Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
Sexual activities of humans.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (1/8888)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) expression and X chromosome inactivation in the preattachment bovine embryo. (2/8888)

Expression of the X inactive-specific transcript (Xist) is thought to be essential for the initiation of X chromosome inactivation and dosage compensation during female embryo development. In the present study, we analyzed the patterns of Xist transcription and the onset of X chromosome inactivation in bovine preattachment embryos. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of Xist transcripts in all adult female somatic tissues evaluated. In contrast, among the male tissues examined, Xist expression was detected only in testis. No evidence for Xist transcription was observed after a single round of RT-PCR from pools of in vitro-derived embryos at the 2- to 4-cell stage. Xist transcripts were detected as a faint amplicon at the 8-cell stage initially, and consistently thereafter in all stages examined up to and including the expanded blastocyst stage. Xist transcripts, however, were subsequently detected from the 2-cell stage onward after nested RT-PCR. Preferential [3H]thymidine labeling indicative of late replication of one of the X chromosomes was noted in female embryos of different developmental ages as follows: 2 of 7 (28.5%) early blastocysts, 6 of 13 (46.1%) blastocysts, 8 of 11 (72.1%) expanded blastocysts, and 14 of 17 (77.7%) hatched blastocysts. These results suggest that Xist expression precedes the onset of late replication in the bovine embryo, in a pattern compatible with a possible role of bovine Xist in the initiation of X chromosome inactivation.  (+info)

BDNF mediates the effects of testosterone on the survival of new neurons in an adult brain. (3/8888)

New neurons are incorporated into the high vocal center (HVC), a nucleus of the adult canary (Serinus canaria) brain that plays a critical role in the acquisition and production of learned song. Recruitment of new neurons in the HVC is seasonally regulated and depends upon testosterone levels. We show here that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is present in the HVC of adult males but is not detectable in that of females, though the HVC of both sexes has BDNF receptors (TrkB). Testosterone treatment increases the levels of BDNF protein in the female HVC, and BDNF infused into the HVC of adult females triples the number of new neurons. Infusion of a neutralizing antibody to BDNF blocks the testosterone-induced increase in new neurons. Our results demonstrate that BDNF is involved in the regulation of neuronal replacement in the adult canary brain and suggest that the effects of testosterone are mediated through BDNF.  (+info)

Sexual dimorphism in white campion: complex control of carpel number is revealed by y chromosome deletions. (4/8888)

Sexual dimorphism in the dioecious plant white campion (Silene latifolia = Melandrium album) is under the control of two main regions on the Y chromosome. One such region, encoding the gynoecium-suppressing function (GSF), is responsible for the arrest of carpel initiation in male flowers. To generate chromosomal deletions, we used pollen irradiation in male plants to produce hermaphroditic mutants (bsx mutants) in which carpel development was restored. The mutants resulted from alterations in at least two GSF chromosomal regions, one autosomal and one located on the distal half of the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome. The two mutations affected carpel development independently, each mutation showing incomplete penetrance and variegation, albeit at significantly different levels. During successive meiotic generations, a progressive increase in penetrance and a reduction in variegation levels were observed and quantified at the level of the Y-linked GSF (GSF-Y). Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the behavior of the bsx mutations: epigenetic regulation or/and second-site mutation of modifier genes. In addition, studies on the inheritance of the hermaphroditic trait showed that, unlike wild-type Y chromosomes, deleted Y chromosomes can be transmitted through both the male and the female lines. Altogether, these findings bring experimental support, on the one hand, to the existence on the Y chromosome of genic meiotic drive function(s) and, on the other hand, to models that consider that dioecy evolved through multiple mutation events. As such, the GSF is actually a system containing more than one locus and whose primary component is located on the Y chromosome.  (+info)

Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype. (5/8888)

White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for "male dimorphism" (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state.  (+info)

The size and fibre composition of the corpus callosum with respect to gender and schizophrenia: a post-mortem study. (6/8888)

In this study the cross-sectional area (in n = 14 female controls, 15 male controls, 11 female patients with schizophrenia, 15 male patients with schizophrenia) and fibre composition (in n = 11 female controls, 10 male controls, 10 female patients with schizophrenia, 10 male patients with schizophrenia) of the corpus callosum in post-mortem control and schizophrenic brains was examined. A gender x diagnosis interaction (P = 0.005) was seen in the density of axons in all regions of the corpus callosum except the posterior midbody and splenium. Amongst controls, females had greater density than males; in patients with schizophrenia this difference was reversed. A reduction in the total number of fibres in all regions of the corpus callosum except the rostrum was observed in female schizophrenic patients (P = 0.006; when controlling for brain weight, P = 0.053). A trend towards a reduced cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum was seen in schizophrenia (P = 0.098); however, this is likely to be no more than a reflection of an overall reduction in brain size. With age, all subregions of the corpus callosum except the rostrum showed a significant reduction in cross-sectional area (P = 0.018) and total fibre number (P = 0.002). These findings suggest that in schizophrenia there is a subtle and gender-dependent alteration in the forebrain commissures that may relate to the deviations in asymmetry seen in other studies, but the precise anatomical explanation remains obscure.  (+info)

Canine sexual dimorphism in Egyptian Eocene anthropoid primates: Catopithecus and Proteopithecus. (7/8888)

Two very small late Eocene anthropoid primates, Catopithecus browni and Proteopithecus sylviae, from Fayum, Egypt show evidence of substantial sexual dimorphism in canine teeth. The degree of dimorphism suggests that these early anthropoids lived in social groups with a polygynous mating system and intense male-male competition. Catopithecus and Proteopithecus are smaller in estimated body size than any living primates showing canine dimorphism. The origin of canine dimorphism and polygyny in anthropoids was not associated with the evolution of large body size.  (+info)

Gender-specific differences in dialysis quality (Kt/V): 'big men' are at risk of inadequate haemodialysis treatment. (8/8888)

BACKGROUND: Inadequate dialysis dose is closely related to mortality and morbidity of maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. According to the DOQI guidelines a minimum prescribed dialysis dose of single-pool Kt/V (Kt/Vsp)=1.3, equivalent to equilibrated double pool Kt/V (e-Kt/Vdp)=1.1, is recommended. Knowledge of patient-related risk factors for inadequate delivery of hacmodialysis would be helpful to select patient subgroups for intensive control ofdialysis adequacy. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of inadequate dialysis dose according to DOQI criteria during a 7-month period. A total of 320 e-Kt/Vdp measurements in 62 MHD patients were evaluated (mean effective dialysis time 222+/-32 min). Residual renal function (RRF) was expressed as renal weekly Kt/V (r-Kt/Vweek) and included into assessment of total weekly renal and dialytic Kt/V (t-Kt/Vweek). RESULTS: Inadequacy (e-Kt/Vdp<1.10) was prevalent in 37.2% of all measurements and in 22/62 patients (35.5%). In 54% of underdialysed patients r-Kt/Vweek compensated for insufficient dialytic urea removal. Mean weekly Kt/V was inadequate (t-Kt/Vweek<3.30) in 12/62 patients (19.4%) of whom 91.7% (11/12) were male. Body-weight, urea distribution volume (UDV). and body-surface area (BSA) were significantly higher in inadequately is adequately dialysed males. UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2 and a lack of RRF (r-Kt/Vweek<0.3) put 'big men' at increased risk to receive an inadequate dose of dialysis. CONCLUSION: Our data identify patients at risk for inadequate haemodialysis treatment. Special attention should be focused on 'big men' with UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2. In this subset of patients frequent measurements of t-Kt/Vweek and assessment of RRF should be mandatory.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex-Specific Differences in Redox Homeostasis in Brain Norm and Disease. AU - Ruszkiewicz, Joanna A.. AU - Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio. AU - Tinkov, Alexey A.. AU - Skalnaya, Margarita G.. AU - Skalny, Anatoly V.. AU - Tsatsakis, Aristides. AU - Aschner, Michael. PY - 2019/2/15. Y1 - 2019/2/15. N2 - Sex differences in brain physiology and by inference various pathologies are generally recognized, however frequently ignored in epidemiological and experimental studies, leading to numerous data gaps. As a consequence, the mechanisms underlying sexual dimorphism of neurological diseases remain largely unknown. Several cellular and molecular pathways linked to the etiology and pathogenesis of various brain disorders have been recently described as sex-specific. Here, we review the evidence for sex differences in brain redox homeostasis, which is an important factor in brain physiology and disease. First, we focus on sex-specific differences in the healthy brain regarding popular redox ...
Purpose: We previously demonstrated sex-specific differences in corneal inflammatory reparative responses, which are mediated by estrogen modulation of protective lipid mediators derived from dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Sex-steroids have long been implicated in Dry Eye (DE) due to the prevalence of disease incidence in women. Sjogrens Syndrome causes DE by dysregulating immune responses in the lacrimal gland. A post hoc clinical study found a correlation between dietary ω-3 PUFA in women and decreased incidence of DE symptoms. ω-3 DHA is of interest to immune regulation as its metabolized into potent lipid mediators. We investigated whether lipid mediator pathways are present and functional in the lacrimal gland, if they exhibit sex-specific differences, and if a DHA-rich diet can confer protective actions against DE development. Methods: DE was induced using a model of desiccating stress and scopolamine. Mice were placed on a DHA-rich or DHA-deficient diet for 4 weeks before ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about secondary sexual character at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about secondary sexual character easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
BACKGROUND: Sex-based differences in clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and outcomes of patients with acute chest pain are increasingly being recognized, but are not implemented in guidelines and clinical prediction tools. We evaluated the performance of the HEART score in women versus men, because sex-based differences may exist among the algorithms components: ... read more history, electrocardiogram, age, risk factors, and admission troponin level. METHODS AND RESULTS: The HEART score was retrospectively assessed in 831 women and 1084 men presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain, assigning patients to the low-, intermediate-, or high-risk category for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 6 weeks. MACE, consisting of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and all-cause death, also included events during index visit. Six-week MACE rates were 2 times lower in women than men (10.0% versus 20.8%; P,0.01). Despite similar discriminatory ...
