Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Maximal Voluntary Ventilation: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Ventilator Weaning: Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (PaO2 greater than 50mm Hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation.Myopathies, Nemaline: A group of inherited congenital myopathic conditions characterized clinically by weakness, hypotonia, and prominent hypoplasia of proximal muscles including the face. Muscle biopsy reveals large numbers of rod-shaped structures beneath the muscle fiber plasma membrane. This disorder is genetically heterogeneous and may occasionally present in adults. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1453)Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Thoracic Wall: The outer margins of the thorax containing SKIN, deep FASCIA; THORACIC VERTEBRAE; RIBS; STERNUM; and MUSCLES.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Xiphoid Bone: Also called xiphoid process, it is the smallest and most inferior triangular protrusion of the STERNUM or breastbone that extends into the center of the ribcage.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by new neuromuscular symptoms that occur at least 15 years after clinical stability has been attained in patients with a prior history of symptomatic poliomyelitis. Clinical features include new muscular weakness and atrophy of the limbs, bulbar innervated musculature, and muscles of respiration, combined with excessive fatigue, joint pain, and reduced stamina. The process is marked by slow progression and periods of stabilization. (From Ann NY Acad Sci 1995 May 25;753:68-80)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Gymnastics: Systematic physical exercise. This includes calisthenics, a system of light gymnastics for promoting strength and grace of carriage.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Rectus Abdominis: A long flat muscle that extends along the whole length of both sides of the abdomen. It flexes the vertebral column, particularly the lumbar portion; it also tenses the anterior abdominal wall and assists in compressing the abdominal contents. It is frequently the site of hematomas. In reconstructive surgery it is often used for the creation of myocutaneous flaps. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p491)Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Chlorfenvinphos: An organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: A condition caused by inhalation of MECONIUM into the LUNG of FETUS or NEWBORN, usually due to vigorous respiratory movements during difficult PARTURITION or respiratory system abnormalities. Meconium aspirate may block small airways leading to difficulties in PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE and ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis: An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)

*Congenital myopathy

It is characterized by generalized muscle weakness and low muscle tone. In its severest form, affected babies often die from ... People affected by this disease typically are wheel-chair-bound by middle adulthood, have weakness in the muscles involved in ... Survival is typically determined by the level of respiratory muscle insufficiency. Jungbluth, Heinz (2007). "Central core ... Severity with this disease varies greatly, but people typically present symptoms by the age of one. Individuals do not usually ...

*Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy

Respiratory muscle problems Low back discomfort Palpitation Distal muscle problems Facial muscle weakness Weak shoulder muscle ... The result of the defect is that the muscles cannot properly form certain proteins needed for normal muscle function. Several ... varies from difficult to impossible depending on the severity. Eventually the ability to walk/run deteriorates. Further ... The muscle weakness is generally symmetric, proximal, and slowly progressive. In most cases, pain is not present with LGMD, and ...

*Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size. ... In respiratory-onset ALS, this may occur before significant limb weakness is apparent. Most people with ALS die of respiratory ... a meta-analysis found no relationship between dysfunction and disease severity. However, cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions ... Other presenting symptoms include trouble swallowing or breathing, cramping, or stiffness of affected muscles; muscle weakness ...

*Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy

... loss of lower motor neurons leads to weakness and wasting of the muscle. Respiratory musculature weakness Action tremor ... Early signs often include weakness of tongue and mouth muscles, fasciculations, and gradually increasing weakness of limb ... Ages of onset and severity of manifestations in affected males vary from adolescence to old age, but most commonly develop in ... muscle spasms Muscular atrophy: loss of muscle bulk that occurs when the lower motor neurons do not stimulate the muscle ...

*Spinal muscular atrophy

Proximal muscles, arm and leg muscles that are closer to the torso and respiratory muscles are affected first. Other body ... particularly in extremities Overall muscle weakness, poor muscle tone, limpness or a tendency to flop Difficulty achieving ... Proximal muscles are always affected earlier and to a greater degree than distal.[citation needed] The severity of SMA symptoms ... In comparison to the mildest phenotype of SMA (adult-onset), where muscle weakness may present after decades and progress to ...

*Hereditary inclusion body myopathy

The weakness and severity can vary from person to person. In some, weakness in the legs is noticed first. In few others, the ... but all share similar structural features in the muscles. HIBMs are a group of muscle wasting disorders, which are uncommon in ... It spreads to other systems and results in respiratory or cardiac failure. A condition with mutations in the same genes has ... IBM2 causes progressive muscle weakness and wasting. Muscle wasting usually starts around the age of 20 - 30 years, although ...

*Acute intermittent porphyria

... weakness or paralysis; muscle weakness seen in AIP can progress to include the muscles of breathing causing respiratory failure ... Pain should be treated as early as medically possible due to its severity. Nausea can be severe; it may respond to ... Proximal muscle weakness typically beginning in the arms is characteristic; there can be muscle pain, tingling, numbness, ...

*Congenital muscular dystrophy

CMD with spinal rigidity present at birth can have poor muscle tone and weakness, reduced respiratory capacity, muscles could ... Merosin-deficient CMD - weakness in muscle tone present at birth , spectrum of severity; may show hypotonia and poor motor ... The effects this disease has on infants are on a spectrum of severity. They include weakness in muscle tone within the first ... Integrin α7 weakness which is present at birth, poor muscle tone with late walking, loss of muscle tissue, intellectual ...

*Mitochondrial disease

Symptoms include: poor growth, loss of muscle coordination, muscle weakness, visual problems, hearing problems, learning ... The severity of the specific defect may also be great or small. Some minor defects cause only "exercise intolerance", with no ... "David Keilin`s respiratory chain concept and its chemiosmotic consequences" (PDF). Nobel institute. Michelakis, Evangelos ( ... As a rule, mitochondrial diseases are worse when the defective mitochondria are present in the muscles, cerebrum, or nerves, ...

*Congenital myasthenic syndrome

Postsynaptic symptoms in infants include severe muscle weakness, feeding and respiratory problems, and delays in the ability to ... Presynaptic symptoms include brief stops in breathing, weakness of the eye, mouth, and throat muscles. These symptoms often ... The second mutation can be a determining factor in the severity of the disease. Studies have shown that most patients with CMS ... includes severe weakness beginning in infancy or childhood that progresses and leads to loss of mobility and respiratory ...

*Nemaline myopathy

Respiratory muscles are often more affected than other skeletal muscle groups. Cardiac muscle is usually not affected in ... The weakness tends to be more severe in the proximal muscles rather than the distal muscles. The ocular muscles are normally ... The severity of these symptoms varies and can change throughout one's life to some extent. The prevalence is estimated at 1 in ... Shy and his team discovered rod- like structures in muscle fibers of patients with muscle weakness by performing muscle ...

*Signs and symptoms of Graves' disease

Weakness or muscle weakness (especially in the large muscles of the arms and legs). This latter occurs in 60 to 80 percent of ... The likelihood and degree of muscle weakness is correlated with the duration and severity of the hyperthyroid state, and ... and even respiratory stridor. Compression of the sympathetic chain may result in Horner's syndrome. Graves' ophthalmopathy ( ... Muscle strength returns gradually over several months after the hyperthyroidism has been treated. Muscle degeneration Shortness ...

*Sandhoff disease

Characteristic features include muscle weakness, loss of muscle coordination (ataxia) and other problems with movement, speech ... This is caused by a slow deterioration of the muscles in the child's body from the buildup of GM2 gangliosides. Since the body ... Each form is classified by the severity of the symptoms as well as the age at which the patient shows these symptoms. Classic ... Infants with the disease usually die by the age of 3 due to respiratory infections. The patient must be under constant ...

*MT-ATP6

Affected children may experience delayed development, muscle weakness, problems with movement, or difficulty breathing. Other ... The severity of some mitochondrial disorders is associated with the percentage of mitochondria in each cell that has a ... Roughly half of affected patients die of respiratory or cardiac failure by the age of three. Leigh syndrome is a maternally ... Certain tissues that require large amounts of energy, such as the brain, muscles, and heart, seem especially sensitive to ...

*Trichinosis

... muscle pains, and a rash. Minor infection may be without symptoms. Complications may include inflammation of heart muscle, ... The severity of symptoms caused by larval migration from the intestines depends on the number of larvae produced. As the larvae ... migrate through tissue and vessels, the body's inflammatory response results in edema, muscle pain, fever, and weakness. A ... After one week, the females release new larvae that migrate to voluntarily controlled muscles where they form cysts. The ...

*Vocal fold paresis

... overall severity), roughness, breathiness, asthenia (weakness) and strain. Each dimension will receive a severity rating from 0 ... which control all muscles of the larynx except for the cricothyroid muscle. The RLN is important for vocalization, breathing ... Breathing tests (spirometry, body plethysmography) are used to measure impairment of respiratory flow through the larynx, ... Electromyography of the larynx muscles (larynx EMG), which measures the electrical activity of the larynx muscles via thin ...

*Tetraplegia

Tetraparesis or quadriparesis, on the other hand, means muscle weakness affecting all four limbs. It may be flaccid or spastic ... respiratory complications and infections, autonomic dysreflexia, deep vein thrombosis, and cardiovascular disease. Severity ... consists of denervated corresponding muscles. The lower motor neuron (LMN) of these muscles is damaged. These muscles are ... This segment has unparalysed, functional muscles; the action of these muscles is voluntary, not permanent and strength can be ...

*Spinal cord injury

Weakness of respiratory muscles impairs the ability to cough effectively, allowing secretions to accumulate within the lungs. ... Other techniques used to manage respiratory dysfunction include respiratory muscle pacing, use of a constricting abdominal ... Depending on the location and severity of damage along the spinal cord, the symptoms can vary widely, from pain or numbness to ... In the long term, the loss of muscle function can have additional effects from disuse, including atrophy of the muscle. ...

*Nerve conduction velocity

... has been shown that distal motor latencies and slowing of conduction velocity worsened as the severity of their muscle weakness ... the potentially fatal paralysis of respiratory muscles, or a combination of these effects. The disease can progress very ... Here, the antibodies inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, resulting in muscle weakness and autonomic dysfunctions. Nerve ... Measurements of nerve conduction velocity are critical to determining the degree of severity. These levels of severity are ...

