Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.United StatesAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ankle Brachial Index: Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.Respiratory Tract DiseasesSchizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Great BritainAge of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.EnglandBody Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.APACHE: An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Catastrophic Illness: An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).IndiaDental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.JapanCritical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.BrazilPandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic: A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Terminally Ill: Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Mice, Inbred C57BLSelf Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Persian Gulf Syndrome: Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)CaliforniaBlood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.

Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease in Switzerland, 1985-1994. Swiss Pneumococcal Study Group. (1/30167)

BACKGROUND: Cost effective use of new vaccines against pneumococcal disease in children requires detailed information about the local epidemiology of pneumococcal infections. METHODS: Data on 393 culture-confirmed cases of invasive pneumococcal infection in children (<17 years) hospitalized in Swiss paediatric clinics were collected retrospectively for the years 1985-1994. RESULTS: Meningitis (42%) was most frequent, followed by pneumonia (28%) and bacteraemia (26%). The overall annual incidence was 2.7 cases per 100000 children <17 years old and 11 cases per 100000 children <2 years old. Annual incidence rates were stable over the study period. Lethality was high for meningitis (8.6%) and bacteraemia (8.9%). A history of basal skull fracture was reported in 3.3% of children with pneumococcal meningitis. Residence in a rural region was associated with an increased risk of pneumococcal infection (relative risk = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.00). CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease seems to be less frequent in Switzerland than in other European and non-European countries. This may be due to differences in diagnostic strategies and lower frequency of risk factors such as the use of day care. Children with a history of basal skull fracture are at increased risk for pneumococcal meningitis. Further investigation of the association of invasive pneumococcal infection with rural residence and the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections might give new insight into the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and the development of antibiotic resistance.  (+info)

Dose-loading with hydroxychloroquine improves the rate of response in early, active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind six-week trial with eighteen-week extension. (2/30167)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the usefulness of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) dose-loading to increase the percentage of responders or rate of response in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Two hundred twelve patients with early RA (mean duration 1.5 years) were enrolled in a 24-week trial. Patients were stabilized with 1,000 mg naproxen/day and then began a 6-week, double-blind trial comparing treatment with HCQ at 400 mg/day (n = 71), 800 mg/day (n = 71), and 1,200 mg/day (n = 66), followed by 18 weeks of open-label HCQ treatment at 400 mg/day. RESULTS: All patients had mild, active disease at the time of initiation of HCQ treatment (31-43% rheumatoid factor positive; no previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; mean swollen joint count 8.6-10.4). Based on the Paulus criteria, response during the 6-week double-blind portion of the study was 47.97%, 57.7%, and 63.6% in the 400 mg/day, 800 mg/day, and 1,200 mg/day groups, respectively (P = 0.052). Discontinuations for adverse events were dose related (3 in the 400 mg/day group, 5 in the 800 mg/day group, 6 in the 1,200 mg/day group). Most involved the gastrointestinal (GI) system, with the background naproxen treatment possibly contributing. Ocular abnormalities occurred in 17 of 212 patients (8%) but were not dose related. CONCLUSION: Dose-loading with HCQ increased the degree of response at 6 weeks in this group of patients with early, predominantly seronegative RA. Adverse GI events were dose related, while adverse ocular events were not.  (+info)

Genetic influences on cervical and lumbar disc degeneration: a magnetic resonance imaging study in twins. (3/30167)

OBJECTIVE: Degenerative intervertebral disc disease is common; however, the importance of genetic factors is unknown. This study sought to determine the extent of genetic influences on disc degeneration by classic twin study methods using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We compared MRI features of degenerative disc disease in the cervical and lumbar spine of 172 monozygotic and 154 dizygotic twins (mean age 51.7 and 54.4, respectively) who were unselected for back pain or disc disease. An overall score for disc degeneration was calculated as the sum of the grades for disc height, bulge, osteophytosis, and signal intensity at each level. A "severe disease" score (excluding minor grades) and an "extent of disease" score (number of levels affected) were also calculated. RESULTS: For the overall score, heritability was 74% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 64-81%) at the lumbar spine and 73% (95% CI 64-80%) at the cervical spine. For "severe disease," heritability was 64% and 79% at the lumbar and cervical spine, respectively, and for "extent of disease," heritability was 63% and 63%, respectively. These results were adjusted for age, weight, height, smoking, occupational manual work, and exercise. Examination of individual features revealed that disc height and bulge were highly heritable at both sites, and osteophytes were heritable in the lumbar spine. CONCLUSION: These results suggest an important genetic influence on variation in intervertebral disc degeneration. However, variation in disc signal is largely influenced by environmental factors shared by twins. The use of MRI scans to determine the phenotype in family and population studies should allow a better understanding of disease mechanisms and the identification of the genes involved.  (+info)

Validation of the Rockall risk scoring system in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (4/30167)

BACKGROUND: Several scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of rebleeding or death in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). These risk scoring systems have not been validated in a new patient population outside the clinical context of the original study. AIMS: To assess internal and external validity of a simple risk scoring system recently developed by Rockall and coworkers. METHODS: Calibration and discrimination were assessed as measures of validity of the scoring system. Internal validity was assessed using an independent, but similar patient sample studied by Rockall and coworkers, after developing the scoring system (Rockall's validation sample). External validity was assessed using patients admitted to several hospitals in Amsterdam (Vreeburg's validation sample). Calibration was evaluated by a chi2 goodness of fit test, and discrimination was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Calibration indicated a poor fit in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (p<0.0001, Vreeburg; p=0.007, Rockall), but a better fit for the prediction of mortality in both validation samples (p=0.2, Vreeburg; p=0.3, Rockall). The areas under the ROC curves were rather low in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (0.61, Vreeburg; 0.70, Rockall), but higher for the prediction of mortality (0.73, Vreeburg; 0.81, Rockall). CONCLUSIONS: The risk scoring system developed by Rockall and coworkers is a clinically useful scoring system for stratifying patients with acute UGIB into high and low risk categories for mortality. For the prediction of rebleeding, however, the performance of this scoring system was unsatisfactory.  (+info)

