pronounced. Female optic lobes were 6% larger than those of males. This value corresponds well with the higher number of ommatidia in females. As females have their additional ommatidia dorsally and ventrally, the additional neuropil in the medulla, lobula and lobula plate, accordingly, was found preferentially at these locations. For males, additional neuropil was found only at the posterior margin of the lobula. This finding supports the notion of male-specific neural processing in the lobula as described for muscid and calliphorid flies.  (+info)

Expression of Bcl-2 protein is decreased in colorectal adenocarcinomas with microsatellite instability. (4/28941)

Bcl-2 is known to inhibit apoptosis and is thought to play a role in colorectal tumour development. Studies of the promoter region of bcl-2 have indicated the presence of a p53 responsive element which downregulates bcl-2 expression. Since p53 is commonly mutated in colorectal cancers, but rarely in those tumours showing microsatellite instability (MSI), the aim of this study was to examine the relationship of bcl-2 protein expression to MSI, as well as to other clinicopathological and molecular variables, in colorectal adenocarcinomas. Expression of bcl-2 was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 71 colorectal cancers which had been previously assigned to three classes depending upon their levels of MSI. MSI-high tumours demonstrated instability in three or more of six microsatellite markers tested, MSI-low tumours in one or two of six, and MSI-null in none of six. Bcl-2 expression in tumours was quantified independently by two pathologists and assigned to one of five categories, with respect to the number of cells which showed positive staining: 0, up to 5%; 1, 6-25%; 2, 26-50%; 3, 51-75%; and 4, > or =76%. Bcl-2 negative tumours were defined as those with a score of 0. Bcl-2 protein expression was tested for association with clinicopathological stage, differentiation level, tumour site, age, sex, survival, evidence of p53 inactivation and MSI level. A significant association was found between bcl-2 expression and patient survival (P = 0.012, Gehan Wilcoxon test). Further, a significant reciprocal relationship was found between bcl-2 expression and the presence of MSI (P = 0.012, Wilcoxon rank sum test). We conclude that bcl-2 expressing colorectal cancers are more likely to be MSI-null, and to be associated with improved patient survival.  (+info)

Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population. (5/28941)

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

The five amino acid-deleted isoform of hepatocyte growth factor promotes carcinogenesis in transgenic mice. (6/28941)

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a polypeptide with mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic effects on different cell types including hepatocytes. HGF is expressed as two biologically active isotypes resulting from alternative RNA splicing. The roles of each HGF isoform in development, liver regeneration and tumorigenesis have not yet been well characterized. We report the generation and analysis of transgenic mice overexpressing the five amino acid-deleted variant of HGF (dHGF) in the liver by virtue of an albumin expression vector. These ALB-dHGF transgenic mice develop normally, have an enhanced rate of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, and exhibit a threefold higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond 17 months of age. Moreover, overexpression of dHGF dramatically accelerates diethyl-nitrosamine induced HCC tumorigenesis. These tumors arise faster, are significantly larger, more numerous and more invasive than those appearing in non-transgenic littermates. Approximately 90% of female dHGF-transgenic mice had multiple macroscopic HCCs 40 weeks after injection of DEN; whereas the non-transgenic counterparts had only microscopic nodules. Liver tumors and cultured tumor cell lines from dHGF transgenics showed high levels of HGF and c-Met mRNA and protein. Together, these results reveal that in vivo dHGF plays an active role in liver regeneration and HCC tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (7/28941)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Heart rate and subsequent blood pressure in young adults: the CARDIA study. (8/28941)

The objective of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that baseline heart rate (HR) predicts subsequent blood pressure (BP) independently of baseline BP. In the multicenter longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study of black and white men and women initially aged 18 to 30 years, we studied 4762 participants who were not current users of antihypertensive drugs and had no history of heart problems at the baseline examination (1985-1986). In each race-sex subgroup, we estimated the effect of baseline HR on BP 2, 5, 7, and 10 years later by use of repeated measures regression analysis, adjusting for baseline BP, age, education, body fatness, physical fitness, fasting insulin, parental hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, oral contraceptive use, and change of body mass index from baseline. The association between baseline HR and subsequent systolic BP (SBP) was explained by multivariable adjustment. However, HR was an independent predictor of subsequent diastolic BP (DBP) regardless of initial BP and other confounders in white men, white women, and black men (0.7 mm Hg increase per 10 bpm). We incorporated the part of the association that was already present at baseline by not adjusting for baseline DBP: the mean increase in subsequent DBP was 1.3 mm Hg per 10 bpm in white men, white women, and black men. A high HR may be considered a risk factor for subsequent high DBP in young persons.  (+info)

I'm not aware of a widely recognized or established medical term called "F factor." It is possible that it could be a term specific to certain medical specialties, research, or publications. In order to provide an accurate and helpful response, I would need more context or information about where you encountered this term.

If you meant to ask about the F-plasmid, which is sometimes referred to as the "F factor" in bacteriology, it is a type of plasmid that can be found in certain strains of bacteria and carries genes related to conjugation (the process by which bacteria transfer genetic material between each other). The F-plasmid can exist as an independent circular DNA molecule or integrate into the chromosome of the host bacterium.

If this is not the term you were looking for, please provide more context so I can give a better answer.

In medical terms, "sex" refers to the biological characteristics that define males and females. These characteristics include chromosomes, hormone levels, reproductive/sexual anatomy, and secondary sexual traits. Generally, people are categorized as male or female based on their anatomical and genetic features, but there are also intersex individuals who may have physical or genetic features that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies. It is important to note that while sex is a biological concept, gender is a social construct that refers to the roles, behaviors, activities, and expectations that a society considers appropriate for men and women.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

Extrachromosomal inheritance refers to the transmission of genetic information that occurs outside of the chromosomes, which are the structures in the cell nucleus that typically contain and transmit genetic material. This type of inheritance is relatively rare and can involve various types of genetic elements, such as plasmids or transposons.

In extrachromosomal inheritance, these genetic elements can replicate independently of the chromosomes and be passed on to offspring through mechanisms other than traditional Mendelian inheritance. This can lead to non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance, where traits do not follow the expected dominant or recessive patterns.

One example of extrachromosomal inheritance is the transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell rather than on the chromosomes. Mitochondria are organelles that produce energy for the cell, and they contain their own small circular genome that is inherited maternally. Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases.

Overall, extrachromosomal inheritance is an important area of study in genetics, as it can help researchers better understand the complex ways in which genetic information is transmitted and expressed in living organisms.

Acridines are a class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a nucleus of three fused benzene rings and a nitrogen atom. They have a wide range of applications, including in the development of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer and antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic drugs. Some acridines also exhibit fluorescent properties and are used in research and diagnostic applications.

In medicine, some acridine derivatives have been found to intercalate with DNA, disrupting its structure and function, which can lead to the death of cancer cells. For example, the acridine derivative proflavin has been used as an antiseptic and in the treatment of certain types of cancer. However, many acridines also have toxic side effects, limiting their clinical use.

It is important to note that while acridines have potential therapeutic uses, they should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can cause harm if not used properly.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Microbial genetics is the study of heredity and variation in microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It involves the investigation of their genetic material (DNA and RNA), genes, gene expression, genetic regulation, mutations, genetic recombination, and genome organization. This field is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, evolution, ecology, and biotechnological applications. Research in microbial genetics has led to significant advancements in areas such as antibiotic resistance, vaccine development, and gene therapy.