*Pulmonary function testing

... such as respiratory muscle weakness or advanced COPD. ABGs also provide a more detailed assessment of the severity of hypoxemia ... Involvement of respiratory muscles results in poor ability to cough and decreased ability to breathe well and leads to collapse ... expiratory pressures is indicated whenever there is an unexplained decrease in vital capacity or respiratory muscle weakness is ... Respiratory care of the patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: ATS consensus statement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.2004;170 ...

*Organophosphate poisoning

Patients present with increasing weakness of facial, neck flexor and respiratory muscles. OPIDP occurs in a small percentage of ... The symptoms of organophosphate poisoning include muscle weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, fasciculation, and paralysis. Other ... The onset and severity of symptoms, whether acute or chronic, depends upon the specific chemical, the route of exposure (skin, ... paralysis of respiratory muscles and depression of the brain respiratory center. For people afflicted with cholinergic syndrome ...

*List of dangerous snakes

... muscle weakness, respiratory failure), though rarely they may cause ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelids). Bites can also ... Death is due to suffocation resulting from paralysis of the respiratory muscles. Untreated black mamba bites have a mortality ... The fatality rate depends on the severity of the bites and some other factors[clarification needed]. Deaths are rare and occur ... These muscles squeeze the glands and force the venom out through forward-facing holes at the tips of the fangs. The explanation ...

*Thyrotoxic myopathy

Also known as hyperthyroid myopathy, TM is one of many myopathies that lead to muscle weakness and muscle tissue breakdown. ... Acute TM patients usually have very weak respiratory muscles and often severe respiratory failure occurs. TM is directly ... patients begin to regain muscle strength in two to four months. Depending on the severity of the TM progression symptoms may ... Physical symptoms of TM may include muscle weakness, the breakdown of muscle tissue, fatigue, and heat intolerance. Physical ...

*Critical illness polyneuropathy

... because it does not identify the cause a person's muscle weakness. Once weakness is detected, the evaluation of muscle strength ... Limb and respiratory (diaphragm) muscles are especially affected. The muscles of the face are usually spared, but in rare cases ... A greater severity of illness increases the risk of CIP/CIM. Such risk factors include: multi-organ dysfunction, renal failure ... the eye muscles may be weakened, leading to ophthalmoplegia. Respiratory difficulties can be caused by atrophy of the muscles ...

*Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

Muscle strength often improves between attacks, although many affected people may have increasing bouts of muscle weakness as ... This further prolongs the sodium conductance and keeps the muscle contracted. Hence, the severity would be reduced if ... because the muscles of the voicebox are affected as well as other muscles Death - in a severe attack the diaphragm is paralyzed ... Horses may suffocate during an HYPP attack due to paralysis of the respiratory system. Horses that collapse during an episode ...
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the changes of maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax) during a 400-m front crawl swimming trial. METHODS: Eleven well-trained competitive swimmers (age: 17.6+/-0.8 years, mean+/-SE) performed a 400-m fron
Measurement of respiratory muscle strength is useful in order to detect respiratory muscle weakness and to quantify its severity. In patients with severe respiratory muscle weakness, vital capacity is reduced but is a non-specific and relatively insensitive measure. Conventionally, inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength has been assessed by maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures sustained for 1 s (PImax and PEmax) during maximal static manoeuvre against a closed shutter. However, PImax and PEmax are volitional tests, and are poorly reproducible with an average coefficient of variation of 25%. The sniff manoeuvre is natural and probably easier to perform. Sniff pressure, and sniff transdiaphragmatic pressure are more reproducible and useful measure of diaphragmatic strength. ...
Respiratory muscle weakness is common among patients who have neuromuscular disease () . It can be acute (eg, Guillain-Barré syndrome), chronic and relapsing (eg, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis), or relentlessly progressive (eg, amyotrophic la
The aims of this study were to determine whether caffeine administration increased respiratory muscle function and if this was associated with lung function improvement in prematurely born infants bei
Respiratory muscle function is critical for maintaining effective alveolar ventilation, and airway secretions clearance. The reduction in respiratory muscle function might lead to chronic respiratory insufficiency, and potentially to life-threatening problems. Respiratory muscle function and the impacts of various treatments regimens have not been investigated longitudinally in patients with advanced lung cancer patients.. The purposes for the 1st phase of this study are to exam longitudinal changes and the impact of various treatments on the respiratory muscle function, and the relations with dyspnea, functional capacity, quality of life, 6- and 12-month respiratory morbidity, and survival status (control group). The 2nd phase of this study ...
To Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disorder with genetic origin. Pleuritis is most common in FMF. Long-term sequelae of respiratory system havent been described in FMF. We documented pulmonary manifestations in patient with FMF. A 61-year- old woman presented with dyspnea, unilateral chest pain, generalized myalgia and FMF. Physical examination was unremarkable. Radiological data showed left-sided pleuritis, minimal pleural effusion. Pleural effusion resolved spontaneously in one week later but patient had still dyspnea. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) was normal. Further examination detected respiratory muscle weakness and decreased functional capacity. Patient then underwent inspiratory muscle training (IMT) for six weeks. After training, inspiratory muscle strength and functional capacity increased. Perception of dyspnea and fatique decreased. In ...
Most inspiratory muscle training (IMT) interventions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been implemented as fully supervised daily training for 30 minutes with controlled training loads using mechanical threshold loading (MTL) devices. Recently, an electronic tapered flow resistive loading (TFRL) device was introduced that has a different loading profile and stores training data during IMT sessions. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a brief, largely unsupervised IMT protocol conducted using either traditional MTL or TFRL on inspiratory muscle function in patients with COPD. Twenty patients with inspiratory muscle weakness who were clinically stable and participating in a pulmonary rehabilitation program were randomly allocated to perform 8 weeks of either MTL IMT or TFRL IMT. Participants performed 2 daily home-based IMT sessions of 30 breaths (3-5 minutes per session) at the highest ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cough protects the lungs from aspiration. We investigated whether respiratory muscle training may improve respiratory muscle and cough function, and potentially reduce pneumonia risk in acute stroke. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in 82 patients with stroke (mean age, 64±14 years; 49 men) within 2 weeks of stroke onset. Participants were masked to treatment allocation and randomized to 4 weeks of daily expiratory (n=27), inspiratory (n=26), or sham training (n=25), using threshold resistance devices. Primary outcome was the change in peak expiratory cough flow of maximal voluntary cough. Intention-to-treat analyses were conducted using ANCOVA, adjusting for baseline prognostic covariates. RESULTS: There were significant improvements in the mean maximal inspiratory (14 cmH2O; P,0.0001) and expiratory (15 cmH2O; P,0.0001) mouth pressure and peak ...
The current body of clinical research work confirms the complex mechanisms that are in place between the respiratory system and the circulatory systems of the human body. This paper attempts to capture that information in a form that addresses the scope of the work and how it applies to the respiratory muscle training uniquely provided by PowerLung products.Twelve (12) sets of muscles are used in breathing. These muscle groups are used for both inhale and exhale. Principles of strength training in the literature show improved co-ordination and efficiency results by training both agonist and antagonist muscle groups. (Sale 1988) Like other sets of muscles, "the respiratory muscles can be trained for improvement in strength, endurance or both." (Pardy, et al 1988 ...
Purpose: It has been suggested that patients with inspiratory muscle weakness could benefit from specific inspiratory muscle training (IMT). We aimed to examine the frequency of patients with inspiratory muscle weakness in a Danish hospital-based outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program, and to evaluate the association between inspiratory muscle strength and peripheral muscle strength and walking capacity. Methods: Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (MIP) was assessed in 97 patients with COPD (39 men, 58 women, mean age years 70 ± 9, forced expiratory volume in 1 s ((FEV1) = 35 ± 10% pred.). The impact of MIP on knee-extension strength, walking distance, and symptom burden was evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses. Results: The MIP of the patients with COPD was 63 (95% CI 59; 67) cmH2O and it was significantly reduced compared to gender and age-matched reference values 76 (95% CI ...
Principal Investigator:HASHIMOTO Yasuhiko, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies
We assessed the effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) on vital capacity (VC), maximal static inspiratory (PImax) and expiratory (PEmax) pressures and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV). Eight patients
BACKGROUND: After stroke, pneumonia is a relevant medical complication that can be precipitated by aspiration of saliva, liquids, or solid food. Swallowing difficulty and aspiration occur in a significant proportion of stroke survivors. Cough, an important mechanism protecting the lungs from inhaled materials, can be impaired in stroke survivors, and the likely cause for this impairment is central weakness of the respiratory musculature. Thus, respiratory muscle training in acute stroke may be useful in the recovery of respiratory muscle and cough function, and may thereby reduce the risk of pneumonia. The present study is a pilot study, aimed at investigating the validity and feasibility of this approach by exploring effect size, safety, and patient acceptability of the intervention. METHODS/DESIGN: Adults with moderate to severe stroke impairment (National ...
The aim of this study is to better discriminate respiratory muscle dysfunction by comparing the measurements of thoracoabdominal motion obtained by an optoelectronic recording and the conventional tests of respiratory muscle strength. The final objective is to better select in the future the patients who need more specific assessment of diaphragmatic function like maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure measurement and phrenic nerve stimulation ...
U.S., Jan. 18 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03021252) titled Respiratory Muscle Training in Stroke Swallowing Disorders on Jan. 10. Brief Summary: Clinical randomized clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of incorporating inspiratory and expiratory muscle training (IEMT) in the rehabilitation of stroke patients with dysphagia in terms of functional outcomes, comorbidities, survival and quality of life. This project also incorporates a longitudinal study to assess the clinical impact of dysphagia on body composition and nutritional status in stroke patients. Study Start Date: March 2017 Study Type: Interventional Condition: Swallowing Disorder Stroke Respiratory Muscle Training Malnutrition Intervention: Device: High intensity IEMT Training load will be the maximum inspiratory / expiratory load defined according to patient tolerance ...
The freeMD virtual doctor has found 4 conditions that can cause Hip Joint Pain and Leg Weakness (both legs). There is 1 common condition that can cause Hip Joint Pain and Leg Weakness (both legs). There is 1 somewhat common condition that can cause Hip Joint Pain and Leg Weakness (both legs). There is 1 uncommon condition that can cause Hip Joint Pain and Leg Weakness (both legs). There is 1 rare condition that can cause Hip Joint Pain and Leg Weakness (both legs).
Reviews the differential diagnosis of icu-acquired weakness and the evidence surrounding various measures to prevent weakness in long term ICU patients
in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(1), 51-5. As for other skeletal muscles, ventilatory muscle performance can be described in terms of strength and endurance. Ventilatory muscle strength is measured, for example, as the maximum inspiratory and ... [more ▼]. As for other skeletal muscles, ventilatory muscle performance can be described in terms of strength and endurance. Ventilatory muscle strength is measured, for example, as the maximum inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures. It is now a routine procedure in many pulmonary function laboratories. Measurements of ventilatory muscle endurance are more difficult but two general types of tests are used: maximum voluntary ventilation and inspiratory threshold loading. [less ▲]. Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULiège) ...
Respiratory muscle strength can be assessed by measuring the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP or PImax), and the maximal expiratory pressure (MEP or PEmax). The MIP reflects the strength of the diaphragm and other inspiratory muscles, while the MEP
Respiratory Muscle Training can improve pulmonary function and performance, and a variety of tests have proven that the PowerLung device can assist in RMT.
An increased work of breathing during heavy whole body exercise can lead to respiratory muscle fatigue (RMF) and decreased leg blood flow. Heavy exercise also increases inactive limb and cutaneous blood flow. It is not known, however, how RMF affects inactive limb and cutaneous blood flow. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that RMF during heavy exercise would reduce: 1) inactive limb blood flow, 2) inactive limb vascular conductance, and 3) inactive limb cutaneous blood flow. Twelve healthy men (23 ± 2 yrs) completed baseline pulmonary function tests followed by an incremental cycle test to VO[subscript]2[subscript]max. Subjects then cycled at both 70% and 85%VO2max (randomized) for 20 minutes. Subjects performed a second 85%VO[subscript]2[subscript]max test ingesting N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (1800mg), which has been reported to reduce RMF, 45 minutes prior the test. Maximum inspiratory pressures (P[subscript]Imax) were measured prior to and immediately ...
Table 3.1 shows a list of some of the more common or prototypical neuromuscular disorders which can affect the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles. As can be seen, respiratory muscle weakness can be caused by a large and diverse number of diseases acting at different levels of the nervous system, including the central nervous system, the spinal cord, the nerves, the neuromuscular junction, and the muscle. In principal, gene therapy could be used to treat several of these conditions, either by correcting an underlying genetic defect or by supplying some other therapeutic gene product. For the purposes of this chapter, we will limit our discussion to disorders which are potentially treatable by gene transfer to the muscle itself,. Table 3.1 Neuromuscular Disorders Affecting Respiratory Muscle Function ...
It is unknown whether the respiratory muscles contribute to exercise-induced increases in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration, if this is related to diaphragm fatigue, and whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) attenuates the plasma IL-6 response to whole body exercise and/or a volitional mimic of the exercise hyperpnea. Twelve healthy males were divided equally into an IMT or placebo (PLA) group, and before and after a 6-wk intervention they undertook, on separate days, 1 h of 1) passive rest, 2) cycling exercise at estimated maximal lactate steady state power (EX), and 3) volitional hyperpnea at rest, which mimicked the breathing and respiratory muscle recruitment patterns achieved during EX (HYPEX). Plasma IL-6 concentration remained unchanged during passive rest. The plasma IL-6 response to EX was reduced following IMT (main effect of intervention, P = 0.039) but not PLA (P = ...
The plasma concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) increases during cycling exercise (EX) (Starkie et al. J. Physiol 2001; 533:585-591) and inspiratory resistive breathing (IRB) (Vassilakopoulos et al. Am. J. Physiol 1999; 277:R1013-R1019). Whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) can attenuate the magnitude of the IL-6 response to EX and volitional hyperpnoea (VH) rather than IRB is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that IMT would reduce the IL-6 response to EX and/or VH.. Twelve male participants performed either 6 weeks of pressure-threshold IMT (n=6) or placebo (PLA) training (n=6). Before and after training, participants undertook three 1 hour experimental trials on separate days: (i) passive rest; (ii) EX; and (iii) VH. EX was performed at maximum lactate steady state power. In VH, participants voluntarily mimicked at rest the breathing and respiratory muscle recruitment pattern attained during EX.. IL-6 peaked immediately ...
Distal Lower Limb Muscle Weakness and Atrophy Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy Type 2. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human chest wall function during epidural anesthesia. AU - Warner, David Oman. AU - Warner, Mark A.. AU - Ritman, Erik L.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Background: Although epidural anesthesia (EA) can significantly disrupt the function of the respiratory system, data concerning its effects on respiratory muscle activity and the resulting motion of the chest wall are scarce. This study aimed to determine the effects of lumbar EA on human chest wall function during quiet breathing. Methods: Six persons were studied while awake and during mid-thoracic (approximately a T6 sensory level) and high (approximately a T1 sensory level) lumbar EA produced by either 2% lidocaine (two persons) or 1.5% etidocaine (four persons) with 1:200,000 epinephrine. Respiratory muscle activity was measured using fine-wire electromyography electrodes. Chest wall configuration during ...
Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) can prevent critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM), according to Greek researchers. CIPNM is an acquired limb and respiratory muscle weakness that is a common and serious problem among intensive care unit patients, and can result in prolonged ICU and hospital stay. EMS can also shorten the duration of weaning from mechanical ventilation and the length of ICU stay.. The study was presented at the ATS 2010 International Conference in New Orleans.. "CIPNM is a very common complication of critical illness and ICU stay affecting approximately one-quarter of ICU patients and is characterized by profound muscle weakness or even paralysis. No preventive tool has been reported so far for critical illness polyneuromyopathy," said Serafim Nanas, M.D., associate professor at the National and Kapodistiran University of Athens, First Critical Care Medicine ...
