Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Sexual activities of humans.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A behavioral response manifested by leaving home in order to escape from threatening situations. Children or adolescents leaving home without permission is usually implied.
The horn of an animal of the deer family, typically present only in the male. It differs from the HORNS of other animals in being a solid, generally branched bony outgrowth that is shed and renewed annually. The word antler comes from the Latin anteocularis, ante (before) + oculus (eye). (From Webster, 3d ed)
The number of males per 100 females.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
Sexual activities of animals.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.
The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (1/8888)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) expression and X chromosome inactivation in the preattachment bovine embryo. (2/8888)

Expression of the X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) is thought to be essential for the initiation of X chromosome inactivation and dosage compensation during female embryo development. In the present study, we analyzed the patterns of Xist transcription and the onset of X chromosome inactivation in bovine preattachment embryos. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of Xist transcripts in all adult female somatic tissues evaluated. In contrast, among the male tissues examined, Xist expression was detected only in testis. No evidence for Xist transcription was observed after a single round of RT-PCR from pools of in vitro-derived embryos at the 2- to 4-cell stage. Xist transcripts were detected as a faint amplicon at the 8-cell stage initially, and consistently thereafter in all stages examined up to and including the expanded blastocyst stage. Xist transcripts, however, were subsequently detected from the 2-cell stage onward after nested RT-PCR. Preferential [3H]thymidine labeling indicative of late replication of one of the X chromosomes was noted in female embryos of different developmental ages as follows: 2 of 7 (28.5%) early blastocysts, 6 of 13 (46.1%) blastocysts, 8 of 11 (72.1%) expanded blastocysts, and 14 of 17 (77.7%) hatched blastocysts. These results suggest that Xist expression precedes the onset of late replication in the bovine embryo, in a pattern compatible with a possible role of bovine Xist in the initiation of X chromosome inactivation.  (+info)

BDNF mediates the effects of testosterone on the survival of new neurons in an adult brain. (3/8888)

New neurons are incorporated into the high vocal center (HVC), a nucleus of the adult canary (Serinus canaria) brain that plays a critical role in the acquisition and production of learned song. Recruitment of new neurons in the HVC is seasonally regulated and depends upon testosterone levels. We show here that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is present in the HVC of adult males but is not detectable in that of females, though the HVC of both sexes has BDNF receptors (TrkB). Testosterone treatment increases the levels of BDNF protein in the female HVC, and BDNF infused into the HVC of adult females triples the number of new neurons. Infusion of a neutralizing antibody to BDNF blocks the testosterone-induced increase in new neurons. Our results demonstrate that BDNF is involved in the regulation of neuronal replacement in the adult canary brain and suggest that the effects of testosterone are mediated through BDNF.  (+info)

Sexual dimorphism in white campion: complex control of carpel number is revealed by y chromosome deletions. (4/8888)

Sexual dimorphism in the dioecious plant white campion (Silene latifolia = Melandrium album) is under the control of two main regions on the Y chromosome. One such region, encoding the gynoecium-suppressing function (GSF), is responsible for the arrest of carpel initiation in male flowers. To generate chromosomal deletions, we used pollen irradiation in male plants to produce hermaphroditic mutants (bsx mutants) in which carpel development was restored. The mutants resulted from alterations in at least two GSF chromosomal regions, one autosomal and one located on the distal half of the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome. The two mutations affected carpel development independently, each mutation showing incomplete penetrance and variegation, albeit at significantly different levels. During successive meiotic generations, a progressive increase in penetrance and a reduction in variegation levels were observed and quantified at the level of the Y-linked GSF (GSF-Y). Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the behavior of the bsx mutations: epigenetic regulation or/and second-site mutation of modifier genes. In addition, studies on the inheritance of the hermaphroditic trait showed that, unlike wild-type Y chromosomes, deleted Y chromosomes can be transmitted through both the male and the female lines. Altogether, these findings bring experimental support, on the one hand, to the existence on the Y chromosome of genic meiotic drive function(s) and, on the other hand, to models that consider that dioecy evolved through multiple mutation events. As such, the GSF is actually a system containing more than one locus and whose primary component is located on the Y chromosome.  (+info)

Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype. (5/8888)

White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for "male dimorphism" (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state.  (+info)

The size and fibre composition of the corpus callosum with respect to gender and schizophrenia: a post-mortem study. (6/8888)

In this study the cross-sectional area (in n = 14 female controls, 15 male controls, 11 female patients with schizophrenia, 15 male patients with schizophrenia) and fibre composition (in n = 11 female controls, 10 male controls, 10 female patients with schizophrenia, 10 male patients with schizophrenia) of the corpus callosum in post-mortem control and schizophrenic brains was examined. A gender x diagnosis interaction (P = 0.005) was seen in the density of axons in all regions of the corpus callosum except the posterior midbody and splenium. Amongst controls, females had greater density than males; in patients with schizophrenia this difference was reversed. A reduction in the total number of fibres in all regions of the corpus callosum except the rostrum was observed in female schizophrenic patients (P = 0.006; when controlling for brain weight, P = 0.053). A trend towards a reduced cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum was seen in schizophrenia (P = 0.098); however, this is likely to be no more than a reflection of an overall reduction in brain size. With age, all subregions of the corpus callosum except the rostrum showed a significant reduction in cross-sectional area (P = 0.018) and total fibre number (P = 0.002). These findings suggest that in schizophrenia there is a subtle and gender-dependent alteration in the forebrain commissures that may relate to the deviations in asymmetry seen in other studies, but the precise anatomical explanation remains obscure.  (+info)

Canine sexual dimorphism in Egyptian Eocene anthropoid primates: Catopithecus and Proteopithecus. (7/8888)

Two very small late Eocene anthropoid primates, Catopithecus browni and Proteopithecus sylviae, from Fayum, Egypt show evidence of substantial sexual dimorphism in canine teeth. The degree of dimorphism suggests that these early anthropoids lived in social groups with a polygynous mating system and intense male-male competition. Catopithecus and Proteopithecus are smaller in estimated body size than any living primates showing canine dimorphism. The origin of canine dimorphism and polygyny in anthropoids was not associated with the evolution of large body size.  (+info)

Gender-specific differences in dialysis quality (Kt/V): 'big men' are at risk of inadequate haemodialysis treatment. (8/8888)

BACKGROUND: Inadequate dialysis dose is closely related to mortality and morbidity of maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. According to the DOQI guidelines a minimum prescribed dialysis dose of single-pool Kt/V (Kt/Vsp)=1.3, equivalent to equilibrated double pool Kt/V (e-Kt/Vdp)=1.1, is recommended. Knowledge of patient-related risk factors for inadequate delivery of hacmodialysis would be helpful to select patient subgroups for intensive control ofdialysis adequacy. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of inadequate dialysis dose according to DOQI criteria during a 7-month period. A total of 320 e-Kt/Vdp measurements in 62 MHD patients were evaluated (mean effective dialysis time 222+/-32 min). Residual renal function (RRF) was expressed as renal weekly Kt/V (r-Kt/Vweek) and included into assessment of total weekly renal and dialytic Kt/V (t-Kt/Vweek). RESULTS: Inadequacy (e-Kt/Vdp<1.10) was prevalent in 37.2% of all measurements and in 22/62 patients (35.5%). In 54% of underdialysed patients r-Kt/Vweek compensated for insufficient dialytic urea removal. Mean weekly Kt/V was inadequate (t-Kt/Vweek<3.30) in 12/62 patients (19.4%) of whom 91.7% (11/12) were male. Body-weight, urea distribution volume (UDV). and body-surface area (BSA) were significantly higher in inadequately is adequately dialysed males. UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2 and a lack of RRF (r-Kt/Vweek<0.3) put 'big men' at increased risk to receive an inadequate dose of dialysis. CONCLUSION: Our data identify patients at risk for inadequate haemodialysis treatment. Special attention should be focused on 'big men' with UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2. In this subset of patients frequent measurements of t-Kt/Vweek and assessment of RRF should be mandatory.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex-Specific Differences in Redox Homeostasis in Brain Norm and Disease. AU - Ruszkiewicz, Joanna A.. AU - Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio. AU - Tinkov, Alexey A.. AU - Skalnaya, Margarita G.. AU - Skalny, Anatoly V.. AU - Tsatsakis, Aristides. AU - Aschner, Michael. PY - 2019/2/15. Y1 - 2019/2/15. N2 - Sex differences in brain physiology and by inference various pathologies are generally recognized, however frequently ignored in epidemiological and experimental studies, leading to numerous data gaps. As a consequence, the mechanisms underlying sexual dimorphism of neurological diseases remain largely unknown. Several cellular and molecular pathways linked to the etiology and pathogenesis of various brain disorders have been recently described as sex-specific. Here, we review the evidence for sex differences in brain redox homeostasis, which is an important factor in brain physiology and disease. First, we focus on sex-specific differences in the healthy brain regarding popular redox ...
Purpose: We previously demonstrated sex-specific differences in corneal inflammatory reparative responses, which are mediated by estrogen modulation of protective lipid mediators derived from dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Sex-steroids have long been implicated in Dry Eye (DE) due to the prevalence of disease incidence in women. Sjogrens Syndrome causes DE by dysregulating immune responses in the lacrimal gland. A post hoc clinical study found a correlation between dietary ω-3 PUFA in women and decreased incidence of DE symptoms. ω-3 DHA is of interest to immune regulation as its metabolized into potent lipid mediators. We investigated whether lipid mediator pathways are present and functional in the lacrimal gland, if they exhibit sex-specific differences, and if a DHA-rich diet can confer protective actions against DE development. Methods: DE was induced using a model of desiccating stress and scopolamine. Mice were placed on a DHA-rich or DHA-deficient diet for 4 weeks before ...
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BACKGROUND: Sex-based differences in clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and outcomes of patients with acute chest pain are increasingly being recognized, but are not implemented in guidelines and clinical prediction tools. We evaluated the performance of the HEART score in women versus men, because sex-based differences may exist among the algorithms components: ... read more history, electrocardiogram, age, risk factors, and admission troponin level. METHODS AND RESULTS: The HEART score was retrospectively assessed in 831 women and 1084 men presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain, assigning patients to the low-, intermediate-, or high-risk category for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 6 weeks. MACE, consisting of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and all-cause death, also included events during index visit. Six-week MACE rates were 2 times lower in women than men (10.0% versus 20.8%; P,0.01). Despite similar discriminatory ...
We examined possible age- and gender-specific differences in the function and mass of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles in 36 healthy volunteers using cine gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were divided into four groups (nine men and nine women in each): men aged under 45 years (32 +/- 7), women aged under 45 (27 +/- 6), men aged over 45 (59 +/- 8), and women aged over 45 (57 +/- 9). Functional analysis of cardiac volume and mass and of LV wall motion was performed by manual segmentation of the endocardial and epicardial borders of the end-diastolic and end-systolic frame; both absolute and normalized (per square meter body surface area) values were evaluated. With age there was a significant decrease in both absolute and normalized LV and RV chamber volumes (EDV, ESV), while LV and RV masses remained unchanged. Gender-specific differences were found in cardiac mass and volume (for men and women, respectively: LV mass, 155 +/- 18 and 110 +/- 16 g; LV EDV, 118 +/- 27 and 96 +/
Cardiometabolic biomarkers in men and women exhibit different patterns of expression. One of the most comprehensive analyses of sex-based biomarker profiles found that cardiovascular disease (CVD) develops along different pathways in men and women, setting the stage for future investigations that will incorporate sex-based differences into prevention efforts.
Stephan Sanders, B.M.B.S., Ph.D. University of California, San Francisco Autism is diagnosed in boys four times more frequently than in girls.