Coliphages are viruses that infect and replicate within certain species of bacteria that belong to the coliform group, particularly Escherichia coli (E. coli). These viruses are commonly found in water and soil environments and are frequently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water quality testing. Coliphages are not harmful to humans or animals, but their presence in water can suggest the potential presence of pathogenic bacteria or other microorganisms that may pose a health risk. There are two main types of coliphages: F-specific RNA coliphages and somatic (or non-F specific) DNA coliphages.

Bacterial chromosomes are typically circular, double-stranded DNA molecules that contain the genetic material of bacteria. Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA housed within a nucleus, bacterial chromosomes are located in the cytoplasm of the cell, often associated with the bacterial nucleoid.

Bacterial chromosomes can vary in size and structure among different species, but they typically contain all of the genetic information necessary for the survival and reproduction of the organism. They may also contain plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation.

One important feature of bacterial chromosomes is their ability to replicate rapidly, allowing bacteria to divide quickly and reproduce in large numbers. The replication of the bacterial chromosome begins at a specific origin point and proceeds in opposite directions until the entire chromosome has been copied. This process is tightly regulated and coordinated with cell division to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the genetic material.

Overall, the study of bacterial chromosomes is an important area of research in microbiology, as understanding their structure and function can provide insights into bacterial genetics, evolution, and pathogenesis.

Lactose is a disaccharide, a type of sugar, that is naturally found in milk and dairy products. It is made up of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose, linked together. In order for the body to absorb and use lactose, it must be broken down into these simpler sugars by an enzyme called lactase, which is produced in the lining of the small intestine.

People who have a deficiency of lactase are unable to fully digest lactose, leading to symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps, a condition known as lactose intolerance.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

In the context of medical laboratory reporting, "R factors" refer to a set of values that describe the resistance of certain bacteria to different antibiotics. These factors are typically reported as R1, R2, R3, and so on, where each R factor corresponds to a specific antibiotic or class of antibiotics.

An R factor value of "1" indicates susceptibility to the corresponding antibiotic, while an R factor value of "R" (or "R-", depending on the laboratory's reporting practices) indicates resistance. An intermediate category may also be reported as "I" or "I-", indicating that the bacterium is intermediately sensitive to the antibiotic in question.

It's important to note that R factors are just one piece of information used to guide clinical decision-making around antibiotic therapy, and should be interpreted in conjunction with other factors such as the patient's clinical presentation, the severity of their infection, and any relevant guidelines or recommendations from infectious disease specialists.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Lysogeny is a process in the life cycle of certain viruses, known as bacteriophages or phages, which can infect bacteria. In lysogeny, the viral DNA integrates into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicates along with it, remaining dormant and not producing any new virus particles. This state is called lysogeny or the lysogenic cycle.

The integrated viral DNA is known as a prophage. The bacterial cell that contains a prophage is called a lysogen. The lysogen can continue to grow and divide normally, passing the prophage onto its daughter cells during reproduction. This dormant state can last for many generations of the host bacterium.

However, under certain conditions such as DNA damage or exposure to UV radiation, the prophage can be induced to excise itself from the bacterial chromosome and enter the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the viral DNA replicates rapidly, producing many new virus particles, which eventually leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell and the release of the newly formed virions.

Lysogeny is an important mechanism for the spread and survival of bacteriophages in bacterial populations. It also plays a role in horizontal gene transfer between bacteria, as genes carried by prophages can be transferred to other bacteria during transduction.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

"Genetic crosses" refer to the breeding of individuals with different genetic characteristics to produce offspring with specific combinations of traits. This process is commonly used in genetics research to study the inheritance patterns and function of specific genes.

There are several types of genetic crosses, including:

1. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of a single gene or trait.
2. Dihybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of two genes or traits.
3. Backcross: A cross between an individual from a hybrid population and one of its parental lines.
4. Testcross: A cross between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
5. Reciprocal cross: A cross in which the male and female parents are reversed to determine if there is any effect of sex on the expression of the trait.

These genetic crosses help researchers to understand the mode of inheritance, linkage, recombination, and other genetic phenomena.

"Lactococcus lactis" is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in nature, particularly in environments involving plants and dairy products. It is a catalase-negative, non-spore forming coccus that typically occurs in pairs or short chains.

"Lactococcus lactis" has significant industrial importance as it plays a crucial role in the production of fermented foods such as cheese and buttermilk. The bacterium converts lactose into lactic acid, which contributes to the sour taste and preservative qualities of these products.

In addition to its use in food production, "Lactococcus lactis" has been explored for its potential therapeutic applications. It can be used as a vector for delivering therapeutic proteins or vaccines to the gastrointestinal tract due to its ability to survive and colonize there.

It's worth noting that "Lactococcus lactis" is generally considered safe for human consumption, and it's one of the most commonly used probiotics in food and supplements.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Circular DNA is a type of DNA molecule that forms a closed loop, rather than the linear double helix structure commonly associated with DNA. This type of DNA is found in some viruses, plasmids (small extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in bacteria), and mitochondria and chloroplasts (organelles found in plant and animal cells).

Circular DNA is characterized by the absence of telomeres, which are the protective caps found on linear chromosomes. Instead, circular DNA has a specific sequence where the two ends join together, known as the origin of replication and the replication terminus. This structure allows for the DNA to be replicated efficiently and compactly within the cell.

Because of its circular nature, circular DNA is more resistant to degradation by enzymes that cut linear DNA, making it more stable in certain environments. Additionally, the ability to easily manipulate and clone circular DNA has made it a valuable tool in molecular biology and genetic engineering.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Genetic transduction is a process in molecular biology that describes the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by a viral vector called a bacteriophage (or phage). In this process, the phage infects one bacterium and incorporates a portion of the bacterial DNA into its own genetic material. When the phage then infects a second bacterium, it can transfer the incorporated bacterial DNA to the new host. This can result in the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of traits such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors between bacteria.

There are two main types of transduction: generalized and specialized. In generalized transduction, any portion of the bacterial genome can be packaged into the phage particle, leading to a random assortment of genetic material being transferred. In specialized transduction, only specific genes near the site where the phage integrates into the bacterial chromosome are consistently transferred.

It's important to note that genetic transduction is not to be confused with transformation or conjugation, which are other mechanisms of HGT in bacteria.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

DNA restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, are a type of enzyme that cut double-stranded DNA at specific recognition sites. These enzymes are produced by bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism against foreign DNA, such as that found in bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).

Restriction enzymes recognize specific sequences of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) and cleave the phosphodiester bonds between them. The recognition sites for these enzymes are usually palindromic, meaning that the sequence reads the same in both directions when facing the opposite strands of DNA.

Restriction enzymes are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications such as genetic engineering, genome mapping, and DNA fingerprinting. They allow scientists to cut DNA at specific sites, creating precise fragments that can be manipulated and analyzed. The use of restriction enzymes has been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and the Human Genome Project.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. They are composed of DNA and proteins, and are typically present in pairs in the nucleus, with one set inherited from each parent. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes come in different shapes and forms, including sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine the biological sex of an individual. Changes or abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes can lead to genetic disorders and diseases.

Sex chromosomes, often denoted as X and Y, are one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes found in each cell of the body. Normally, females have two X chromosomes (46,XX), and males have one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY). The sex chromosomes play a significant role in determining the sex of an individual. They contain genes that contribute to physical differences between men and women. Any variations or abnormalities in the number or structure of these chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders and conditions related to sexual development and reproduction.