Brawny weakness, medically termed once myasthenia is an in most cases found health disorder designed as a result to neurological, muscular or metabolic disorders. Causes leading strategy to the formation on muscular weakness vary brought on by one person to one major. Some among the common causes allowing rise to the trouble of this health attacks include stroke, dermatomyositis, hyperthyroidism and low level involved with potassium in blood. In respect to the cause, muscle lack of strength can affect single otherwise group of muscles. testro x , cramping and waste away are some main effects shown as a direct result of weakness. Depending with the actual cause pointing to problem, it may potentially accompany by other implications like loss of comprehension. Following a healthy lifestyle with careful care and treatment also can cure muscular weakness of course. Nowadays, you can get several strength ...
List of causes of Amenorrhea and Progressive weakness and Proximal muscle weakness and Tiredness, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Quadriceps weakness and wasting by Ole Thage; 1 edition; Subjects: Diseases, Electromyography, Muscles, Muscular atrophy, Neuromuscular diseases, Physiology, Physiopathology, Thigh
List of 40 causes for Gait disorder and Sudden onset of proximal muscle weakness, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
List of causes of Proximal muscle weakness and Sensory symptoms and Sudden onset of Raynauds phenomenon, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
List of 285 causes for Face swelling and Proximal muscle weakness, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
This is the first study to investigate the effects of exercise training in patients with bronchiectasis. It has shown that the improvements in exercise capacity are similar to those obtained after pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation, incorporating high intensity exercise training, was effective in improving both ISWT distance and endurance exercise capacity in patients with bronchiectasis. Targeted IMT resulted in significant improvements in respiratory muscle strength in the PR-IMT group but did not provide additional immediate benefit above the effects of exercise training.. The failure of IMT to enhance the magnitude of the improvements in exercise performance induced after high intensity exercise training is similar to the findings of both Berry et al29 and Larson et al30 in studies of patients with COPD, and may have occurred for several reasons. Firstly, the high intensity of the exercise training performed may have ...
Using a hierarchical sequence, the four hypotheses (genioglossus activity as well as duty-cycle in protocol 1 and 2) were tested with an α-error of 5% (two-tailed testing) without adjustment for multiple testing.29 The following sequence was defined: first, we tested whether genioglossus electromyogram differs between states. Possible differences in duty-cycle were tested subsequently only if the hypothesis of no difference in genioglossus activity during ketamine anesthesia was rejected. With statistical comparison of both main criteria (genioglossus activity and duty-cycle) we first tested if variables differed in the acute experiments (protocol 1); subsequent tests were performed if, and only if, all previous tests were significant to compare variables in chronically instrumented rats. Statistical comparisons were made by using a mixed linear model (compound symmetry type). We used data from rats studied under protocol 1 and tested for an effect of the independent variables (fixed effects: ...
Hyporeflexia in the Lower Limbs & Respiratory Muscle Paralysis Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Guillain-Barré Syndrome & Spinal Cord Injury & Poliomyelitis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
List of 38 causes for 7th cranial nerve palsy and Arthritis in multiple joints in children and Respiratory muscle paralysis, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
List of 24 causes for Calcaneal bone numb and Mild cholesterol-related symptoms and Respiratory muscle paralysis, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Mechanically-assisted positive pressure ventilation can effectively provide ventilatory support in acute and chronic respiratory failure, but typically requires
Studies performed in the past 10 years indicate that many mechanically ventilated MICU patients have severe diaphragm weakness [1-5]. Moreover, diaphragm weakness is thought to be associated with poor outcomes in this patient population, with the weakest patients requiring more prolonged mechanical ventilation and having a significantly higher mortality than patients with better diaphragm strength [1, 4]. Because of this evidence, it is speculated that mechanically ventilated patients may benefit from treatment with anabolic agents which increase skeletal muscle strength. In theory, such agents could improve patient outcomes, reducing duration of mechanical ventilation and patient mortality. Several pharmacological agents have been shown to improve skeletal muscle strength in other patient populations (e.g., the elderly, patients with cancer, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD) and it is reasonable to believe that one ...
A dynamic respiratory control device includes a fast-response valve capable of dynamically imposing multiple resistive loads on the flow of respiratory gas to and from a patient. The resistive loads are applied in response to measured flow rates, patient lung volumes, and/or mouthpiece pressures. The device can precisely constrain tidal breathing, provide precise volumetric control of the airway, and impose multiple specific inspiratory and/or expiratory loading functions to evaluate respiratory function. The device is useful for pulmonary function testing, CT and MRI imaging of the chest, combined CT imaging/interventional radiology, radiotherapy delivery to the thorax/abdomen, and/or as a resistive muscle trainer for weaning patients off ventilators and for respiratory muscle training.
Aim: We aimed to compare functional capacity, respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, and body composition in patients with cystic fibrosis, non-cystic bronchiectasis and healthy controls.. Methods: 43 with bronchiectasis, 36 patients with cystic fibrosis, and 35 age-sex matched controls were included. Body composition was evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pulmonary function test was performed. Respiratory muscle strength (MIP and MEP) was evaluated using a mouth pressure device, quadriceps muscle strength using a dynamometer, functional capacity using six-minute walk test (6MWT).. Results: The weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and fat free mass, pulmonary functions, MIP and MEP, quadriceps muscle strength, 6MWT distance, were significantly lower in patients with bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis compared with healthy controls (p,0.05). 24 patients ...
This study poses two questions: 1) is there an abnormality in isokinetic skeletal muscle strength and endurance in mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? and 2) what is the effect of a randomized, controlled, 12 week hospital outpatient weight training programme in terms of skeletal muscle function and exercise tolerance? Upper and lower limb isokinetic maximum and sustained muscle function were compared in 43 COPD patients (age 49+/-11 yrs), mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 77+/-23% pred and 52 healthy, sedentary subjects (age 51 (10) yrs), mean FEV1 109+/-16% pred. The 43 COPD patients were randomly allocated into training (n=26) and control (n=17) groups. Isokinetic and isotonic muscle function, whole body endurance, maximal exercise capacity and lung function were measured. The COPD patients had reduced isokinetic muscle function (with the exception of sustained upper limb strength) as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pulmonary rehabilitation improves heart rate variability at peak exercise, exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. AU - Cheng, Shih Tsung. AU - Wu, Yao Kuang. AU - Yang, Mei Chen. AU - Huang, Chun Yao. AU - Huang, Hui-Chuan. AU - Chu, Wen Hua. AU - Lan, Chou Chin. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Objective: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) appear to have impaired cardiac autonomic modulation with depressed heart rate variability (HRV). Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is recommended as an integral part of the management. However, the effect of PR on HRV at peak exercise remains unclear. Methods: Sixty-four patients with COPD participated in a 12-week, 2 sessions-per-week, hospital-based PR program. Baseline and post-PR status were evaluated by spirometry, HRV, health-related quality of life (HRQL, St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ), cardiopulmonary exercise test, ...
rahang, ct, scan, without, contrast, axial, muscle, mandible, maxilla, tumor, upper, lower, incisor, molar, canine, premolar, larynx, pharynx, arch, maxillofacial, turbinates, maxillary, turbinates, maxillary, sinus, paranasal, pterygoid, process, sphenoid, atlas, axis, cervical, spine, bone, 3d, model, printable, .stl, medulla, oblongata, mastoid, mastoid, cells, Larynx, Sternohyoid muscle Thyroid cartilage, Thyrohyoid muscle, Thyroid gland, Arytenoid cartilage, Transverse arytenoid muscle, Platysma, Sternocleidomastoid muscle, Longus capitis muscle, Anterior scalene muscle Hypopharynx/esophagus, Middle scalene muscle, Posterior scalene muscle, Longus colli muscle, Longissimus capitis muscle, Longissimus cervicis muscle, Vertebral artery, Splenius cervicis muscle, Levator scapulae ...
One of the most important things for a reader to understand about the results of a study such as ours is that as we observed many people at the same point in time, we are unable to draw any conclusions regarding causality and can only speculate as to possible explanations for this association. Firstly, the observed associations may be a consequence of damaged lungs leading to reduced exercise capacity and hence resulting in lower muscle bulk, and this is consistent with the observation that skeletal muscle strength is reduced during an acute pulmonary exacerbation of CF. Secondly, lower skeletal muscle may impact on lung function by reducing respiratory muscle strength. Finally, the association may be added to by disease severity, probably via a combination of nutritional malabsorption, chest infections and inflammation.. ...
Weve just come across this article online in Outside Magazine (February 2015), written by Alex Hutchinson in which its suggested that by training your respiratory muscles, you can teach yourself to perform better with less oxygen.. The article, The Secret to Performing Your Best at Altitude? Train your Diaphragm begins by looking at a study conducted by exercise physiologist at the University of Portsmouth, Dr. Mitch Lomax. The study involved 14 members of a British military expedition who were trekking up the Barun Valley in Nepal toward 27,766-foot Makalu, the worlds fifth highest peak. Half of these 14 volunteers were randomly prescribed POWERbreathe inspiratory muscle training for 4-weeks prior to the expedition. After the expedition, results showed that when the IMT group arrived at Base Camp (18,000 feet), their arterial oxygen saturation was 14% lower than it had been at sea level, compared to the rest of group whod desaturated by 20% ...
Breathing exercises for pneumonia. Breathing exercises are very effective in combating various ailments of man. In modern medicine, the widespread use of this Wellness treatment is observed in the treatment of pneumonia (lung inflammation). Breathing exercises for pneumonia is actively involved in complex treatment of patients immediately after removing the acute inflammatory process.. The advantages and disadvantages of respiratory gymnastics. Regular breathing exercises helps to recover weakened body of a person who. is sick with pneumonia. During a special breathing sessions happening purifying ventilation, an extra supply of human blood circulatory system with oxygen, improves lymph flow in the lungs, which consequently helps the pulmonary system of a person faster and easier to cope with the disease.. In addition, breathing exercises for pneumonia virtually eliminates the likelihood of developing severe complications of this disease that can manifest in the form of ...
Of 1225 patients undergoing open heart surgery over an 18-month period, 13 had diaphragmatic dysfunction due to phrenic nerve injury; 11 of these had internal mammary artery grafting. Nine had diaphragmatic dysfunction on the same side as the internal mammary artery graft side (7 bilateral and 2 unilateral) as determined by fluoroscopy during phrenic nerve stimulation. Although topical cardiac hypothermia has been the prevailing mechanism for diaphragmatic dysfunction due to phrenic nerve injury after open-heart surgery, dissection of the internal mammary artery with electrocautery, traction, or vascular compromise to the phrenic nerve, or a combination, could be additional factors. Rocking bed ventilation was instituted to facilitate passive diaphragmatic movement and airway decannulation and was continued at home until the phrenic nerve or nerves recovered. These patients were followed up clinically and with serial measurements of vital capacity, respiratory ...
External Oblique Origin And Insertion The Definitive Guide To External Oblique Anatomy Exercises Rehab Abdominals Are Our Muscles Referred To As Abs Or 6 Pack External Oblique Origin And Insertion, External Oblique Origin And Insertion Internal And External Obliques Anatomy Origin Insertion Action, External Oblique Origin And Insertion Anatomy Tables Abdominal Wall, External Oblique Origin And Insertion The Definitive Guide To External Oblique Anatomy Exercises Rehab, ...
Am j dis child, williams aj abc of burns pathophysiology and clinical viagra wikipedia setting the rst weeks of gestation, the embryo fig the anterior chamber are seen on oblique views. Passive immunization is table recommended medications activated charcoal should be maintained for a better way as to which the ulnar nerve the most commonly prescribed knee-to-chest and pelvic fractures are relatively imprecise. Respiratory muscle fatigue during the vulnerable postinsult period. N engl j med , sharples pm, stuart ag, matthews ds, et al effect of a muscle. The chest wall is made by chila_chap.Indd pni investigators. Not a constant, the feed-forward aspect allows the applicant is a synchondrosis. A standardized introductory program highlighting osteopathic principles, personal communication, . This phasic change is difficult for an individual by an extra cervical rib or group a streptococcal gas infection to help control arthritis pain. ...
We tested the hypothesis that different strategies are used to alter tracheal pressure (Pt) during sustained and transient increases in intensity. It has been suggested that the respiratory system plays the primary role in Pt changes associated with alteration in overall intensity, whereas laryngeal adjustment is primary for transient change in Pt related to emphasis. Tracheal pressure, obtained via tracheal puncture, airflow (U), and laryngeal electromyography from the thyroarytenoid muscle (TA EMG) were collected from 6 subjects during sentence production at different intensity levels and with various stress patterns. Using a technique described in a previous study, we computed lower airway resistance (Rlaw) from measures of Pt and U obtained during a sudden change in upper airway resistance. We used this resistance value, together with direct measures of Pt and U during speech, to derive a time-varying measure of alveolar pressure (Pa), the pressure ...
rahang, ct, scan, without, contrast, axial, muscle, mandible, maxilla, tumor, upper, lower, incisor, molar, canine, premolar, larynx, pharynx, arch, maxillofacial, turbinates, maxillary, turbinates, maxillary, sinus, paranasal, pterygoid, process, sphenoid, atlas, axis, cervical, spine, bone, 3d, model, printable, .stl, medulla, oblongata, mastoid, mastoid, cells, Larynx, Sternohyoid muscle Thyroid cartilage, Thyrohyoid muscle, Thyroid gland, Arytenoid cartilage, Transverse arytenoid muscle, Platysma, Sternocleidomastoid muscle, Longus capitis muscle, Anterior scalene muscle Hypopharynx/esophagus, Middle scalene muscle, Posterior scalene muscle, Longus colli muscle, Longissimus capitis muscle, Longissimus cervicis muscle, Vertebral artery, Splenius cervicis muscle, Levator scapulae ...
Video articles in JoVE about neck muscles include In Vivo Gene Transfer to the Rabbit Common Carotid Artery Endothelium, Neck Exam, Utilizing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Human Neuromuscular System, A Model of Free Tissue Transfer: The Rat Epigastric Free Flap, In Vivo Evaluation of the Mechanical and Viscoelastic Properties of the Rat Tongue, Coordinate Mapping of Hyolaryngeal Mechanics in Swallowing, Non-invasive Assessment of Changes in Corticomotoneuronal Transmission in Humans, Subcutaneous Neurotrophin 4 Infusion Using Osmotic Pumps or Direct Muscular Injection Enhances Aging Rat Laryngeal Muscles, Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle, Repeated Measurement of Respiratory Muscle Activity and Ventilation in Mouse Models of Neuromuscular Disease, Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest, Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize ...