Genomes of men and women differ in only a limited number of genes located on the sex chromosomes, whereas the transcriptome is far more sex-specific. Identification of sex-biased gene expression will contribute to understanding the molecular basis of sex-differences in complex traits and common diseases. Sex differences in the human peripheral blood transcriptome were characterized using microarrays in 5,241 subjects, accounting for menopause status and hormonal contraceptive use. Sex-specific expression was observed for 582 autosomal genes, of which 57.7% was upregulated in women (female-biased genes). Female-biased genes were enriched for several immune system GO categories, genes linked to rheumatoid arthritis (16%) and genes regulated by estrogen (18%). Male-biased genes were enriched for genes linked to renal cancer (9%). Sex-differences in gene expression were smaller in postmenopausal women, larger in women using hormonal contraceptives and not caused by sex-specific eQTLs, confirming the role of
But in her presentation during the session, Eva Bossano Prescott, MD (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), said it has become clear that while more women than men die from heart disease, they typically do so at an older age-9 years later on average-and this creates a challenge for clinicians.. Additionally, women are more likely than men to have symptoms without having a stenosis, leading many physicians to not even think of treatment, she said. Women presenting with this pattern, often called syndrome X, tend to have higher levels of both depression and anxiety than women actually found to have a stenosis, Bossano Prescott continued. Because many women with syndrome X are not treated, their symptoms can continue for long periods of time and their quality of life suffers.. So counterintuitively, for some patients coming out of the cath lab without a stenosis is more bad news than good, at least with regard to symptoms, Bossano Prescott surmised.. Looking back, COURAGE taught us that its not ...
The placenta plays a critical role in regulating fetal growth. Recent studies suggest that there may be sex-specific differences in placental development. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the associations between birthweight and placental morphology in models adjusted for covariates and to assess sex-specific differences in these associations. We analyzed data from the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Networks population-based case-control study conducted between 2006 and 2008, which recruited cases of stillbirth and population-based controls in 5 states. Our analysis was restricted to singleton live births with a placental examination (n = 1229). Characteristics of placental morphology evaluated include thickness, surface area, difference in diameters, shape, and umbilical cord insertion site. We used linear regression to model birthweight as a function of placental morphology and covariates. Surface area had the greatest association with birthweight; a reduction in surface area of 83 ...
New research finds that depression manifests differently in the brains of male and female teenagers, leading to the need for a differentiated treatment.
James Howard ,jmhoward at sprynet.com, wrote: ,Male Brains slightly larger than Female Brains ,James Howard ,The recent finding that, on average, male brains are slightly larger ,than female brains, adds support to my theory of human evolution. Below ,this is my post, The Flynn Effect yes, testosterone, which explains ,how testosterone increases brain size (posted November 11, 1996). In ,it, you will find my explanatin of the Flynn Effect. The Flynn Effect ,should produce male brains that are larger, on average, than female ,brains. ,The Flynn Effect ...yes, testosterone ,In response to my Current Signals of Increases in Testosterone, which ,explained how I think rising testosterone causes the secular trend and ,is ,affecting a number of phenomena in the U.S., I received this response: ,But IQ scores are rising with the secular trend! The author of this ,comment intended to show that this, real connection between IQ scores ,and the secular trend, refutes my theory. This increase in IQ is ...
In this population-based analysis, sex-based comparisons of potential risk factors for SCA identified 2 distinct clinical factors that were unique to women who experience SCA. Women were significantly less likely than men to have severe LV dysfunction as a precursor to SCA. In addition, there was a significantly lower likelihood of women having an established diagnosis of CAD before SCA. These findings coincided with trends toward higher prevalence of DM and hypertension in women. There were no significant sex differences in the mean body mass index or prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma, or LV hypertrophy. After correction for age, significant sex differences disappeared for the sex-specific QTc categories that account for underlying male-female differences in the QTc interval, but remained for QTc measured continuously. This may imply that when the underlying longer QTc in women is taken into account, QTc does not appear to differentiate ...
In recent times, major advances have been made towards understanding sexual dimorphism in the brain on a molecular basis. This thesis summarises my modest contributions to these endeavours. Sexual dimorphisms are manifested throughout the spectrum of biological complexity, and can be studied by numerous approaches. The approach of this thesis is to explore sex-biased gene expression in mammalian somatic tissues. Paper I describes an evolutionarily conserved sexual gene expression pattern in the primate brain. Conserved sex-biased genes may underlie important sex differences in neurobiology. In Paper II, Y-chromosome genes expressed across several regions of the human male brain during mid-gestation are identified. Such genes may play male-specific roles during brain development. The studies of Papers III and IV explore sex-biased gene expression in several somatic tissues from mouse. The amount of genes with sex-biased expression varied in different brain regions. The striatum was particularly ...
The kidney functions in key physiological processes to filter blood and regulate blood pressure via key molecular transporters and ion channels. Sex-specific differences have been observed in renal disease incidence and progression, as well as acute kidney injury in response to certain drugs. Although advances have been made in characterizing the molecular components involved in various kidney functions, the molecular mechanisms responsible for sex differences are not well understood. We hypothesized that the basal expression levels of genes involved in various kidney functions throughout the life cycle will influence sex-specific susceptibilities to adverse renal events. Whole genome microarray gene expression analysis was performed on kidney samples collected from untreated male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats at eight age groups between 2 and 104 weeks of age. A combined filtering approach using statistical (ANOVA or pairwise t test, FDR 0.05) and fold-change criteria (|1.5 relative fold change)
Sexual size dimorphisms are a common feature in living organisms. The broad horned flour beetle (Gnathocerus cornutus) exhibits a pronounced sexual size dimorphism of the mandibles. It has been shown that enlarged mandibles in males are used in regular fights among males. While this behaviour is well-studied, the developmental basis of exaggerated mandible growth in males is not understood to date. We will apply comparative transcriptomics in combination with a comprehensive developmental characterization of mandible growth to identify key candidate genes involved in this process. Subsequently, candidate genes will be functionally tested via gene knock-down using RNA interference (RNAi). ...
Differences between males and females in the optimal phenotype that is favoured by selection can be resolved by the evolution of differential gene expression in the two sexes. Microarray experiments have shown that such sex-biased gene expression is widespread across organisms and genomes. Sex-biase …
Males and females often face divergent selective pressures because of inherent differences in reproductive strategy, and these differences can be reflected in life history traits, including reproductive effort, longevity, growth and metabolism (Cox and Calsbeek, 2009). In several species, some life history traits (e.g. longevity and basal metabolic rate) appear to be at sub-optimum levels for each sex, and selection related to these phenotypes acts in opposite directions on males and females (Berg and Maklakov, 2012; Boratynski et al., 2010). This suggests that sexually antagonistic selection has led to a phenotypic compromise (Bonduriansky and Chenoweth, 2009; Chapman et al., 2003). Sexually dimorphic gene expression is thought to provide a solution to sexual conflict (van Doorn, 2009), given that males and females share nearly identical genomes (reviewed in Ellegren and Parsch, 2007). Sexually dimorphic patterns of gene expression are thought to account for many of the physiological ...
Gender-specific association of functional prodynorphin 68 bp repeats with cannabis exposure in an African American cohort Vadim Yuferov,* Eduardo R Butelman,* Mary Jeanne Kreek Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) cause substantial neuropsychiatric morbidity and comorbidity. There is evidence for gender-based differences in CUDs, for instance, a greater prevalence in males than in females. The main active component of cannabis is delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), a partial agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Preclinical studies show that genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptor/dynorphin system modulates the effects of delta 9-THC. Methods: In this case-control study of adult African Americans (n=476; 206 females, 270 males), we examined the association of the functional prodynorphin 68 bp (PDYN 68 bp)
It is not known if sex-based disparities in immunological factors contribute to the disease process in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hence, we examined whether circulating T cell subset proportions and their association with disease activity differed in male and female patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis (ueRA). Proportions of T cell subsets were analyzed in peripheral blood from 72 ueRA DMARD- and corticosteroid-naïve patients (50 females and 22 males) and in 31 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Broad analysis of helper and regulatory CD4+ T cell subsets was done using flow cytometry. Disease activity in patients was assessed using DAS28, CDAI, swollen joint counts, tender joint counts, CRP, and ESR. Multivariate factor analyses showed that male and female ueRA patients display distinct profiles of association between disease activity and circulating T cell subset proportions. In male, but not female, ueRA patients Th2 cells showed a positive association with disease activity and
Sexual reproduction in most multi-cellular species requires the development of sex-specific adult structures and the potential to perform sex-specific behaviors. These adult sex-specific phenotypes are typically patterned during development. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of how the genome is deployed in a sex-differential manner during development provides insight into how gene networks give rise to sex-specific traits. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an excellent model system for studying how sex-specific differences are established at the molecular-genetic level. The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy is responsible for establishing adult sex-specific morphologies and behaviors through an alternative pre-mRNA splicing cascade that culminates in the production of sex-specific transcription factors encoded by doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Little is known, however, about the genes regulated by these transcription factors during development.; Metamorphosis is the ...
Sexual reproduction in most multi-cellular species requires the development of sex-specific adult structures and the potential to perform sex-specific behaviors. These adult sex-specific phenotypes are typically patterned during development. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of how the genome is deployed in a sex-differential manner during development provides insight into how gene networks give rise to sex-specific traits. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an excellent model system for studying how sex-specific differences are established at the molecular-genetic level. The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy is responsible for establishing adult sex-specific morphologies and behaviors through an alternative pre-mRNA splicing cascade that culminates in the production of sex-specific transcription factors encoded by doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Little is known, however, about the genes regulated by these transcription factors during development.; Metamorphosis is the ...
Although sex-related differences of cardiovascular outcomes exist (16), this may relate to a sex-specific clustering of risk factors (17). Yet, differential treatment patterns for cardiovascular disease in men and women may also contribute to differences in clinical outcome between the sexes (18-20). Statins comprise the cornerstone of our current antiatherosclerotic armamentarium, yielding widespread clinical benefits. A consistent under-representation of women in randomized clinical trials, however, has led to the publication of meta-analyses reporting conflicting results regarding the efficacy of statins in women (21,22). This inconsistency has created confusion and controversy among physicians, resulting in some openly questioning the merits of prescribing statins to women (5,23,24), despite clinical trials that enrolled both men and women reporting benefit (25).. This analysis reports the novel finding of sex-related differences of the serial response of coronary atheroma following 2 years ...
Background Many genes produce multiple transcripts due to alternative splicing or utilization of alternative transcription initiation/termination sites. This transcriptome expansion is thought to increase phenotypic complexity by allowing a single locus to produce several functionally distinct proteins. However, sex, genetic and developmental variation in the representation of alternative transcripts has never been examined systematically. Here, we describe a genome-wide analysis of sex-specific expression of alternative transcripts in Drosophila melanogaster. Results We compared transcript profiles in males and females from eight Drosophila lines (OregonR and2b, and 6 RIL) using a newly designed 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray that allows us to distinguish a large proportion of alternative transcripts. The new microarray incorporates 7,207 oligonucleotides, satisfying stringent binding and specificity criteria that target both the common and the unique regions of 2,768 multi-transcript genes, as
There is growing evidence of a camouflaging effect among females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly among those without intellectual disability, which may affect performance on gold-standard diagnostic measures. This study utilized an age- and IQ-matched sample of school-aged youth (n …
New research led by Biostatistics Chair John Quackenbush and Dawn DeMeo of Brigham and Womens Hospital, has uncovered sex-based differences in networks that regulate gene expression in a large number of human tissues. The finding is … Continue reading New Study Sheds Light on Sex-Based Differences in Gene Regulation. ...