"Sex determination processes" refer to the series of genetic and biological events that occur during embryonic and fetal development which lead to the development of male or female physical characteristics. In humans, this process is typically determined by the presence or absence of a Y chromosome in the fertilized egg. If the egg has a Y chromosome, it will develop into a male (genetically XY) and if it does not have a Y chromosome, it will develop into a female (genetically XX).

The sex determination process involves the activation and repression of specific genes on the sex chromosomes, which direct the development of the gonads (ovaries or testes) and the production of hormones that influence the development of secondary sexual characteristics. This includes the development of internal and external genitalia, as well as other sex-specific physical traits.

It is important to note that while sex is typically determined by genetics and biology, gender identity is a separate construct that can be self-identified and may not align with an individual's biological sex.

'Unsafe sex' is not a term that would be found in a formal medical dictionary or textbook, but it is commonly used to refer to sexual activities that carry a significant risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or unwanted pregnancy. These risks can be reduced through the use of various protective measures.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines 'unprotected sex' as sexual contact without the use of appropriate precautions, such as condoms, to prevent transmission of STIs. However, it is important to note that even the use of protection may not eliminate all risks associated with sexual activity. For example, some infections, like herpes or genital warts, can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, and condoms do not provide complete protection against these viruses.

In summary, 'unsafe sex' generally refers to sexual activities that carry a high risk of STIs and/or unwanted pregnancy due to the lack of appropriate protective measures.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Sex workers are individuals who receive payment for performing sexual services or engaging in sexual activities with others. This can include various forms of sex work such as prostitution, pornography, stripping, and escort services. It is important to note that the ethical and legal considerations surrounding sex work are complex and vary greatly across different cultures, societies, and jurisdictions.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes that sex workers are a marginalized population who often face stigma, discrimination, and violence. In order to protect the health and human rights of sex workers, WHO recommends that sex work be recognized as a legitimate form of work and that sex workers have access to the same protections and rights as other workers. This includes access to healthcare services, education, and legal protection against abuse and discrimination.

"Sex differentiation" is a term used in the field of medicine, specifically in reproductive endocrinology and genetics. It refers to the biological development of sexual characteristics that distinguish males from females. This process is regulated by hormones and genetic factors.

There are two main stages of sex differentiation: genetic sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. Genetic sex determination occurs at fertilization, where the combination of X and Y chromosomes determines the sex of the individual (typically, XX = female and XY = male). Gonadal sex differentiation then takes place during fetal development, where the genetic sex signals the development of either ovaries or testes.

Once the gonads are formed, they produce hormones that drive further sexual differentiation, leading to the development of internal reproductive structures (such as the uterus and fallopian tubes in females, and the vas deferens and seminal vesicles in males) and external genitalia.

It's important to note that while sex differentiation is typically categorized as male or female, there are individuals who may have variations in their sexual development, leading to intersex conditions. These variations can occur at any stage of the sex differentiation process and can result in a range of physical characteristics that do not fit neatly into male or female categories.

"Safe sex" is a term used to describe sexual activities that reduce the risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies. It typically involves the use of protective measures, such as condoms, dental dams, or other barriers, during sexual contact.

However, it's important to note that "safe" doesn't mean "risk-free." Even with protection, there is still a chance, though significantly reduced, of STI transmission or pregnancy. The term "safer sex" is sometimes used to more accurately reflect this concept.

Furthermore, regular testing for STIs and open communication with sexual partners about sexual health are also important components of safe sex practices.

I could not find a widely accepted medical definition for "sex attractants" as it is not a standard term used in medical literature. However, the concept of sex attractants is often discussed in the context of animal behavior and can refer to chemical substances that animals produce and release to attract mates. These substances are also known as pheromones.

In humans, there is ongoing scientific debate about whether or not pheromones play a significant role in sexual attraction and mate selection. Some studies suggest that humans may have a functional vomeronasal organ (VNO), which is involved in the detection of pheromones in other animals. However, many scientists remain skeptical about the role of human sex attractants or pheromones due to limited evidence and conflicting results from various studies.

Therefore, it's essential to note that while there may be some scientific interest in the concept of human sex attractants, it is not a well-established area of study within medical research.

Sex determination analysis is a medical or biological examination used to establish the genetic or phenotypic sex of an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: Examination of an individual's DNA to identify the presence of specific sex chromosomes (XX for females and XY for males). This is typically performed through a blood or tissue sample.
2. Chromosomal analysis: Microscopic examination of an individual's chromosomes to determine their number and structure. In humans, females typically have 46 chromosomes, including two X chromosomes (46,XX), while males typically have 46 chromosomes, including one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY).
3. Phenotypic analysis: Observation of an individual's physical characteristics, such as the presence or absence of certain sex organs or secondary sexual characteristics, to determine their phenotypic sex.

Sex determination analysis is used in various medical and research contexts, including prenatal testing, diagnosis of disorders of sex development (DSDs), forensic investigations, and population studies. It's important to note that while sex determination analysis can provide information about an individual's genetic or phenotypic sex, it does not necessarily reflect their gender identity, which is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are a group of conditions that occur when there is a difference in the development and assignment of sex characteristics. These differences may be apparent at birth, at puberty, or later in life. DSD can affect chromosomes, gonads, genitals, or secondary sexual characteristics, and can result from genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development.

DSDs were previously referred to as "intersex" conditions, but the term "Disorders of Sex Development" is now preferred in medical settings because it is more descriptive and less stigmatizing. DSDs are not errors or abnormalities, but rather variations in human development that require sensitive and individualized care.

The diagnosis and management of DSD can be complex and may involve a team of healthcare providers, including endocrinologists, urologists, gynecologists, psychologists, and genetic counselors. Treatment options depend on the specific type of DSD and may include hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions to support physical and emotional well-being.

"Sex preselection," also known as "gender selection" or "family balancing," is the process of influencing the sex of an offspring before birth. It can be achieved through various methods, including preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF), sperm sorting techniques, and embryo manipulation.

PGD is a technique where one or more cells are taken from an embryo created through IVF and tested for genetic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities. During this process, the sex of the embryo can also be determined. Only embryos of the desired sex are then transferred to the uterus for implantation.

Sperm sorting techniques involve separating X-chromosome-bearing sperm (which produce female offspring) from Y-chromosome-bearing sperm (which produce male offspring). The sorted sperm can then be used for artificial insemination or IVF.

It's important to note that sex preselection is a controversial topic due to ethical considerations and legal restrictions in some countries.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced mainly in the liver that plays a crucial role in regulating the active forms of the sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in the body. SHBG binds to these hormones in the bloodstream, creating a reservoir of bound hormones. Only the unbound (or "free") fraction of testosterone and estradiol is considered biologically active and can easily enter cells to exert its effects.

By binding to sex hormones, SHBG helps control their availability and transport in the body. Factors such as age, sex, infection with certain viruses (like hepatitis or HIV), liver disease, obesity, and various medications can influence SHBG levels and, consequently, impact the amount of free testosterone and estradiol in circulation.

SHBG is an essential factor in maintaining hormonal balance and has implications for several physiological processes, including sexual development, reproduction, bone health, muscle mass, and overall well-being. Abnormal SHBG levels can contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypogonadism (low testosterone levels), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and certain types of cancer.

Sex counseling, also known as sexual therapy or sex therapy, is a type of psychotherapy that aims to help individuals and couples address and resolve their sexual concerns and problems. It is an evidence-based approach that involves specialized techniques and interventions to address issues such as sexual dysfunction, low desire, pain during sex, sexual addiction, gender identity concerns, and sexual trauma.