We examined possible age- and gender-specific differences in the function and mass of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles in 36 healthy volunteers using cine gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were divided into four groups (nine men and nine women in each): men aged under 45 years (32 +/- 7), women aged under 45 (27 +/- 6), men aged over 45 (59 +/- 8), and women aged over 45 (57 +/- 9). Functional analysis of cardiac volume and mass and of LV wall motion was performed by manual segmentation of the endocardial and epicardial borders of the end-diastolic and end-systolic frame; both absolute and normalized (per square meter body surface area) values were evaluated. With age there was a significant decrease in both absolute and normalized LV and RV chamber volumes (EDV, ESV), while LV and RV masses remained unchanged. Gender-specific differences were found in cardiac mass and volume (for men and women, respectively: LV mass, 155 +/- 18 and 110 +/- 16 g; LV EDV, 118 +/- 27 and 96 +/
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perinatal lead (Pb) exposure results in sex-specific effects on food intake, fat, weight, and insulin response across the murine life-course. AU - Faulk, Christopher. AU - Barks, Amanda. AU - Sánchez, Brisa N.. AU - Zhang, Zhenzhen. AU - Anderson, Olivia S.. AU - Peterson, Karen E.. AU - Dolinoy, Dana C.. PY - 2014/8/8. Y1 - 2014/8/8. N2 - Developmental lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with lower body weight in human infants and late onset obesity in mice. We determined the association of perinatal Pb exposure in mice with changes in obesity-related phenotypes into adulthood. Mice underwent exposure via maternal drinking water supplemented with 0 (control), 2.1 (low), 16 (medium), or 32 (high) ppm Pb-acetate two weeks prior to mating through lactation. Offspring were phenotyped at ages 3, 6, and 9 months for energy expenditure, spontaneous activity, food intake, body weight, body composition, and at age 10 months for glucose tolerance. Data analyses were stratified by sex ...
Cardiometabolic biomarkers in men and women exhibit different patterns of expression. One of the most comprehensive analyses of sex-based biomarker profiles found that cardiovascular disease (CVD) develops along different pathways in men and women, setting the stage for future investigations that will incorporate sex-based differences into prevention efforts.
Stephan Sanders, B.M.B.S., Ph.D. University of California, San Francisco Autism is diagnosed in boys four times more frequently than in girls.
Genomes of men and women differ in only a limited number of genes located on the sex chromosomes, whereas the transcriptome is far more sex-specific. Identification of sex-biased gene expression will contribute to understanding the molecular basis of sex-differences in complex traits and common diseases. Sex differences in the human peripheral blood transcriptome were characterized using microarrays in 5,241 subjects, accounting for menopause status and hormonal contraceptive use. Sex-specific expression was observed for 582 autosomal genes, of which 57.7% was upregulated in women (female-biased genes). Female-biased genes were enriched for several immune system GO categories, genes linked to rheumatoid arthritis (16%) and genes regulated by estrogen (18%). Male-biased genes were enriched for genes linked to renal cancer (9%). Sex-differences in gene expression were smaller in postmenopausal women, larger in women using hormonal contraceptives and not caused by sex-specific eQTLs, confirming the role of
But in her presentation during the session, Eva Bossano Prescott, MD (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), said it has become clear that while more women than men die from heart disease, they typically do so at an older age-9 years later on average-and this creates a challenge for clinicians.. Additionally, women are more likely than men to have symptoms without having a stenosis, leading many physicians to not even think of treatment, she said. Women presenting with this pattern, often called syndrome X, tend to have higher levels of both depression and anxiety than women actually found to have a stenosis, Bossano Prescott continued. Because many women with syndrome X are not treated, their symptoms can continue for long periods of time and their quality of life suffers.. So counterintuitively, for some patients coming out of the cath lab without a stenosis is more bad news than good, at least with regard to symptoms, Bossano Prescott surmised.. Looking back, COURAGE taught us that its not ...
The placenta plays a critical role in regulating fetal growth. Recent studies suggest that there may be sex-specific differences in placental development. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the associations between birthweight and placental morphology in models adjusted for covariates and to assess sex-specific differences in these associations. We analyzed data from the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Networks population-based case-control study conducted between 2006 and 2008, which recruited cases of stillbirth and population-based controls in 5 states. Our analysis was restricted to singleton live births with a placental examination (n = 1229). Characteristics of placental morphology evaluated include thickness, surface area, difference in diameters, shape, and umbilical cord insertion site. We used linear regression to model birthweight as a function of placental morphology and covariates. Surface area had the greatest association with birthweight; a reduction in surface area of 83 ...
New research finds that depression manifests differently in the brains of male and female teenagers, leading to the need for a differentiated treatment.
James Howard ,jmhoward at sprynet.com, wrote: ,Male Brains slightly larger than Female Brains ,James Howard ,The recent finding that, on average, male brains are slightly larger ,than female brains, adds support to my theory of human evolution. Below ,this is my post, The Flynn Effect yes, testosterone, which explains ,how testosterone increases brain size (posted November 11, 1996). In ,it, you will find my explanatin of the Flynn Effect. The Flynn Effect ,should produce male brains that are larger, on average, than female ,brains. ,The Flynn Effect ...yes, testosterone ,In response to my Current Signals of Increases in Testosterone, which ,explained how I think rising testosterone causes the secular trend and ,is ,affecting a number of phenomena in the U.S., I received this response: ,But IQ scores are rising with the secular trend! The author of this ,comment intended to show that this, real connection between IQ scores ,and the secular trend, refutes my theory. This increase in IQ is ...
In this population-based analysis, sex-based comparisons of potential risk factors for SCA identified 2 distinct clinical factors that were unique to women who experience SCA. Women were significantly less likely than men to have severe LV dysfunction as a precursor to SCA. In addition, there was a significantly lower likelihood of women having an established diagnosis of CAD before SCA. These findings coincided with trends toward higher prevalence of DM and hypertension in women. There were no significant sex differences in the mean body mass index or prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma, or LV hypertrophy. After correction for age, significant sex differences disappeared for the sex-specific QTc categories that account for underlying male-female differences in the QTc interval, but remained for QTc measured continuously. This may imply that when the underlying longer QTc in women is taken into account, QTc does not appear to differentiate ...
In recent times, major advances have been made towards understanding sexual dimorphism in the brain on a molecular basis. This thesis summarises my modest contributions to these endeavours. Sexual dimorphisms are manifested throughout the spectrum of biological complexity, and can be studied by numerous approaches. The approach of this thesis is to explore sex-biased gene expression in mammalian somatic tissues. Paper I describes an evolutionarily conserved sexual gene expression pattern in the primate brain. Conserved sex-biased genes may underlie important sex differences in neurobiology. In Paper II, Y-chromosome genes expressed across several regions of the human male brain during mid-gestation are identified. Such genes may play male-specific roles during brain development. The studies of Papers III and IV explore sex-biased gene expression in several somatic tissues from mouse. The amount of genes with sex-biased expression varied in different brain regions. The striatum was particularly ...
The kidney functions in key physiological processes to filter blood and regulate blood pressure via key molecular transporters and ion channels. Sex-specific differences have been observed in renal disease incidence and progression, as well as acute kidney injury in response to certain drugs. Although advances have been made in characterizing the molecular components involved in various kidney functions, the molecular mechanisms responsible for sex differences are not well understood. We hypothesized that the basal expression levels of genes involved in various kidney functions throughout the life cycle will influence sex-specific susceptibilities to adverse renal events. Whole genome microarray gene expression analysis was performed on kidney samples collected from untreated male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats at eight age groups between 2 and 104 weeks of age. A combined filtering approach using statistical (ANOVA or pairwise t test, FDR 0.05) and fold-change criteria (|1.5 relative fold change)
Sexual size dimorphisms are a common feature in living organisms. The broad horned flour beetle (Gnathocerus cornutus) exhibits a pronounced sexual size dimorphism of the mandibles. It has been shown that enlarged mandibles in males are used in regular fights among males. While this behaviour is well-studied, the developmental basis of exaggerated mandible growth in males is not understood to date. We will apply comparative transcriptomics in combination with a comprehensive developmental characterization of mandible growth to identify key candidate genes involved in this process. Subsequently, candidate genes will be functionally tested via gene knock-down using RNA interference (RNAi). ...
Differences between males and females in the optimal phenotype that is favoured by selection can be resolved by the evolution of differential gene expression in the two sexes. Microarray experiments have shown that such sex-biased gene expression is widespread across organisms and genomes. Sex-biase …
Males and females often face divergent selective pressures because of inherent differences in reproductive strategy, and these differences can be reflected in life history traits, including reproductive effort, longevity, growth and metabolism (Cox and Calsbeek, 2009). In several species, some life history traits (e.g. longevity and basal metabolic rate) appear to be at sub-optimum levels for each sex, and selection related to these phenotypes acts in opposite directions on males and females (Berg and Maklakov, 2012; Boratynski et al., 2010). This suggests that sexually antagonistic selection has led to a phenotypic compromise (Bonduriansky and Chenoweth, 2009; Chapman et al., 2003). Sexually dimorphic gene expression is thought to provide a solution to sexual conflict (van Doorn, 2009), given that males and females share nearly identical genomes (reviewed in Ellegren and Parsch, 2007). Sexually dimorphic patterns of gene expression are thought to account for many of the physiological ...
Gender-specific association of functional prodynorphin 68 bp repeats with cannabis exposure in an African American cohort Vadim Yuferov,* Eduardo R Butelman,* Mary Jeanne Kreek Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) cause substantial neuropsychiatric morbidity and comorbidity. There is evidence for gender-based differences in CUDs, for instance, a greater prevalence in males than in females. The main active component of cannabis is delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), a partial agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Preclinical studies show that genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptor/dynorphin system modulates the effects of delta 9-THC. Methods: In this case-control study of adult African Americans (n=476; 206 females, 270 males), we examined the association of the functional prodynorphin 68 bp (PDYN 68 bp)
It is not known if sex-based disparities in immunological factors contribute to the disease process in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Hence, we examined whether circulating T cell subset proportions and their association with disease activity differed in male and female patients with untreated early rheumatoid arthritis (ueRA). Proportions of T cell subsets were analyzed in peripheral blood from 72 ueRA DMARD- and corticosteroid-naïve patients (50 females and 22 males) and in 31 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Broad analysis of helper and regulatory CD4+ T cell subsets was done using flow cytometry. Disease activity in patients was assessed using DAS28, CDAI, swollen joint counts, tender joint counts, CRP, and ESR. Multivariate factor analyses showed that male and female ueRA patients display distinct profiles of association between disease activity and circulating T cell subset proportions. In male, but not female, ueRA patients Th2 cells showed a positive association with disease activity and
Sexual reproduction in most multi-cellular species requires the development of sex-specific adult structures and the potential to perform sex-specific behaviors. These adult sex-specific phenotypes are typically patterned during development. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of how the genome is deployed in a sex-differential manner during development provides insight into how gene networks give rise to sex-specific traits. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an excellent model system for studying how sex-specific differences are established at the molecular-genetic level. The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy is responsible for establishing adult sex-specific morphologies and behaviors through an alternative pre-mRNA splicing cascade that culminates in the production of sex-specific transcription factors encoded by doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Little is known, however, about the genes regulated by these transcription factors during development.; Metamorphosis is the ...