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Hypertension (HTN) exhibits sexual dimorphism; the incidence for women surpasses men during the sixth decade of life, while the pharmacological treatments are less effective and produce more side-effects in women than in men. Aerobic exercise (AE) has been shown to prevent and treat HTN; however, resistance exercise (RE) is not recommended as a strategy to treat HTN. In this study, we investigated the potential sex differences of AE versus RE in a cohort of unmedicated patients with hypertension. In total, 40 moderately active, pre-hypertensive or stage 1 essential hypertensive male (M) and female (F) participants aged 40 to 60 years were randomly divided into four groups: M AE, M RE, F AE, and F. Each group exercised at moderate intensity, 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Hemodynamic, vascular and blood-flow data were collected before and after exercise training. Men showed a significant increase in central pulse wave velocity following RE while females showed no significant changes (12 ± to 13.9 ± vs. 9.2
The powerful pressures of sexual and natural selection associated with species recognition and reproduction are thought to manifest in a faster rate of evolution in sex-biased genes, an effect that has been documented particularly for male-biased genes expressed in the reproductive tract. However, little is known about the rate of evolution for genes involved in sexually dimorphic behaviors, which often form the neurological basis of intrasexual competition and mate choice. We used microarray data, designed to uncover sex-biased expression patterns in embryonic chicken brain, in conjunction with data on the rate of sequence evolution for ,4,000 coding regions aligned between chicken and zebra finch in order to study the role of selection in governing the molecular evolution for sex-biased and unbiased genes. Surprisingly, we found that female-biased genes, defined across a range of cutoff values, show a higher rate of functional evolution than both male-biased and unbiased genes. Autosomal ...
Many animals exhibit innate sexually dimorphic sexual behaviours. Male flies, for example, follow elaborate courtship rituals to secure a female mate. Nervous system sexual dimorphisms probably underlie many sex-specific behaviours, but how are these neuronal dimorphisms generated? On p. 323, David Mellert and colleagues report that one such dimorphism - midline crossing by gustatory (taste) receptor neuron (GRN) axons in male, but not female, Drosophila - is regulated by the sex determination genes fruitless (fru) and doublesex (dsx) and the Roundabout (Robo) axon guidance receptors. fru and dsx are regulated during pre-RNA splicing to produce male- and female-specific isoforms, with female-specific fru mRNA not being translated. The researchers show that, in male flies, male-specific Fru and Dsx promote midline crossing by foreleg GRN axons, whereas in female flies, female-specific Dsx represses midline crossing. They also show that male-specific Fru exerts its effect on midline crossing by ...
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are key actors of innate immunity that produce high levels of interferon (IFN)-alpha after activation of their Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) by pathogens. A difference between men and women has recently been shown in the level of IFN-alpha produced by pDCs after TLR activation. The production of IFN-alpha in response to TLR7 activation is higher in the presence of estrogens. This could be responsible for gender differences in the level of plasma HIV-1 RNA, that is lower in female as compared to male by about 50%, and for the sex-based differences in the susceptibility to HIV infection. Besides the role of estrogens, X-linked genetic factors could also be involved in the sex-dependent differences in the TLR7-mediated responses of pDCs. TLR7 gene is located on the X chromosome. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TLR7 gene, c.32A,T, have been associated with accelerated disease progression in male HIV patients, and was found over represented in female HIV ...
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.10440 Jennifer A. Calvo, Mariacarmela Allocca, Kimberly R. Fake, Sureshkumar Muthupalani, Joshua J. Corrigan, Roderick T. Bronson, Leona D. Samson
In this follow-up study of the offspring of women participating in an RCT for the treatment of mild GDM, we observed no difference in the overall frequency of obesity or metabolic dysfunction at ages 5-10 years according to whether treatment was undertaken. We did, however, observe sex-specific differences according to treatment with respect to childhood blood glucose levels. Mild GDM treatment was associated with a decreased frequency of impaired fasting glucose, lower fasting glucose, and lower log HOMA-IR in female offspring at ages 5-10 years but not in male offspring.. This follow-up study represents the largest of its kind in offspring from a randomized treatment trial for mild GDM. The follow-up rate of 55% in those eligible from the original RCT was accomplished despite this being an unplanned study at the time we conducted the RCT. However, enrollment of 500 children fell short of our goal of 600 needed to observe at least a one-third reduction in childhood obesity with treatment with ...
This course will explore the relationship between an animals behavior and its social and ecological context. The topic for 2010 will be the evolution of sexual dimorphism in animals. Sexual dimorphism is widespread in animals, yet its causes remain controversial and have generated much debate. In this seminar, we will examine a variety of sexual dimorphisms in different groups of animals and consider hypotheses for how these sexual dimorphisms may have evolved. We will then consider how such hypotheses are tested in an attempt to identify the best approaches to studying the evolution of sexual dimorphisms. Then we will look at evidence that either supports or refutes various hypothesized mechanisms for the evolution of sexual dimorphisms in different animal groups. Finally, we will consider whether some mechanisms for the evolution of sexual dimorphism are more common among certain kinds of organisms (predators) than others (herbivores). Three hours per week.Requisite: One or more of Biology ...
This course will explore the relationship between an animals behavior and its social and ecological context. The topic for this semester will be the evolution of sexual dimorphism in animals. Sexual dimorphism is widespread in animals, yet its causes remain controversial and have generated much debate. In this seminar, we will examine a variety of sexual dimorphisms in different groups of animals and consider hypotheses for how these sexual dimorphisms may have evolved. We will then consider how such hypotheses are tested in an attempt to identify the best approaches to studying the evolution of sexual dimorphisms. Then we will look at evidence that either supports or refutes various hypothesized mechanisms for the evolution of sexual dimorphisms in different animal groups. Finally, we will consider whether some mechanisms for the evolution of sexual dimorphism are more common among certain kinds of organisms (predators) than others (herbivores). Three hours per week.. Requisite: One or more of ...
Schalekamp-Timmermans S, Arends L, Alsaker E, Chappell L, Hansson S, Harsem N, et al.. Fetal sex-specific differences in gestational age at delivery in pre-eclampsia: a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46(2):632-642. ...
Sexually dimorphic traits arise through the combined effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on sex-biased gene expression, and experimental mouse models have been instrumental in determining their relative contribution in modulating sex differences. A role for the Y chromosome (ChrY) in mediating sex differences outside of development and reproduction has historically been overlooked due to its unusual genetic composition and the predominant testes-specific expression of ChrY-encoded genes. However, ample evidence now exists supporting ChrY as a mediator of other physiological traits in males, and genetic variation in ChrY has been linked to several diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and autoimmune diseases in experimental animal models, as well as humans. The genetic and molecular mechanisms by which ChrY modulates phenotypic variation in males remain unknown but may be a function of copy number variation between homologous X-Y multicopy genes driving differential gene expression. Here, we
Over the past two decades, we have learned a lot about how men and women respond differently to medications. This knowledge came after a concerted effort in the early 90s to increase the number of women in NIH-funded clinical research. Today, just over half of NIH-funded clinical research participants are women. Unfortunately, experimental design in cell and animal research has not always followed suit. Over-reliance on male animals and neglect of attention to the sex of cells used in research can lead to oversight of key sex-related differences. These differences should guide clinical studies, and ultimately, clinical practice. In 2014, the NIH began instituting a new policy that requires applicants to report their plans for the balance of male and female cells and animals in preclinical studies in all future grant applications, unless sex-specific inclusion is unwarranted. A commentary published in Nature by NIH Director Francis Collins, M.D., PH.D, and Director for Research on Womens ...
Many of us think of hormones as the gender-specific molecules we learned about in middle school health class-little chemical messengers that govern our reproductive development and behaviors. But sex steroids like testosterone and estrogen have reach beyond our nether regions and reproductive behaviors. They affect the entire brain both during development and throughout adult life: shaping, activating, and fueling sexually dimorphic brain circuits involved in stress and memory as well as several psychiatric disorders.. Sexual dimorphic brain development. Sex is determined by two chromosomes: men have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, while women have two X chromosomes. The Y chromosome contains the SRY gene, which triggers a flood of androgens (the group of hormones that includes testosterone) sometime between six and twelve weeks of gestation, guiding the development of the penis and testes. But this fetal testosterone bath also makes its mark on the brains architecture, resulting in ...
Stacy Sims (SS): There are sex differences from birth, but they arent really apparent until the onset of puberty- when there is the rise in testosterone in boys (stimulating muscle mass development), and the onset of the menstrual cycle. Here, it is always thought that it is the upswing in testosterone is what causes the massive difference in the ability to put on muscle mass in boys vs girls, but the upsurge in estrogen (and progesterone) in women affects the genetic expression for muscle cell turnover/protein synthesis. What I mean by this, is that estrogen turns down anabolic capacity of the muscle, and progesterone turns up the catabolism of muscle tissue. Additionally, elevated circulating levels of estrogen alters metabolism to spare carbohydrate/glycogen and increase circulating free fatty acids. When we look at this from the perspective of what happens during the menstrual cycle, the 10-14days preceeding bleeding is when estrogen and progesterone levels increase; and the effects ...
Background. Sex differences in LV mechanics exist at rest and during acute physiological stress. Differences in cardiac autonomic and adrenergic control may contribute to sex differences in LV mechanics and LV hemodynamics. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate sex differences in LV mechanics with altered adrenergic stimulation achieved through post handgrip exercise ischemia (PEI) and ß1-adrenergic receptor (AR) blockade. Methods and Results. 20 males (23±5 yr) and 20 females (22±3 yr) were specifically matched for LV length (males: 8.5±0.5 cm, females: 8.2±0.6 cm, p=0.163), and 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was used to assess LV structure and function at baseline, during PEI and following administration of 5mg bisoprolol (ß1-AR antagonist). During PEI, LV end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were increased in both groups (p,0.001), as was end-systolic wall stress (p,0.001). LV twist and apical rotation werent altered from baseline or different between the ...
Many pathophysiological mechanisms in human health and disease are dependent on sex. Systems biology approaches are successfully used to decipher human disease etiology, yet the effect of sex on gene network biology is mostly unknown. To address this, we used RNA-sequencing data of over 700 individuals spanning 24 tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project to generate a whole-body gene activity map and quantified the sex differences per tissue. We found that of the 13,787 genes analyzed in 24 tissues, 20.1% of the gene activity is influenced by sex. For example, skeletal muscle was predominantly enriched with genes more active in males, whereas thyroid primarily contained genes more active in females. This was accompanied by consistent sex differences in pathway activity, including hypoxia, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and inflammation over the human body. Furthermore, multi-organ analyses revealed consistent sex-dependent gene activity over numerous tissues which was ...
Metz E. A study of the unconjugated steroids of bovine heart. II. Comparison of steroids of the male heart with those of the female heart. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1969;68(10):1052. doi: .. Download citation file:. ...
(2005) Gharaee-Kermani et al. American Journal of Pathology. The role of gender and sex hormones is unclear in host response to lung injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. To examine gender influence on pulmonary fibrosis, male and female rats were given endotr...
Claims of male-female differences in how genes affect disease often lack proper documentation or validation, experts report in the Aug. 22 29 issue of the Journ
Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have identified variants of a gene that if inherited by women may contribute to the development of depression.
Boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extreme male brain (EMB) theory of ASD suggests that fetal testosterone (FT) exposure may underlie sex diffe
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A typical sex difference in the human brain. Data from Tunç et al., 2016. (Donna Maney, CC BY-ND). Now lets consider a typical sex difference inside the human brain. This graph depicts a sex difference in structural connectivity, or the degree to which networks of brain areas are interconnected, as reported in a recent study (the median effect size from the study is shown). The distributions of values for men and women are essentially the same; they overlap by 90 percent. Sue and Bob have fairly similar values, and Anns value is higher than the average mans.. We can see that this sex difference in the brain is quite different from the sex difference in genital measurements. With only the measurement of brain connectivity, the odds of correctly guessing a persons sex might be as low as 51 out of 100. Since the odds arent perfectly 50:50, this is technically a sex difference. The term means that sex explains a portion of the variability in a trait, not that men take one form and women ...
OBJECTIVES: To determine sex-specific associations between insulin resistance and bone parameters measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomogra
Sex characteristics[edit]. Males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, determined by CYP21A2 mutations, have increased WHRs.[21] ... Waist-hip ratio is also a reliable cue to one's sex and it is hypothesised that the "individuals who represent a mismatch based ... "The Role of Body Weight, Waist-to-Hip Ratio, and Breast Size in Judgments of Female Attractiveness - Springer." Sex Roles 39.3- ... Thus, a WHR that indicates pubertal onset, sex, fertility, hormonal irregularities, and/or differentiates male from female in ...