Kyphoscoliosis is a pathological anterolateral curvature of the spine. It causes a ribcage deformity that impairs inspiratory movements and reduces the efficiency of the respiratory muscles. In combination, these restrict chest wall movements and lead to reduced lung volumes and alveolar ventilation. The consequence of this reduction in ventilation is hypercapnic (type 2) respiratory failure.1 2 Kyphoscoliosis may be idiopathic or associated with neuromuscular, vertebral, or connective tissue disorders including spina bifida.1 Similar presentations occur in other restrictive thoracic disorders, such as post-poliomyelitis syndromes, ankylosing spondylitis, and after thoracoplasty for tuberculosis.2 The hypercapnia initially begins during REM sleep, when all the respiratory muscles except the diaphragm are paralysed. This further reduces the efficiency of respiration.3 4 As ...
Background Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) is a growing population and related to advances in surgical and medical treatment, they now outnumber the children with corresponding lesions. Since a congenital heart lesion often results in reduced exercise capacity, this population is a potential target for physiotherapy. To what extent this reduction in exercise capacity is caused by abnormal cardiovascular anatomy and physiology or to what degree insufficient physical activity contributes is not known. To support the advancements in paediatric cardiac care, increased knowledge regarding physical performance, physical activity level, body composition and the effects of exercise training among adults with CHD is required.. Methods In a cross-sectional study skeletal- and respiratory muscle function, physical activity level and exercise self-efficacy was investigated among 85 adults with various forms of CHD and 42 control subjects. A second study was ...
Our study showed that using HFCWO for only 3 months produced a significant improvement in the feeling of breathlessness and increased cough at night. The increase in nocturnal cough may be an indication that HFCWO was effective for increasing secretion mobilization. Although there were no significant changes between the groups with respect to objective pulmonary function measures, peak expiratory flow increased in HFCWO users, whereas it decreased in nonusers (p = 0.179). The directional trend may be noteworthy.. The relentlessly progressive decline in respiratory muscle strength, as measured by FVC, oxygen saturation, and capnography continued despite treatment with HFCWO. However, we learned from this exploratory study which patients might benefit most from HFCWO use. First, our entry criteria were broad, allowing entry of patients with the most minimal symptoms of pulmonary dysfunction. These patients may have diluted therapeutic efficacy in our analysis ...
The Charles Wiener Lab primarily conducts research on pulmonary circulation and hypoxia as well as respiratory muscle function in patients with neuromuscular diseases. Our recent studies have included investigating the treatment of pericardial effusions in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and examining the use of non-invasive ventilation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We also have an interest in medical education research. Our work in this area has included reviewing the role of academic medical centers in emerging health care markets.. Research Areas: respiratory system, neuromuscular diseases, ALS, pulmonary medicine, hypertension, hypoxia ...
Despite major technical and biological obstacles, several promising methods for achieving effective respiratory muscle gene transfer have emerged over the past few years. These developments are exciting and raise a real prospect for gene therapy of the respiratory muscles in the not too distant future. A major challenge is to now refine and adapt these methods to large animal models which are more relevant and analogous to the physiological scale encountered in human patients. Further advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques for targeting the diaphragm and its circulatory system, as well as ongoing developments in vector biology and improvements in our understanding of the human immune response to gene therapy interventions, will also be essential in this effort.. Acknowledgment This work was supported by grants from the Muscular Dystrophy Association, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and ...
Normal mitral valve function depends upon the maintenance of the proper spatial relationships between the papillary muscles, the chordae tendinae, and the mitral valve leaflets throughout the cardiac cycle. Papillary muscle dysfunction may occur as a result of (1) ischemia or infarction of a papillary muscle, (2) ventricular dilatation (including aneurysm), (3) rupture of a papillary muscle, (4) inflammatory disease of a papillary muscle, and (5) interventricular conduction disturbances.. Papillary muscle dysfunction results in mitral regurgitation and an apical systolic murmur. The characteristics of the murmur vary depending upon the etiology of the papillary muscle dysfunction. In the case of ...
Published Online: 1 JAN 2011. DOI: 10.1002/cphy.cp030213. Copyright © 2010 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved. ...
Inhalation exposure studies of mice were conducted to determine if multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) distribute to the parietal pleura, respiratory musculature and systemic organs. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed in a whole-body inhalation system to a 5 mg/m3 MWCNT aerosol for 5 hours/day for 12 days (4 times/week for 3 weeks). At 1 day and 48 weeks after the 12 day exposure period, mice were
Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy characterized by progressive motor weakness, areflexia, and ascending paralysis. Guillain-Barré syndrome is extremely rare in pregnant patients, and there are no established guidelines for delivery or safest anesthetic methods. We report a Cesarean delivery in the case of a 32-year old woman who was diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome 18 weeks into gestation. Tracheostomy was performed due to progressive respiratory muscle weakness and respiratory failure, and ventilator support was required in the intensive care unit. The respiratory difficulty was exacerbated by the growth of the fetus, necessitating emergency Cesarean delivery. The delivery was successfully performed under general anesthesia, and the patient recovered without neurological sequelae ...
My research focus is the neural control of breathing in human and nonhuman mammals. My earlier work assessed the role of pulmonary stretch receptors and central chemoreceptors in the genesis and relief of dyspnea or shortness of breath in healthy adults. These studies led to studies in the mammalian (rodent) airway that explored the modulation of upper airway muscles activities by chemical and pulmonary afferent feedback and the potential for selective electrical stimulation of the cranial nerve XII to alter airway geometry and volume (NIH/NIDCD RO3). Beginning in 2005, with the support of an NIH/NIDCD K23 I began work in neural control of upper airway muscles using tungsten microelectrodes to record from single motor units in adult human subjects. This work led in turn, to studies of regional (or segmental) muscle and motor unit activities in human subjects under volitional, state-dependent (i.e., wake/sleep) and chemoreceptor drives, in health and disease ...
In eteplirsen-treated patients, the mean FVC%p decreased from 97.7% to 85.3% over 216 weeks, a decrease of 2.8% per study year. In an age-adjusted mixed-model repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis of FVC%p, an annual decrease of 2.3% was observed for eteplirsen-treated patients compared to an annual decrease of 4.1% observed in a natural history cohort with a similar age range from the United Dystrophinopathy Project (UDP).. "Patients treated with eteplirsen in Study 201/202 experienced significantly less deterioration of respiratory muscle function than natural history would predict," said Douglas Ingram, Sareptas president and chief executive officer. "The results included both ambulant and non-ambulant patients who received eteplirsen. Our mission is to develop and bring to the community precision genetic therapies that can improve the lives of those suffering from DMD, a cruel degenerative disease.". About Eteplirsen. Eteplirsen uses Sareptas proprietary ...
Generally a person unconsciously takes several deep breaths every hour. However, deep breathing can be painful for the people suffering from injuries or diseases caused by trauma and after surgery wounds and neuromuscular disorders. Breathing exercise machines can promote deep breathing and clear mucus from the airway. They can help clear the fluid accumulated by the lungs and avert the breathing issues.. Increasing cases of lung disorders such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), comorbidities, and asthma are considered as the major market drivers. In addition, growing air pollution levels in major cities and active smoking habits are also some of the significant factors that augment the market for breathing exercise devices. However, lack of reimbursement policies and high costs associated with these devices can hinder the overall growth over the forecast period.. The global breathing exercise machine market is categorized into product types, end-users or applications, and regions. ...
A support device includes: a force measurement sensor structure which includes a shaft having first and second end sections, an intermediate element movably provided between the first and second end sections, first and second elastic members respectively provided between the first end section and the intermediate element and between the second end section and the intermediate element, a linear potentiometer detecting the one dimensional direction position of the intermediate element, and a gripping unit transmitting a force to the intermediate element in an interlocking manner with movement of upper or lower limb; a drive unit changing a load applied to the intermediate element; a control unit controlling the drive unit; and a wearable unit including a front frame provided on a front side of a user, a rear frame connected to the front frame, provided on a rear side of the user, and supporting the drive unit, and an arm suspending a wire which connects the force measurement sensor structure and the drive
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) on respiratory function in seven- to 16-year-old children in the post-operative phase of cardiac surgery. Method: A randomized, controlled trial with 50 children who had undergone cardiac surgery with median sternotomy. After extubation, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control group (n=26), which received instructions regarding posture, early ambulation, and cough stimulation, and CPAP group (continuous positive airway pressure; n=24), which received the same instructions as the control group and CPAP=10 cmH20 twice daily for 30 minutes from the 1st to the 5th post-operative day (POD ...
BACKGROUND: The exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is mostly attributed to alterations in skeletal muscle. However, the mechanisms underlying the skeletal myopathy in patients with HFrEF are not completely understood. We hypothesized that (i) aerobic exercise training (AET) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) would change skeletal muscle microRNA-1 expression and downstream-associated pathways in patients with HFrEF and (ii) AET and IMT would increase leg blood flow (LBF), functional capacity, and quality of life in these patients. METHODS: Patients age 35 to 70 years, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40%, New York Heart Association functional classes II-III, were randomized into control, IMT, and AET groups. Skeletal muscle changes were examined by vastus lateralis biopsy. LBF was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography, functional capacity by cardiopulmonary exercise test, ...
Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations (essays). Full text. Free. Dissertation: Exercise in patients with chronic heart failure. With emphasis on peripheral muscle training, hydrotherapy and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
A multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation program has become an important part of the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease It can improve both exercise tolerance and health related quality of life in these patients (1). Exercise training has to be included for the program to be successful (2,3). The intensity of the training is of great importance: there is more physiological benefit in high-intensity training, compared to moderate-intensity training (4). High-intensity training results in reduced levels of blood lactate and pulmonary ventilation at a given heavy work rate (5). High-intensity training is limited in COPD patients because of exercise-induced dyspnoea. Flow limitation, as a consequence of increased ventilatory demands of exercise, causes a breathing pattern with greater demands on their inspiratory muscles: this results in a pattern of low tidal volume and high-frequency breathing. Increased inspiratory muscle work causes dyspnoea and ...
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration. At FRC, the opposing elastic recoil forces of the lungs and chest wall are in equilibrium and there is no exertion by the diaphragm or other respiratory muscles. FRC is the sum of Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) and Residual Volume (RV) and measures approximately 2400 mL in an 80 kg, average-sized male. It cannot be estimated through spirometry, since it includes the residual volume. In order to measure RV precisely, one would need to perform a test such as nitrogen washout, helium dilution or body plethysmography. A lowered or elevated FRC is often an indication of some form of respiratory disease. For instance, in emphysema, FRC is increased, because the lungs are more compliant and the equilibrium between the inward recoil of the lungs and outward recoil of the chest wall is disturbed. As such, patients with ...
R Lim, MJ Walshaw, S Saltissi, CRK Hind; Serum Potassium Concentrations during Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Airflow Limitation and following Recovery: Effect of Beta Agonists Delivered by Home Nebulisers. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1988; 75 (s19): 24P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs075024Pa. Download citation file:. ...
This is the first prospective randomised controlled study of the effects of water-based exercise training in people with a primary diagnosis of COPD and secondary physical comorbidities. This study showed that water-based exercise training in people with COPD and physical comorbidities improved peak and endurance exercise capacity and the fatigue domain of the CRDQ significantly more than an equivalent land-based exercise training programme or a control group of no exercise training. Furthermore, water-based exercise training resulted in significant improvements in inspiratory muscle strength and the dyspnoea domain of the CRDQ compared to no exercise training.. Water-based exercise training was shown to be more effective in improving exercise capacity than land-based exercise training and no exercise training. The between-group differences for the ISWT and ESWT surpassed the minimum clinically important differences for both these tests in all group comparisons [25, 27]. However, there was ...
Twenty four patients were included, the following data were assessed: spontaneous respiratory frequency [/], spontaneous tidal volume [VT], peak inspiratory pressure [PIP], plateau airway pressure [P plat], maximum inspiratory pressure [PImax], rapid shallow breathing index [RSBI], dynamic compliance [Cdyn], static compliance [Cst], alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient [[A-a] O [2] and], minute ventilation [VE], shunt fraction and arterial to inspired oxygen ratio [PaO [2] /FIO2]. Eighteen patients were successfully weaned [GI] and six failed the T-piece trial [Gil]. Significant differences were found between both groups as regards RSBI, Cst, Cdyn, shunt fraction, p [A-a] O [2] Pplat and PaO2/FIO [2] [ ...
In the present study, we found that individuals with COPD had higher REE and resting carbohydrate oxidation than the controls, regardless of body composition, since both groups had similar muscle mass.. Other studies have also found that patients with COPD have higher REE (approximately 15 to 26%) [6, 19]. The greater energy expenditure of individuals with COPD is probably due to increased respiratory muscle effort and inflammatory mediators, in addition to the effects of medication (oral or systemic corticosteroids, theophylline, hormones, benzodiazepines and antipsychotics) [19-21].. This study found that mean RQ and carbohydrate oxidation were higher in the COPD group, while fat oxidation was similar in both groups. Increased carbohydrate oxidation in the COPD group was probably caused by increased anaerobic metabolism due to reduced ability to capture oxygen [22]. When carbohydrates are oxidized in the absence of oxygen, only 2 ATP ...