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH), malignancy grade and clonality in microdissected prostate cancer. (5/30167)

The aim of the present study was to find out whether increasing malignancy of prostate carcinoma correlates with an overall increase of loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and whether LOH typing of microdissected tumour areas can help to distinguish between multifocal or clonal tumour development. In 47 carcinomas analysed at 25 chromosomal loci, the overall LOH rate was found to be significantly lower in grade 1 areas (2.2%) compared with grade 2 (9.4%) and grade 3 areas (8.3%, P = 0.007). A similar tendency was found for the mean fractional allele loss (FAL, 0.043 for grade 1, 0.2 for grade 2 and 0.23 for grade 3, P = 0.0004). Of 20 tumours (65%) with LOH in several microdissected areas, 13 had identical losses at 1-4 loci within two or three areas, suggesting clonal development of these areas. Markers near RB, DCC, BBC1, TP53 and at D13S325 (13q21-22) showed higher loss rates in grades 2 and 3 (between 25% and 44.4%) compared with grade 1 (0-6.6%). Tumour-suppressor genes (TSGs) near these loci might, thus, be important for tumour progression. TP53 mutations were detected in 27%, but BBC1 mutations in only 7%, of samples with LOH. Evaluation of all 25 loci in every tumour made evident that each prostate cancer has its own pattern of allelic losses.  (+info)

Incidence and duration of hospitalizations among persons with AIDS: an event history approach. (6/30167)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze hospitalization patterns of persons with AIDS (PWAs) in a multi-state/multi-episode continuous time duration framework. DATA SOURCES: PWAs on Medicaid identified through a match between the state's AIDS Registry and Medicaid eligibility files; hospital admission and discharge dates identified through Medicaid claims. STUDY DESIGN: Using a Weibull event history framework, we model the hazard of transition between hospitalized and community spells, incorporating the competing risk of death in each of these states. Simulations are used to translate these parameters into readily interpretable estimates of length of stay, the probability that a hospitalization will end in death, and the probability that a nonhospitalized person will be hospitalized within 90 days. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In multivariate analyses, participation in a Medicaid waiver program offering case management and home care was associated with hospital stays 1.3 days shorter than for nonparticipants. African American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with hospital stays 1.2 days and 1.0 day longer than for non-Hispanic whites; African Americans also experienced more frequent hospital admissions. Residents of the high-HIV-prevalence area of the state had more frequent admissions and stays two days longer than those residing elsewhere in the state. Older PWAs experienced less frequent hospital admissions but longer stays, with hospitalizations of 55-year-olds lasting 8.25 days longer than those of 25-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: Much socioeconomic and geographic variability exists both in the incidence and in the duration of hospitalization among persons with AIDS in New Jersey. Event history analysis provides a useful statistical framework for analysis of these variations, deals appropriately with data in which duration of observation varies from individual to individual, and permits the competing risk of death to be incorporated into the model. Transition models of this type have broad applicability in modeling the risk and duration of hospitalization in chronic illnesses.  (+info)

Natural history of dysplasia of the uterine cervix. (7/30167)

BACKGROUND: A historical cohort of Toronto (Ontario, Canada) women whose Pap smear histories were recorded at a major cytopathology laboratory provided the opportunity to study progression and regression of cervical dysplasia in an era (1962-1980) during which cervical squamous lesions were managed conservatively. METHODS: Actuarial and Cox's survival analyses were used to estimate the rates and relative risks of progression and regression of mild (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 [CIN1]) and moderate (CIN2) dysplasias. In addition, more than 17,000 women with a history of Pap smears between 1970 and 1980 inclusive and who were diagnosed as having mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry for the outcome of any subsequent cervical cancers occurring through 1989. RESULTS: Both mild and moderate dysplasias were more likely to regress than to progress. The risk of progression from mild to severe dysplasia or worse was only 1% per year, but the risk of progression from moderate dysplasia was 16% within 2 years and 25% within 5 years. Most of the excess risk of cervical cancer for severe and moderate dysplasias occurred within 2 years of the initial dysplastic smear. After 2 years, in comparison with mild dysplasia, the relative risks for progression from severe or moderate dysplasia to cervical cancer in situ or worse was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0-5.7) and 2.5 (95% CI = 2.2-3.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: The risk of progression for moderate dysplasia was intermediate between the risks for mild and severe dysplasia; thus, the moderate category may represent a clinically useful distinction. The majority of untreated mild dysplasias were recorded as regressing to yield a normal smear within 2 years.  (+info)

Plasma-soluble CD30 in childhood tuberculosis: effects of disease severity, nutritional status, and vitamin A therapy. (8/30167)

Plasma-soluble CD30 (sCD30) is the result of proteolytic splicing from the membrane-bound form of CD30, a putative marker of type 2 cytokine-producing cells. We measured sCD30 levels in children with tuberculosis, a disease characterized by prominent type 1 lymphocyte cytokine responses. We postulated that disease severity and nutritional status would alter cytokine responses and therefore sCD30 levels. Samples from South African children enrolled prospectively at the time of diagnosis of tuberculosis were analyzed. (Patients were originally enrolled in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effects of oral vitamin A supplementation on prognosis of tuberculosis.) Plasma samples collected at the time of diagnosis and 6 and 12 weeks later (during antituberculosis therapy) were analyzed. sCD30 levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The 91 children included in the study demonstrated high levels of sCD30 at diagnosis (median, 98 U/liter; range, 11 to 1,569 U/liter). Although there was a trend toward higher sCD30 levels in more severe disease (e.g., culture-positive disease or miliary disease), this was not statistically significant. Significantly higher sCD30 levels were demonstrated in the presence of nutritional compromise: the sCD30 level was higher in patients with a weight below the third percentile for age, in those with clinical signs of kwashiorkor, and in those with a low hemoglobin content. There was minimal change in the sCD30 level after 12 weeks of therapy, even though patients improved clinically. However, changes in sCD30 after 12 weeks differed significantly when 46 patients (51%) who received vitamin A were compared with those who had received a placebo. Vitamin A-supplemented children demonstrated a mean (+/- standard error of the mean) decrease in sCD30 by a factor of 0.99 +/- 0.02 over 12 weeks, whereas a factor increase of 1.05 +/- 0.02 was demonstrated in the placebo group (P = 0.02). We conclude that children with tuberculosis had high sCD30 levels, which may reflect the presence of a type 2 cytokine response. Nutritional compromise was associated with higher sCD30 levels. Vitamin A therapy resulted in modulation of sCD30 levels over time.  (+info)