Sexual reproduction in most multi-cellular species requires the development of sex-specific adult structures and the potential to perform sex-specific behaviors. These adult sex-specific phenotypes are typically patterned during development. Therefore, a more thorough understanding of how the genome is deployed in a sex-differential manner during development provides insight into how gene networks give rise to sex-specific traits. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an excellent model system for studying how sex-specific differences are established at the molecular-genetic level. The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy is responsible for establishing adult sex-specific morphologies and behaviors through an alternative pre-mRNA splicing cascade that culminates in the production of sex-specific transcription factors encoded by doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Little is known, however, about the genes regulated by these transcription factors during development.; Metamorphosis is the ...
Although sex-related differences of cardiovascular outcomes exist (16), this may relate to a sex-specific clustering of risk factors (17). Yet, differential treatment patterns for cardiovascular disease in men and women may also contribute to differences in clinical outcome between the sexes (18-20). Statins comprise the cornerstone of our current antiatherosclerotic armamentarium, yielding widespread clinical benefits. A consistent under-representation of women in randomized clinical trials, however, has led to the publication of meta-analyses reporting conflicting results regarding the efficacy of statins in women (21,22). This inconsistency has created confusion and controversy among physicians, resulting in some openly questioning the merits of prescribing statins to women (5,23,24), despite clinical trials that enrolled both men and women reporting benefit (25).. This analysis reports the novel finding of sex-related differences of the serial response of coronary atheroma following 2 years ...
Background Many genes produce multiple transcripts due to alternative splicing or utilization of alternative transcription initiation/termination sites. This transcriptome expansion is thought to increase phenotypic complexity by allowing a single locus to produce several functionally distinct proteins. However, sex, genetic and developmental variation in the representation of alternative transcripts has never been examined systematically. Here, we describe a genome-wide analysis of sex-specific expression of alternative transcripts in Drosophila melanogaster. Results We compared transcript profiles in males and females from eight Drosophila lines (OregonR and2b, and 6 RIL) using a newly designed 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray that allows us to distinguish a large proportion of alternative transcripts. The new microarray incorporates 7,207 oligonucleotides, satisfying stringent binding and specificity criteria that target both the common and the unique regions of 2,768 multi-transcript genes, as
There is growing evidence of a camouflaging effect among females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), particularly among those without intellectual disability, which may affect performance on gold-standard diagnostic measures. This study utilized an age- and IQ-matched sample of school-aged youth (n …
New research led by Biostatistics Chair John Quackenbush and Dawn DeMeo of Brigham and Womens Hospital, has uncovered sex-based differences in networks that regulate gene expression in a large number of human tissues. The finding is … Continue reading New Study Sheds Light on Sex-Based Differences in Gene Regulation. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Hypertension (HTN) exhibits sexual dimorphism; the incidence for women surpasses men during the sixth decade of life, while the pharmacological treatments are less effective and produce more side-effects in women than in men. Aerobic exercise (AE) has been shown to prevent and treat HTN; however, resistance exercise (RE) is not recommended as a strategy to treat HTN. In this study, we investigated the potential sex differences of AE versus RE in a cohort of unmedicated patients with hypertension. In total, 40 moderately active, pre-hypertensive or stage 1 essential hypertensive male (M) and female (F) participants aged 40 to 60 years were randomly divided into four groups: M AE, M RE, F AE, and F. Each group exercised at moderate intensity, 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Hemodynamic, vascular and blood-flow data were collected before and after exercise training. Men showed a significant increase in central pulse wave velocity following RE while females showed no significant changes (12 ± to 13.9 ± vs. 9.2
The powerful pressures of sexual and natural selection associated with species recognition and reproduction are thought to manifest in a faster rate of evolution in sex-biased genes, an effect that has been documented particularly for male-biased genes expressed in the reproductive tract. However, little is known about the rate of evolution for genes involved in sexually dimorphic behaviors, which often form the neurological basis of intrasexual competition and mate choice. We used microarray data, designed to uncover sex-biased expression patterns in embryonic chicken brain, in conjunction with data on the rate of sequence evolution for ,4,000 coding regions aligned between chicken and zebra finch in order to study the role of selection in governing the molecular evolution for sex-biased and unbiased genes. Surprisingly, we found that female-biased genes, defined across a range of cutoff values, show a higher rate of functional evolution than both male-biased and unbiased genes. Autosomal ...
Many animals exhibit innate sexually dimorphic sexual behaviours. Male flies, for example, follow elaborate courtship rituals to secure a female mate. Nervous system sexual dimorphisms probably underlie many sex-specific behaviours, but how are these neuronal dimorphisms generated? On p. 323, David Mellert and colleagues report that one such dimorphism - midline crossing by gustatory (taste) receptor neuron (GRN) axons in male, but not female, Drosophila - is regulated by the sex determination genes fruitless (fru) and doublesex (dsx) and the Roundabout (Robo) axon guidance receptors. fru and dsx are regulated during pre-RNA splicing to produce male- and female-specific isoforms, with female-specific fru mRNA not being translated. The researchers show that, in male flies, male-specific Fru and Dsx promote midline crossing by foreleg GRN axons, whereas in female flies, female-specific Dsx represses midline crossing. They also show that male-specific Fru exerts its effect on midline crossing by ...
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are key actors of innate immunity that produce high levels of interferon (IFN)-alpha after activation of their Toll-Like Receptors (TLR) by pathogens. A difference between men and women has recently been shown in the level of IFN-alpha produced by pDCs after TLR activation. The production of IFN-alpha in response to TLR7 activation is higher in the presence of estrogens. This could be responsible for gender differences in the level of plasma HIV-1 RNA, that is lower in female as compared to male by about 50%, and for the sex-based differences in the susceptibility to HIV infection. Besides the role of estrogens, X-linked genetic factors could also be involved in the sex-dependent differences in the TLR7-mediated responses of pDCs. TLR7 gene is located on the X chromosome. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TLR7 gene, c.32A,T, have been associated with accelerated disease progression in male HIV patients, and was found over represented in female HIV ...
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.10440 Jennifer A. Calvo, Mariacarmela Allocca, Kimberly R. Fake, Sureshkumar Muthupalani, Joshua J. Corrigan, Roderick T. Bronson, Leona D. Samson
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.10440 Jennifer A. Calvo, Mariacarmela Allocca, Kimberly R. Fake, Sureshkumar Muthupalani, Joshua J. Corrigan, Roderick T. Bronson, Leona D. Samson
In this follow-up study of the offspring of women participating in an RCT for the treatment of mild GDM, we observed no difference in the overall frequency of obesity or metabolic dysfunction at ages 5-10 years according to whether treatment was undertaken. We did, however, observe sex-specific differences according to treatment with respect to childhood blood glucose levels. Mild GDM treatment was associated with a decreased frequency of impaired fasting glucose, lower fasting glucose, and lower log HOMA-IR in female offspring at ages 5-10 years but not in male offspring.. This follow-up study represents the largest of its kind in offspring from a randomized treatment trial for mild GDM. The follow-up rate of 55% in those eligible from the original RCT was accomplished despite this being an unplanned study at the time we conducted the RCT. However, enrollment of 500 children fell short of our goal of 600 needed to observe at least a one-third reduction in childhood obesity with treatment with ...
This course will explore the relationship between an animals behavior and its social and ecological context. The topic for 2010 will be the evolution of sexual dimorphism in animals. Sexual dimorphism is widespread in animals, yet its causes remain controversial and have generated much debate. In this seminar, we will examine a variety of sexual dimorphisms in different groups of animals and consider hypotheses for how these sexual dimorphisms may have evolved. We will then consider how such hypotheses are tested in an attempt to identify the best approaches to studying the evolution of sexual dimorphisms. Then we will look at evidence that either supports or refutes various hypothesized mechanisms for the evolution of sexual dimorphisms in different animal groups. Finally, we will consider whether some mechanisms for the evolution of sexual dimorphism are more common among certain kinds of organisms (predators) than others (herbivores). Three hours per week.Requisite: One or more of Biology ...
This course will explore the relationship between an animals behavior and its social and ecological context. The topic for this semester will be the evolution of sexual dimorphism in animals. Sexual dimorphism is widespread in animals, yet its causes remain controversial and have generated much debate. In this seminar, we will examine a variety of sexual dimorphisms in different groups of animals and consider hypotheses for how these sexual dimorphisms may have evolved. We will then consider how such hypotheses are tested in an attempt to identify the best approaches to studying the evolution of sexual dimorphisms. Then we will look at evidence that either supports or refutes various hypothesized mechanisms for the evolution of sexual dimorphisms in different animal groups. Finally, we will consider whether some mechanisms for the evolution of sexual dimorphism are more common among certain kinds of organisms (predators) than others (herbivores). Three hours per week.. Requisite: One or more of ...
Schalekamp-Timmermans S, Arends L, Alsaker E, Chappell L, Hansson S, Harsem N, et al.. Fetal sex-specific differences in gestational age at delivery in pre-eclampsia: a meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2017;46(2):632-642. ...
Sexually dimorphic traits arise through the combined effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on sex-biased gene expression, and experimental mouse models have been instrumental in determining their relative contribution in modulating sex differences. A role for the Y chromosome (ChrY) in mediating sex differences outside of development and reproduction has historically been overlooked due to its unusual genetic composition and the predominant testes-specific expression of ChrY-encoded genes. However, ample evidence now exists supporting ChrY as a mediator of other physiological traits in males, and genetic variation in ChrY has been linked to several diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and autoimmune diseases in experimental animal models, as well as humans. The genetic and molecular mechanisms by which ChrY modulates phenotypic variation in males remain unknown but may be a function of copy number variation between homologous X-Y multicopy genes driving differential gene expression. Here, we
Over the past two decades, we have learned a lot about how men and women respond differently to medications. This knowledge came after a concerted effort in the early 90s to increase the number of women in NIH-funded clinical research. Today, just over half of NIH-funded clinical research participants are women. Unfortunately, experimental design in cell and animal research has not always followed suit. Over-reliance on male animals and neglect of attention to the sex of cells used in research can lead to oversight of key sex-related differences. These differences should guide clinical studies, and ultimately, clinical practice. In 2014, the NIH began instituting a new policy that requires applicants to report their plans for the balance of male and female cells and animals in preclinical studies in all future grant applications, unless sex-specific inclusion is unwarranted. A commentary published in Nature by NIH Director Francis Collins, M.D., PH.D, and Director for Research on Womens ...