Sex counseling is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals who have received specialized training in human sexuality and sexual therapy. The goal of sex counseling is to help individuals and couples improve their sexual relationships, enhance communication, increase sexual satisfaction, and promote overall sexual health and well-being. It is important to note that sex counseling does not involve any physical contact or sexual activity between the therapist and client.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

Prostitution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is a social and legal issue. However, in the context of public health, prostitution might be defined as the act or practice of engaging in sexual activity for payment, which can carry significant risks to physical and mental health, including exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), violence, and psychological trauma.

Prostitution is often associated with marginalization, poverty, and social inequality, and it can be a complex issue that involves questions of personal autonomy, consent, and human rights. It's important to note that the legal and cultural approaches to prostitution vary widely around the world, ranging from criminalization to decriminalization and legalization.

Medical definitions are often provided by authoritative medical bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) or the American Psychiatric Association (APA). It's important to note that these organizations have evolved their understanding and classification of homosexuality over time.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), produced by the APA, sexual orientation is not considered a mental disorder. The manual does not provide a definition or classification for 'homosexuality, male' as a medical condition.

The current understanding in the medical community is that homosexuality is a normal and natural variation of human sexual orientation. It is not considered a disorder or an illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders in 1990.

Sex education is a systematic instruction or information regarding human sexuality, including human reproduction, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, emotional relations, reproductive health, and safe sex, among other topics. It is usually taught in schools but can also be provided by healthcare professionals, parents, or community organizations. The aim of sex education is to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to make informed decisions about their sexual health and relationships while promoting responsible and respectful attitudes towards sexuality.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