Genetic alteration of laboratory rodents may affect their welfare. In compliance with EU Directive 2010/63, potentially harmful phenotypes must be characterised and their effects reduced to what is strictly necessary for the experiment.. These guidelines have been produced by the Working Group of Berlin Animal Welfare Officers. The latest revision, version 1.1 of 1 May 2017, has been accepted for publication in Laboratory Animals. In addition to background information on severity classification, they include examples of the classification of the symptoms in a range of disorders: lethal factors, behavioural disorders, alterations of the skin and coat, diseases of the sensory organs, neurological diseases, diseases of the immune system, cardiovascular and haematological diseases, diseases of the respiratory tract, metabolic diseases, reproductive diseases, cancer, renal diseases and alterations of the locomotor system ...
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Microsoft Research & Defense published a risk assessment matrix for the August 2010, security updates.. According to Microsoft security engineers, eight of the patched vulnerabilities have a maximum severity rating of Critical with the other six having a maximum severity rating of Important. Furthermore, six of the fourteen bulletins either do not affect the latest version of Microsoft products or affect them with reduced severity.. Visit Microsoft risk assessment matrix for more information. The table helps you to prioritize the deployment of the updates appropriately for your environment.. Source: [Technet.com]. ...
Using international expert collaboration, we have developed an MLD MR severity scoring system, similar but not identical to the scoring system used in X-ALD. It is designed to be applicable to the standard MR imaging examination and reproducible by any neuroradiologist or other individual familiar with neuroanatomy and MR imaging of the pediatric brain. It should be more useful than a descriptive summary of abnormal brain involvement in these patients. It was developed to address the need for quantitative biomarkers of disease severity that can be used to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutics.. On the basis of our imaging results, we found it useful to categorize positive brain MR scores into 3 groups: mild disease (score, 1-6), moderate disease (score, 7-15), and severe disease (score, 16-34). On initial scans, 8 patients had mild disease (range, 1.92-10.25 years; mean, 3.73 years), 5 patients had moderate disease (range, 4.17-9.4 years; mean, 6.27 years), and 14 patients had severe disease ...
Figure 16-1. Schematic representation of the course of lung function for persons with asthma of different severities as compared with persons without asthma. Both lung function at birth and deficits occurring after birth play a role in determining the course of the disease for a lifetime. (Reprinted with permission from Stern, Morgan, Wright, Guerra, Martinez.…
This ointment has a fairly good reputation among consumers. It can be found in numerous discussion forums. However, it has a disadvantage that is worth knowing about. Despite the high effectiveness, quite a lot of people complain about the long duration of this treatment. A complete cure is possible even after a few months of use. If we do not care about express results, it will not be a problem to use it for several months. It is enough to be patient and follow the recommendations. Do not overdose the product, which will lead to greater skin irritation and prolonged treatment. The majority of patients express their opinions on this subject in a rather positive way, praising it:. It works very well, the first ones were noticeable in different ways already after two months. Redheads have become faded and with time they begin to disappear, I will wait until a full cure.. Acne, like other diseases, can have different severity of symptoms. It is not always necessary to treat it immediately with such ...
Welcome to HW it is a great place for info and support. The best thing to help your daughter is a postive attitude I know you have questions but she will have to learn to take care of this disease. You could go over your list before going to the Dr. with her perhaps there are things she would like to add to it. There are people who are able to be in remisssion for many years on there meds. Some have different severity of symnptoms and disease. Some have fistulizing disease. Has her Dr. started her on meds yet? How was she diagosined thinking she probably had a scaope. Dietatrician may be helpful ,I follow low roughage diet. Hope your daughter gets feeling better soon and if you need more help ask and we will try to help. lol ...
A peripheral arterial study is used to document the presence of disease, determine its functional severity, localize the site of involvement, define the lesion as a stenosis or occlusion, measure its length and provide baseline information for future comparisons. When neuro - musculoskeletal symptoms are present the study helps to determine how much arterial insufficiency contributes to the patients symptoms. Principal clinical indications for peripheral arterial studies include: ...
Cigarette smoking is associated with more severe multiple sclerosis disease course with lower lifetime cigarette smoking load and smoking cessation having no significant effect on disease severity.
The figures for survival corrected for initial disease severity are of prime importance. They indicate quite clearly that outcome was equally good for all babies ⩽32 weeks gestation, irrespective of the type of unit that provided their neonatal care. Taking the study population as a whole, there is evidence that the service is working in an integrated manner. The larger units, appropriately, attract a group of infants who are sicker than those whose care is entirely in the smaller units. The babies transferred for neonatal care tend to be sicker than those that normally receive treatment in the small units.. Focusing on babies: ⩽28 weeks gestation reveals a slightly different pattern. Here CRIB scores indicate that those infants not involved in transfer are similar, in terms of disease severity, in both types of unit and outcomes are equally good. Those babies that are transferred do not have a higher predicted mortality. This suggests that, among these infants, selection for transfer relies ...
Can a person have a mild case of BP? I was talking to a friend of mine and she said she had a friend who was BP but only took Lexapro when she really felt she...
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1. Number of clinic visits required to achieve Stage II (0-1%SS, Severity Rating=1) 2. Number of clinic days to achieve Stage II 3. Percent Syllables Stuttered (%SS) at entry to Stage ...
We answer readers questions about conducting a mock QIS survey and the meaning of the different scope and severity ratings for survey deficiencies.