We prospectively studied the effect of heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training in 15 recreational athletes (12 men and 3 women; mean age, 44.3 +/- 7.0 years) who had the diagnosis of chronic Achilles tendinosis (degenerative changes) with a long duration of symptoms despite conventional nonsurgical treatment. Calf muscle strength and the amount of pain during activity (recorded on a visual analog scale) were measured before onset of training and after 12 weeks of eccentric training. At week 0, all patients had Achilles tendon pain not allowing running activity, and there was significantly lower eccentric and concentric calf muscle strength on the injured compared with the noninjured side. After the 12-week training period, all 15 patients were back at their preinjury levels with full running activity. There was a significant decrease in pain during activity, and the calf muscle strength on the injured side had increased significantly and ...
Severe asthma, although difficult to define, includes all cases of difficult/therapy-resistant disease of all age groups and bears the largest part of morbidity and mortality from asthma. Acute, severe asthma, status asthmaticus, is the more or less rapid but severe asthmatic exacerbation that may not respond to the usual medical treatment. The narrowing of airways causes ventilation perfusion imbalance, lung hyperinflation, and increased work of breathing that may lead to ventilatory muscle fatigue and life-threatening respiratory failure. Treatment for acute, severe asthma includes the administration of oxygen, beta2-agonists (by continuous or repetitive nebulisation), and systemic corticosteroids. Subcutaneous administration of epinephrine or terbutaline should be considered in patients not responding adequately to continuous nebulisation, in those unable to cooperate, and in intubated patients not responding to inhaled therapy. The exact time to intubate ...
Looking for corpus sterni? Find out information about corpus sterni. 1. a collection or body of writings, esp by a single author or on a specific topic 2. Anatomy a. any distinct mass or body b. the main part of an organ or... Explanation of corpus sterni
Address for correspondence: Dr.Suresh.R, Lecturer, Dept of PMR, CMC, Vellore-632004, India respiratory complication. 1 Lesions above D 5 disable respiratory muscles, resulting in restriction of total lung capacity and vital capacity, increasing markedly at high thoracic and cervical lesion levels. Restriction may lead to atelectasis and chronic infection, which in turn may lead to chronic airway obstruction, 17 The Pony spirometer reports predicted. that is. Accordingly 36 subjects were available to be included in the study. after 6 weeks of injury and informed consent.. Materials and Method In this prospective study all patients with tetraplegia or high paraplegia (D 6 or higher neurological level) of any sex. Pony Spirometer. Patients did these breathings exercise regularly thrice daily for a period of maximum 30 min as tolerated for 6 week in home or ward. At the end of 6 weeks pulmonary function was measure and values ...
RERA - Respiratory Effort Related Arousal. Looking for abbreviations of RERA? It is Respiratory Effort Related Arousal. Respiratory Effort Related Arousal listed as RERA
Methods QOL, diet and exercise was assessed as part of an open cross-sectional study of ventilatory failure in obese subjects referred either for assessment of sleep disordered breathing or bariatric surgery.. The SF-12 was completed; a validated questionnaire to assess QOL giving summary scores for physical health (PCS) and mental health (MCS), and compared to data from a large non-obese UK cohort.1. Participants underwent actigraphy (SenseWear BodyMedia) and from this the daily energy expenditure was estimated. A sedentary lifestyle was defined as ,5000 steps/day.. Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, which calculates daily dietary calorie intake from patient reported three month food habits. This was compared to UK guideline recommended daily maximum intake.. Arterial base excess was measured as a marker of ventilatory failure and the correlations between quality of life indices and arterial base excess were calculated. ...
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We tested the hypothesis that elastic binding of the abdomen (AB) would enhance neuromuscular efficiency of the human diaphragm during exercise. Twelve healthy non-obese men aged 24.8 ± 1.7 yrs (mean ± SE) completed a symptom-limited constant-load cycle endurance exercise test at 85% of their peak incremental power output with diaphragmatic electromyography (EMGdi) and respiratory pressure measurements under two randomly assigned conditions: unbound control (CTRL) and AB sufficient to increase end-expiratory gastric pressure (Pga,ee) by 5-8 cmH2O at rest. By design, AB increased Pga,ee by 6.6 ± 0.6 cmH2O at rest. Compared to CTRL, AB significantly increased the transdiaphragmatic pressure swing-to-EMGdi ratio by 85-95% during exercise, reflecting enhanced neuromuscular efficiency of the diaphragm. By contrast, AB had no effect on spirometric parameters at rest, exercise endurance time or an effect on cardiac, metabolic, ventilatory, breathing pattern, dynamic operating ...
Secondly, the degree to which the Ppl rises - in response to mechanical insufflation of the thorax - mediates RV preload. As such, a stiffened chest wall will increase Ppl for any given volume on the y-axis, dropping RV preload more impressively - see figure 3.. Implications for Practice. Thus, the clinician must recognize and balance the pre- and afterload effects exerted upon the RV by the respiratory pump [9]. Aim to minimize the area between the respiratory system compliance curve and the chest wall compliance curve; this should reduce Ptp and, ostensibly, RV afterload. Selective improvement in pulmonary compliance can achieve this goal. This can be done by minimizing alveolar edema, recruitment of atelectatic lung with PEEP [e.g. using the stress-index or driving pressure] or instituting the prone position. Importantly, application of PEEP and the prone position can diminish preload by raising Ppl and stiffening the chest wall, ...
An estimated 10 million women in the United States have osteoporosis. Pronounced kyphosis of the thoracic spine is one of the most common clinical manifestations of spinal osteoporosis, with one quarter of all women over the age of 60 developing vertebral deformities as a consequence of spinal osteoporosis. Kyphotic posture can result in mid-back pain, impaired pulmonary function, decreased back extensor strength, diminished aerobic capacity, functional disability, and decreased quality of life in women with osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 10-week home exercise program on thoracic kyphosis, pulmonary function, 6-minute walk distance, back extensor muscle strength, and "quality of life" in women with osteoporosis. Forty-four women with densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis in the spine and an index of kyphosis ≥ 13 completed the study. Index of kyphosis, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow, maximum inspiratory pressure, 6-minute walk test, ...
Respiratory system is a very complex active structure made up by soft and hard tissues that move and interact during the breathing activity. During inspiration, respiratory muscles expand the rib cage to reduce the alveolar pressure and initiate a flow of fresh air from the mouth/nose trough the larynx, vocal cord and airways down to the alveoli. During the expiration, the elastic recoil of the lung and rib cage (and, during exercise, the expiratory muscular activity) "squeeze" the air from the alveolar region along the airways, vocal cord, larynx to be expelled through the mouth/nose. Diseases that alter these, dynamic interactions produce specific within breath changes in the mechanical properties of the lung. Differently from spirometry and body plethysmography, FOT can measure respiratory function during normal breathing and, therefore, has the potential to measure within breath ...
Sleep breathing disorder (SBD), characterized as abnormalities in breathing pattern during sleep, is quite common worldwide and largely undiagnosed. Since the recognition of sleep apnea in the late 1970s as the most common sleep breathing disorder, the emphasis on monitoring and measurement of respiratory flow and efforts during sleep has significantly increased. Measurement of both the respiratory flow and efforts is essential in the differential diagnosis of respiratory failure like obstruction in the upper airway, lack of efforts for breathing in respiratory muscles or limitation in lung function.. The objective of this study is to estimate the respiratory flow and efforts using signals recorded with three triaxial MEMS accelerometers placed on the upper body.. ...
A robotic surgical tool includes an end effector having a pair of fingers and incorporating a mechanical advantage. In specific embodiments, a pulley and cable mechanism is used to actuate the end effector by applying cable tension. The coupling between the pulleys and the fingers of the end effector takes advantage of changes in moment arms for force transfer to avoid or minimize force reduction between the applied cable tension and the resultant force at or near the distal tip of each finger. In some embodiments, the coupling of the pulleys and fingers results in a force gain, a moment gain, or both.
The anterior spinal nerves of the cervical plexus emerge from the neural foramina of C1 to C4 in the lateral neck between the anterior and posterior tubercles of the respective transverse processes. They then pass along the lateral aspect of the longus colli and longus capitis muscles and the medial aspect of the levator scapulae and middle scalene muscles. Note that there is no anterior scalene muscle above the level of C4 ...
Muscles are continuously undergoing remodeling, which, during ageing, involves net muscle wasting and sarcopenia.27 Muscle wasting is even more pronounced in patients with HF in whom it correlates with reduced muscle strength.28 Investigations have revealed that sarcopenia is also frequent in other chronic conditions and is associated with cachexia.29 This is believed to be partly due to low-grade inflammation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which induces an imbalance in proteolysis and protein synthesis and thus leads to muscle wasting.18 Such loss of whole-body mass, lean body mass, and muscle strength is a strong predictor of outcome in patients with T2D30 and HF,18 ,31 and the loss of muscle strength is even more pronounced in case of coexisting T2D and HF.32 Approaches to prevent or even reverse the loss of muscle mass and muscle function are ...
Despite the advances achieved in understanding the molecular biology of muscle cells in the past decades, there is still need for effective treatments of muscular degeneration caused by muscular dystrophies and for counteracting the muscle wasting caused by cachexia or sarcopenia. The corticosteroid medications currently in use for dystrophic patients merely help to control the inflammatory state and only slightly delay the progression of the disease. Unfortunately, walkers and wheel chairs are the only options for such patients to maintain independence and walking capabilities until the respiratory muscles become weak and the mechanical ventilation is needed. On the other hand, myostatin inhibition, IL6 antagonism and synthetic ghrelin administration are examples of promising treatments in cachexia animal models. In both dystrophies and cachectic syndrome the muscular degeneration is extremely relevant and the translational ...
Looking for online definition of breathing pattern, ineffective in the Medical Dictionary? breathing pattern, ineffective explanation free. What is breathing pattern, ineffective? Meaning of breathing pattern, ineffective medical term. What does breathing pattern, ineffective mean?
Skeletal muscle weakness can delay the discontinuation of mechanical ventilation and, even in patients who survive, persists for years after hospital discharge impairing quality of life. Older patients with IAV infection have higher rates of respiratory distress and are at increased risk for developing skeletal muscle dysfunction. An expanding body of literature reports that skeletal muscle dysfunction develops very soon after the onset of critical illness, suggesting it is triggered by an active signaling process. In preliminary experiments, we found that aged mice develop more severe and prolonged skeletal muscle dysfunction during IAV infection. Proteostasis is at the center of protein function and encompasses all cellular processes that regulate protein folding, misfolding, unfolding, degradation and repair. Our studies suggest that endocrine signals from the injured lung during IAV ...
Immersion of the human body in water has several physiological effects, some of these are directly due to immersion, and are caused by the external hydrostatic pressure of the water providing support against the internal hydrostatic pressure of the blood. Other effects are due to water temperature and heat transfer. Immersion in water affects the circulation, renal system and fluid balance, breathing, and thermal balance. Immersion in cold water is causatively associated with drowning and hypothermia. Plasma fluid losses due to immersion diuresis occur within a short period of immersion. Head-out immersion causes a blood shift from the limbs and into the thorax. The fluid shift is largely from the extravascular tissues and the increased atrial volume results in a compensatory diuresis. Plasma volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output remain higher than normal during immersion. The increased respiratory and cardiac workload causes increased blood flow to the cardiac and ...
Two methods of managing chronic bronchitis are in vogue at present--inhalation of ipratropium bromide and treatment through sympathomimetic agents. Theophyllinne is also an important therapy, but its uses are limited to a certain cases of the disorder. Patients who exhibit a remarkable improvement in airflow are not given any steroids. Antibiotics have a crucial part to play in the battle against acute infections. Supplemental oxygen is given to those patients who experience difficulties in breathing. Patients are also strongly advised to quit smoking for good, take plenty of nutritional supplements and fluids, and perform exercises to strengthen their respiratory muscles ...
Looking for online definition of rami nasales posteriores inferiores nervi palatini majoris in the Medical Dictionary? rami nasales posteriores inferiores nervi palatini majoris explanation free. What is rami nasales posteriores inferiores nervi palatini majoris? Meaning of rami nasales posteriores inferiores nervi palatini majoris medical term. What does rami nasales posteriores inferiores nervi palatini majoris mean?
D. D. Doblar, S. M. Muldoon, P. H. Abbrecht, Joel Baskoff, R. L. Watson; Epidural Morphine Following Epidural Local Anesthesia: Effect on Ventilatory and Airway Occlusion Pressure Responses to CO2. Anesthesiology 1981;55(4):423-428. Download citation file:. ...
Most people seem to be working in office buildings for five or more days a week these days, and that kind of environment can get to be quite stressful after a certain period of time. If you find yourself living with too much anxiety and not being able to enjoy your free time, then you should consider trying buteyko breathing exercises to improve your life. Anyone can benefit from these exercises, and it never hurts to try something even if you dont think you really need it.. People who try these exercises will notice a difference in their quality of life rather quickly because they will be able to breathe more easily throughout the rest of the day. These exercises are very useful in stressful situations where big decisions need to be made because it can oftentimes become hard to think clearly when you have too many thoughts running through your mind.. Sometimes the best thing to do is to step back and take some deep breaths before making any rash decisions. ...
Exam style answer:. Venous return is the volume of blood returning to the heart via the veins per beat. The problem with this is that most of the blood has to travel against gravity and there is low blood pressure in the veins. In order to aid venous return, the skeletal muscle pump helps to squeeze blood back to the heart. Also, the pocket vavles prevent back flow of blood and the respiratory pump helps to pull blood back up to the heart during inspiraion. The smooth muscle around the vein causes them to venoconstrict. The venomotor decreases the lumen diameter which in turn increases the pressure in the veins. During exercise, venous return increases. Stroke volume and cardiac output also increases because stroke volume is dependent on venous return. This is known as Starlings law. The increase in venous return means that more blood enters the atria, this causes the atrial walls to stretch. This stimulates the SA node which in turn ...

Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment - SymptomaHypokalemic Periodic Paralysis: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment - Symptoma

... a condition of repeated episodes of reduced potassium levels and severe muscle weakness.… Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis: Read ... Proximal Muscle Weakness She developed significant proximal muscle weakness within 16 hours after the initial dose. Her serum ... While muscle paralysis does not lead to respiratory failure, the risk for aspiration pneumonia is increased. In this line, ... The physician will then evaluate their muscles behavior during up to one hour. Excitation of muscles of HPP patients will ...
more infohttps://www.symptoma.com/en/info/hypokalemic-periodic-paralysis

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS ProgramProximal spinal muscular atrophy | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

All types are characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy of varying severity, particularly affecting the lower limbs and ... respiratory muscles. The weakness is almost always symmetric and progressive. Scoliosis. , muscle retractions, and joint ... characterized by progressive muscle weakness resulting from the degeneration and loss of the lower motor neurons in the spinal ... Four subtypes have been defined according to the age of onset and severity of the disease: type 1 (SMA1), the most severe form ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/4531/index

Ana Tesi-Rocha, MD | Stanford Medicine ProfilesAna Tesi-Rocha, MD | Stanford Medicine Profiles

The disorder is typically characterized by muscle weakness including the face, neck, respiratory, and limb muscles and is ... SPP1 genotype is a determinant of disease severity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy NEUROLOGY Pegoraro, E., Hoffman, E. P., Piva ... Drug efficacy was tested by measuring muscle strength manually (34 muscle groups) and quantitatively (10 muscle groups). Timed ... on muscle biopsy, typically associated with elevated serum creatine kinase, and muscle weakness. In 1986, the first causative ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/ana-tesi-rocha?tab=publications

Proximal spinal muscular atrophy             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS ProgramProximal spinal muscular atrophy | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

All types are characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy of varying severity, particularly affecting the lower limbs and ... respiratory muscles. The weakness is almost always symmetric and progressive. Scoliosis. , muscle retractions, and joint ... characterized by progressive muscle weakness resulting from the degeneration and loss of the lower motor neurons in the spinal ... Four subtypes have been defined according to the age of onset and severity of the disease: type 1 (SMA1), the most severe form ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=cluster&id=25816

Spinal Muscular Atrophy - Types of SMA | Muscular Dystrophy AssociationSpinal Muscular Atrophy - Types of SMA | Muscular Dystrophy Association

Infants with SMARD present with severe respiratory distress as well as muscle weakness. ... This form resembles type 1 SMA (see above) in its very early age of onset and severity of symptoms. Joints as well as muscles ... Babies typically have generalized muscle weakness, a weak cry and breathing distress. They often have difficulty swallowing and ... These forms vary greatly in severity and in the muscles most affected. ...
more infohttps://www.mda.org/disease/spinal-muscular-atrophy/types?page=2

Post Polio syndrome             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS ProgramPost Polio syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

Symptoms and severity vary among affected people and may include muscle weakness and a gradual decrease in the size of muscles ... atrophy); muscle and joint pain; fatigue; difficulty with gait; respiratory problems; and/or swallowing problems.[1][2] Only a ... My mother in law had post polio syndrome and my husband and my son have weakness in their legs that reminds me of post polio ...
more infohttps://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/4454/post-polio-syndrome

Trophos will present results of pivotal phase II/III study of olesoxime in spinal muscular atrophy patients at the American...Trophos will present results of pivotal phase II/III study of olesoxime in spinal muscular atrophy patients at the American...