Male secondary sex characteristics include: *Growth of body hair, including underarm, abdominal, chest hair and pubic hair.[15] ... it will produce and secrete male sex hormones during late embryonic development and cause the secondary sex organs of the male ... The main male sex organs are the penis and the testicles which produce semen and sperm, which, as part of sexual intercourse, ... The genetic sex is determined by whether a Y bearing or next bearing sperm fertilizes the open; the presence or absence of a Y ...
"Secondary sex characteristics". .hu-berlin.de. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Lawrence ... These development stages of secondary sex characteristics (breasts, pubic hair, etc.) are illustrated in the five-stage Tanner ... Breast size and other characteristics do not predict the fat-to-milk-gland ratio or the potential for the woman to nurse an ... International Academy of Sex Research. 40 (1): 43-50. doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9523-5. PMID 19688590. S2CID 4997497. "Hourglass ...
Commuting Characteristics by Sex in Lawrence, KS. Maciag, Mike (October 16, 2012). "New Data Shows Where Americans Bike to Work ... "Commuting Characteristics by Sex". American Community Survey. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved May 24 ... The registry, which took effect on August 1, 2007, provides unmarried couples -both same-sex and other-sex- some recognition by ...
It is responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. There ... Sex drive is dependent on androgen levels[28] only in the presence of estrogen, but without estrogen, free testosterone level ... They promote the development of female secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts, and are also involved in the ... Estrogens are plasma protein bound to albumin and/or sex hormone-binding globulin in the circulation. ...
Commuting Characteristics by Sex (St. Paul)". American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau: American FactFinder. Archived from ... Commuting Characteristics by Sex (Portland)". American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau: American FactFinder. Archived from ... Commuting Characteristics by Sex (United States)". American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau: American FactFinder. Archived ... Commuting Characteristics by Sex (Minneapolis)". American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau: American FactFinder. Archived ...
Sex characteristicsEdit. Sexual dichromatism (different coloration patterns between males and females) can be seen in most ... This lack of sexual dimorphism is not characteristic of all strepsirrhines.[98] Some adapiforms were sexually dimorphic, with ... which can make sex identification difficult for human observers.[121] The clitoris may also have a bony structure in it, ... characteristics of their skeletal anatomy, and their brain size, which is relatively small. In the case of lemurs, natural ...
It calls for no-one to be subjected to invasive or irreversible medical procedures to modify sex characteristics without their ... The Principles were supplemented in 2017, expanding to include new grounds of gender expression and sex characteristics, and a ... In a manual on Promoting and Protecting Human Rights in relation to Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Sex Characteristics ... They do not specifically distinguish sex characteristics." These issues were addressed in the Yogyakarta Principles plus 10 ...
Androgynous - having the characteristics of both sexes. The Father-Mother God Principle. Anointed, The - refers to the ...
These characteristics are found in both sexes. Additionally, the males have convergent carinae on their sixth ventral abdominal ... It is a characteristic of all bees of the genus Eucera to have vertical and elongated cells within nests. There are around two ... It is thought that the cause of this sex attraction is due to small glands located on tergites on the abdomen. In Eucera ... Eucera kullenbergi is known to fall victim to sexual deception by Ophrys leochroma flowers that mimic the sex pheromones of ...
Zander, C.D. (1975). "Secondary sex characteristics of blennioid fishes (Perciformes)". Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica ...
"District of Columbia Commuting Characteristics by Sex". 2010 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. Archived ... Legislation authorizing same-sex marriage passed in 2009, and the district began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples ... Same-sex marriage has been legal in the district since 2010, and conversion therapy has been prohibited since 2015. Assisted ... "Demographic Characteristics of the District and Metro Area" (PDF). DC Office of Planning/State Data Center. "District of ...
Both sexes have the same body characteristics. The length of the pale yellow-brown, smooth carapace ranges from 1.1 to 1.7 mm. ... BBC News (April 30, 2009): Spider sex violent but effective. ...
The males are larger than the females and exhibit secondary sex characteristics (SSC). The SSC are especially seen during ... Zander, C.D. (1975). "Secondary Sex Characteristics of Blennoid": 717-727. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) v t e. ... Another characteristic being, this class typically has cycloid or ctenoid scales in comparison to pointed placoid scales. These ... One of the distinguishing characteristics of this class is that the organisms have a skeleton at least partially made of bone. ...
Primary sex characteristics (or sex organs) are characteristics that are present at birth and are integral to the reproductive ... For men, primary sex characteristics include the penis and testicles. Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear ... but-unlike the primary sex characteristics-are not directly part of the reproductive system.[5][6][7] Secondary sexual ... "Secondary sexual characteristics". TheFreeDictionary.com.. *^ a b Berger, Kathleen Stassen (2005). The Developing Person ...
Its supraneural bones amount to 5, while its gill rakers range from 6-8. Secondary sex characteristics were not found so far. ... A. pelecus also differs from members of its genus by its characteristic color pattern. It possesses a single humeral spot that ...
Secondary sex characteristics were not found so far. In alcohol, the dorsal and dorsolateral portions of the fish's head and ...
The other characteristics do not differentiate between sexes. A single silvery-white line of tight scales begins between the ... This characteristic marking is the easiest and surest way to identify the Asian tiger mosquito. The proboscis is dark colored, ... With older mosquito specimens, the scales could be partially worn off, making these characteristics not stand out as much. As ... The scute, the dorsal portion of an insect's thoracic segment, is black alongside the characteristic white midline. On the side ...
The act provides that: "Sex" (1) Sex is a protected characteristic. (2) In relation to the protected characteristic - (a) a ... "DISCRIMINATION (SEX AND RELATED CHARACTERISTICS) (JERSEY) REGULATIONS 2015". 2015. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016 ... Since 1 September 2015, Discrimination (Jersey) Law 2013 includes intersex status within its definition of sex. Sex is one of ... a reference to persons who share the characteristic is a reference to persons who are of the same sex. (3) In this paragraph, a ...
1923) "Sex Characteristics of Systolic Blood Pressure Behavior." Journal of Experimental Psychology, 6, 387-419. (1924) " ... One of the purposes of these bondage depictions was to induce eroticism in readers as a part of what he called "sex love ...
Sex and Related Characteristics) (Jersey) Regulations 2015 and campaigning to legalise same-sex marriage. LGBT portal Politics ... "Discrimination (Sex and Related Characteristics) (Jersey) Regulations 2015". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. ... On 2 June 2015, Jersey passed the Discrimination (Sex and Related Characteristics) (Jersey) Regulations 2015, protecting LGBT ... P.77/2015 Same-sex marriage, divorce and dissolution Same-sex marriage, divorce and dissolution - paragraph (a) "States ...
Malta passed the 'Gender Identity, Gender Expression, and Sex Characteristics Act in 2015. This bill states that all citizens ... "Gender Identity, Gender Expression And Sex Characteristics Act". Social Dialogue Malta. Archived from the original on 2015-04- ... "Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act (Malta, 2015)". Transgender Europe. Archived from the original ... "non-medically necessary treatments on the sex characteristics of a person." Media can contribute to trans bashing through ...
Sharing characteristics with certain musical predecessors, (Sex Pistols wearing swastikas, etc.), Turbonegro has been praised ...
Secondary sex characteristics begin to develop in response to the hormones. The ability to produce eggs and reproduce develops ... Estrogen is responsible for the appearance of secondary sex characteristics for females at puberty and for the maturation and ...
"Secondary sex characteristics". .hu-berlin.de. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2011.. ... These development stages of secondary sex characteristics (breasts, pubic hair, etc.) are illustrated in the five-stage Tanner ... Femen is a feminist activist group which uses topless protests as part of their campaigns against sex tourism[35][36] religious ... International Academy of Sex Research. 40 (1): 43-50. doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9523-5. PMID 19688590.. ...
At this state, secondary sex characteristics are not expected. Furthermore, tusks are present in almost all known ... In 1974, Thulborn suggested that the large tusks of heterodontosaurids represented a secondary sex characteristic. According to ... The characteristic chisel-like shape of the fully erupted teeth therefore resulted from tooth-to-tooth contact between the ...
Genitalia produce the hormones responsible for other sex characteristics. Natural chimeras are almost never detected unless ... if the zygotes were of differing sexes, then even the possession of both female and male sex organs (this is just one of many ... If the blastocysts are of opposite sex, genitals of both sexes may be formed: either ovary and testis, or combined ovotestes, ... 4) The observable characteristic of transgenic cells may be a transient expression of the marker gene. Or it may due to the ...
"Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics". PNAS. 105 (35): 12938-12943. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... It was also found that sex-typical joint configurations were rated as more attractive and linked to lower FA in men, but not ... Research on skull characteristics of Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) demonstrated that those born after 1960 (marking an ... Thornhill, Randy; Gangestad, Steven, W. (May 1999). "The scent of symmetry: A human sex pheromone that signals fitness?". ...
Desantts A, Kayson WA (October 1997). "Defendants' characteristics of attractiveness, race, and sex and sentencing decisions". ... Nevid JS (1984). "Sex differences in factors of romantic attraction". Sex Roles. 11 (5-6): 401-411. doi:10.1007/BF00287468. ... ISBN 978-0-465-07750-2. Bar-Tal D, Saxe L (1976). "Physical attractiveness and its relationship to sex-role stereotyping". Sex ... "Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
Secondary sex characteristic Andersson, M. (1994). Sexual selection. ISBN 0-691-00057-3. Andersson, M.; Simmons, L.W. (2006). " ... Charles Darwin published a book on sexual selection in 1871 called The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, which ... Darwin, C. (1871). The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. ISBN 978-1-57392-176-3. Fisher, Ronald A. (1915). "The ... Fisherian runaway can be postulated to include sexually dimorphic phenotypic traits such as behaviour expressed by either sex. ...
... and Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (published just after Benedict's book came out). Benedict was a senior ... only a few characteristics which become the leading personality traits of the persons living in that culture. These traits ... "Sex in Ethnology" taught by Elsie Clews Parsons. She enjoyed the class and took another anthropology course with Alexander ...
Its unique anatomical characteristics have caused it to be classified in its own genus (Hydropotes) as well as its own ... The ears are short and very rounded, and both sexes lack antlers.[citation needed] ...
Personal life and characteristicsEdit. Pol Pot had a thirst for power.[427] He was introspective,[428] self-effacing,[429] and ... people were typically segregated by sex.[250] Sport was prohibited.[250] The only reading material that the population were ...
The organism was termed Diplococcus pneumoniae from 1920[10] because of its characteristic appearance in Gram-stained sputum. ... "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens" (PDF). Infect. Genet. Evol. 8 (3): 267-85. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2008.01.002 ...
The genetics of the Ebola virus are difficult to study because of EBOV's virulent characteristics.[53] ... "Ebola Can Be Transmitted Through Sex". Science Times. Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015 ...
Both sexes have an area of white-bordered black or iridescent blue feathers called a speculum on their wings; males especially ... When taking off, the wings of a mallard produce a characteristic faint whistling noise.[38] ... "Impact of Red Fox Predation on the Sex Ratio of Prairie Mallards". USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. 3 August ... Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yury N.; McCracken, Kevin G. (2004). "Asymmetric hybridization and sex-biased gene flow between ...
Giltay EJ, Gooren LJ (2009). "Potential side effects of androgen deprivation treatment in sex offenders". The Journal of the ... are the characteristic facial lesions, and involvement of the trunk is extensive.[20][25] ... During puberty, an increase in sex hormones called androgens causes the skin follicle glands to grow larger and make more oily ... In both sexes, hormones called androgens appear to be part of the underlying mechanism, by causing increased production of ...
doi:10.1016/0005-7916(71)90022-X. "Report of a Five-Year Follow-Up Study of Mentally Disordered Sex Offenders Released from ... doi:10.1007/s11194-005-1212-x. "A comparison of the measurement characteristics of two circumferential penile transducers". ... Initially constructed to treat mentally disordered sex offenders (MDSOs), initial programs focused on separation from society, ... a former sex offender who was remanded for eight years at Atascadero State Hospital. It also is referred to in the film The ...
The front toes of pickerel frogs are not webbed, a morphological characteristic for some frogs of the genus Rana and some frogs ... pickerel frogs can be rather difficult to sex.[5] ... There are a few characteristics to aid in distinguishing ... In general, secondary sexual characteristic are not typically evident outside of the breeding season; therefore, ...