Need help connecting the dots? Our Patient Symptom Quiz was designed by the experts to help you identify the causes of your neck, back, or nerve pain.
New research indicates that-while not exactly a fountain of youth-exercise can reverse some of the physiological signs of aging and reduce overall disease…
Table 3-9 describes the study population in terms of their demographics and severity levels (APR-DRGs, FY 2008 CMS MS-DRGs, and HCCs). These results are shown for both non-PAC users and PAC users. For beneficiaries using PAC services, the demographics and severity within each setting are presented. The proportions show the characteristics of cases discharged to each PAC
Read 8 responses to: My 3 year old Daughter has a mild case of Pneumonia... Find the best answer on Mamapedia - mom trusted since 2006.
... - Se necesitan criterios más sencillos para evaluar este riesgo. Neumonía adquirida en la comunidad links this quantification of illness severity to an
Data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 449 patients of 3 doses of belimumab (1, 4, 10 mg/kg) or placebo plus standard of care therapy (SOC) over a 56-week period were analyzed. The Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment (SELENA) version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) SLE disease activity instruments, the Short Form 36 health survey, and biomarker analyses were used to create a novel SRI. Response to treatment in a subset of 321 serologically active SLE patients (antinuclear antibodies ≥1:80 and/or anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies ≥30 IU/ml) at baseline was retrospectively evaluated using the SRI. ...
An SRI response is defined as a reduction from baseline in the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI 2K) score of at least 4 points, no worsening in Physicians Global Assessment (PhGA) (with worsening defined as an increase in PhGA of more than 0.30 point from baseline), no British Isles Lupus Assessment Group A (BILAG A) organ domain score, and no more than 1 new BILAG B organ domain score from baseline ...
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by broad clinical manifestations including cardiovascular and renal complications with periodic disease flares and significant morbidity and mortality. One of the main contributing factors to the pathology of SLE is the accumulation and impaired clearance of immune complexes of which the principle components are host auto-antigens and antibodies. The contribution of host lipids to the formation of these autoimmune complexes remains poorly defined. The aim of the present study was to identify and analyze candidate lipid autoantigens and their corresponding anti-lipid antibody responses in a well-defined SLE patient cohort using a combination of immunological and biophysical techniques. Disease monitoring in the SLE cohort was undertaken with serial British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) scoring. Correlations between specific lipid/anti-lipid responses were investigated as disease activity developed from active flares
The association between etanercept serum concentration and psoriasis disease severity is poorly investigated and currently etanercept serum concentration monitoring aiming to optimize psoriasis treatment lacks evidence. In this prospective study, we investigated the relation between etanercept exposure and disease severity via measuring etanercept concentrations at five consecutive time points in 56 psoriasis patients. Disease severity assessments included the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), Body Surface Area (BSA) and Physician Global Assessment (PGA), and etanercept and anti-etanercept antibody concentrations were determined every three months for a period of one year. The present study demonstrated that the association between etanercept concentration and psoriasis severity is age-dependent: when patients were stratified into three groups, patients in the youngest age group (-50 years) showed a lower PASI at a higher etanercept concentration (β = -0.26), whereas patients in the ...
To explore the inadequacies of health service and its impact on clinical outcomes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in China. A total of 210 SLE patients were randomly recruited between January 2017 and January 2018. Each patient received self-report questionnaires to assess medication adherence [Compliance Questionnaire for Rheumatology (CQR)], beliefs about medicines [Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)] and satisfaction about medicine information [the Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS)]. Associations between SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI-2 K) and observed factors were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. Based on CQR, only 28.10% patients were adherent. The score of BMQ was 2.85 ± 5.42, and merely 32.38% patients were satisfied with the information about their prescribed medicines. Disease activity was associated with SIMS, EuroQol five-dimensions [EQ5D], Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC), depression, use of NSAID
Environmental severity is rarely uniform and can vary widely across different locations and regions. There are many factors that contribute to the severity of a given environment, including climatological, geographical, biological, and human. These factors can vary within a given location and can change year-to-year based upon usage, natural weather patterns, and economic development. The specific environmental factors considered by the environmental severity characterization methods evaluated by this study, either directly or indirectly, can include temperature, humidity/atmospheric moisture, precipitation, salinity, topography, UV, winds, chloride deposition, sulfur dioxide deposition and other pollutants. Recognizing the effects these factors have on the corrosion susceptibility of facilities and prioritizing the mitigation of these effects can significantly impact not only life cycle cost but readiness and safety as well. Characterization of environmental severity for DoD locations and ...
(Medical Xpress)-Patients suffering from severe Crohns disease who were no longer able to tolerate intravenous feedings were able to return to a normal oral diet and saw no clinical recurrences of the disease after undergoing ...
The primary end point of this reanalysis of the URICO-ICTUS data showed that compared with placebo UA therapy doubled the rate of excellent outcome after acute ischemic stroke in women but not in men. Importantly, we identified a significant interaction between treatment (UA or placebo) and sex on the rate of excellent outcome and confirmed that this finding was also significant in multivariate models that accounted for the differences observed between women and men at study onset in demographics, risk factors, initial severity of stroke, and creatinine levels.. In the study, we did not find different rates of vessel recanalization after thrombolysis between women and men as previously suggested in some25-27 but not all cohorts.28,29 Furthermore, the effect of UA therapy on functional outcome was assessed in models adjusted for stroke subtype, age, initial severity of stroke, and for the variable effects of risk factors. Therefore, it is sensible to think that the clinical response to UA therapy ...