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Other factors influencing the risk of sexual violence include: being a girl/woman; being young; being a sex worker; being poor ... Withholding sex and forced sex: dimensions of violence against Zimbabwean women. Reproductive Health Matters, 1998, 6:57-65. ... Sex offenses and offenders: an analysis of data on rape and sexual assault. Washington, DC, United States Department of Justice ... In Zimbabwe, women who were working were much more likely to report forced sex by a spouse than those who were not. The likely ...
Another example is the transcription factor encoded by the sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene, which plays a major role in ... DNA within nucleosomes is inaccessible to many transcription factors. Some transcription factors, so-called pioneer factors are ... Helix-loop-helix factors (bHLH) 1.2.1 Family: Ubiquitous (class A) factors 1.2.2 Family: Myogenic transcription factors (MyoD) ... Plant transcription factor database TcoF-DB: Database of transcription co-factors and transcription factor interactions ...
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... the Old Testament depicts sex in an erogenous way. The Age's Paul Kalina said of The XY Factor: Sex in the Vietnam War, " ... In a review of The XY Factor: Sex In World War II, Annmaree Bellman wrote in The Age, "this fascinating, almost pulp, ... It covered attitudes towards sex across various eras of history. The series' episode "Sex in the Civil War" discussed how ... The XY Factor is an American documentary series that ran between 2000 and 2003 on the History Channel. ...
The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) protein is a transcription factor involved in sex determination by controlling the activity ... Genetic sex in mammals is determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome at fertilization. Sexually dimorphic ... Male to female sex reversal of genitalia was also observed. Mutations in NR5A1 can produce intersex genitals, absence of ... Analysis of mouse SF-1 cDNA revealed sequence similarities with Drosophila fushi tarazu factor I (FTZ-F1) which regulates the ...
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One factor that causes mood disturbance is fluctuation of milieu hormones including sex steroids, growth hormones, stress ... Hormones of particular interest include: sex steroids; growth hormones; insulin-like growth factors; stress hormones, such as ... "Such an enhanced tendency to have disphoria as a result of the effects of sex steroids on the brain might be heritable, as ... Sex steroids are able to modify several functions including behavior, cognition and memory, sleep, mood, pain and coordination ...
The plea agreement documents state that Greenberg paid a minor to have sex with him and other men. He engaged in sex acts with ... Comas, Martin E. (June 4, 2021). "How long will Joel Greenberg spend in prison? Several factors complicate sentencing". Orlando ... "commercial sex acts", and also created fake IDs to facilitate sex trafficking. Some of this money was funneled through a ... who engaged in commercial sex acts". As part of the plea agreement, Greenberg must register as a sex offender. Federal judge ...
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Additionally, these factors are also associated with reduced social network size and lower marriage rates in men with ... In early adolescence, sex-related differences in cannabis use have been observed, with males using more heavily than females in ... Sex-related differences in substance use and dependence have been observed in individuals with schizophrenia and those at risk ... Sex differences in schizophrenia are widely reported. Men and women exhibit different rates of incidence and prevalence, age at ...
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People of any age, sex, or economic status can become addicted to a drug. However, certain factors can affect the likelihood ... having sex with multiple partners, sex trading, and having sex with an injecting drug user. Depression is also associated with ... There are some common factors between prostitutes who are involved with drug use. If they frequently have unprotected sex, if ... These factors "trap" a person into the life they are in, especially if multiple of the factors affect them, making it much ...
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It is unclear whether the risk is different by sex. Other potential risk factors include mechanical trauma and exposure to ... Another important risk factor is immunosuppression. Other risk factors include psychological stress. According to a study in ... Gatti A, Pica F, Boccia MT, De Antoni F, Sabato AF, Volpi A (2010). "No evidence of family history as a risk factor for herpes ... Risk factors for reactivation of the dormant virus include old age, poor immune function, and having contracted chickenpox ...
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Grov C, Bimbi DS, Nanin JE, Parsons JT (2006). "Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and generational factors". The Journal of Sex Research ... 53X + M3 = O? sex + me = no result?: Tropes of asexuality in literature and film Thomas, June (14 April 2015). "Asexuality and ... The scene made history as the first same-sex kiss to be aired on the channel. Amidst both praise and criticism, the BBC defend ... Moore, Matt (25 July 2020). "CBBC series The Next Step airs its first same-sex kiss". Gay Times. "BBC says lesbian kiss scene ...
"Same-sex couples in Spain. Historical, contextual and symbolic factors" (PDF). Institut national d'études démographiques. ... "Same-sex couples in Spain. Historical, contextual and symbolic factors" (PDF). Institut national d'études démographiques. ... "Sex-change surgery is now legal in the UAE". stepfeed.com. 6 September 2016. "Sex reassignment surgery is now legal in the ... adultery laws that same-sex couples are subject to age of consent laws that may impose higher ages for same-sex sexual activity ...
July 2004). "Epidemiology/risk factors of sexual dysfunction". J Sex Med. 1 (1): 35-9. CiteSeerX doi:10.1111/j ... J Sex Marital Ther. 29 (1): 47-59. doi:10.1080/713847095. PMID 12519667. S2CID 46659017. "When sex hurts - vaginismus". The ... Risk factors include a history of sexual assault, endometriosis, vaginitis, or a prior episiotomy. Diagnosis is based on the ... 2010). When Sex Seems Impossible. Stories of Vaginismus and How You Can Achieve Intimacy. Odyne Publishing. pp. 40-7. Pacik, ...
"Same-sex couples in Spain. Historical, contextual and symbolic factors" (PDF). Institut national d'études démographiques. ... First same-sex marriage in Spain LGBT rights by country LGBT rights in Spain Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe In ... opposite-sex and same-sex, to marry. At present, the Constitution, specifically Article 32, notes the right of men and women to ... began a campaign to legalize same-sex marriage, including the right of adoption by same-sex couples. After much debate, a law ...
"Factors associated with satisfaction or regret following male-to-female sex reassignment surgery". Arch Sex Behav. 32 (4): 299- ... Moody C, Smith NG (July 2013). "Suicide protective factors among trans adults". Arch Sex Behav. 42 (5): 739-52. doi:10.1007/ ... New Directions in Sex Therapy: Innovations and Alternatives. CRC Press. pp. 666-667. ISBN 978-1-136-33332-3. Retrieved 8 ...
"Same-sex couples in Spain. Historical, contextual and symbolic factors" (PDF). Institut national d'études démographiques. ... Indicates that same-sex sexual activity is illegal Indicates the country/territory has legalized same-sex adoption nationwide ... the age of consent for same-sex sexual relations is higher than for opposite-sex ones. In November 2006, South Africa became ... Indicates the country/territory has legalized same-sex marriage nationwide Indicates that same-sex marriage is legal in certain ...
"Sex toys, sex dolls, sex robots: Our under-researched bed-fellows". Sexologies. Sexualité et nouvelles technologies Sexuality ... The penalty may be up to 14 days in prison, depending on a range of circumstantial factors. In the US, laws vary from state to ... archaic anti-masturbation device National Masturbation Day Nocturnal emission Phone sex Self-love Sex doll Sex magic Sexual ... ISBN 978-1-78297-635-6. Dening, Sarah (1996). "Chapter 3: Sex in Ancient Civilizations". The Mythology of Sex. London, England ...
Corless, Damian (7 October 2008). "The Sex Factor". Irish Independent. Archived from the original on 3 November 2010. Retrieved ... When the topic featured on the 2008 documentary How The Irish Have Sex broadcast by rival channel TV3, the Irish Independent's ... Prone, Terry (2 October 2009). "The day sex came out of the closet". Evening Herald. Archived from the original on 10 August ... "no sex in Ireland until Teilifís Éireann went on the air", reflecting this greater indiscretion. Archbishop of Dublin, John ...
Many factors contribute to this higher risk, such as socioeconomic status, the context in which sex work takes place, and the ... transgender sex workers are more likely to receive lower pay than other sex workers. Transgender sex workers with history of ... Transgender sex workers worldwide are at higher risk of contracting HIV and other STIs as well. In a study on sex workers in ... Though all sex workers are at risk for the problems listed, some studies suggest that sex workers who engage in street-based ...
"The Exile: Sex, Drugs, and Libel in the New Russia". Publishers Weekly. March 27, 2000. Retrieved July 31, 2019. Cox, Dan (May ... Hamann, Jack (September 23, 1999). "The Russia Factor". CNN Perspectives. Archived from the original (Reprint) on February 14, ... Taibbi's first book, The Exile: Sex, Drugs, and Libel in the New Russia, co-authored with Ames, was published in 2000. A film ... Ames, Mark; Taibbi, Matt (2000). The Exile: Sex, Drugs, and Libel in the New Russia. Grove Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-8021-3652-7 ...
The Sex Factor". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14 December 2015. Belle Knox to host X-rated reality show, The Sex Factor - NY ... SexFactor : Episode 1 - EP01 - Battle Of The Sexes". sexfactor.com. Retrieved 2016-05-20. "Sex Factor: Adrian Lee Ray". Yu, ... The Sex Factor was an online reality TV series produced by xHamster where eight men and eight women compete to become a porn ... "The Sex Factor: Reality Show for Future Porn Stars". ABC News Nightline. Retrieved 25 June 2016. "Getting down and dirty with ...
breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors, breast cancer, breast cancer pathology, breast cancer trends, breast cancer causes ... Endogenous Sex Hormones and Risk of Breast Cancer. Several lines of evidence have long suggested that sex hormones play a ... Genetic Factors. Family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative is a consistent risk factor; risk increases with ... Insulin-like growth factor. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide hormone with structural homology to insulin, ...
Risk Factors for Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease during Outbreak among Men who Have Sex with Men, New York City, New York, ... Risk Factors for Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease during Outbreak among Men who Have Sex with Men, New York City, New York, ...
Factors Associated With Circulating Sex Hormones in Men. *Mark. Marriott, Ross J. ; Murray, Kevin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Antonio ... Purpose: To clarify factors associated with variations in sex hormone concentrations. Data Sources: Systematic literature ... Purpose: To clarify factors associated with variations in sex hormone concentrations. Data Sources: Systematic literature ... Purpose: To clarify factors associated with variations in sex hormone concentrations. Data Sources: Systematic literature ...
Sex Differences in Variance. Editorial Comment: What Good Is All This?. Glossary. References. Index ...
Culture as a Protective Factor: Centering Black Voices, Leadership, and Community to Support Black Girls Impacted by Sex ... Minorities Black Girls Sex trafficking Human trafficking Outreach and Services to Underserved Populations Victim Rights and ...
BENINCASA, Miria; REZENDE, Manuel Morgado e CONIARIC, Janaína. Unprotected sex and adolescents: risk and protection factors. ... Palavras-chave : Adolescence; Unprotected sex; Risk and protection factors. · resumo em Português , Espanhol , Espanhol , ... The presented factors of protection involved to prevent the sex and to select partners. ... one searched to identify the perception of this risk between adolescents in relation to AIDS and the risk factors related to ...
Learn more about stroke risk factors from the CDC. ... Stroke risk factors include age and behaviors such as smoking. ... Sex. Stroke is more common in women than men, and women of all ages are more likely than men to die from stroke.4 Pregnancy and ... Genetic factors likely play some role in high blood pressure, stroke, and other related conditions. Several genetic disorders ... Trends in stroke hospitalizations and associated risk factors among children and young adults, 1995-2008. Annals of Neurology. ...
We examined prevalence and risk factors for oral HPV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and compared sampling and transport ... Lifetime oral-penile sex partner numbers were significantly associated in a separate model: aOR 2.8(1.2-6.3) for 26-100 ... and more lifetime tongue-kissing and oral sex partners. The liquid oral rinse sample was more sensitive than a tampon-absorbed ...
Read more here about possible Ewing tumor (Ewing sarcoma) risk factors. ... Sex. Ewing tumors are slightly more common in males than in females. ... Different cancers have different risk factors.. Lifestyle-related risk factors such as body weight, physical activity, diet, ... But these factors usually take many years to influence cancer risk, and they are not thought to play much of a role in cancers ...
18, 2023: Heart Disease in women: sex specific risk factors and non-obstructive coronary artery syndromes by Dr. Tara Sedlak ...
Although having obesity is a risk factor for kidney cancer for both sexes, the risks are slightly higher. in females than males ... Female sex hormones. One partial explanation is that female hormones, such as estrogen, may play a protective role. , helping ... Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a known risk factor for kidney cancer and kidney disease, and it is more common. in ... Smoking, hypertension, and obesity are among the known risk factors for kidney cancer. Males are more likely to smoke and have ...
Sex differences and estrogen. AD seems to occur more frequently in women than in men. However, this issue is not well studied ... Genetic and host factors for dementia in Downs syndrome. Br J Psychiatry. 2002 May. 180:405-10. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Genetic and host factors for dementia in Downs syndrome. Br J Psychiatry. 2002 May. 180:405-10. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Pathophysiology/Risk Factors. Although Alzheimer disease (AD) is more frequent in individuals with Down syndrome (DS), the main ...
Doctor says "Oral Sex Is a Leading Factor in the Throat Cancer Epidemic in the U.S.. by Yucatan Times April 28, 2023. ... Home Headlines Doctor says "Oral Sex Is a Leading Factor in the Throat Cancer Epidemic in the U.S. ... Oral sex may be the biggest factor in the rise of throat cancer in the United States. ... "For oropharyngeal cancer, the main risk factor is the number of lifetime sexual partners, especially oral sex," Mehanna wrote ...
Moreover, the relationship between breakfast and sleep timing on CVD risk factors differed by sex and age group. ... risk factors. A total of 16,121 participants (6744 men and 9377 women) aged 19 years or older were selected from the Korea ... The mechanisms underlying between sex- and age-specific breakfast and sleep patterns and CVD risk factors remains unclear. Our ... Moreover, the relationship between breakfast and sleep timing on CVD risk factors differed by sex and age group. Further ...
Mechanisms of sex differentiation in animals and man / edited by C. R. Austin and R. G. Edwards. by Austin, Colin Russell , ... Sex, gender, and pain / editor, Roger B. Fillingim. by Fillingim, Roger B , International Association for the Study of Pain. ... Age and sex population projections for the Philippines by province, 1970-2000 / UNFPA-NCSO Population Research Project. by ... Age and sex population projections for the Philippines by province, 1970-2000 / UNFPA-NCSO Population Research Project. by ...
Factors Associated With Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Puerto Rico, National ... Factors Associated With Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Puerto Rico, National ... Title : Factors Associated With Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Puerto Rico, ... "Factors Associated With Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Puerto Rico, National ...
Sex Factor will be delivered between January and April 2010 inclusive.. First edit deadline May 2010 (exact date to be ... Fees for Sex Factor: £10,000* *This fee is fully inclusive of: director, producer, script development, sound, lighting, camera ... Sex Factor - A project through which people with learning disabilities can increase their knowledge and understanding of ... sex and sexuality. The production company will take as its starting point a research report (available December 2009), and will ...
... sex, and education level), cardiometabolic factors (e.g., dyslipidemia and hypertension), and behavioral factors (e.g., smoking ... Sex differences in factors associated with prediabetes in Korean adults Jin Suk Ra. Osong Public Health and Research ... this study categorized the factors associated with prediabetes into sociodemographic factors (age, sex, education level, and ... Sociodemographic factors. Age was categorized into 20s to 30s, 40s to 50s, and ≥60s. Sex was categorized as male or female. ...
Sex. Some risk factors may affect heart disease risk differently in women than in men. For example, estrogen provides women ... What are the heart disease risk factors that I cannot change?. *Age. Your risk of heart disease increases as you get older. Men ... Heart Disease Risk Factors You Cant Control (Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Womens Health) ... Heart Disease Risk Factors for Children and Teenagers (Texas Heart Institute) Also in Spanish ...
Hes up for sex, but youd rather curl up in bed with a book. Men and womens sex driv... ... Hes a morning sex person, but you prefer evenings before getting your zzzzs. ... But since psychological factors are involved as well, it doesnt necessarily mean that her libido will decrease. As women have ... Home / Love & Sex / Sex Tips / Sexual pleasure. Sex Drive: The Differences Between Men & Women. by cheree Published on 20/03/ ...
... associations are attenuated among adults with modifiable risk factors. These data suggest sex and risk factors may alter ... associations are attenuated among adults with modifiable risk factors. These data suggest sex and risk factors may alter ... associations are attenuated among adults with modifiable risk factors. These data suggest sex and risk factors may alter ... associations are attenuated among adults with modifiable risk factors. These data suggest sex and risk factors may alter ...
Sex differences in risk factors for HIV seroconversion among injection drug users: A 10-year perspective. Archives of internal ... Sex differences in risk factors for HIV seroconversion among injection drug users : A 10-year perspective. In: Archives of ... Strathdee, SA, Galai, N, Safaiean, M, Celentano, DD, Vlahov, D, Johnson, L & Nelson, KE 2001, Sex differences in risk factors ... Sex differences in risk factors for HIV seroconversion among injection drug users: A 10-year perspective. / Strathdee, ...
Learn to spot risk factors and prevent potential issues in advance. ... Risk factors you cannot control. Sex. Your risk of heart disease and stroke increases after menopause... Read more ... Lifestyle risk factors. Many risk factors are within your power to control. Find out what they are. Learn the steps to lower ... Nine in ten Canadians have at least one risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Almost 80% of premature heart disease and ...
It is a significant risk factor for stroke and peripheral embolization, and it has an effect on cardiac function. Despite ... In this article, we discuss widely established risk factors for AF and explore newer risk factors currently being investigated ... Atrial fibrillation in the 21st century: a current understanding of risk factors and primary prevention strategies Mayo Clin ... It is a significant risk factor for stroke and peripheral embolization, and it has an effect on cardiac function. Despite ...
We found a sex-specific effect of spousal diabetes on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Having a husband with diabetes increased an ... No significant associations were found between spousal metabolic risk factors and incidence of type 2 diabetes among index men ... The associations between spousal metabolic risk factors and type 2 diabetes were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted ... 20 years with information on both their own and their spouses diabetes status and metabolic risk factors including body mass ...