External characteristics. The octopus is bilaterally symmetrical along its dorso-ventral axis; the head and foot are at one end ... "Absurd Creature of the Week: The Beautiful Octopus Whose Sex Is All About Dismemberment". Wired: Science. Retrieved 20 May ...
The characteristics of any given health care system have significant impact on the way medical care is provided. ... These include treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. ... Gender-based medicine studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects ... tap to determine resonance characteristics), and auscultation (listen), generally in that order although auscultation occurs ...
... possibly because the transgenic plant did not perform well in its frost-tolerance or other agronomic characteristics.[17] ... expression of taro cystatin protects transgenic tomato against Meloidogyne incognita infection by means of interfering sex ...
Tree rings are records of the influence of environmental conditions, their anatomical characteristics record growth rate ... sex-ratio bias[13] ... This is an evolutionary characteristic of the Spermatophyta.. * ... characteristics of early seed plants". Canadian Journal of Botany. 80 (9): 954-961. doi:10.1139/b02-083.. .mw-parser-output ...
... and the development of male secondary sex characteristics at puberty. Androgens are synthesized in the testes, the ovaries, and ... In males, the sex cords fully invade the developing gonads.. Androgen production[edit]. The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells ... At about week 6, epithelial sex cords develop within the forming testes and incorporate the germ cells as they migrate into the ... Masculine secondary sexual characteristics include androgenic hair, voice deepening, emergence of the Adam's apple, broadening ...
Some people travel to engage in child sex tourism.[8] Sex tourism and sex trafficking both generate revenue for a country.[5] " ... Characteristics, and Needs. National Institute of Justice, United States Department of Justice. September 2008. ... "What is Child Sex Tourism?".. *^ a b c Herrmann, Kenneth J., and Michael Jupp. "International Child Sex Trade." The Sexual ... CSEC includes child sex tourism and other forms of transactional sex where a child engages in sexual activities to have key ...
A condition is considered X-linked if the gene that causes the disorder is located on the X chromosome (one of the two sex ... Association with small stature, tapering fingers, characteristic facies, and possible hydrocephalus". Am. J. Dis. Child. 121 (6 ...
Androgens increase sex drive,[38] and for this reason, antiandrogens are able to reduce sex drive in men.[39][40] In accordance ... the development of masculine secondary sexual characteristics like male-pattern facial and body hair growth (or hirsutism), ... They have been used to decrease sex drive in sex offenders so as to reduce the likelihood of recidivism (repeat offenses).[41] ... Albert J. Stunkard; Andrew Baum (1989). Eating, Sleeping, and Sex. Psychology Press. pp. 209-. ISBN 978-0-8058-0280-1.. ...
Philopatry, Inbreeding, and the Evolution of Sex. Print. 50-69. *^ Meagher S, Penn DJ, Potts WK (March 2000). "Male-male ... but will need to watch for undesirable characteristics in offspring, which can then be eliminated through further selective ... Shields WM (1982). Philopatry, inbreeding, and the evolution of sex. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0- ... However, in species such as horses, animals in wild or feral conditions often drive off the young of both sexes, thought to be ...
... "several characteristics are dependent upon ... [inheritance]; these characteristics will then always appear together and may ... of a gene that are beneficial for one sex causes expression of potentially harmful traits by the same gene in the other sex, ... Other characteristics of MFS include an increased arm span and decreased upper to lower body ratio.[36] ...
Chadwick, Derek; Goode, Jamie (2002). The genetics and biology of sex ... ISBN 978-0-470-84346-8. . Retrieved March 16, 2010 - ... and certain characteristics of the vertebrae.[17] The animals singled out by these formulations, the amniotes other than the ... Some reptiles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TDSD), in which the incubation temperature determines whether a ...
Leading characteristics, such as messianism, the Golden Rule, heaven and hell, and free will influenced other religious systems ... "Language according to age and sex by region 1990 - 2018". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 27 April 2019.. ... The term gained the characteristic of an ethnonym following the Muslim conquest of Persia, as it was adopted into Arabic and ... These Jaff bags share the same characteristics of Kurdish rugs; very colorful, stout in design, often with medallion patterns. ...
The enhancement of sexual satisfaction was positively related to the satisfaction of new primary sex characteristics.[5] Before ... After sex reassignment surgery, transsexuals (people who underwent cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery) tend ... For specialized articles on surgical procedures, see Sex reassignment surgery (male-to-female) and Sex reassignment surgery ( ... The majority of the transsexual individuals have reported enjoying better sex lives and improved sexual satisfaction after sex ...
The urine of animals of differing physiology or sex sometimes has different characteristics. For example, the urine of birds ... "Seasonal and sex differences in urine marking rates of wild red foxes Vulpes vulpes". Journal of Ethology. 31: 41-47. 1 January ... Female kob may exhibit urolagnia during sex; one female will urinate while the other sticks her nose in the stream.[57][58] ...
"Single-sex colleges: a dying breed?". HERO. June 2007. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2009.. ... Cambridge is the only university that still has this characteristic. All other universities in the UK, including Oxford, now ...
Also, "the effects of personal characteristics, such as consumers' gender, subjective norms, and impulsivity" can also affect a ... reviewed the definitions of sales promotions in marketing texts and journals and identified a set of common characteristics of ...
... it hypostatizes specific historical conditions of human existence into ontological and metaphysical characteristics. ... "Stand By Your Man: The strange liaison of Sartre and Beauvoir (Book review of the republished The Second Sex by Simone de ...
For glenohumeral instability, the therapeutic program depends on specific characteristics of the instability pattern, severity ... sex, hyperlaxity and greater tuberosity fractures being the key risk factors.[24] ...
In some cases, sex is arbitrarily determined in large part based on perceived size and apparent robustness in the absence of ... For non-skull elements, this was done on the basis of size as there was a lack of clear diagnostic characteristics.[7] Because ... more reliable elements in sex identification (namely the pelvis). Mating systems are also based on dental anatomy, but early ...
Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald".[12]. *Variations on another name, especially to change the sex of ... Some countries have laws preventing unisex names, requiring parents to give their children sex-specific names. Names may have ...
Bison Latifrons - Characteristics, Behavior and Habitat of Bison Latifrons, the Giant Bison Archived 2013-11-10 at the Wayback ... Both sexes carry horns that are heavy at the base and widely spreading up to 2 m (79 in) The extinct giant bison (Bison ... Killer Whales: Physical Characteristics Archived 2010-02-13 at the Wayback Machine. Seaworld.org ... OTTERS - Physical Characteristics Archived 2007-11-02 at the Wayback Machine. Seaworld.org ...
"Sex characteristics (legal)"; "(law)"; "Sex characteristics (legal term)"; and "Laws regarding sex characteristics". Sex ... the primary sex characteristics while the term sex characteristics refers to both primary sex characteristics and secondary sex ... primary sex characteristics, secondary sex characteristics, and the legal sex characteristics), but Id need to think about ... "sex characteristics" and "sexual characteristics" redirect to the Sex organ article while the "Sex characteristics (biology)" ...
... awards and cast information for Paranormal Sex Tape (2016) - on AllMovie - This horror release tells the story of a couple… ... Paranormal Sex Tape (2016) Genres - Horror , Sub-Genres - Erotic Thriller, Supernatural Horror , Run Time - 70 min. , MPAA ... This horror release tells the story of a couple who discover evidence of demonic possession when they watch a sex tape of ...
They are distinguished from the primary sex characteristics, the sex organs, which are directly necessary for sexual ... Differences in size between sexes are also considered secondary sexual characteristics. In humans, visible secondary sex ... Fisherian runaway produced by the secondary characteristic in one sex and the desire for that characteristic in the other sex. ... "Secondary sex characteristic" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this ...
... gender expression and sex characteristics. Physical sex characteristics include primary sex characteristics and secondary sex ... The Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act defined sex characteristics as: "sex characteristics" refers ... Sex characteristics is defined as: UNDERSTANDING sex characteristics as each persons physical features relating to sex, ... unlike the sex organs, are not directly part of the reproductive system. Sex characteristics is a term used in law and in human ...
... awards and cast information for The Sex Merchants (2011) - John Niflheim on AllMovie - Successful, egotistical fetish ... The Sex Merchants (2011) Directed by John Niflheim Genres - Adult , Sub-Genres - Sexploitation , Run Time - 68 min. , MPAA ...
... but unlike the sex organs (primary sex characteristics), are not directly part of the reproductive system. Secondary sex ... Differences in size between sexes are also considered secondary sexual characteristics. In humans, visible secondary sex ... Fisherian runaway produced by the secondary characteristic in one sex and the desire for that characteristic in the other sex. ... but they may also be considered non-secondary sex characteristics because they are features of both sexes following puberty. In ...
... interviewers sex, non-consensual sex in childhood, and consensual sex in childhood with a person at least 5 years older. ... Lifetime prevalence, characteristics, and associated problems of non-consensual sex in men: cross sectional survey BMJ 1999; ... Lifetime prevalence, characteristics, and associated problems of non-consensual sex in men: cross sectional survey. BMJ 1999; ... Lifetime prevalence, characteristics, and associated problems of non-consensual sex in men: cross sectional survey ...
... or internal sex organs of children with atypical sex characteristics too young to participate in the decision, when those ... "Children who are born with atypical sex characteristics are often subject to irreversible sex assignment, involuntary ... Sex characteristics.. This measure would, among other things, call upon stakeholders in the health professions to foster the ... WHEREAS, When the physical health of an infant with atypical sex characteristics is threatened and medical attention cannot be ...
Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Expression, and Sex Characteristics. We all have the right to be free from ... Home , Our work , Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Expression, and Sex Characteristics ... Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Expression, and Sex Characteristics*Your Right to Complain ... Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Expression, and Sex Characteristics*Your Right to Complain ...
Sex- and age-related decline functions and trends of strength characteristics were determined.Results: Size-corrected failure ... Youngs moduli were about 30% smaller in women in any region, and 20%-25% smaller in the central region for both sexes. Small ... and sex.Methods: Compressive test of 54 osteoporotic cadaver vertebrae L1 and L2, 16 males and 38 females (age range 43-93, ... the final ductile energy absorption capacity was quasi equal for sexes in all levels. Age-dependence was stronger for men, ...
Psychology definition for Primary Sex Characteristics in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and ... Primary Sex Characteristics. Heres your citation in American Psychological Association (APA) format:. Primary Sex ... Retrieved from: https://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition-cit.php?term=Primary+Sex+Characteristics ... Characteristics. (n.d.). In Alleydog.coms online glossary. ...
Labour force characteristics by age and sex, Canada, seasonally adjusted. Table summary. This table displays the results of ... labour force characteristics by age and sex november 2012, december 2012, s.e. , change from, percent change from and last ...
Inicio Characteristics of Sex-Ratio Imbalance in India, and Future Scenarios. Characteristics of Sex-Ratio Imbalance in India, ... First, rising sex ratios in India have been recorded since the early 1980s, and have since continued increasing with no sign, ... Second, even if sex-ratio values in India are still beneath those of China, its potential contribution to the overall " ... demographic weight.1 The prospect of further worsening of Indias sex composition requires close monitoring of current sex- ...
Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the ... General habitus and shape of body and face, as well as sex hormone levels, are similar in prepubertal boys and girls. As ... They are opposed to the primary sexual characteristics: the sex organs. In humans, secondary sex characteristics include: * ...
They are distinguished from the primary sexual characteristics: the sex organs. Well known secondary sex characteristics ... Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the ... In humans, secondary sex characteristics include: *Male * growth of body hair, including underarm, abdominal, chest, and pubic ... Secondary sex characteristics include the tusks of sea lions, the plumage of many male birds, the chemical indicators of many ...
Several sexually dimorphic phenotypes correlate with sex-chromosome dosage rather than with phenotypic sex. New research ... Sex differences in the level and rate of change of physical function and grip strength in the Danish 1905-cohort study.  ... Sex Differences in Biological Markers of Health in the Study of Stress, Aging and Health in Russia.  Christensen, Kaare; ... Unmasking a role for sex chromosomes in gene silencing.  Capel, Blanche; Maatouk, DM (Genome Biol, 2010) ...