Ischemic stroke is a global health problem.The major subtype of ischemic stroke is large artery atherothrombosis (LAA). Depending on the lesion location, there were two different type of LAA, including intracranial and extracranial stenosis. The etiological mechanisms between intracranial and extracranial stenosis are unclear. Previous studies speculated that high lipid level or insulin resistane may result in different severity between intracranial and extracranial stenosis. Therefore, the aim of this project is to explore the role of lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, their inducible anti-oxidant and inflammatory related genes, and their phenotypes on risk, severity and prognosis of intracranial and extracranial stenosis. A total of 1800 LAA stroke patients, including 1500 intracranial stenosis and 300 extracranial stenosis patients, diagnosed with computerized tomographic (CT) scan and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be recruited from seven participant hospitals (NTUH, SKH, WFH , ...
Genetic and clinical characterization: All samples are derived from subjects who undergo a detailed clinical evaluation. Detailed genotyping is performed as well to fully characterize all samples. The clinical evaluation includes measurement of overall disease severity score, age of symptom onset, the strength of the muscle sampled, and the severity of the underlying pathological changes. Genetic analysis includes D4Z4 repeat size analysis on chromosomes 4 and 10, haplotype analysis (4qA or 4qB backgrounds and SSLP analysis) and D4Z4 methylation analysis. The details of the methods used to collect and characterize these samples are available here ...
In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) combination therapy with intravenous PG12 may lead to greater disease burden, finds study.
NTP Experiment-Test: 96020-01 INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) Report: PEIRPT18 Study Type: CHRONIC WITH AVERAGE SEVERITY GRADES[b] Date: 03/03/04 Route: GAVAGE TEF EVALUATION (BINARY MIXTURE; PCB 126/PCB 153) Time: 10:12:20 FINAL #1 Facility: Battelle Columbus Laboratory Chemical CAS #: TEFBINARYMIX Lock Date: 03/27/02 Cage Range: All Reasons For Removal: 25018 Dosing Accident 25019 Moribund Sacrifice 25020 Natural Death 25021 Terminal Sacrifice Removal Date Range: All Treatment Groups: Include 001 0 NG / 0 UG Include 004 300 NG /100 UG Include 005 300 NG /300 UG Include 006 300 NG /3000 UG a Number of animals examined microscopically at site and number of animals with lesion b Average severity grade (1-minimal;2-mild;3-moderate;4-marked) Page 1 NTP Experiment-Test: 96020-01 INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) Report: PEIRPT18 Study Type: CHRONIC WITH AVERAGE SEVERITY GRADES[b] Date: 03/03/04 Route: GAVAGE TEF EVALUATION (BINARY MIXTURE; ...
My twin daughters were born at 23 weeks and 5 days, yes 23w 5d!. They just turned 2 in May. Both my girls have different severities of Cerebral Palsy. My daughter, Joy has fluctuated in weight bewtween 14-15 pounds for just over a year now. She weighs no more than 15 lbs and no less than 14 pounds at every doctors appointment. She has been on a Pediasure Plus diet for almost 6 months and still nothing. She doesnt eat solid foods, only purees and eats 4oz every 3-4 hours. She eats purees at least 2 times a day. Everything is high calorie for her. But still no weight gain. Joy is very immobile due to the severity of CP, so she doesnt move around much, so we know that is not the cause of her lack of wieght gain ...
Objective Specific comorbidities and old age create a greater vulnerability to severe Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19). While obesity seems to aggravate the course of disease, the actual impact of the body mass index (BMI) and the cutoff which increases illness severity are still under investigation. The aim of the study was to analyze whether the BMI represented a risk factor f qor respiratory failure, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and death. Research Design and Methods A retrospective cohort study of 482 consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalised between March 1 and April 20, 2020. Logistic regression analysis and Cox proportion Hazard models including demographic characteristics and comorbidities were carried out to predict the endpoints within 30 days from the onset of symptoms. Results Of 482 patients, 104 (21.6%) had a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. At logistic regression analysis, a BMI between 30 and 34.9 kg/m2 significantly increased the risk of respiratory failure (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: ...
MODEL RELEASED. Psoriasis on the back after treatment. Psoriasis on the skin of the back of a patient before treatment with UVB light. Psoriasis is caused by excessive skin production resulting in red scaly patches and inflammation. The treatment here resulted in a reduction of the PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) score by 75 percent (PASI 75). For a sequence showing the treatment, see images C014/2541 to C014/2543. - Stock Image C014/2543
Results Tregs were found significantly lower in severely active disease (group D), compared to healthy controls, inactive disease, mild and moderate disease activity (0.57±0.16% vs. 1.49±0.19%, 1.19±0.34% and 1.05±0.36%, 0.72±0.21%, p,0.05, respectively). There was a strongly inverse correlation between Tregs and SLEDAI (r=-0.644, p,0.001). Alterations in disease activity were characterized by inverse alterations in Tregs: relapse (from 1.23±0.44% to 0.64±0.19%, p,0.001, mean change 0.59±0.41%), remission (from 0.65±0.27% to 1.17±0.30%, p,0.001, mean change 0.52±0.35%). In cases with unaltered disease activity, Tregs numbers remained stable (from 0.98±0.35% to 1.03±0.34%, p=0.245). Tregs were practically halved during relapse (mean reduction 42.6±22.2%), and doubled during remission (mean increment 113±120.9%). Mean change of Tregs in cases with unaltered activity was significantly lower (7.3±20.6%, p,0.001). A clinically significant change in SLEDAI (sum of cases with relapse ...
People with psoriasis are at a higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes than those without psoriasis, and the risk increases dramatically based on the severity of the disease. Researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine ...