Many of us think of hormones as the gender-specific molecules we learned about in middle school health class-little chemical messengers that govern our reproductive development and behaviors. But sex steroids like testosterone and estrogen have reach beyond our nether regions and reproductive behaviors. They affect the entire brain both during development and throughout adult life: shaping, activating, and fueling sexually dimorphic brain circuits involved in stress and memory as well as several psychiatric disorders.. Sexual dimorphic brain development. Sex is determined by two chromosomes: men have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome, while women have two X chromosomes. The Y chromosome contains the SRY gene, which triggers a flood of androgens (the group of hormones that includes testosterone) sometime between six and twelve weeks of gestation, guiding the development of the penis and testes. But this fetal testosterone bath also makes its mark on the brains architecture, resulting in ...
Stacy Sims (SS): There are sex differences from birth, but they arent really apparent until the onset of puberty- when there is the rise in testosterone in boys (stimulating muscle mass development), and the onset of the menstrual cycle. Here, it is always thought that it is the upswing in testosterone is what causes the massive difference in the ability to put on muscle mass in boys vs girls, but the upsurge in estrogen (and progesterone) in women affects the genetic expression for muscle cell turnover/protein synthesis. What I mean by this, is that estrogen turns down anabolic capacity of the muscle, and progesterone turns up the catabolism of muscle tissue. Additionally, elevated circulating levels of estrogen alters metabolism to spare carbohydrate/glycogen and increase circulating free fatty acids. When we look at this from the perspective of what happens during the menstrual cycle, the 10-14days preceeding bleeding is when estrogen and progesterone levels increase; and the effects ...
Background. Sex differences in LV mechanics exist at rest and during acute physiological stress. Differences in cardiac autonomic and adrenergic control may contribute to sex differences in LV mechanics and LV hemodynamics. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate sex differences in LV mechanics with altered adrenergic stimulation achieved through post handgrip exercise ischemia (PEI) and ß1-adrenergic receptor (AR) blockade. Methods and Results. 20 males (23±5 yr) and 20 females (22±3 yr) were specifically matched for LV length (males: 8.5±0.5 cm, females: 8.2±0.6 cm, p=0.163), and 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography was used to assess LV structure and function at baseline, during PEI and following administration of 5mg bisoprolol (ß1-AR antagonist). During PEI, LV end-diastolic volume and stroke volume were increased in both groups (p,0.001), as was end-systolic wall stress (p,0.001). LV twist and apical rotation werent altered from baseline or different between the ...
Many pathophysiological mechanisms in human health and disease are dependent on sex. Systems biology approaches are successfully used to decipher human disease etiology, yet the effect of sex on gene network biology is mostly unknown. To address this, we used RNA-sequencing data of over 700 individuals spanning 24 tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project to generate a whole-body gene activity map and quantified the sex differences per tissue. We found that of the 13,787 genes analyzed in 24 tissues, 20.1% of the gene activity is influenced by sex. For example, skeletal muscle was predominantly enriched with genes more active in males, whereas thyroid primarily contained genes more active in females. This was accompanied by consistent sex differences in pathway activity, including hypoxia, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and inflammation over the human body. Furthermore, multi-organ analyses revealed consistent sex-dependent gene activity over numerous tissues which was ...
Metz E. A study of the unconjugated steroids of bovine heart. II. Comparison of steroids of the male heart with those of the female heart. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1969;68(10):1052. doi: .. Download citation file:. ...
There is growing evidence that there are sex differences in response to drugs of abuse. However, only a limited number of studies in rodents have assessed wheth...
The conversion of white adipose to the highly thermogenic beige adipose tissue has been proposed as a potential strategy to counter the unfavorable consequences of obesity. Three regulators of this conversion have recently emerged but information regarding their control is limited, and contradictory. We present two studies examining the control of these regulators. Study 1: In 10 young men, the plasma concentrations of irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were determined prior to and during activation of the sympathetic nervous system via hypoxic gas breathing (FIO2 = 0.11). The ...
(2005) Gharaee-Kermani et al. American Journal of Pathology. The role of gender and sex hormones is unclear in host response to lung injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. To examine gender influence on pulmonary fibrosis, male and female rats were given endotr...
Claims of male-female differences in how genes affect disease often lack proper documentation or validation, experts report in the Aug. 22 29 issue of the Journ
Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have identified variants of a gene that if inherited by women may contribute to the development of depression.
... gender expression and sex characteristics. Physical sex characteristics include primary sex characteristics and secondary sex ... The Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act defined sex characteristics as: "sex characteristics" refers ... Sex characteristics is defined as: UNDERSTANDING 'sex characteristics' as each person's physical features relating to sex, ... unlike the sex organs, are not directly part of the reproductive system. Sex characteristics is a term used in law and in human ...
... but unlike the sex organs (primary sex characteristics), are not directly part of the reproductive system. Secondary sex ... Differences in size between sexes are also considered secondary sexual characteristics. In humans, visible secondary sex ... Fisherian runaway produced by the secondary characteristic in one sex and the desire for that characteristic in the other sex. ... but they may also be considered non-secondary sex characteristics because they are features of both sexes following puberty. In ...
"Secondary sex characteristics". .hu-berlin.de. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2011. Lawrence ... These development stages of secondary sex characteristics (breasts, pubic hair, etc.) are illustrated in the five-stage Tanner ... Breast size and other characteristics do not predict the fat-to-milk-gland ratio or the potential for the woman to nurse an ... International Academy of Sex Research. 40 (1): 43-50. doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9523-5. PMID 19688590. S2CID 4997497. "Hourglass ...
Commuting Characteristics by Sex in Lawrence, KS. Maciag, Mike (October 16, 2012). "New Data Shows Where Americans Bike to Work ... "Commuting Characteristics by Sex". American Community Survey. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved May 24 ... The registry, which took effect on August 1, 2007, provides unmarried couples -both same-sex and other-sex- some recognition by ...
Commuting Characteristics by Sex (St. Paul)". American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau: American FactFinder. Archived from ... Commuting Characteristics by Sex (Portland)". American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau: American FactFinder. Archived from ... Commuting Characteristics by Sex (United States)". American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau: American FactFinder. Archived ... Commuting Characteristics by Sex (Minneapolis)". American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau: American FactFinder. Archived ...
"The secondary sexual characteristics". The Sex Atlas. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-10-09. Hips grow ... However, not all females adhere to this stereotypical pattern of secondary sex characteristics. Both male and female hormones ... "Sex hormone making women fat?". The Times of India. 2009-04-07. Archived from the original on 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2011-10-09 ... Secondary sexual characteristics occur as part of the pubertal process See Gender differences in Human skeleton and Sexual ...
It calls for no-one to be subjected to invasive or irreversible medical procedures to modify sex characteristics without their ... The principles were supplemented and expanded in 2017 to include new grounds of gender expression and sex characteristics and a ... In a manual on Promoting and Protecting Human Rights in relation to Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity and Sex Characteristics ... They do not specifically distinguish sex characteristics." Those issues were addressed in the Yogyakarta Principles plus 10 ...
Androgynous - having the characteristics of both sexes. The Father-Mother God Principle. Anointed, The - refers to the ...
These characteristics are found in both sexes. Additionally, the males have convergent carinae on their sixth ventral abdominal ... It is a characteristic of all bees of the genus Eucera to have vertical and elongated cells within nests. There are around two ... It is thought that the cause of this sex attraction is due to small glands located on tergites on the abdomen. In Eucera ... Eucera kullenbergi is known to fall victim to sexual deception by Ophrys leochroma flowers that mimic the sex pheromones of ...
Zander, C.D. (1975). "Secondary sex characteristics of blennioid fishes (Perciformes)". Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica ...
"District of Columbia Commuting Characteristics by Sex". 2010 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. Archived ... Legislation authorizing same-sex marriage passed in 2009, and the district began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples ... "Age and Sex Composition: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. May 2011. p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on January ... "Demographic Characteristics of the District and Metro Area" (PDF). DC Office of Planning/State Data Center. Archived (PDF) from ...
Both sexes have the same body characteristics. The length of the pale yellow-brown, smooth carapace ranges from 1.1 to 1.7 mm. ... BBC News (April 30, 2009): Spider sex violent but effective (Articles with short description, Short description is different ...
The males are larger than the females and exhibit secondary sex characteristics (SSC). The SSC are especially seen during ... Zander, C.D. (1975). "Secondary Sex Characteristics of Blennoid": 717-727. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= ( ... Another characteristic being, this class typically has cycloid or ctenoid scales in comparison to pointed placoid scales. These ... One of the distinguishing characteristics of this class is that the organisms have a skeleton at least partially made of bone. ...
At puberty, humans develop secondary sex characteristics. Females are capable of pregnancy, usually between puberty, at around ... Bredella MA (2017). "Sex Differences in Body Composition". In Mauvais-Jarvis F (ed.). Sex and Gender Factors Affecting ... Like other mammals, humans have an XY sex-determination system, so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY. ... Herdt, Gilbert (2020). "Third Sexes and Third Genders". Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and ...
Its supraneural bones amount to 5, while its gill rakers range from 6-8. Secondary sex characteristics were not found so far. ... A. pelecus also differs from members of its genus by its characteristic color pattern. It possesses a single humeral spot that ...
"Gender Identity, Gender Expression And Sex Characteristics Act". meae.gov.mt. Retrieved 28 October 2022. "Joanne Cassar loses ... sex characteristics and expression. MGRM was set up in 2001, making it the first and most influential LGBTIQ+ lobbying group in ... Gender Expression And Sex Characteristics Act. TGEUdescribed the act as setting 'a new benchmark in Europe' through its ' ... The bill did not include same-sex couples in the legal definition of "family" which meant that if a same-sex couple with ...
Secondary sex characteristics were not found so far. In alcohol, the dorsal and dorsolateral portions of the fish's head and ...
The act provides that: "Sex" (1) Sex is a protected characteristic. (2) In relation to the protected characteristic - (a) a ... "DISCRIMINATION (SEX AND RELATED CHARACTERISTICS) (JERSEY) REGULATIONS 2015". 2015. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016 ... Since 1 September 2015, Discrimination (Jersey) Law 2013 includes intersex status within its definition of sex. Sex is one of ... a reference to persons who share the characteristic is a reference to persons who are of the same sex. (3) In this paragraph, a ...