ILGA World seeks a Senior Programme Officer to head-up its Gender Identity & Expression and Sex Characteristics Programme ( ... Senior Programme Officer - Gender Identity & Expression and Sex Characteristics Programme. 13 July 2020. ... gender expression and sex characteristics. *work towards the true depathologisation of trans and intersex persons at all levels ... the cis-endosex-heteronormative social model in which gender and sex are perceived as binary, mutually exclusive and a ...
Discrimination on the Basis of Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Other Characteristics. Discrimination on the Basis of Sex, Sexual ... p.205) 9 Discrimination on the Basis of Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Other Characteristics. Source:. The Myth of Rights. Author ... 9 Discrimination on the Basis of Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Other Characteristics ... 9 Discrimination on the Basis of Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Other Characteristics ...
... according to sex, age and physical activity. Study sample included 312 subjects divided according to age and sex int ... according to sex, age and physical activity. Study sample included 312 subjects divided according to age and sex into four ...
We use the word intersex as an umbrella term for people who are born with variations of sex characteristics, which do not ... There is a variety of terminology used with reference to variations of sex characteristics and intersex status. Some people ... The intersex population and those living with a variety of sex characteristics are an often under-represented and misunderstood ... Sharing your voice as an individual who lives with a variation of sex characteristics or identifies as intersex. ...
... examine the differences that therapist characteristics such as sex and age make in therapist perceptions of others; and ... Subjects completed Brovermans Sex-Role Stereotype Questionnaire and therapists were asked to rate ... investigate the clinical sex bias hypothesis that psychotherapists subscribe to one standard of mental health for healthy men ... Descriptors: Age Differences, Counselor Attitudes, Counselor Characteristics, Psychologists, Psychotherapy, Sex Differences, ...
Sex and Zen: Extreme Ecstasy: Obscenity and Violence with Chinese Characteristics Cert. 18 *Film ... the film is filled with both sophomoric humour and sadomasochistic sex. 3D Sex and Zen: Extreme Ecstasy showcases Chinese ... Sex and Zen: Extreme Ecstasy (2011), directed by Christopher Suen, is an erotic comedy set in the Ming Dynasty. Loosely based ...
What is secondary sex characteristic? Meaning of secondary sex characteristic as a finance term. What does secondary sex ... Definition of secondary sex characteristic in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... to stimulate female secondary sex characteristics and suppress male secondary sex characteristics.. Rx for Change: Transgender ... Discussion of the first goal, suppression of the puberty-induced secondary sex characteristics of natal sex, will be discussed ...
This study aims to assess the epidemiological and virological characteristics of HBV infection in a sample of MSM in Brazil, ... Age over 25 years old, receptive anal intercourse, previous sex with women, and history of sexually transmitted infections ( ... Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) compared with the ... Men who have sex with men Is the Subject Area "Men who have sex with men" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Almost 60 percent of the juvenile female sex offenders committed the abuse with someone else. Summarizing the offender motives ... victim characteristics and co-offending patterns. Heterogeneity in offending patterns and offending motives are studied, by ... Almost all research on juvenile sex offending pertains to adolescent males. This study comprises all female juveniles convicted ... Juvenile female sex offenders: Offender and offence characteristics. @article{Wijkman2014JuvenileFS, title={Juvenile female sex ...
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... ... To study young adult elite athletes with age- and sex-matched sedentary controls to assess sex-specific differences for left ... Young adult elite athletes do not show sex-specific adaptive structural and functional changes to exercise training in ... No sex-specific differences in training effect on LV and RV volumes, mass indices, and ejection fractions, as well as LV to RV ...
... the physical sex characteristics of a person born with variations in their physical sex characteristics intended to assign sex ... the sex characteristics of a person born with variations in their physical sex characteristics who is under 6 years of age are ... "Person born with variations in their physical sex characteristics" means an individual born with sex characteristics, including ... A treatment or intervention on the sex characteristics of a person born with variations in their physical sex characteristics ...
Age and Sex for the Population aged 0 to 14 Years in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Divisions ... Family Characteristics of Children (17), Age (4B) and Sex (3) for the Population aged 0 to 14 Years in Private Households of ... Family Characteristics of Children (17), Age (4B) and Sex (3) for the Population aged 0 to 14 Years in Private Households of ... This table details family characteristics of children , age and sex for the population aged 0 to 14 years in private households ...
  • The Juvenile Sex Offender, 2 nd Edition. (cuby.info)
  • As a sub-group within the general offender population, sex offenders share a number of important characteristics. (corrections.govt.nz)
  • Firstly, victim surveys indicate that, of all crime types, sex offences are perhaps the least likely to result in the apprehension and conviction of an offender - it appears that the vast majority of offences are either not reported by victims, or not resolved by Police. (corrections.govt.nz)
  • Thirdly, while "criminal versatility [2] " is the norm in the general offender population, many sex offenders have few, or only minor, convictions for other types of crime. (corrections.govt.nz)
  • What might you expect to see in a sex offender treatment program that incorporates those practices that have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing sexual recidivism? (csom.org)
  • First, most sex offender treatment takes place in a group treatment setting. (csom.org)
  • Additionally, attending group treatment represents another level of acknowledgement by the offender of his behavior-it provides an opportunity for sex offenders to begin to practice talking openly about their issues. (csom.org)
  • Sex characteristics is defined as: UNDERSTANDING 'sex characteristics' as each person's physical features relating to sex, including genitalia and other sexual and reproductive anatomy, chromosomes, hormones, and secondary physical features emerging from puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • 44 Questions Which of the following hormones directly stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics? (frontpage2002.com)
  • The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. (uchicago.edu)
  • A researcher studying sex differences should be aware of variations in endogenous hormones that may be pertinent to variables under study and be prepared to monitor them when appropriate. (cuby.info)
  • Share on Pinterest Female sex hormones affect bone and muscle growth. (partysan.info)
  • Any of various hormones, such as estrogen and androgen, affecting the growth or function of the reproductive organs, the development of secondary sex characteristics, and the reproductive behavior of vertebrates. (partysan.info)
  • Labels: ap biology, female reproductive cycle hormones, Hormones and secondary sex characteristics, mastering biology, reproduction 1 comment: Unknown October 16, at AM. MASTERING BIOLOGY CH. 41 BIO EXAM 4. (irandentist.info)
  • The sex hormones also trigger the development of secondary sex characteristics-the physical and behavioral characteristics that appear during puberty that are not directly related to reproduction. (irandentist.info)
  • Because the principal sex hormones differ in males and females, different secondary sex characteristics develop. (irandentist.info)
  • May 21, · The two main female sex hormones are estrogen and progesterone. (irandentist.info)
  • Dec 07, · ) Sex hormones in humans Puberty: Puberty is the stage in life when a child's body develops into an adult's body. (irandentist.info)
  • Sex hormones and puberty The testes produce testosterone, the male sex hormone which is responsible for puberty in boys. (seedsource.info)
  • Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that regulate reproductive function and secondary sex characteristics in the female, including breast development. (seedsource.info)
  • some _____ secondary sex characteristics (wide hips, breast growth) Androgens are a type of ____ hormones that develop and maintain typically ____ characteristics or sexual interest. (seedsource.info)
  • Male and female hormones are found in each gender, but in very different primary sex characteristics: structures in the male or female that are essential for The video helps you to see another view of the structures involved in the male system. (taydirectory.info)
  • Growth factors, local regulators and hormones involved in growth plate vessels enter from the primary spongiosum, and osteoblasts invade from the Furthermore, in genetically manipulated female mice G-protein-coupled estrogen Sex steroids acting on the growth plate are mainly produced by the. (taydirectory.info)
  • Which are the hormones responsible for secondary sex characteristics? (taydirectory.info)
  • If no fertilized egg is implanted into the uterus, the corpus luteum hormones and secondary sex characteristics mastering biology chapter in Northampton and the levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease. (angham4.info)
  • Sort the following secondary sex characteristics and hormones based on whether they are related to androgens, estrogens and progesterone, or neither. (angham4.info)
  • What hormones are directly responsible for triggering the development of the secondary sex characteristics of males, such as beard growth? (angham4.info)
  • A Visual "​Biological Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation The opening photo for Chapter 3 features a ringed seal, a species addition to the classic hormones to communicate information. (angham4.info)
  • In a very brief statement, primary characters are the sexual organs, but secondary characteristics are the sexual hormones and other related functions. (seedsource.info)
  • Sex or reproductive hormones have multiple functions in both males and females. (maturempegs.info)
  • In the developing embryo if the testes are developed, it will produce and secrete male sex hormones during late embryonic development and cause the secondary sex organs of the male to develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are particularly evident in the sexually dimorphic phenotypic traits that distinguish the sexes of a species, but unlike the sex organs , are not directly part of the reproductive system . (wikipedia.org)
  • They are distinguished from the primary sex characteristics , the sex organs, which are directly necessary for sexual reproduction to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • the external sex organs are also commonly referred to as the genitalia or genitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear at sexual maturity in animals and during puberty in humans, especially the sexually dimorphic phenotypic traits that distinguish the sexes of a species, but that, unlike the sex organs, are not directly part of the reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are opposed to the primary sexual characteristics: the sex organs. (hairfacts.com)
  • They are distinguished from the primary sexual characteristics: the sex organs . (susans.org)
  • Primary vs Secondary Sexual Characteristics Although sex organs, secondary characteristics will never operate. (frontpage2002.com)
  • Jul 14, · Primary sex characteristics are sexual organs, also known as genitals. (seedsource.info)
  • The primary sex organs are those that are directly associated with the act of reproduction. (seedsource.info)
  • The sex organs other than these primary ones are called secondary organs. (seedsource.info)
  • Primary sexual characteristics are the sexual organs, while secondary characters are the other changes occur in relation with the development of the organism. (manidistrega.info)
  • Primary sex characteristics are the sexual organs that are present at birth involved in human reproduction. (manidistrega.info)
  • The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tailored sex work interventions should explicitly include male and transgender sex workers, sex work-specific clinics, focus on the risks of unprotected anal sex, and include interventions to reduce harm caused by alcohol abuse. (scielo.org.za)
  • Consistent with other studies, individual characteristics--including supportive condom use peer norms--were associated with any unprotected anal sex, HIV testing, having an HIV-positive/unknown test result, recent participation in prevention activities, and knowledge of antiretroviral therapies used to treat HIV. (columbia.edu)
  • Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans , and at sexual maturity in other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • As puberty begins and sex hormone levels rise, differences appear, though some changes are similar in males and females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Underarm hair and pubic hair are usually considered secondary sex characteristics, but they may also be considered non-secondary sex characteristics because they are features of both sexes following puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • As puberty progresses and sex hormone levels rise, differences appear. (hairfacts.com)
  • As puberty progresses and sex hormone levels rise, differences appear, though puberty causes some similar changes in male and female bodies. (susans.org)
  • Discussion of the first goal, suppression of the puberty-induced secondary sex characteristics of natal sex, will be discussed in this section. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Once they start puberty, trans-boys may develop female secondary sex characteristics , such as breasts, and may even start to menstruate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • variations in physical sex characteristics are visible at birth, while in others, they are not apparent until puberty. (ca.gov)
  • Sex hormone levels change over time, but some of the most significant changes happen during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause. (partysan.info)
  • Secondary sexual characteristics develop during puberty which includes, enlargement of breasts and erection of nipples, growth of body hair. (partysan.info)
  • When primary amenorrhea is not accompanied by development of secondary sex characteristics, treatment initially includes the administration of small doses of estrogen to induce puberty onset. (seedsource.info)
  • in adulthood induced puberty onset in immature female rhesus monkeys and that are involved in the estrogen-dependent prepubertal restraint of GnRH/ serum testosterone becomes evident, and secondary sex characteristics start Toydemir RM, Brassington AE, Barak-Toydemir P, Krakowiak PA, Jorde LB, Whitby FG. (taydirectory.info)
  • In general, they are responsible for the development of the secondary sex characteristics during puberty. (maturempegs.info)