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Damage accrual in SLE patients is an independent predictor of mortality, but which of the 12 domains of the SLICC damage index is the most important has been unknown. The investigators studied 635 SLE patients aged 16 years or older. Of these, 570 (89%) were women who had a mean age of 36.5 years. All subjects had disease duration of five years or less at enrollment. Disease activity was assessed by the investigators using the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure-Revised (SLAM-R) at diagnosis and damage at the last visit ...
The SAE Severity Index is supposed to be an approximation to tolerance limit data, but there are incongruities in its derivation which renders the formula unsupportable. The same logic on which the Severity Index appears to be based can be used to support a wide range of possible values for the expo
Date: Thu, 13 Jun 2019 22:34:26 +0200 From: X41 D-Sec GmbH Advisories ,[email protected], To: [email protected] Subject: X41 D-Sec GmbH Security Advisory X41-2019-003: Stack-based buffer overflow in Thunderbird -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA256 X41 D-Sec GmbH Security Advisory: X41-2019-003 Stack-based buffer overflow in Thunderbird ========================================== Severity Rating: High Confirmed Affected Versions: All versions affected Confirmed Patched Versions: Thunderbird ESR 60.7.XXX Vendor: Thunderbird Vendor URL: https://www.thunderbird.net/ Vendor Reference: https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=1553808 Vector: Incoming mail with calendar attachment Credit: X41 D-SEC GmbH, Luis Merino Status: Public CVE: CVE-2019-11705 CWE: 121 CVSS Score: 7.8 CVSS Vector: CVSS:3.0/AV:N/AC:H/PR:N/UI:N/S:C/C:H/I:H/A:H/E:U/RL:O Advisory-URL: https://www.x41-dsec.de/lab/advisories/x41-2019-003-thunderbird Summary and Impact ================== A stack-based ...
Information on the topic of asthma severity. A key message is to classify asthma severity using the domains of current impairment and future risk.
Journal of Medical Internet Research - International Scientific Journal for Medical Research, Information and Communication on the Internet
For a typical assessment the three factors to be assessed are:. Severity: What is the severity of the effect? A failure inevitably creates an effect and the severity of the effect is judged on a scale of 1 to 10. A rating of 1 indicates a low severity of effect should a failure occur and a rating of 10 indicates a very high severity of effect should a failure occur.. Probability: What is the probability of the failure occurring? A failure can be likely to unlikely and the probability of failure occurring is judged on a scale of 1 to 10. A rating of 1 indicates a low probability that a failure will occur and a rating of 10 indicates a very high probability that a failure will occur.. Detection: What is the likelihood that a failure will be detected before it becomes critical? A potential failure may be easily detected and avoided or very difficult to detect and avoid. A rating of 1 indicates a high probability of detection and avoidance before failure and a rating of 10 indicates a very low ...
Results 570 patients (79% women, mean±SD age 56±13 years, disease duration 12.5±10.3 years, disease activity score (DAS28) 4.1±1.6) participated in the validation study. NRS questions performed as well as longer combinations of questionnaires: the final RAID score is composed of seven NRS questions. The final RAID correlated strongly with patient global (R=0.76) and significantly also with other outcomes (DAS28 R=0.69, short form 36 physical −0.59 and mental −0.55, p,0.0001 for all). Reliability was high (ICC 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.94) and sensitivity to change was good (SRM 0.98 (0.96 to 1.00) compared with DAS28 SRM 1.06 (1.01 to 1.11)).. ...
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Ogden, J (2003) What do symptoms mean? Symptoms should be explained in the broader perspective of the patients cognition and mood ...
Findings from a late-stage clinical trial have shown that treatment with Janssens Stelara induced clinical response and remission in adult patients with moderate to severe Crohns disease refractory to TNF inhibitors, a group for whom there are little treatment options. - News - PharmaTimes
Some of the published research comes from researchers who have used the companys own data collection routines through a "Self-Monitoring Form" thats filled out by customers of the product (a form whose psychometric properties we know nothing of). The majority of customers stop filling out the form after two weeks, however (Rucklidge et al., 2010), suggesting theyve either stopped using the product or stopped enjoying any positive effects from it. In the aforementioned study, 120 families (out 709) agreed to monitor symptoms of their children who were taking EMPowerplus over 6 months time. Naturally, the researchers found a positive effect for the supplement - a 46% decrease in mean bipolar symptom severity scores at LOCF and a 40% decrease in ADHD symptoms.. But whats that LOCF thing? Well, its a technique called Last Observation Carried Forward that researchers use that carries forward drop-out scores as though they had completed the entire study (in this case, observation of scores over ...
Atypical and severe manifestations -- Risk groups for severe disease -- Pregnant women and newborns -- Treatment and clinical management -- Selected references.Chikungunya is a relatively benign disease, and a paucity of literature on severe manifest ...
This flu IS, IMHO, worse than the regular flu, because it targets and kills specifically children. And in my opinion that is a greater tragedy than a disease that kills mostly old people. And it is very very widespread. The doctors around here do not even test for it in most cases. The mild cases will never be reported because no one goes to the doctors office for mild cases as they are swamped right now even more than usual. (And we HAVE health insurance). If the vaccine is not available for everyone who wants it, it is ethically mandated that it be given to the people most at risk for the disease and for serious problems with the disease first - children and pregnant women, and a few others, AFAIK ...
Perfusion index has been shown to help clinicians predict illness severity and early adverse respiratory outcomes in neonates,[ ... "The pulse oximeter perfusion index as a predictor for high illness severity in neonates". European Journal of Pediatrics. 161 ( ... Pleth variability index (PVI) is a measure of the variability of the perfusion index, which occurs during breathing cycles. ... Cannesson M, Desebbe O, Rosamel P, Delannoy B, Robin J, Bastien O, Lehot JJ (August 2008). "Pleth variability index to monitor ...
Case mix index Diagnosis codes Severity of illness Alemi, F., J. Rice, and R. Hankins. 1990. "Predicting In-Hospital Survival ... Severity Measurement Methods and Judging Hospital Death Rates for Pneumonia, Medical Care 34 (1): 11-28, 1996. ...