1923) "Sex Characteristics of Systolic Blood Pressure Behavior." Journal of Experimental Psychology, 6, 387-419. (1924) " ... One of the purposes of these bondage depictions was to induce eroticism in readers as a part of what he called "sex love ... The Venus Girdle was an allegory for Marston's theory of "sex love" training, where people can be "trained" to embrace ... Our Women Are Our Future Archived July 27, 2006, at the Wayback Machine Cereno, Benito (May 9, 2016). "Sex, Love, Bondage: The ...
Sex and Related Characteristics) (Jersey) Regulations 2015 and campaigning to legalise same-sex marriage. LGBT portal Politics ... "Discrimination (Sex and Related Characteristics) (Jersey) Regulations 2015". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. ... On 2 June 2015, Jersey passed the Discrimination (Sex and Related Characteristics) (Jersey) Regulations 2015, protecting LGBT ... P.77/2015 Same-sex marriage, divorce and dissolution Same-sex marriage, divorce and dissolution - paragraph (a) "States ...
Malta passed the 'Gender Identity, Gender Expression, and Sex Characteristics Act in 2015. This bill states that all citizens ... "Gender Identity, Gender Expression And Sex Characteristics Act". Social Dialogue Malta. Archived from the original on 2015-04- ... "Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act (Malta, 2015)". Transgender Europe. Archived from the original ... "non-medically necessary treatments on the sex characteristics of a person." Media can contribute to trans bashing through ...
"GENDER IDENTITY, GENDER EXPRESSION AND SEX CHARACTERISTICS ACT" (PDF). 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2022. "Denmark becomes ... Gender Expression And Sex Characteristics Act (Maltese: Att dwar l-Identità tal-Ġeneru, l-Espressjoni tal-Ġeneru u l- ... To change the "sex" marker in the civil registry, they must have a judicial order. As Mexico is a federation, legal gender ... Since 1 September 2014, Danes over 18 years of age who wish to apply for a legal sex change can do so by stating that they want ...
At this state, secondary sex characteristics are not expected. Furthermore, tusks are present in almost all known ... In 1974, Thulborn suggested that the large tusks of heterodontosaurids represented a secondary sex characteristic. According to ... The characteristic chisel-like shape of the fully erupted teeth therefore resulted from tooth-to-tooth contact between the ...
While humans are known to have sex characteristics that diverge from "true male" or "true female," these individuals fall under ... Genitalia produce the hormones responsible for other sex characteristics.[citation needed] Natural chimeras are almost never ... ISBN 978-1-4831-4668-3. Dawson, Ernest Rumley (1917). The Causation of Sex in Man: A New Theory of Sex Based on Clinical ... if the zygotes were of differing sexes, then even the possession of both female and male sex organs. Animal chimeras are ...
"Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics". PNAS. 105 (35): 12938-12943. Bibcode:2008PNAS.. ... It was also found that sex-typical joint configurations were rated as more attractive and linked to lower FA in men, but not ... Research on skull characteristics of Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) demonstrated that those born after 1960 (marking an ... Thornhill, Randy; Gangestad, Steven, W. (May 1999). "The scent of symmetry: A human sex pheromone that signals fitness?". ...
"Characteristics of Same-Sex Couple Households: 2005 to Present". census.gov. Public opinion on same-sex marriage by state: ... same-sex marriage. The bill stood in clear violation of the U.S. Constitution, which under Obergefell guarantees same-sex ... "SAME-SEX MARRIAGE" DEBATE Howard, Adam (May 23, 2014). "Gay couples sue South Dakota to overturn same-sex marriage ban". MSNBC ... Same-sex marriage in South Dakota has been legal since June 26, 2015 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges ...
The male sex has different characteristics than the female. The male has a bright yellow forehead, and a lime-green crown (top ... Both sexes share the same attributes. The crown of the Kaffa Heuglin's white-eye is rich green with a yellow forehead leading ... Both sexes share the same attributes. During the dry season, the Heuglin's white-eye are commonly found in large flocks of up ...
Desantts A, Kayson WA (October 1997). "Defendants' characteristics of attractiveness, race, and sex and sentencing decisions". ... Nevid JS (1984). "Sex differences in factors of romantic attraction". Sex Roles. 11 (5-6): 401-11. doi:10.1007/BF00287468. ... ISBN 978-0-465-07750-2. Bar-Tal D, Saxe L (1976). "Physical attractiveness and its relationship to sex-role stereotyping". Sex ... "Fluctuating asymmetry and preferences for sex-typical bodily characteristics". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ...
APA task force (1994) "...preoccupation with getting rid of primary and secondary sex characteristics..." in DSM-IV: Sections ... Pfäfflin F., Junge A. (1998) "...This critique for the use of the term sex change in connection to sex reassignment surgery ... such as hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery to more closely align their primary and secondary sex characteristics with ... "Sex -- Medical Definition". medilexicon.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22.: defines sex as a biological or ...
Extremely attractive individuals may be refused by their own sex type who are envious of them. Attractive people are often ... doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1988.tb01190.x. DeSantis, A.; Kayson, W.A. (1997). "Defendants' characteristics of attractiveness, race ... People pay more attention to physically attractive strangers than to unattractive strangers of either sex. For example, people ... In many cases, humans attribute positive characteristics, such as intelligence and honesty, to attractive people without ...
Sex Girl Voiced by Terry Hudson. A female prostitute who occasionally shows up in the Interview section of the show. After a ... During the Precious Roy ads, Olly's grammar shows characteristics of the Central Pennsylvania dialect. (He mentions both that a ... Sifl usually goes first, making awkward noises and distracting Olly, while Olly always blows his chance with Sex Girl giving ... brief talk, usually Sifl and Olly decide to make out with Sex Girl. ...
... although the General School Ordinance applied equally to both sexes. Religion pluralism posed problems in the Banat of the ... the textbook took on specific Russian characteristics. In contrast to the earlier Serbian and Romanian manual, this one ...
The American cockroach shows a characteristic insect morphology with its body bearing divisions as head, trunk, and abdomen. ... Dependent on several factors, including temperature (significantly), sex, and nutrition. German cockroaches can glide, ...
The sex of the fetus may be discerned by ultrasound as early as 11 weeks' gestation. The accuracy is relatively imprecise when ... is possible if the fetus does not display intersex external characteristics. The following is accuracy data from two hospitals ... Odeh, Marwan; Grinin, Vitali; Kais, Mohamad; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob (2009). "Sonographic Fetal Sex Determination". ... pregnancy as well as the ability to see and determine features like the sex of the fetus affect the way in which pregnancy is ...
Both sexes are primarily greenish-yellow, with dark green to brown-black iridescent patches on the flanks and dorsal surface. ... These characteristics are anti-predator adaptations that make the fish difficult to swallow or bite. Biologists believe these ... meaning members do not necessarily share an immediate common ancestor but have been grouped based on common characteristics. ...
It is, however, separable from all species in the clade by a range of characteristics. The surface of the middle (median) ... ocular tubercle is smooth and shiny in both sexes, besides the surrounding carapace surface of females. The pedipalp base ( ...
Although much of the gameplay characteristic to stealth games accords closely with the requirements of the non-violent genre, ... Houston Law Review Clinton wades into GTA sex storm. BBC News. 14 July 2005. Retrieved 29 August 2006. Senators Clinton, ... De Angeli, A.; Brahnam, S. (2006). "Sex stereotypes and conversational agents". Proc. of Gender and Interaction. Real and ... and a degree of tension exists in the field between the traditional stereotype of violence as a male-dominant characteristic ...
... characteristics of the parents. Gemmules could also remain dormant for several generations before becoming active. He also ... and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) and The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). The book had been advertised ... the gemmules in an organism and thus allowed for the possibility of the Lamarckian inheritance of acquired characteristics. ...
Beneath the common people were the so-called "mean" people such as boat-people, beggars, sex-workers, entertainers, slaves, and ... The Confucian characteristic of the later imperial exams was largely due to the reign of Emperor Wu of Han during the Han ... the true characteristic of the Song political system was not autocracy but "scholar-official (shidafu) government", made ...
I: Population, General Characteristics. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1953. p. 6.73-6.83. "Table 6: Population by sex ... "Population by specified age groups and sex, for census subdivisions, 1966". Census of Canada, 1966. Vol. Population, Specified ... Age Groups and Sex for Counties and Census Subdivisions, 1966. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics. 1968. p. 6.50-6.53. " ...
From Edgar's label as "faggot" to Katrina's descriptions of sex with her boyfriend, R. Zamora Linmark urges readers to ... doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1989.tb02485.x. Kimmel, Douglas C. and Huso Yi (2004). "Characteristics of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual ... Kimmel, Douglas C. and Huso Yi (2004). "Characteristics of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Asians, Asian Americans, and Immigrants ...
Not only was sex work a part of these occupations, but companionship was also a major task that many dagongmei interpreted as ... "the double characteristics of being a peasant and a woman," which illustrates their marginal and vulnerable position in the ... In regards to sex work and prostitution, many rural women relied on their youthful attractiveness to earn a livelihood, but ... In addition, these women were involved in sex work or domestic services. On the other hand, males either worked technical- ...
Different interview characteristics also seem to impact the likelihood of faking. Faking behavior is less prevalent, for ... This can be explained by the Sex-Linked Anxiety Coping Theory (SCT). This theory suggests that females cope better than males ... In this phase, interviewers are likely to already have ideas about the characteristics that would make a person ideal or ... The job interview is a tool used to measure constructs or overall characteristics that are relevant for the job. Oftentimes, ...
Young are attended to by both sexes, but incubation period and other nesting habits are mostly unknown. BirdLife International ... 1998). Effects of habitat and landscape characteristics on avian breeding distributions in Colorado foothills shrub. ...
The female is the brighter of the sexes and initiates courtship. The male incubates the eggs and tends the young. Small ... Barbary falcon, Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides Order: Psittaciformes Family: Psittaculidae Characteristic features of parrots ... Tytonidae Barn owls are medium to large owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs ...
While some suggest that MSA affects slightly more men than women (1.3:1), others suggest that the two sexes are equally likely ... A table describing the characteristics and modern names of these conditions follows: The current terminology and diagnostic ...
Another distinctive characteristic of cultural life is the vibrancy of its downtown, particularly during summer, prompted by ... Sex crimes have increased 14.5 per cent between 2015 and 2016 and fraud cases have increased by 13 per cent over the same ...