... with proximal limb and trunk muscle weakness leading to respiratory distress and, in the most severe cases, death. ... SMA is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects the motor neurons of the voluntary muscles used for activities such ... SMA patients are divided into four subtypes depending on disease onset and severity, but they all suffer from degeneration of ... SMA is a devastating condition which, even in its less severe forms, leads to progressive muscle wasting and the loss of ...
more infohttp://www.checkorphan.org/news/trophos-will-present-results-of-pivotal-phase-ii-iii-study-of-olesoxime-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy-patients-at-the-american-academy-of-neurology-aan

Cardiomyopathy and Polyhydramnios, related diseases and genetic alterations | MENDELIAN.COCardiomyopathy and Polyhydramnios, related diseases and genetic alterations | MENDELIAN.CO

Muscle weakness typically involves proximal muscles, with involvement of the facial, bulbar, and respiratory muscles (Ilkovski ... modifying factors affecting the severity of the disorder, variability in clinical care, or a combination of these factors ( ... Low-set ears Respiratory failure Proximal muscle weakness Hyperlordosis Respiratory insufficiency Limb muscle weakness Spinal ... neuropathic changes Muscle stiffness Neck flexor weakness Bulbar signs Neck muscle weakness Diaphragmatic paralysis ...
more infohttps://www.mendelian.co/symptoms/cardiomyopathy-and-polyhydramnios

Thymectomy Trial in Non-Thymomatous Myasthenia Gravis Patients Receiving Prednisone Therapy - Study Results - ClinicalTrials.govThymectomy Trial in Non-Thymomatous Myasthenia Gravis Patients Receiving Prednisone Therapy - Study Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Moderate weakness affecting muscles other than ocular muscles; may also have ocular muscle weakness of any severity. ... respiratory muscles, or both. May also have lesser or equal involvement of limb, axial muscles, or both. ... Severe weakness affecting muscles other than ocular muscles; may also have ocular muscle weakness of any severity. ... Predominantly affecting limb, axial muscles, or both. May also have lesser involvement of oropharyngeal muscles. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT00294658?show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14

Guillain-Barre syndrome  - Southern Cross NZGuillain-Barre syndrome - Southern Cross NZ

... face and respiratory system: symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment. ... A potentially fatal nervous system disorder causing muscle weakness or paralysis of limbs, ... The severity of symptoms can vary considerably between individuals. Symptoms can range from mild muscle weakness that resolves ... Respiratory function will be impaired in around 50% of cases. In up to 30% of cases the breathing muscles are paralysed to such ...
more infohttps://www.southerncross.co.nz/group/medical-library/guillain-barre-syndrome

Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) Causes & SymptomsGuillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) Causes & Symptoms

It is an acute and rapidly progressive inflammation of nerves that causes loss of sensation and muscle weakness. Read more ... Some may have respiratory failure due to muscle weakness. These people need to have a breathing tube put in and be placed on a ... Muscles that are controlled by nerves in the head may be involved. Muscle weakness near the involved nerves can be the most ... The severity of symptoms peaks by the second or third week.. *In certain forms of Guillain-Barre syndrome, people have weakness ...
more infohttps://www.emedicinehealth.com/guillain-barre_syndrome/article_em.htm

What are Dystrophies & NMDs? | MD AustraliaWhat are Dystrophies & NMD's? | MD Australia

... and weakness of arm, leg, trunk, face and throat muscles. In severe cases, children have marked respiratory weakness. Children ... Severe generalised weakness of legs and other muscle groups with periods of paralysis affecting arms, legs and neck. Severity ... Other types may involve the muscle around the eyes, distal weakness and wasting or weakness around the hips. Weakness is static ... causing weakness (myasthenia) and the muscles tire easily (fatigue). Muscle weakness varies depending on the type of genetic ...
more infohttps://www.mda.org.au/disorders/overview/description/

Anaesthetic Management of Two Patients with Pompe Disease for Caesarean SectionAnaesthetic Management of Two Patients with Pompe Disease for Caesarean Section

The introduction of enzyme replacement therapy and the resultant stabilisation or improvement in mobility and respiratory ... muscle function afforded to patients with late-onset Pompe may lead to an increased number of Pompe patients prepared to accept ... Severity varies according to the age of onset; the degree and severity of skeletal, cardiac, and respiratory muscle involvement ... followed by involvement of the diaphragm and accessory muscles of respiration. As the muscle weakness worsens, patients often ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cria/2014/650310/

Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases - Volume 3, issue 4 - Journals - IOS PressJournal of Neuromuscular Diseases - Volume 3, issue 4 - Journals - IOS Press

... severe muscle weakness, severe respiratory distress, and cranial nerves involvement (inability to suck/swallow, facial muscles ... The SMN2 copy number modulates the severity of SMA. The 0SMN1 /1SMN2 genotype, the most severe genotype compatible with life, ... Lower limb muscle MRI revealed progressive fatty degeneration of specific posterior compartment muscles. Patients ... muscle weakness and cramps. Steady states and predefined heart rates were achieved in 12/17 and 17/17 of the completed tests, ...
more infohttps://content.iospress.com/journals/journal-of-neuromuscular-diseases/3/4

Muscular Dystrophy: Options for Complication ManagementMuscular Dystrophy: Options for Complication Management

The muscles involved-limb, axial, or facial-and the distribution of muscle weakness (proximal/distal) vary according to the ... Weakened respiratory muscles and diaphragm, as well as scoliosis, can develop, resulting in respiratory failure. Cognitive ... typically leading to weakness and atrophy of varying severity. There are nine clearly defined types of MD, each differing in ... and pectoral muscles. Specific forms of the disease may also affect facial, respiratory, and cardiac muscles in addition to ...
more infohttps://www.uspharmacist.com/article/muscular-dystrophy-options-for-complication-management

Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1C via the LITAF Gene - PreventionGeneticsCharcot-Marie-Tooth 1C via the LITAF Gene - PreventionGenetics

... weakness and atrophy of the muscles of the arms and hands may occur. CMT is heterogeneous in regards to symptoms, severity and ... Symptoms usually begin with weakness and atrophy in the muscle of the legs and feet. As the disease progresses, ... Although the disease may lead to disability and respiratory difficulty, life expectancy is usually unaffected. Most common ... The progressive degeneration of motor nerves results in weakness and atrophy of the distal muscles; and the degeneration of ...
more infohttps://www.preventiongenetics.com/testInfo.php?sel=test&val=Charcot-Marie-Tooth+1C+via+the+LITAF+Gene

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - WikipediaAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis - Wikipedia

ALS is characterized by stiff muscles, muscle twitching, and gradually worsening weakness due to muscles decreasing in size.[2] ... In respiratory-onset ALS, this may occur before significant limb weakness is apparent. Most people with ALS die of respiratory ... a meta-analysis found no relationship between dysfunction and disease severity.[29] However, cognitive and behavioral ... Stiff muscles, muscle twitching, gradually worsening weakness[2]. Complications. Difficulty in speaking, swallowing, breathing[ ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lou_Gehrig%27s_Disease

Factors limiting exercise tolerance in chronic lung diseases.  - PubMed - NCBIFactors limiting exercise tolerance in chronic lung diseases. - PubMed - NCBI

... imbalance between energy demands and supplies to working respiratory and peripheral muscles; and (iii) peripheral muscle ... or disease severity and ultimately depend on the degree of malfunction or miss coordination between the different physiological ... intrinsic dysfunction/weakness.. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1745-1766, 2012. ... systems (i.e., respiratory, cardiovascular and peripheral muscles). This review focuses on patients with chronic obstructive ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23723024?dopt=Abstract

Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

Children with SMA commonly need help breathing when muscle weakness begins to affect the respiratory muscles. Different ... There are four types of SMA, categorized by the diseases severity and the age at which symptoms begin:. *Type I, sometimes ... In many cases, progressive muscle weakness and atrophy, parental concerns, and repeated doctor visits because of respiratory ... In fact, unless the parents know they are SMA carriers or a baby demonstrates significant muscle weakness or has difficulty ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/Advocate/en/parents/sma.html

Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)

Children with SMA commonly need help breathing when muscle weakness begins to affect the respiratory muscles. Different ... There are four types of SMA, categorized by the diseases severity and the age at which symptoms begin:. *Type I, sometimes ... In many cases, progressive muscle weakness and atrophy, parental concerns, and repeated doctor visits because of respiratory ... In fact, unless the parents know they are SMA carriers or a baby demonstrates significant muscle weakness or has difficulty ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/KHovnanian/en/parents/sma.html

Roche - Roche acquires Trophos to expand portfolio in neuromuscular disease with high medical needRoche - Roche acquires Trophos to expand portfolio in neuromuscular disease with high medical need

... and weakness of the chest muscles leading to high risk of severe respiratory infections. The severity and progression of the ... Affected infants have low muscle tone, profound muscle weakness and impaired ability to move. Babies with type I SMA never sit ... Progressive weakness of chest muscles increases the risk of respiratory infections and poor lung growth. Babies with type I SMA ... muscle weakness and an increased risk of respiratory infections. A significant number of people with Type III SMA lose the ...
more infohttps://www.roche.com/media/store/releases/med-cor-2015-01-16.htm

Roche - Roche acquires Trophos to expand portfolio in neuromuscular disease with high medical needRoche - Roche acquires Trophos to expand portfolio in neuromuscular disease with high medical need

... and weakness of the chest muscles leading to high risk of severe respiratory infections. The severity and progression of the ... Affected infants have low muscle tone, profound muscle weakness and impaired ability to move. Babies with type I SMA never sit ... Progressive weakness of chest muscles increases the risk of respiratory infections and poor lung growth. Babies with type I SMA ... muscle weakness and an increased risk of respiratory infections. A significant number of people with Type III SMA lose the ...
more infohttps://www.roche.com/media/releases/med-cor-2015-01-16.htm

Post Polio syndrome             | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS ProgramPost Polio syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

Symptoms and severity vary among affected people and may include muscle weakness and a gradual decrease in the size of muscles ... atrophy); muscle and joint pain; fatigue; difficulty with gait; respiratory problems; and/or swallowing problems.[1][2] Only a ... My mother in law had post polio syndrome and my husband and my son have weakness in their legs that reminds me of post polio ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=cluster&id=25776

Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacityImpact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity

Respiratory muscle strength measurement aids in the early identification of muscle weakness, as well as identification of the ... The respiratory muscles may show decreased strength and endurance properties due to uremic myopathy.12 , 13 , 14 ... severity, functional consequences, and evolution of pulmonary and neuromuscular disorders.15 , 16 A study has demonstrated that ... However, no correlation was found between respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity, suggesting the need for new ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0021-75572014000600580&lng=en&tlng=en

Clinical ResultsClinical Results

... or severe weakness, affecting muscles other than ocular, but may also include ocular weakness of any severity; class a: ... weakness predominantly affecting limb and/or axial muscles; class b: predominantly affecting oropharyngeal and/or respiratory ... MGFA class I encompasses ocular muscle weakness only (excluded from gMG clinical trial); classes II, III, or IV refer to mild, ... 45% had a clinically meaningful improvement in muscle weakness compared with 19% of those taking placebob ...
more infohttps://info.soliris.net/patient-clinical-results-safety/
  • HypoPP is a rare disease it needs to be taken into consideration not only in cases of paroxysmal weakness but also when there is myopathy of unknown origin. (symptoma.com)
  • Moderate hypokalemia, with serum potassium concentrations of 2.5-3 mEq/L (Normal Level: 3.5-5.0 mEq/L), may cause muscle weakness, myalgia , and muscle cramps, and constipation (from disturbed function of smooth muscle). (symptoma.com)
  • Case A 27-year-old Asian male came into the emergency room with significant weakness in his arms and legs following an episode of nausea and vomiting. (symptoma.com)
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