  • In humans, visible secondary sex characteristics include pubic hair , enlarged breasts and widened hips of females, and facial hair and Adam's apple on males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ronald Fisher , the English biologist developed a number of ideas concerning secondary characteristics in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection , including the concept of Fisherian runaway which postulates that the desire for a characteristic in females combined with that characteristic in males can create a positive feedback loop or runaway where the feature becomes hugely amplified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small strains were higher in males, large strains were higher in females, namely, proportional strains were about 25% larger in men, yield and ultimate strains were quasi equal for sexes, break strains were 10% higher in women. (dovepress.com)
  • Almost all research on juvenile sex offending pertains to adolescent males. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sex influenced characteristics are determined by autosomal genes and are inherited according to Mendel's principles, but they are expressed differently in males and females. (guwsmedical.info)
  • The sex chromosomes in Lepidoptera are designated W and Z, with the W chromosome being usually associated with the development of female characteristics (a single Z and a smaller W chromosome), while males have two copies of the Z chromosome. (vipboy.info)
  • Which hormone is directly responsible for triggering the development of the secondary sex characteristics of males, such as beard growth? (irandentist.info)
  • Thus, this boy demonstrates that breast development may occur in postpubertal males if the programing of the pubertal sex differentiation of the mammary gland anlagen is disturbed by an enzyme defect which causes a failure of fetal testicular testosterone production. (taydirectory.info)
  • Click card to see definition 👆 The Leydig cells produce testosterone, which also is responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics of males. (taydirectory.info)
  • Sep 04, · While humans are born with very obvious primary sex characteristics (or body structures directly concerned with reproduction) that allows us to tell males from females, such as the penis in men and. (seedsource.info)
  • Primary sexual characteristics are present at birth and comprise the external and internal genitalia (e.g., the penis and testes in males and the vagina and ovaries in females). (seedsource.info)
  • Males and females show distinct differences in action potential waveform, ion channel expression patterns, and ECG characteristics. (northwestern.edu)
  • More importantly, the variability in Ca 2+ transient characteristics between myocytes in a microscopic recording site (heterogeneity index) was greater for females than males for characteristics related to transient duration. (northwestern.edu)
  • These sex-based differences in Ca 2+ cycling could contribute to differences in ECG morphology and in arrhythmia sensitivity in males and females. (northwestern.edu)
  • Another of Fisher's ideas is the sexy son hypothesis , whereby females will desire to have sons that possess the characteristic that they find sexy in order to maximize the number of grandchildren they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • p=0.021) more likely, than females to have unprotected sex. (scielo.org.za)
  • In females, it helps develop and maintain both the reproductive system and female characteristics, such as breasts and pubic hair. (cuby.info)
  • Secondary sex characteristics in non-human animals include manes of male lions [2] and long feathers of male peafowlhormones responsible for secondary sex characteristics in females in Whitby tusks of male narwhalsenlarged proboscises in male elephant seals and proboscis monkeysthe bright facial and rump coloration of male mandrillsand horns in many goats and antelopes. (taydirectory.info)
  • Explanation: The secondary sexual characteristics in human females include development of breast, widening of hips, increase in. (taydirectory.info)
  • it is also responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics of females. (taydirectory.info)
  • Secondary sexual characteristics are those that emerge during the prepubescent through postpubescent phases (e.g., breasts in females. (seedsource.info)
  • Effects of Sex Condition and Diet on Growth and Carcass Characteristic" by John D. Crouse, Calvin L. Ferrell et al. (unl.edu)
  • The effects of sex condition on feed efficiency of animals fed to a similar fat composition or marbling endpoint needs to be examined. (unl.edu)
  • The effects of sex condition, genotype and diet on bovine muscle fiber characteristics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Seideman1986TheEO, title={The effects of sex condition, genotype and diet on bovine muscle fiber characteristics. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effects of sex condition, breed type and dietary energy level on muscle fiber characteristics were examined at various ages and related to carcass characteristics and meat palatability. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some people prefer to use the term differences of sex development, some prefer 'disorders of sex development', and some prefer to simply describe their specific variation. (equality-network.org)
  • Related to sex hormone: Sex hormone therapy , Sex hormone binding globulin. (partysan.info)
  • Traustadottir T, However, whether older men with symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency and lower circulating concentrations of T compared to younger men, actually have an androgen deficiency state remains unclear 26 Estimates of global and regional premature cardiovascular mortality in The effects of serum testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin levels on fracture risk in older men. (manidistrega.info)
  • Youth who commit sex offenses are similar to youth who engage in non-sexual delinquent behavior. (cuby.info)
  • People commit sex offenses for a variety of reasons. (csom.org)
  • As was already mentioned, people commit sex offenses for a wide variety of reasons. (csom.org)
  • From those descriptions it appears that an ailonit can be recognized by certain unique physical traits, including a lack of secondary sex characteristics, like pubic hairs. (steinsaltz.org)
  • Testosterone, the hormone responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics that develop in the male during adolescence, stimulates irandentist.info secondary sex characteristics include a deepening of the voice, the growth of facial, axillary, and pubic hair, and the beginnings of the sex drive. (irandentist.info)
  • Secondary sex characteristics include a deepening of the voice, the growth of facial, axillary, and pubic hair, and the beginnings of the sex drive. (irandentist.info)
  • Which are the secondary sex characteristics Girls: fat on breasts, body hair (armpits), waist definition, fat on hips, pubic hair, growth spurts. (manidistrega.info)
  • Thanks for that, however, the core purpose is to create a space for material on the legislative attribute, and ways that different jurisdictions are protecting citizens on the basis of sex characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, the Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (AFP) manual on Promoting and Protecting Human Rights in relation to Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Sex Characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testosterone stimulates sperm production spermatogenesisand influences the development of male secondary sex characteristics. (partysan.info)
  • Testosterone, the hormone responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics that develop in the male during adolescence, stimulates spermatogenesis. (partysan.info)
  • Testosterone, the hormone responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics that develop in the male during adolescence, stimulates spermatogenesis, or the process of sperm production in the testes. (irandentist.info)
  • Testosterone is responsible for the beard, it is therefore also not ver odd, that the beard at the man as a secondary sex characteristic is traded. (tjsff.com)
  • The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica ) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. (scielo.org.za)
  • Interactions between genotype, sex and management system. (edpsciences.org)
  • Carcass traits and physical characteristics of eggs in Japanese quail as affected by genotype, sex and hatch', Journal of Livestock Science and Technologies , 1(2), pp. 57-62. (ac.ir)
  • Charati, H., Esmailizadeh, A. Carcass traits and physical characteristics of eggs in Japanese quail as affected by genotype, sex and hatch. (ac.ir)
  • The effect of genotype, sex and hatch on carcass traits and physical characteristics of eggs was investigated in the Japanese quail. (ac.ir)
  • Secondary sex characteristics are traits that distinguish the two sexes of a species, but that are not directly part of the reproductive system. (hairfacts.com)
  • Which characteristic of the male reproductive system is not variable among animal species that reproduce sexually? (maturempegs.info)
  • Any anatomical part involved with the reproductive system of an organism is a sexual organ, aka primary sexual characteristic. (manidistrega.info)
  • This measure would, among other things, call upon stakeholders in the health professions to foster the well-being of children born with variations of sex characteristics through the enactment of policies and procedures that ensure individualized, multidisciplinary care, as provided. (ca.gov)
  • The Equality Network's Variations of Sex Characteristics (VSC) and Intersex Project is a national project to facilitate intersex people, equality organisations, government policy makers, the NHS and other service providers to engage together to develop a shared understanding of intersex equality, rights and inclusion priorities in Scotland. (equality-network.org)
  • There is a variety of terminology used with reference to variations of sex characteristics and intersex status. (equality-network.org)
  • We use the word intersex as an umbrella term for people who are born with variations of sex characteristics, which do not always fit society's perception of male and female bodies. (equality-network.org)
  • a person born with variations in their physical sex characteristics who is under 6 years of age unless the treatment or intervention is medically necessary. (ca.gov)
  • The bill, on or before December 1, 2021, would require the Medical Board of California, in consultation with specified persons and entities, to adopt regulations to determine which treatments and interventions on the sex characteristics of a person born with variations in their physical sex characteristics who is under 6 years of age are medically necessary, as specified. (ca.gov)
  • 1) The Legislature opposes all forms of prejudice, bias, or discrimination and affirms its commitment to the dignity and autonomy of all people, including those born with variations in their physical sex characteristics. (ca.gov)
  • People born with variations in their physical sex characteristics should be free to choose whether to undergo life-altering surgeries and other treatments or interventions on their physical sexual characteristics that irreversibly, and sometimes irreparably, cause harm. (ca.gov)
  • people born with variations in their physical sex characteristics to participate in decisions about surgery and other medical treatments or interventions on their physical sex characteristics. (ca.gov)
  • "Variations in physical sex characteristics" is an umbrella term used to describe a wide range of natural bodily variations. (ca.gov)
  • Male cancer mortality appears to be the affecting factor in explaining variations in sex differences. (waocp.org)
  • Intersex traits are physical variations in genitals, chromosomes or other features that relate to the development of sex characteristics. (caringcommunitiespa.org)
  • How do you talk about variations in sex characteristics? (genderminorities.com)
  • Most intersex variations / variations in sex characteristics are invisible, but at least 1.7% of people are born with variations that become apparent during childhood or youth. (genderminorities.com)
  • Someone to talk to / Tīmataia te kōrero is a project that seeks to address the silence around intersex / variations in sex characteristics. (genderminorities.com)
  • Sexual characteristics are physical or behavioral traits of an organism typically of a sexually dimorphic organism which are indicative of its biological sex. (maturempegs.info)
  • Secondary sex characteristics include, for example, the manes of male lions, the bright facial and rump coloration of male mandrills, and horns in many goats and antelopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Secondary sex characteristics in non-human animals include manes of male lions and long feathers of male peafowl, the tusks of male narwhals, enlarged proboscises in male elephant seals and proboscis monkeys, the bright facial and rump coloration of male mandrills, and horns in many goats and antelopes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Well known secondary sex characteristics include manes of male lions, and long feathers of peacocks. (susans.org)
  • Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. (uchicago.edu)
  • Secondary sexual characteristics are other features that distinguish between the sexes and/or signify sexual material but are not necessary for reproduction. (seedsource.info)
  • Mechanisms of sex differentiation in animals and man / edited by C. R. Austin and R. G. Edwards. (who.int)
  • A baseline prepubertal Hormone that promotes secondary sex characteristics psychology in Florida level of greater than 0. (cuby.info)
  • Burton had been constantly saying, Some time i will brace up and have Ethel to i'd like to carry her books, and I also m planning to walk beside her right Primary Sex traits Psychology down principal Street. (reequilibrageenergetique-nathaly.fr)
  • You will want to wait together with his love so long as feasible stay till what the law states s hand ended up being The Delegate Wranglers main Intercourse traits Psychology floating around above his mind, uplifted to strike, after which, in this final main Sex faculties Psychology moment, die with this particular latest, many glorious passion as orgasm to their career To flee meant endless fear, torment. (reequilibrageenergetique-nathaly.fr)
  • Ethnic differences in the presence of secondary sex characteristics and menarche among U.S. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As our sampling represents the majority of the phylogenetic diversity of iguanas, the origin of iguana sex chromosomes can be traced back in history to the basal splitting of this group which occurred during the Cretaceous period. (vipboy.info)
  • Sex chromosomes are most common in bryophytesrelatively common in vascular plants and unknown in ferns and lycophytes. (vipboy.info)
  • Many insect orders harbor species with complex sex chromosomes, and gains sex determination in affect not only specific traits but also the entire sexual fate of mitigation in the Chesapeake Bay basin, we have constructed an economic​. (vipboy.info)
  • Many insect orders harbor species with complex sex chromosomes, and gains sex determination in affect not only specific traits but also the entire sexual fate Chesapeake Bay), seasonality, length, relative age, condition code, and sex. (vipboy.info)
  • Sex chromosomes and sex determination in Lepidoptera. (vipboy.info)
  • Apr 20, · Sex chromosomes: These chromosomes are used in sex determination. (vipboy.info)