The males of the different species reach lengths of 40 to 58 millimetres (1.6 to 2.3 in). Characteristic and thus autapomorphic ... Only Josef Redtenbacher described the female of Theramenes dromedarius in 1906 and depicts both sexes. Heinrich Hugo Karny ... Carl Stål presents the genus Theramenes rather casually, after listing typical characteristics of Eurycantha, why the species ...
However, the distinguishing characteristic of the Germans for Caesar, as described in chapters 23 and 24, is their warring ... yet their culture celebrates men who abstain from sex for as long as possible (6.21). Caesar concludes in chapters 25-28 by ...
GBD 2013 Mortality Causes of Death Collaborators (January 2015). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and ... that continuously emits ultrasound and detects motion of the fetal heart by the characteristic of the reflected sound. The ... painful sex or severe vaginal/perineal trauma after birth. In cases of a head first-presenting first twin, twins can often be ...
The ears are short and very rounded, and both sexes lack antlers.[citation needed] The coat is an overall golden brown color ... Yet, its unique anatomical characteristics have caused it to be classified in its own genus (Hydropotes) as well as its own ...
... has sex with partners at increased risk of having HIV (e.g. intravenous drug users, men who have sex with men) without ... for HIV-negative adults with the following characteristics: sexually active in the last six months and NOT in a sexually ... On-demand or daily oral TD-FTC for HIV-negative MSM having unprotected anal sex with partners who are HIV positive, unless the ... at elevated risk of HIV acquisition through unprotected anal sex in the previous six months and ongoing unprotected anal sex. ...
The stallion's reproductive system is responsible for his sexual behavior and secondary sex characteristics (such as a large ... The internal genitalia accessory sex glands are the vesicular glands, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands, which ...
Vengeance is not a characteristic lacking in Sharpe. Garrard and Sharpe met in Sharpe's Tiger in the ranks. They both stayed in ... After engaging in a scuffle in Loup's bedroom, Sharpe and Juanita have sex. She steals Perkins' jacket before she leaves the ...
These periods of isolation led to the development of various linguistic characteristics distinct from Byzantine Greek. The ... and sex, education, region, and time spent living in Greece (where [ʎ] is standard). Arvaniti 2010 notes that speakers of some ... Tserdanelis, Giorgos; Arvaniti, Amalia (2001). "The acoustic characteristics of geminate consonants in Cypriot Greek" (PDF). ... 37-44.[permanent dead link] Eklund, Robert (2008). "Pulmonic ingressive phonation: Diachronic and synchronic characteristics, ...
The Bootleg Series is a single CD of songs handpicked by the band for their unique characteristics, where the Just Did It ... Sex Machine by James Brown 2014: Animals by Pink Floyd 2015: Physical Graffiti by Led Zeppelin 2016: Boston (album) by Boston ...
Many sites allow potential buyers to search for sex workers by physical characteristics and types of services offered. Internet ... A 2004 TNS poll reported 15 percent of all men have paid for sex and 30 percent of single men over age 30 have paid for sex. ... Nathan Koppel (February 16, 2011). "Louisiana's 'Crime Against Nature' Sex Law Draws Legal Fire". The Wall Street Journal. "Sex ... sex shows, and sex clubs. Street prostitution is illegal throughout the United States. Street prostitution tends to be ...
... of cases occurred in the community of men who have sex with men (MSM), mainly those who have multiple sex partners (median of 5 ... Philpott, David (2022). "Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of Monkeypox Cases - United States, May 17-July 22, 2022". ... and other men who have sex with men (cisgender or transgender) ages 18 and older who have had multiple or anonymous sex ... UKHSA reported on 10 June that 311 of the 314 cases where sex was known were men, and that all of the 151 infected persons who ...
The characteristic red, spotted (petechial) rash of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is usually not seen until the sixth day or ... male sex, African or Caribbean background, long-term excessive alcohol use and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) ... The characteristic rash observed in Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the direct result of this localized replication of ... "What are characteristics of the maculopapular rash in Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF)?". www.medscape.com. Retrieved 2021- ...
Histopathological characteristics on top of Kadish classification can further determine cancer prognosis. In severe, Kadish ... Stokes WA, Camilon PR, Banglawala SM, Nguyen SA, Harvey R, Vandergrift WA, Schlosser RJ (2015). "Is sex an independent ... The tumor composition, location and metastatic characteristics as well as the treatment plan determine prognosis. Common ...
State- and Sex-Specific Prevalence of Selected Characteristics- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1992 and 1993 Emma ... sex. Other studies have also demonstrated the prevalence of these drinking patterns to vary by geographic region and sex (16,17 ... TABLE 7. Percentage of adults who reported always wearing a safety belt while driving or riding in a car, by sex -- Behavioral ... Each states yearly data file was weighted to both the respondents probability of selection and the age- and sex-specific or ...
Sex of larvae and chromosome arrangement in A. Atroparvus / by L. Rivosecchi, K. R. S. Ascher, E. Mosna  ...
... many people are beginning to understand that the categories of sex and gender are far more complicated. ... Society typically tells us that there are two sexes, male and female, and that they align with two genders, man and woman. With ... Secondary sex characteristics. Many secondary sex characteristics are easily identifiable. This includes facial hair, breast ... But secondary sex characteristics vary greatly, regardless of whether someone identifies with the sex they were assigned at ...
Age and Sex for the Population aged 0 to 14 Years in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Divisions ... Family Characteristics of Children (17), Age (4B) and Sex (3) for the Population aged 0 to 14 Years in Private Households of ... Family Characteristics of Children (17), Age (4B) and Sex (3) for the Population aged 0 to 14 Years in Private Households of ... This table presents Family Characteristics of Children, ...
... gender expression and sex characteristics was written and researched by Kseniya Kirichenko, edited by André du Plessis and Lara ... UN Treaty Bodies: References to sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, and sex characteristics (2016) ... gender expression and sex characteristics was written and researched by Kseniya Kirichenko, edited by André du Plessis and Lara ... gender expression and sex characteristics 2016 (Geneva: ILGA, November 2017) ...
Homosexuals are defined by one characteristic and one characteristic only: they want to use the anal cavity for sex. This kind ... Fischer: "Homosexuals Are Defined By One Characteristic Only: They Want to Use the Anal Cavity for Sex" By Kyle Mantyla , ... "want to use the anal cavity for sex": ...
Sex characteristics. In the World Health Organizations global data, the prevalence ratio of diabetes for men and women varies ... Age characteristics. Type 1 diabetes occurs most commonly in children and adolescents but may occur in individuals of any age. ... Race characteristics. In the United States, African Americans, Hispanic persons, and Native Americans are about twice as likely ... The relative difference in frequency between the sexes is probably related to the presence of underlying factors such as ...
... sex with someone who also had engaged in sex with a network member, commercial sex work, and unprotected sex. Findings showed ... sex with someone who also had engaged in sex with a network member, commercial sex work, and unprotected sex. Findings showed ... sex with someone who also had engaged in sex with a network member, commercial sex work, and unprotected sex. Findings showed ... sex with someone who also had engaged in sex with a network member, commercial sex work, and unprotected sex. Findings showed ...
Sex; Words; Images; Faces; fMRI; Title: Neural processing of negative emotional stimuli and the influence of age, sex and and ... Neural processing of negative emotional stimuli and the influence of age, sex and and task-related characteristics García- ... sex and and task-related characteristics. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 68, 773-793. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.04. ... Free keywords: Emotion; Affect; Age; Sex; Words; Images; Faces; fMRI Abstract: Negative emotional stimuli are particularly ...
Exploring the biological contributions to human health : does sex matter? / Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and ... Mechanisms of sex differentiation in animals and man / edited by C. R. Austin and R. G. Edwards. by Austin, Colin Russell , ... Sex, gender, and pain / editor, Roger B. Fillingim. by Fillingim, Roger B , International Association for the Study of Pain. ... by Wizemann, Theresa M , Pardue, Mary Lou , Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and ...
First Pregnancy Characteristics, Postmenopausal Breast Density, and Salivary Sex Hormone Levels in a Population at High Risk ... First Pregnancy Characteristics, Postmenopausal Breast Density, and Salivary Sex Hormone Levels in a Population at High Risk ... Title : First Pregnancy Characteristics, Postmenopausal Breast Density, and Salivary Sex Hormone Levels in a Population at High ... While reproductive characteristics, in particular parity, generally demonstrated independent associations with postmenopausal ...
Exploring the biological contributions to human health : does sex matter? / Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and ... Mechanisms of sex differentiation in animals and man / edited by C. R. Austin and R. G. Edwards. by Austin, Colin Russell , ... Sex, gender, and pain / editor, Roger B. Fillingim. by Fillingim, Roger B , International Association for the Study of Pain. ... by Wizemann, Theresa M , Pardue, Mary Lou , Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and ...
... Temas psicol. [ ... Child sex offenders have been receiving increasing attention from human development researchers. The present study analyzed the ... Palabras clave : Sexual violence; children and adolescents; biopsychosocial characteristics. · resumen en Español , Portugués ...
Patient Characteristic Sex Data elements that meet criteria using this datatype should document that the patients sex matches ... Constrained to codes in the Patient Characteristic, Sex: ONC Administrative Sex value set (2.16.840.1.113762.1.4.1). ...
... understanding the context of female sex workers in greater Cairo, Egypt ... Characteristics of sex work. Women who depended solely on sex work for their living were 39.3% of respondents and 54.4% ... HIV prevalence and characteristics of sex work among female sex workers in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia. AIDS, 2010, 24(Suppl ... Among the studied sex workers, 71.9% had been involved in sex work for a duration ranging from 1-10 years with a mean of 6.3 ( ...
Differences were found between the three sex offender subgroups in terms of demographic characteristics, health, and criminal ... Sex offenders were classified into men who sexually offended against children only (ChildSOs), against adults only (AdultSOs), ... Age-PolySOs were older than the other sex offender groups when committing their first non-sexual, non-violent crime (M = 43.2 ... This study describes the classification of sex offenders from a cohort of prisoners recruited as part of an Australian inmate ...
The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics of Men who have sex with men (MSM) and estimate the number ... CHARACTERISTICS AND NUMBER OF MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN PHUKET, THAILAND. ... The number of MSM involved in the sex trade in Phuket increased from 59 in 1997 to 1022 in 2002. The HIV prevalence was 13.07% ... while those who came from the northern or northeastern region were more likely to work in the sex trade. Few local MSM from the ...