The relation of resistance transfer factors to the F-factor (sex-factor) ofEscherichia coliK12 ... Sex pili and the classification of sex factors in the enterobacteriaceae.. scientific article published in October 1967 ... Sex pili and the classification of sex factors in the enterobacteriaceae. (English) ... Sex pili and common pili in the conjugational transfer of colicin factor Ib by Salmonella typhimurium ...
Factors. Victim Category. Sex. Injury. PPE*. No. of deaths. 1. Lumber/. wood treatment. Spill. Creosote (2 gal.). Operator. ... The sex of 85% of the victims was known; of these, 72% were male. Among the population groups, more of the emergency responders ... To identify risk factors associated with the morbidity and mortality.. *. To identify strategies that might reduce future ... Risk factors for hazardous substance releases that result in injuries and evacuations: data from 9 states. Am J Public Health ...
Prevalence of condom use by adults during higher-risk sex (15-49) (%). Published. 2007-2013. Africa. Mali. Male. 10. 10.00000. ... Prevalence of condom use by adults during higher-risk sex (15-49) (%). Published. 2007-2013. Africa. Niger. Male. 4. 4.00000. ... Prevalence of condom use by adults during higher-risk sex (15-49) (%). Published. 2007-2013. Africa. Burkina Faso. Female. 62. ... Prevalence of condom use by adults during higher-risk sex (15-49) (%). Published. 2007-2013. Africa. Cote dIvoire. Male. 36. ...
Although acquired factor XIII deficiency has been described in association with hepatic failure, inflammatory bowel disease, ... Congenital factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency, originally recognized by Duckert in 1960, is a rare autosomal recessive disease ... Sex This is an autosomal recessive disease; the male-to-female ratio is 1:1. ... Workup in factor XIII deficiency. Assessment of clot stability is the most common screening test for factor XIII deficiency, ...
  • Doctor says "Oral Sex Is a Leading Factor in the Throat Cancer 'Epidemic' in the U.S. (theyucatantimes.com)
  • Oral sex may be the biggest factor in the rise of throat cancer in the United States. (theyucatantimes.com)
  • For oropharyngeal cancer, the main risk factor is the number of lifetime sexual partners, especially oral sex," Mehanna wrote for The Conversation . (theyucatantimes.com)
  • Behavioural trends studies show that oral sex is very prevalent in some countries . (mpelembe.net)
  • In a study that my colleagues and I conducted in almost 1,000 people having tonsillectomy for non-cancer reasons in the UK, 80% of adults reported practising oral sex at some point in their lives . (mpelembe.net)
  • Paradoxically, there is some evidence from population studies that, possibly in an effort to abstain from penetrative intercourse, young adults may practise oral sex instead, at least initially. (mpelembe.net)
  • Sex hormone-binding globulin was directly associated with age and inversely associated with BMI. (lu.se)
  • To address this, concentrations of testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (a metabolite of dihydrotestosterone) and estradiol were measured in stored serum specimens from men selected for the 1/3 subsample where organochlorine pesticide levels were determined. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the circulating testosterone is bound to carrier proteins (SHBG = sex hormone-binding globulin). (cdc.gov)
  • Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the blood transport protein for testosterone and estradiol. (cdc.gov)
  • That study emphasized the identification of sex differences in factors associated with prediabetes, which would be helpful for developing sex-specific prevention strategies for those at risk of type 2 diabetes [ 14 ]. (ophrp.org)
  • Differences in ethnicity and sex might have contributed to these disparities among studies, in addition to differing definitions of prediabetes [ 11 , 16 ]. (ophrp.org)
  • Differences in length were found between the sexes, with females larger than males. (scielo.br)
  • Because many cardiovascular risk factors may be influenced by the environment in which one lives (e.g., smoking rates are influenced by cigarette prices and antismoking legislation, and obesity rates are influenced by the availability of healthy foods and the nature of the built environment), comparing the prevalence of risk factors among different groups living within the same social macroenvironment allows true ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk profiles to be identified. (cmaj.ca)
  • In previous studies, the prevalence of prediabetes and the factors associated with prediabetes differed according to ethnicity [ 10 , 17 ]. (ophrp.org)
  • We hypothesized that genotype -by- sex (G × S) interactions contribute to the increased prevalence and severity. (bvsalud.org)
  • High prevalence of syphilis among street-based female sex workers in Nanchang, China[J]. Indian Dermatol Online J,2014, 5(4):449-455. (ijsciences.com)
  • Prevalence and risk factors of syphilis infection among female sex workers in Shenzhen, China:an observational study(2009-2012)[J]. Trop Med Int health,2013,18(12):1531-1538. (ijsciences.com)
  • We examined the age- and sex-standardized prevalence of eight cardiovascular risk factors, heart disease and stroke among 154 653 white people, 3364 South Asian people, 3038 Chinese people and 2742 black people. (cmaj.ca)
  • 6 However, no published studies have compared the distribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and associated prevalence of heart disease and stroke across these four ethnic groups residing within the same social macro-environment and with similar access to health care. (cmaj.ca)
  • In this study, we compared the prevalence of eight cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of heart disease and stroke in a population-based sample of white, South Asian, Chinese and black people living in Ontario. (cmaj.ca)
  • We also examined prevalence estimates by age and sex to identify the subgroups at highest risk for specific cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. (cmaj.ca)
  • Different physical and psychological factors are involved in triggering sexual desire: lifestyle, upbringing, hormones, fantasies and feelings. (sofeminine.co.uk)
  • However, it remains unclear whether in the US population circulating concentrations of sex steroid hormones vary by race/ethnicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Diabetes is a multi-factorial disorder that develops as a result of complex interactions between multiple genes and environmental/behavioral factors [ 3 , 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results indicate that natural genetic variation affects the different heritability of periodontitis among sexes and suggest genes that contribute to inter- sex phenotypic variation in early-onset periodontitis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Rapid Increase in Reports of Syphilis Associated With Men Who Have Sex With Women and Women Who Have Sex With Men, Japan, 2012 to 2016. (who.int)
  • Risk factors for syphilis among married men who have sex with men in China. (who.int)
  • Objectives This article aimed to figure out the epidemic situation and risk factors of AIDS and syphilis among old female sex workers (OFSWs) in Qingdao, and to provide foundation for aimed interventions. (ijsciences.com)
  • Conclusion: Multiple factors are associated with variation in male testosterone, SHBG, and LH concentrations. (lu.se)
  • It has been proposed that racial/ethnic variation in prostate cancer incidence may be, in part, due to racial/ethnic variation in sex steroid hormone levels. (cdc.gov)
  • The analysis of the variation in the condition factor suggests that lower values coincided with higher gonadosomatic index values and that this factor is a good reproductive indicator for M. furnieri in the region. (scielo.br)
  • A potential explanation for the observed variations in sex and age of disease onset is the natural genetic variation within the autosomal genomes . (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the factors associated with prediabetes according to sex in Korean adults. (ophrp.org)
  • Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with prediabetes according to sex in Korean adults. (ophrp.org)
  • We assessed V̇o2peak and cerebrovascular hemodynamics in 157 adults without (42 ± 13 yr, BMI 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m2), and 66 adults with modifiable CVD risk factors (54 ± 8 yr, BMI 29.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2). (syr.edu)
  • however, associations are attenuated among adults with modifiable risk factors. (syr.edu)
  • Furthermore, in individual ethnic groups, factors associated with prediabetes varied according to sex [ 10 , 11 , 16 ]. (ophrp.org)
  • 1 , 2 However, little is known about the relative distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and conditions across the world's four largest ethnic groups: white, South Asian, Chinese and black. (cmaj.ca)
  • Sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, sex, and education level), cardiometabolic factors (e.g., dyslipidemia and hypertension), and behavioral factors (e.g., smoking habits and physical activity) associated with prediabetes have been identified in previous studies [ 11 − 14 ]. (ophrp.org)
  • Better understanding the sociodemographic and behavioral factors of this high-risk population can help public health and clinical systems improve efforts to reduce SSB consumption. (cdc.gov)
  • It also outlines the risk factors and current research that might explain why more males than females get kidney cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a known risk factor for kidney cancer and kidney disease, and it is more common in males than in females. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although having obesity is a risk factor for kidney cancer for both sexes, the risks are slightly higher in females than males. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • V̇o2peak was inversely associated with MCA PI among females (β = -0.39, P = 0.01) but not males (β = -0.16, P = 0.25) without CVD risk factors. (syr.edu)
  • V̇o2peak was positively associated with MCA PI among females (β = 0.44, P = 0.01) and not associated in males with CVD risk factors (β = -0.06, P = 0.079). (syr.edu)
  • The sex ratio indicated a tendency for females to be more abundant in the rainy season (first semester), whereas males predominated in the dry season (second semester). (scielo.br)
  • The study cohort (1999-2018) included 1833 men and 1952 women, aged ≥ 20 years with information on both their own and their spouse's diabetes status and metabolic risk factors including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and type 2 diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Global estimates and projections of population by sex and age : the 1984 assessment. (who.int)