  • page 9) In 2015, the United Nations published a fact sheet using the term sex characteristics to define intersex: Intersex people are born with sex characteristics (including genitals, gonads and chromosome patterns) that do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphometric characteristic of sex cells and seasonal changes of female gonads of Cucumaria. (deepdyve.com)
  • Prior to orchiectomy surgical removal of the gonads or sex reassignment surgerythe doses of estrogens used in hormone responsible for development of female secondary sex characteristics in women are often higher than replacement doses used in cisgender women. (forumpro.info)
  • Genetic sex determines whether the gonads will be testes or ovaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, even if sex-ratio values in India are still beneath those of China, its potential contribution to the overall "masculinization" of Asia (and, consequently, of the world's population) is particularly formidable in view of India's demographic weight.1 The prospect of further worsening of India's sex composition requires close monitoring of current sex-ratio trends in the country. (unfpa.org)
  • The intersex population and those living with a variety of sex characteristics are an often under-represented and misunderstood community. (equality-network.org)
  • [2 Even though these figures should be treated with caution because they were based on limited data and a number of assumptions, [2] they point to the significance of sex workers as a key population. (scielo.org.za)
  • Objectives: This study aimed to provide identification criteria for men who have sex with men (MSM), estimate the prevalence of MSM behavior, and compare sociodemographics and sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors between non-MSM and MSM groups using data from a nationally representative, population-based survey. (cdc.gov)
  • We revealed the characteristics of HIV molecular transmission, tropism, and DRMs of ART-naïve HIV-infected individuals among the MSM population in Tianjin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These tables look at the demographic characteristics of the adult population 15 years and older. (census.gov)
  • Prisoners serving sentences for sex offences make up around 20 percent of the New Zealand prison population on any given date. (corrections.govt.nz)
  • The issue here is that "sex characteristics" is now starting to become a phrase and an attribute in law and in human rights, in the same way that "gender identity" and "sexual orientation" are for different (and overlapping) populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3,4] Moreover, besides research among male sex workers in Kenya and other smaller studies on transgender and male sex workers elsewhere, limited information is available on these populations in Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • To identify correlates of HIV/STI prevalence among 13 cities with varying sizes of female sex worker (FSW) populations and municipal characteristics in Mexico. (scielo.org.mx)
  • However, it is unclear if that is true for populations at all age levels in all countries and what factors affect such sex differences. (waocp.org)
  • This investigation additionally demonstrates that voyeurs have a more prominent number of sexual accomplices every year, and will probably have had a same-sex accomplice than general populations. (voyeurfreecams.com)
  • From analysis of their court files and their criminal records, these female offenders are described in terms of demographics, family background, (psychiatric) disorders, victim characteristics and co-offending patterns. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Blanckenhorn, W. Hermaphrodite Intersex Disorders of sex development Sex reversal. (vipboy.info)
  • The term "sex characteristics" is now being used in jurisprudence, so I thought it was worth changing this page from a redirect for Sexual dimorphism to contain information on that legal development, as well as provide basic material pointing to pages focused on physical sex characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physical sex characteristics include primary sex characteristics and secondary sex characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex differences in the level and rate of change of physical function and grip strength in the Danish 1905-cohort study. (duke.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to examine sex differences in the initial level and rate of change in physical function and grip strength. (duke.edu)
  • The aim of the study was to assess the development of motor abilities in elementary school fifth- to eighth-graders (age 11-14 years) according to sex, age and physical activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gender dysphoria is the feeling of discomfort or distress that might occur in people whose gender identity differs from their sex assigned at birth or sex-related physical characteristics. (manidistrega.info)
  • Hong Long did not dare to draw Sex Toy To Use On Penis That Dosent Get Hard a top over the counter male enhancement pills conclusion lightly But even if what Hong Shi introduced in Is Penis Growth A Secondary Sex Characteristics gnc volume pills detail, the current Heifengzhai is no longer the original Li Xiongba master. (mynpa.com)
  • Any how, this experimentation had proved the SRY gene's role in genetic sex determination. (vipboy.info)
  • Sexual identity is determined at fertilization when the genetic sex of the zygote has been initialized by a sperm cell containing either an X or Y chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The statistical model included the fixed effects of the genetic group, sex and hatch. (ac.ir)
  • testes with oocytes) and decreased expression of secondary sex characteristics (Lange et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • oestrogen - a hormone produced by the ovaries which controls the development of female secondary sexual characteristics, for example breast development Secondary sexual characteristics appear. (seedsource.info)
  • An interaction between MOS and sex was observed on carcass weight. (scielo.org.za)
  • and secondary characteristics such as muscle mass, hair distribution, breasts and/or structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female secondary sex characteristics include: Enlargement of breasts and erection of nipples. (wikipedia.org)
  • masculinizing sex hormone that maintains secondary characteristics, maintains the genitals and their sperm producing capability, and stimulating the growth of bone and muscle. (seedsource.info)
  • The hormone that develops and maintains female secondary sexual characteristics is: Estrogen. (seedsource.info)
  • 53) The hormone estradiol does all of the following, except that it A) Maintains female secondary sex characteristics. (seedsource.info)
  • The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of female secondary sexual characteristics. (taydirectory.info)
  • These studies link sex-specific preferences for putative human sex pheromones and sexually dimorphic facial characteristics. (elsevier.com)
  • Our findings suggest that putative sex pheromones and sexually dimorphic facial characteristics convey common information about the quality of potential mates. (elsevier.com)
  • The legal term has since been adopted by United Nations, European, and Asia-Pacific institutions, and in a 2017 update to the Yogyakarta Principles on the application of international human rights law in relation to sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In November 2017, the Yogyakarta Principles were expanded to include new principles and new attributes of sex characteristics and gender identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, the Fundamental Rights Agency published a comparative legal analysis on protection against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation, gender identity and sex characteristics in the EU. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Act was later followed by a report by the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe that recognized that sex characteristics are distinct from a person's sexual orientation and gender identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Issue Paper, the Council's Commissioner for Human Rights recommended that Member States of the Council of Europe protect intersex citizens on grounds of "sex characteristics", or otherwise protect intersex persons on grounds of sex or gender: National equal treatment and hate crime legislation should be reviewed to ensure that it protects intersex people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex characteristics should be included as a specific ground in equal treatment and hate crime legislation or, at least, the ground of sex/gender should be authoritatively interpreted to include sex characteristics as prohibited grounds of discrimination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Human Rights Commission undertakes a number of projects to promote equality and end violence and discrimination against all people with a diverse sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, and sex characteristics. (hrc.co.nz)
  • All people have the same rights and freedoms, regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, and sex characteristics (SOGIESC). (hrc.co.nz)
  • The report 'Prism' explores six human rights issues relating to people with a diverse sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, and sex characteristics in Aotearoa New Zealand. (hrc.co.nz)
  • ILGA World seeks a Senior Programme Officer to head-up its Gender Identity & Expression and Sex Characteristics Programme (GIESC Programme). (awid.org)
  • It roots in the assessment that violence, discrimination and prejudice of persons of diverse SOGIESC has a common cause: the cis-endosex-heteronormative social model in which gender and sex are perceived as binary, mutually exclusive and a consequence of a person's body. (awid.org)
  • Like LGBT activists, intersex activists are fighting for bodily autonomy and the rights of people who fall outside of binary sex and gender norms. (equality-network.org)
  • Psychotherapists' Gender Stereotypes: Perceiver Characteristics, Target Age, and Target Sex. (ed.gov)
  • The four gender stereotype scales produced three substantial main effects for age of target and only one main effect for sex of target. (ed.gov)
  • The organisation's Annual Treaty Bodies Report showed that in 2019 alone nine UN Treaty Bodies made 137 references to sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, and sex characteristics ( SOGIESC ) in 66 observations and recommendations to 56 member States . (ilga.org)
  • This report provides an analysis of references to sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics made by nine Treaty Bodies in 2019. (ilga.org)
  • The report also contains a section with an analysis of developments related to sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics in Treaty Bodies between 2014 and 2019. (ilga.org)
  • Eby, Lillian 2004-10-18 00:00:00 In this study we examined the relationship between mentor gender, protégé gender, mentorship characteristics (e.g., mentorship type, mentorship duration, mentor experience), and mentoring functions provided as reported by mentors. (deepdyve.com)
  • Drawing on research regarding diversified mentorships and interpersonal relationships, we proposed that mentoring effectiveness would vary as a function of the gender of the mentorship participants and the characteristics of the relationship. (deepdyve.com)
  • A review of their activities in 2017 and 2018, released by ILGA World, shows that references to sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, and sex characteristics (SOGIESC) made by the committees have hit an all-time high. (shinesa.org.au)
  • Sex is a divine gift shared between a man and a woman, or people of either gender. (ramshacklesolid.com)
  • The Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) has come in for a lot of criticism in recent years for its silence and lack of clarity on the difference between sex and 'gender' in terms of the protected characteristics under the Equality Act 2010 . (sexnotgender.info)
  • So last July, they were clearly talking about 'gender' and 'gender identity' in their monitoring , even if they seemed confused about whether it was monitoring diversity or equality and even though neither of these is a protected characteristic under the Equality Act 2010. (sexnotgender.info)
  • However, they still list 'gender' as if it was a protected characteristic but at least they were now asking for the sex of applicants with only the two (correct) options of female and male. (sexnotgender.info)
  • Though they managed to correctly list it in the preamble, they don't ask about the protected characteristic of 'gender reassignment', even if they might like to think they are. (sexnotgender.info)
  • In law, sex characteristics refers to an attribute defined for the purposes of protecting individuals from discrimination due to their sexual features. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term was first used in Malta in 2015, when the country enacted legal protections from discrimination and forced medical procedures on grounds of sex characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Europe there are no epidemiological data on the prevalence of non-consensual sex in men or on differences in psychological health between men who report having non-consensual sex as adults and those who do not. (bmj.com)
  • Yunnan has the largest number of reported HIV/AIDS cases among all Chinese provinces, the reported prevalence of HIV among Yunnan men who have sex with men (MSM) passed 10%, while HIV incidence epidemic and molecular characteristics of new infected Yunnan MSM were not evaluated before. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Tianjin, China, there is a relatively high prevalence of HIV in men who have sex with men (MSM). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to compare sociodemographic and risk behavior characteristics between black men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) and those who have sex with men only (MSMO) and assess factors associated with having any unprotected vaginal and/or anal intercourse (UVAI) with women in the last 3 months. (cdc.gov)
  • Of course our concern is not so much with thoughts as it is with behaviors, which are the ultimate targets of our treatment and the relevant measure of treatment effectiveness, but the fact that thoughts can both promote and discourage sex offending behavior requires that offenders' cognitions (thoughts) be addressed in the therapeutic environment. (csom.org)
  • To describe characteristics and sexual behaviour of female, male and transgender sex workers, and assess their risk factors for unprotected sex. (scielo.org.za)
  • About 8% (126/1 594) of women, 33% (22/75) of men, and 25% (12/50) of transgender people had unprotected sex. (scielo.org.za)
  • To study young adult elite athletes with age- and sex-matched sedentary controls to assess sex-specific differences for left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumes and mass as well as for LV contraction and relaxation. (ovid.com)
  • Imamura T, Combs P, Siddiqi U, Besser S, Juricek C, Mirzai S, Jeevanandam V. Sex difference in the impact of smoking on left ventricular assist device outcomes. (uchicago.edu)
  • Ca 2+ transients were measured in individual myocytes within microscopic regions of the fluo-4 AM-loaded left ventricular epicardium of intact rat heart of both sexes (3 to 5 mo old). (northwestern.edu)
  • Pacing protocols were used to measure transient characteristics at a basic cycle length of 500 ms and during 10-s trains of rapid pacing delivered to the left ventricular apex. (northwestern.edu)