... is a scoring system for rating the severity of medical illness for children, one of several ICU scoring systems. Its name ... Slater A, Shann F, Pearson G, Paediatric Index of Mortality Study Group (2003). "PIM2: a revised version of the Paediatric ... stands for "Paediatric Index of Mortality". It has been designed to provide a predicted mortality for a patient by following a ... Index of Mortality". Intensive Care Med. 29 (2): 278-85. doi:10.1007/s00134-002-1601-2. PMID 12541154. this is the first ...
In that study, the RAI outperformed standard illness severity scores such as Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) for prediction ... Thus, the creation of the renal angina index was done by a multiplicative index (instead of sum). The RAI score is a composite ... directing biomarker testing only for patients who fulfill a combination of illness severity and changes in kidney function. ... calculating RAI and measuring biomarkers is relatively simple compared to calculation of severity of illness scores), useful ( ...
... illness severity, age of onset, and illness length. There is also literature that links EE to the course and outcome of ... One study showed that one component, high parental dimensions of criticism (CRIT), can be used as an index of problematic ... The family believes that the cause of many of the family's problems is the patient's mental illness, whether they are or not. ... Theoretically, a high level of EE in the home can worsen the prognosis in patients with mental illness, such as schizophrenia ...
... auxiliary police forces in Iraq Severity of illness, medical classification Sphere of influence, a term in politics Survey of ... FAA review for DO-178B Aircraft software development Southern Oscillation Index Sphere of influence (astrodynamics), a term in ...
"Addiction Severity Index," a tool that was later translated into over 30 languages and which by 2012 was being used throughout ... that psychiatrists use in diagnosing mental illnesses, including addiction disorders. There was no validated measure of ...
Severity of illness (SOI) Pay for Performance Mistichelli, Judith Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) and the Prospective Payment ... The 20.0 version appeared in 2002.[citation needed] In 2007, author Rick Mayes described DRGs as: Case mix index Diagnosis ... They include: Medicare DRG (CMS-DRG & MS-DRG) Refined DRGs (R-D RG) All Patient DRGs (AP-DRG) Severity DRGs (S-DRG) All Patient ... Severity-Adjusted DRGs (APS-DRG) All Patient Refined DRGs (APR-DRG) International-Refined DRGs (IR-DRG) The system was created ...
Total Illness Burden Index (TIBI): Developed in 2007.[74]. Analyzing the comorbid state of patient S, 73 years of age, using ... because it gave the practicing doctors a chance to calculate the number and severity of chronic illnesses in the structure of ... Charlson index[edit]. The Charlson comorbidity index[4] predicts the one-year mortality for a patient who may have a range of ... Charlson Index: This index is meant for the long-term prognosis of comorbid patients and was developed by M. E. Charlson in ...
These reach greatest severity after four days, possibly resulting in death from cardiorespiratory or renal failure. ... Nickel carbonyl poisoning is characterized by a two-stage illness. The first consists of headaches and chest pain lasting a few ... The Merck Index (7th ed.). Merck. Hedberg, L.; Iijima, T.; Hedberg, K. (1979). "Nickel tetracarbonyl, Ni(CO)4. I. Molecular ...
Treatment of CAP in children depends on the child's age and the severity of illness. Children under five are not usually ... Some CAP patients require intensive care, with clinical prediction rules such as the pneumonia severity index and CURB-65 ... Diagnostic tools depend on the severity of illness, local practices and concern about complications of the infection. All ... Outpatients with underlying illness or risk factors: Although this group does not require hospitalization, patients have ...
Cazenave termed the illness lupus and added the word erythematosus to distinguish this disease from other illnesses that ... However, the severity of symptoms and mortality are both similar in white and non-white patients. Studies that report different ... Women with SLE and of lower socioeconomic status have been shown to have higher depression scores, higher body mass index, and ... SLE is one of several diseases known as "the great imitator" because it often mimics or is mistaken for other illnesses.[9] SLE ...
The rule uses demographics (whether someone is older, and is male or female), the coexistence of co-morbid illnesses, findings ... The pneumonia severity index (PSI) or PORT Score is a clinical prediction rule that medical practitioners can use to calculate ... Pneumonia: New Prediction Model Proves Promising Pneumonia Severity Index Calculator Community-Acquired Pneumonia Mortality ... The purpose of the PSI is to classify the severity of a patient's pneumonia to determine the amount of resources to be ...
Diagnosis-related group (DRG) Risk of mortality (ROM) Case mix index (CMI) Diagnosis code Averill RF, The evolution of case-mix ... Severity of illness (SOI) is defined as the extent of organ system derangement or physiologic decompensation for a patient. It ... Frederick, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc; 19 "Evaluation of Severity-Adjusted DRG Systems": RAND Evaluation of DRG Systems. ...
... prognosis is correlated with the severity of the PAD as measured by the ankle-brachial index. Large-vessel PAD increases ... When gangrene has set in, amputation is required to prevent infected tissues from causing sepsis a life-threatening illness. ... Depending on the severity of the disease, the following steps can be taken, according to the following guidelines: Smoking ... PAD is typically diagnosed by finding an ankle-brachial index (ABI) less than 0.90, which is the systolic blood pressure at the ...
Overtriage is the overestimating of the severity of an illness or injury. An example of this would be categorizing a Priority 3 ... or Emergency Severity Index) However any Group, Individual and/or Hospital Triage system can be used at the appropriate level ... Undertriage is the underestimating the severity of an illness or injury. An example of this would be categorizing a Priority 1 ... The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is another example of a trauma scoring system. This assigns a score from 0 to 75 based on ...
Geriatric Index of Comorbidity (GIC): Developed in 2002 Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI): Developed in 2005. Total Illness ... because it gave the practicing doctors a chance to calculate the number and severity of chronic illnesses in the structure of ... Charlson Index: This index is meant for the long-term prognosis of comorbid patients and was developed by M. E. Charlson in ... The Kaplan-Feinstein Index: This index was created in 1973 based on the study of the effect of the associated diseases on ...
Illness Severity". PLOS ONE. 10 (6): e0129042. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129042. ISSN 1932-6203.. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gibrat%27s_law&oldid=847672452" ...