  • Age and sex population projections for the Philippines by province, 1970-2000 / UNFPA-NCSO Population Research Project. (who.int)
  • Background: Various factors modulate circulating testosterone in men, affecting interpretation of testosterone measurements. (lu.se)
  • The hormone that controls male and female sex drive is testosterone . (sofeminine.co.uk)
  • Because our testosterone levels are lower than our partners', could this be the reason for our inferior sex drive? (sofeminine.co.uk)
  • Testosterone promotes the development of the secondary sex characteristics in men and serves to maintain the function of the prostate and seminal vesicles. (cdc.gov)
  • Purpose: To clarify factors associated with variations in sex hormone concentrations. (lu.se)
  • Mechanisms of sex differentiation in animals and man / edited by C. R. Austin and R. G. Edwards. (who.int)
  • In addition, the presence of modifiable CVD risk factors may influence the protective relations of fitness on cerebrovascular hemodynamics.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We identify beneficial associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and lower carotid stiffness and pulse pressure as potential mechanisms underlying sex-specific associations of fitness and cerebral pulsatility in females without modifiable risk factors. (syr.edu)
  • Women face unique risk factors for heart disease and stroke at different stages in life. (heartandstroke.ca)
  • Nine in ten Canadians have at least one risk factor for heart disease and stroke. (heartandstroke.ca)
  • Men and women's sex drives aren't always in tune with each other for many different reasons. (sofeminine.co.uk)
  • among women, factors consistent with high-risk heterosexual activity were more significant than drug-related risks. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus interventions aimed at IDUs should be sex-specific and incorporate sexual risks. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors has been observed in ALD, but how it contributes to ALD pathophysiology is unclear. (biologists.com)
  • FOOTNOTE=Yang Y, Zhao X, Dong T, Yang Z, Zhang Q, Zhang Y. Risk factors for postoperative delirium following hip fracture repair in elderly patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (medtronic.com)
  • We aimed to evaluate the relationship between breakfast-eating behavior and sleep timing on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. (mdpi.com)
  • Whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors modify sex-specific associations of fitness with cerebral hemodynamics and vascular contributors to cerebral hemodynamics is unknown. (syr.edu)
  • Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. (cdc.gov)
  • SSB intake is associated with weight gain, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome - all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, 1 of the leading causes of preventable death in the United States (2-9). (cdc.gov)
  • The Sex Factor was an online reality TV series produced by xHamster where eight men and eight women compete to become a porn star. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Episode 1 he claimed to have had sex with 3 women prior to filming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some risk factors may affect heart disease risk differently in women than in men. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Rosemary Basson, a sex therapist who's specifically written about female sexual desire, has proposed that many women function slightly differently and this is likely to be in a more circular model. (sofeminine.co.uk)
  • We studied factors for HIV seroconversion among male and female IDUs in Baltimore, Md. Methods: The HIV-negative IDUs (1447 male and 427 female) were recruited into a prospective study from 1988 to 1989 or in 1994. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • The two methods used to measure the enzymatic activity of factor XIII include measurement of synthetic amine incorporation into a fibrin clot, and measurement of ammonium ion release during the transglutaminase reaction. (medscape.com)
  • From 1983 to 1987, the age-adjusted incidence rate of breast cancer varied by factor of about 5 between countries (see image below). (medscape.com)
  • Incidence of HIV was 3.14 per 100 person years (95% confidence interval, 2.78-3.53) and did not significantly differ by sex. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • No significant associations were found between spousal metabolic risk factors and incidence of type 2 diabetes among index men. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increased incidence of syphilis in men who have sex with men and risk management strategies, Germany, 2015. (who.int)
  • Factors associated with syphilis incidence in the HIV-infected in the era of highly active antiretrovirals. (who.int)
  • The aim of the present study was to describe aspects regarding its reproductive characteristics (gonadosomatic index and condition factor) and also the length distribution and weight-length relationships. (scielo.br)
  • V̇o2peak was beneficially associated with vascular contributors to cerebral hemodynamics but had sex-specific associations with carotid stiffness and pulse pressure in females without CVD risk factors only. (syr.edu)
  • These results suggest that sex-specific associations between fitness and cerebral pulsatility among females without CVD risk factors may relate to the differential effects of fitness on carotid stiffness and pulse pressure. (syr.edu)
  • Sex-specific prevention strategies for prediabetes should be developed. (ophrp.org)
  • As a result, there are no set primary preventive strategies in place apart from general cardiology risk factor prevention goals. (nih.gov)
  • In this article, we discuss widely established risk factors for AF and explore newer risk factors currently being investigated that may have implications in the primary prevention of AF. (nih.gov)
  • However, the reported risk factors for prediabetes have been inconsistent among studies [ 14 , 15 ]. (ophrp.org)
  • However, since the impact of socio-environmental factors may differ between countries, their findings may not be generalizable to other populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is mostly because they are linked to other heart disease risk factors, including high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, and diabetes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People of African or South Asian heritage are more likely to have high blood pressure, diabetes or other risk factors. (heartandstroke.ca)
  • We investigated whether metabolic risk factors in one spouse were associated with an excessive risk of type 2 diabetes in the other. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The associations between spousal metabolic risk factors and type 2 diabetes were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for the three nested sets of covariates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found a sex-specific effect of spousal diabetes on the risk of type 2 diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hence, the presence of metabolic risk factors in a spouse might be used as an important predictor of individual risk for type 2 diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, in a longitudinal study, we investigated how the risk of type 2 diabetes would be affected in Iranian couples in which one spouse had type 2 diabetes and the other metabolic risk factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By cross-linking bacterial surface proteins to fibrinogen, factor XIIIa causes bacteria to be immobilized and killed. (medscape.com)
  • Risk factors for syphilis infection in men who have sex with men: results of a case-control study in Lille, France. (who.int)
  • These data suggest sex and risk factors may alter cerebrovascular sensitivity to cardiorespiratory fitness. (syr.edu)
  • Assessment of clot stability is the most common screening test for factor XIII deficiency, even though sensitivity and specificity are low. (medscape.com)
  • Comparison of frequency, risk factors, and time course of postoperative delirium in octogenarians after transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement. (medtronic.com)
  • In this study, one searched to identify the perception of this risk between adolescents in relation to AIDS and the risk factors related to sexual practice without protection. (bvsalud.org)
  • It seems intuitive that a better understanding of the risk factors for AF would better prepare medical professionals to initially prevent or subsequently treat these patients. (nih.gov)
  • 2012, https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/sexually-transmitted-infections-europe-1990-2010 (2012, accessed 9 March 2017). (who.int)
  • Factors associated with sexually transmitted infection underreporting among female sex workers in China[J]. J WomensHealth(Larchmt), 2011, 20(1):129-136. (ijsciences.com)
  • It is a significant risk factor for stroke and peripheral embolization, and it has an effect on cardiac function. (nih.gov)
  • Although Alzheimer disease (AD) is more frequent in individuals with Down syndrome (DS), the main contributing factor is unknown. (medscape.com)
  • HIV-related behavioral risk factors among older female sex workers in Guangxi, China[J]. AIDS Care, 2014, 26(11):1407-1410. (ijsciences.com)
  • HIV risk and social networks among male-to-female transgender sex workers in Boston, Massachusetts[J]. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care, 2009, 20(5):373-386. (ijsciences.com)
  • Belle Knox to host X-rated reality show, 'The Sex Factor' - NY Daily News Michelle Arrouas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among men, factors that independently predicted HIV seroconversion were the following: less than a high school education, recent needle sharing with multiple partners, daily injection, and shooting-gallery attendance. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • She says, "The arousal model proposed by Masters and Johnson in the 60's suggest we move along a continuum which starts with spontaneous sexual desire, sex drive, arousal, plateau, orgasm and resolution. (sofeminine.co.uk)
  • They are not negative about sex but they are not necessarily likely to initiate it, and have less spontaneous sexual desire than men. (sofeminine.co.uk)
  • Secondly, hypertension is a risk factor for kidney disease, and impaired kidney function can increase the risk of kidney cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The presented factors of protection involved to prevent the sex and to select partners. (bvsalud.org)