What is sex addiction? What is a sex addict? Take the first step towards answering your curiosities and restoring hope. ... My Spouse/Partner is a Sex Addict. What Should I Do? As a spouse/partner of a Sex Addict, you need to reach out today to gain ... For most marriages impacted by sex addiction, it starts in adolescence with normal curiosity, but for millions of people, it ... According to the ICD-11 sex addiction is characterized by a persistent pattern of failure to control intense, repetitive sexual ...
Sex Characteristics [‎3]‎. Sex Chromosome Aberrations [‎1]‎. Sex Counseling [‎4]‎. Sex Differentiation [‎2]‎. ...
... which is a kind of artificial adult sex product, which is regarded as a ... The realistic sex doll near you generally refers to the quality silicone sex doll, ... Sex Doll Store / Blog. What Are The Characteristics Of The Realistic Sex Doll?. By ES Doll Posted on May 21, 2019 No Comments , ... The realistic sex doll near you generally refers to the quality silicone sex doll, which is a kind of artificial adult sex ...
For girls, secondary sex characteristics include:. *Breast development. *Underarm and pubic hair growth ... Friendships at this age tend to be mainly with members of the same sex. In fact, younger school-age children often talk about ... There can also be a big difference in the age at which children begin to develop secondary sexual characteristics. ... members of the opposite sex as being "strange" or "awful." Children become less negative about the opposite sex as they get ...
... patient characteristics: age, sex; the health care setting where the patient sample was collected: outpatient (ambulatory), ... Characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae isolates and children from which they were isolated, The Surveillance Network-USA ... patient sex, isolate source (blood, urine, wound, lower respiratory tract, and other); 2-year intervals; and geographic region ...
Sex differences in imaging and clinical characteristics of patients from the WAKE-UP trial.. Wouters, Anke; Scheldeman, ... Sex-based differences in acute ischemic stroke are a well-known phenomenon. We aimed to explore these differences between women ... In a total of 503 randomized patients, of whom 178 were women (35.4%), sex did not modify the treatment effect of alteplase on ... We compared baseline demographic and imaging characteristics (visual fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR] positivity, ...
Testosterone promotes the development of the secondary sex characteristics in men and serves to maintain the function of the ... SSSHBG - Sex hormone-binding globulin (nmol/L). Variable Name: SSSHBG. SAS Label: Sex hormone-binding globulin (nmol/L). ... Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the blood transport protein for testosterone and ... Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Avvakumov GV, Grishkovskaya I, Muller IA, Hammond GL. Resolution of the human sex hormone- ...
Table 1 Logistic regression for demographic characteristics associated with undiagnosed infection by sex. From: Epidemiological ... and viral characteristics of undiagnosed HIV infections in Botswana. Variable Category Women (n = 383 newly diagnosed, n = 2252 ...
Occupational-diseases; Agriculture; Agricultural-workers; Agricultural-industry; Farmers; Demographic-characteristics; Sex- ...
The goal of pharmacotherapy is to inhibit or promote the expression of secondary sex characteristics in males and females. ... Estrogen is important in the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics, ... Testosterone is an anabolic steroid that promotes and maintains secondary sex characteristics in androgen-deficient males. ... Cross-sex Hormones and Acute Cardiovascular Events in Transgender Persons: A Cohort Study. Ann Intern Med. 2018 Jul 10. [QxMD ...
Injuries; Agriculture; Agricultural-workers; Agricultural-industry; Farmers; Demographic-characteristics; Sex-factors; Age- ... Multivariate analysis showed that years insured, farm income, age, sex, type of farm work, and employment income help predict ...
Demographic-characteristics; Sex-factors; Age-factors; Emergency-response; Risk-factors; Epidemiology; Emergency-responders ... 2. List the the number and characteristics of fire fighter fatalities due to cardiovascular disease. 3. Be aware of workplace ...
Assessing invariance across sex and race/ethnicity in measures of youth psychopathic characteristics. / Horan, Jacqueline M.; ... Assessing invariance across sex and race/ethnicity in measures of youth psychopathic characteristics. Psychological assessment ... Assessing invariance across sex and race/ethnicity in measures of youth psychopathic characteristics. In: Psychological ... Assessing invariance across sex and race/ethnicity in measures of youth psychopathic characteristics. ...
  • Many secondary sex characteristics are easily identifiable. (healthline.com)
  • But secondary sex characteristics vary greatly, regardless of whether someone identifies with the sex they were assigned at birth. (healthline.com)
  • There can also be a big difference in the age at which children begin to develop secondary sexual characteristics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Testosterone promotes the development of the secondary sex characteristics in men and serves to maintain the function of the prostate and seminal vesicles. (cdc.gov)
  • Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction. (bvsalud.org)
  • A secondary objective was to explore the role of age, sex, education level, length of stay in United States, and preferred language in such perceptions. (cdc.gov)
  • Importantly, OCPs should not be used in preadolescent girls with IHH and KS because a gradual exposure to estradiol is needed to induce secondary sexual characteristics, and early exposure to progestins results in abnormal breast development. (medscape.com)
  • Promotes development of secondary sex characteristics. (medscape.com)
  • It is the phase of growth in which secondary sexual characteristics develop and linear growth is accelerated, and it marks the transition between childhood and adulthood. (medscape.com)
  • gonadal sex steroids then stimulate development of secondary sexual characteristics. (medscape.com)
  • Delayed puberty is defined as an absence of secondary sexual characteristics at an age that is greater than 2.5 standard deviations above the mean. (medscape.com)
  • Differences were found between the three sex offender subgroups in terms of demographic characteristics, health, and criminal careers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings suggested that historical offending records should be used to more accurately identify sex offender subgroups and that differences in demographic, health, and criminal careers exist for the different sex offender subgroups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notwithstanding the theoretical implications, this practice can result in important differences between different sex offender subgroups being overlooked and potentially incorrect conclusions being drawn, depending on the focus of the research [ 6 , 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sex differences in imaging and clinical characteristics of patients from the WAKE-UP trial. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sex -based differences in acute ischemic stroke are a well-known phenomenon. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, further analyses assessing associations between these measures and a number of behavioral and emotional characteristics indicated that scores on the LSRP Scale and Callous-Unemotional Traits demonstrate good convergent and discriminant validity with few differences by sex or race/ethnicity. (nyu.edu)
  • NMES-1 produced information on a broad range of issues such as the number and characteristics of the uninsured and the underinsured, the tax implications of excluding employer-paid premiums for health insurance from employee income, and the differences among socioeconomic and demographic groups with respect to the use of health services. (cdc.gov)
  • The report concludes that, despite a relative lack of attention to this issue, "scientific evidence of the importance of sex differences throughout the life span abounds. (wisc.edu)
  • She recognizes that diversity encompasses a wide variety of characteristics including but not limited to: differences of sex, gender identity, gender expression, race, ethnicity, national and regional origin, sexual orientation, religion and spirituality, disability, socioeconomic status and age. (missouri.edu)
  • Background Community mobilisation interventions for HIV prevention among female sex workers (FSWs) aim to organise FSWs for collective action and challenge the structures of power that underlie HIV risk. (bmj.com)
  • However, it remains unclear whether in the US population circulating concentrations of sex steroid hormones vary by race/ethnicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Table 4.2: Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents showing ethnicity, educational level, occupation, years of service. (researchwap.org)
  • The complaint said advertisers can dictate who sees housing-related ads based on race, religion, sex, disability and other characteristics. (cnn.com)
  • The law prohibits abortions sought on the basis of a baby's race, along with other immutable characteristics like sex and disability. (secularprolife.org)
  • We are an equal opportunity employer and all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, gender identity, disability, protected veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by law. (mediabistro.com)
  • On 22 April 2021, Stats NZ released an updated Statistical Standard for Gender, Sex and Variations of Sex Characteristics. (data.govt.nz)
  • Four groups of factors were studied: Identification of the factors as ociated with Conference presentation: A part of the results referral conditions, sociodemographic and the oc ur ence of these deaths would con- of this study was presented at he Burkina Faso victim-specific characteristics, factors relat- tribute to improving the management sys- congres of public health in December 2021. (bvsalud.org)
  • In fact, younger school-age children often talk about members of the opposite sex as being "strange" or "awful. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Children become less negative about the opposite sex as they get closer to adolescence. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We conclude that sex steroid hormones are important determinants of the sex-specific localization of body fat. (vu.nl)
  • The 2016 edition of United Nations Treaty Bodies: References to sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics was written and researched by Kseniya Kirichenko, edited by André du Plessis and Lara Goodwin, and published by ILGA. (ilga.org)
  • The 2017 edition of United Nations Treaty Bodies: References to Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics was released in February 2020. (ilga.org)
  • against staff and volunteers arising from their gender identity, gender expression, sex characteristics**, and sexual orientation. (lgbtfunders.org)
  • Require all potential and current grantees to include gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, and sex characteristics in their Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) policy as well as any other non-discrimination and anti-harassment policies. (lgbtfunders.org)
  • LGBTQI+ people face some of the harshest forms of exclusion and discrimination in Africa, ranging from an inability to access basic services like housing and healthcare, to violence based on their sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and/or sex characteristics (SOGIESC). (idrc.ca)
  • The Fiji National University (FNU) was commended by UN Women Fiji's Sandra Bernklau for respecting, recognising and taking action by initiating the Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics (SOGIESC) and human rights staff training this morning. (fnu.ac.fj)
  • Sexual orientation" and "gender identity" are unlike characteristics protected in civil rights laws. (thehayride.com)
  • Table 4.1: Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents showing age group, sex, marital status, religion. (researchwap.org)
  • Demographic characteristics were evaluated in each group. (bvs.br)
  • As to the distance between the lingual cusps, only the first left-to-right mandibular molars (#36-46) showed no sex dimorphism (p=0.107). (bvsalud.org)
  • Most of the circulating testosterone is bound to carrier proteins (SHBG = sex hormone-binding globulin). (cdc.gov)
  • Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the blood transport protein for testosterone and estradiol. (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Census Bureau released today selected characteristics of the citizen voting-age population from the 2015 American Community Survey. (infodocket.com)
  • Using 2006 Ontario Census data on the population size for race and age categories, we calculated and compared incarceration rates and proportions of the population experiencing incarceration by age, sex, and race groups using chi-square tests. (ices.on.ca)
  • When the body is supplied with endogenous androgen, it promotes the growth of male sex organs and builds the sex characteristics in men. (healthstatus.com)
  • Mechanisms of sex differentiation in animals and man / edited by C. R. Austin and R. G. Edwards. (who.int)
  • Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs), adjusted for age, race, and sex, revealed that the 'miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products' industry had the highest asbestos is PMR (16.4) for the 1990-1999 period, closely followed by the 'ship and boat building and repairing' industry (15.7). (cdc.gov)
  • Nthabiseng is a feminist and digital rights activist working on gender, gender identity and sex characteristics as they intersect with race, class, the law and technology. (queergehoert.de)
  • Namely, that there are two sexes, male and female, and that they align with two genders, man and woman. (healthline.com)
  • Society typically tells us that there are two sexes: male and female. (healthline.com)
  • DSD is used to describe chromosomes, anatomy, or sex characteristics that can't be categorized as exclusively male or female. (healthline.com)
  • ABSTRACT Data on demographic, social and behavioural characteristics of female sex workers in greater Cairo are very scarce. (who.int)
  • In India and around the world, female sex workers (FSWs) are a group at particular risk for HIV infection. (bmj.com)
  • Schwartz wanted to know whether male fishing spiders mate with only one female throughout their lifetime, a characteristic known as monogyny. (livescience.com)
  • As my colleague Emily Nagoski, author of the Good in Bed Guide to Female Orgasms , writes, "Especially when it comes to having sex with someone for the first time, the question of what it is you actually want when you want sex is very complicated indeed. (cnn.com)
  • Female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and cervical cancer due to their high number of sexual partners. (who.int)
  • In the rare case of inter-species [sex], a Japanese snow monkey and female sika deer were filmed doing the wild thing on Japan's Yakushima Island. (rushlimbaugh.com)
  • For example, if your biological sex is female based on your genitalia and you continue to be comfortable with and identify as female, you are considered a cisgender woman. (datingroo.ca)
  • To address this, concentrations of testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, androstanediol glucuronide (a metabolite of dihydrotestosterone) and estradiol were measured in stored serum specimens from men examined in the morning sample of the first phase of NHANES III (1988-1994). (cdc.gov)
  • Ultimately, the concepts of gender and sex are socially constructed. (healthline.com)
  • Goal: To determine how stigmatized drug use is related to sexual risk behaviors and network characteristics among youth. (elsevier.com)
  • Casual sex could trigger a domino effect of risky behaviors. (cnn.com)
  • This is confirmed by a significant number of examinations of corpses of cases of completed suicides.The purpose of the study: to investigate the gender characteristics of deaths of completed suicide according to the materials of the forensic medical examination of corpses for the period 1992-2019.MATERIALS AND METHOD In the course of the study, absolute and relative mortality rates in the context of the sex of suicides were studied. (for-medex.ru)
  • Estrogen is one of the primary sex hormones in females. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. (bvsalud.org)
  • ESTRADIOL modulates sex drive, erectile function and spermotogenesis in men - for libido, estrogen is to men what TESTOSTERONE is to women. (healyourselfathome.com)
  • The first four of these are included largely because they are inborn, involuntary, immutable, and morally neutral characteristics. (thehayride.com)
  • Psychological (and more recently criminological) research has produced three broad groupings of studies that have classified male sex offenders into subgroups [ 5 , 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Supports alpha male characteristics like sex drive. (radiantalignment.com)
  • The researchers considered sex, age, marital status, sleep continuity (based on polysomnography studies and sleep diaries), and responses to questionnaires on mental health and quality of life among the baseline characteristics. (medscape.com)
  • We investigated prospectively the effect of sex steroids on regional fat depots and thigh muscle mass in adult transsexuals. (vu.nl)
  • p=0.001), except for G3, in which no sex bias was detected. (bvs.br)
  • Child sex offenders have been receiving increasing attention from human development researchers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cross-sectional and retrospective offence data are often used to classify sex offenders in epidemiological and survey research, but little empirical evidence exists regarding the practical implications of this for applied research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study describes the classification of sex offenders from a cohort of prisoners recruited as part of an Australian inmate health survey and the implications for reporting results. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sex offenders were classified into men who sexually offended against children only (ChildSOs), against adults only (AdultSOs), and men who sexually offended against both children and adults (Age-PolySOs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sex offenders have been studied extensively by researchers from disciplines including criminology, psychology, and psychiatry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Criminological and health research on specific offender groups such as sex offenders requires classifying individuals using either official records - from the police, corrective services departments, and/or the courts - or self-reported offending [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Minnesota, offenders are rated based on several criteria, including the seriousness of the offense, age of the victim, prior history, number of victims, offender's characteristics, substance abuse history and availability of community supports. (albertleatribune.com)
  • The calculations is based on individual characteristics: age, sex, and 7 comorbidities. (cdc.gov)
  • The Administration's proposed regulation contains a stronger definition of what forms of discrimination are barred, including discrimination on the basis of sex, sex characteristics, and sex stereotypes. (transgenderlawcenter.org)
  • p = 1.00) and other imaging variables also did not differ between the sexes. (bvsalud.org)
  • As in many other stroke trials, more men than women were included in the WAKE-UP trial, but the presence of a visual DWI-FLAIR mismatch and the relative FLAIR signal intensity did not differ between the sexes. (bvsalud.org)
  • It can correspond to or differ from the sex we were assigned at birth. (datingroo.ca)
  • The rates of completed suicide in both sexes, according to different researchers, differ significantly. (for-medex.ru)
  • In the movies, blind lust and romantic love often intersect seamlessly, but in reality, casual sex is often an emotional dead-end rather than an on-ramp to relationship bliss. (cnn.com)
  • It has been proposed that racial/ethnic variation in prostate cancer incidence may be, in part, due to racial/ethnic variation in sex steroid hormone levels. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the measurement invariance of 2 commonly used measures of youth psychopathic characteristics across sex and racial/ethnic groups. (nyu.edu)
  • Future efforts should aim to increase girls', women's and healthcare professionals' education and awareness of vulvodynia, phenotype different subgroups of women based on biopsychosocial characteristics among more diverse samples, conduct longitudinal studies and improve clinical trial designs. (nature.com)
  • The resulting pubertal onset increases pituitary LH and FSH release, which in turn stimulates gonadal sex-steroid production. (medscape.com)
  • Multivariate analysis showed that age, age at start of sex work, venue, living conditions and programme exposure were significantly associated with condom use. (bmj.com)
  • An analysis of the absolute number of suicide-related deaths by sex revealed a clear predominance of suicides in men (n = 33,888) compared with women (n = 16,036), which counted for 67.9% and 32.1%, respectively. (for-medex.ru)
  • Is casual sex worth it? (cnn.com)
  • To do it, or not to do it: That is the question of casual sex - at least as depicted on film. (cnn.com)
  • In both 'Friends With Benefits' (currently playing) and the previously released 'No Strings Attached,' casual sex is anything but casual. (cnn.com)
  • As in most romantic comedies, the casual sex turns out to be quite committed and just a part of falling in love and living happily ever after. (cnn.com)
  • Casual sex is often an expression of Phase 1 (lust at its most unfocused), but, unfortunately, many people go into it with the false hope that it will lead to romantic love. (cnn.com)
  • That's not to say that casual sex is a bad thing. (cnn.com)
  • But casual sex isn't always so simple. (cnn.com)
  • Casual sex has its risks and rewards, although the movies tend to focus more on the risk of falling in love than, say, the very real consequence of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. (cnn.com)
  • It should therefore come as no surprise that the more partners a person has had, the more likely it is that he or she has engaged with those partners outside of a monogamous relationship, and that his or her partner falls into a similar pattern of casual sex, thereby greatly increasing the risk of having come into contact with a sexually transmitted infection. (cnn.com)
  • I'm not trying to scare anyone out of casual sex. (cnn.com)
  • So is casual sex worth it? (cnn.com)
  • The realistic sex doll near you generally refers to the quality silicone sex doll , which is a kind of artificial adult sex product, which is regarded as a high-end masturbation device (Masturbator). (esdoll.com)
  • Gender reassignment is a protected characteristic and the term refers to someone who is transgendered. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • Sex is biological and refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. (customnursingwriters.org)
  • https://customnursingwriters.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/logo4-300x75.png 0 0 admin https://customnursingwriters.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/logo4-300x75.png admin 2019-11-14 04:52:14 2019-11-14 04:52:14 Sex is biological and refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. (customnursingwriters.org)
  • Fra 2019 ble en ny forskrift om nasjonale retningslinjer fastsatt. (uit.no)
  • Findings showed crack use and drug injection to be associated more strongly with increased sex risk among women than among men. (elsevier.com)
  • Some believe genitals determine sex, with males having penises and females having vaginas. (healthline.com)
  • Exploring the biological contributions to human health : does sex matter? (who.int)
  • For most marriages impacted by sex addiction, it starts in adolescence with normal curiosity, but for millions of people, it triggers the pleasure center of the brain in a deeper way, and obsession and preoccupation with fantasy and lustful thoughts begin to occupy more time. (citygateliferecovery.com)
  • Friendships at this age tend to be mainly with members of the same sex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The physical features of the body that typically indicate sex, such as facial hair or body shape. (lgbtfunders.org)
  • It also doesn't account for the fact that trans people often have chromosomes that don't "match" their sex. (healthline.com)
  • But for people who are trans and gender non-conforming, the sex they're assigned at birth may not align with the gender they know themselves to be. (healthline.com)
  • Sex Work is Work (en) There is no trans liberation without sex work decriminalization! (queergehoert.de)
  • To increase contraceptive use among HIV-infected couples, we must first understand the characteristics of HIV-infected persons who are and are not using contraceptives in their relationship. (hindawi.com)
  • The number of same-sex couples recorded as living together in the UK rose by more than 50% in the three years to 2018. (devon.gov.uk)
  • We compared baseline demographic and imaging characteristics (visual fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR] positivity, relative FLAIR signal intensity, collateral status) between women and men in all screened patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Background: Sex risks and drug use are related. (elsevier.com)
  • They were more likely to report a history of concurrent sex partners, sex with someone who also had engaged in sex with a network member, commercial sex work, and unprotected sex. (elsevier.com)
  • Only 39.3% were exclusively working as sex workers while the rest had other jobs beside sex work. (who.int)
  • In Kartu district, local MSM were more likely to work in cabaret shows, while those who came from the northern or northeastern region were more likely to work in the sex trade. (who.int)
  • Multivariate analysis showed that years insured, farm income, age, sex, type of farm work, and employment income help predict the personal injuries/year ratio (p=0.01), however only 14% of the variation is explained by these factors. (cdc.gov)
  • Timing: Birth (administrative) sex does not have a specific timing. (healthit.gov)
  • Because of this, they're often used to make quick assessments about sex. (healthline.com)