... severity of illness unclear". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 November 2017.. ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_Manson&oldid=6582305" ... Illness and death[change , change source]. On January 1, 2017, Manson was taken from Cochran State Prison to Mercy Hospital in ...
... is a 7-point scale that requires the clinician to rate the severity of the patient's illness at the time of assessment, ... Efficacy Index is a 4×4 rating scale that assesses the therapeutic effect of treatment with psychiatric medication and ... The Clinical Global Impression (CGI) rating scales are measures of symptom severity, treatment response and the efficacy of ... The Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale (CGI-S) ... requires the clinician to assess how much the patient's illness ...
... Area and Severity Index (PASI), Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), Modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (mNAPSI ... Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQOL), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness ... The psoriasis area severity index (PASI) is the most widely used measurement tool for psoriasis. PASI assesses the severity of ... a Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score ≤10, and a dermatology life quality index (DLQI) score ≤10. Moderate to severe ...
The most common clinical syndrome in the other 40% of infected patients is an acute respiratory illness characterized by fever ... Coccidioidomycosis is amazingly diverse in terms of its scope of clinical presentation, as well as clinical severity. About 60 ... Coccidioides in Index Fungorum Coccidioides sp. National Center for Biotechnology Information: Coccidioides. ...
Malingering Index; to assist in identifying feigned mental illness. Rogers Discriminant Function; to assist in identifying ... Comparison with this group is useful to detect and estimate the severity of clinical problems relative to the average person. ... Comparison with this group helps assess the severity of psychopathology among other patients. There is also a sample of 1200 ... The Personality Assessment Screener ) is a 22-item instrument that provides an index of the likelihood that an important ...
... severity of illness); and 7 (placeholder for extension of the code to increase specificity). Not only must new software be ... An unusual feature of the index of ICD-10-TM is that it is bilingual, containing both Thai and English trails.[citation needed ...
NCQA also collaborates annually with U.S. News & World Report to rank HMOs using an index that combines many HEDIS measures and ... In 1998, HEDIS measures were said to "offer little insight into... [a health] plan's ability to treat serious illnesses". But, ... An "Acute Outpatient Depression Indicator" score based on a HEDIS measure predicted improvement in depression severity in one ...
Disease states of increasing severity will be expected the further one goes past the threshold and away from the mean.[16] ... If a genetic cause is suspected and little else is known about the illness, then it remains to be seen exactly how many genes ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quantitative_trait_locus&oldid=946828769#Quantitative_traits" ... Usually, multifactorial traits outside of illness result in what we see as continuous characteristics in organisms, especially ...
Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System: A Therapy-Based Severity-of-Illness Index. James E. Gray, Douglas K. ... A Therapy-Based Severity-of-Illness Index. James E. Gray, Douglas K. Richardson, Marie C. McCormick, Kathryn Workman-Daniels, ... A Therapy-Based Severity-of-Illness Index. James E. Gray, Douglas K. Richardson, Marie C. McCormick, Kathryn Workman-Daniels, ... Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System: A Therapy-Based Severity-of-Illness Index ...
SENSOR-Pesticides Case Definition, Severity Index and Standardized Variables. The following documents were developed to guide ... Case Definition for Acute Pesticide-Related Illness and InjuryCdc-pdf. *Appendix 1: Frequently Asked Questions about the Case ... Severity Index for Acute Pesticide-Related Illness and InjuryCdc-pdf. *Flow Diagram for Assigning Severity to CasesCdc-pdf. ...
Index. This suggests that the Severity of Illness Index is not differentiating severity of illness from quality of care. The ... Severity of Illness Index and the Adverse Patient Occurrence Index. A reliability study and policy implications.. Schumacher DN ... The Severity of Illness Index was unreliable with an interrater-agreement rate of 73% (kappa statistic = 0.41), and ... The APO Index was also found to be unreliable (r = 0.33 and range = -0.05-0.58). Greater attention should be directed to ...
How Do You Spell ILLNESS INDEX SEVERITIES?. Correct spelling for the English word "Illness Index Severities" is [ˈɪlnəs ˈɪndɛks ... Common Misspellings for ILLNESS INDEX SEVERITIES. Below is the list of 200 misspellings for the word "illness index severities ...
The authors discuss the objectives and definition of the Severity of Illness Index, which has been developed and refined at The ... The conclusion is that the Severity of Illness Index is a reliable and valid tool for measuring inpatient severity of illness. ... The authors discuss the objectives and definition of the Severity of Illness Index, which has been developed and refined at The ... After at least 2 months experience with severity scoring, the average agreement between hospital raters and the staff ...
cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=ccl=su%3A%7BSeverity%20of%20illness%20index.%7D&format= ...
Indications, clinical implications and limitations in the use of a severity of illness index in intensive therapy. ...
Results of search for su:{Severity of illness index.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items. ...
Depending on the severity of the illness, there are three different phases that are used throughout nursing interventions. The ... Imagine Having A Cut On Your Index Finger That Starts To. 1455 Words , 6 Pages. blood disease that interferes with the bodys ... Depending on the severity of the illness, there are three different phases that are used throughout nursing interventions. The ... More about Factors That Affect The Severity Of The Illness. *. The Canadian Mental Health Association. 1396 Words , 6 Pages ...
Psoriasis: correlation between severity index (PASI) and quality of life index (DLQI) in patients assessed before and after ... which implies greater acceptance of the illness, or may be related to the low income and social status of the patients studied ... to establish a correlation between the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) ...
Severity of Illness Index. *Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology/*eti. *Wounds and Injuries/complications/psychology ... Type of accident, nature and severity of injury and age were not related to the development of PTSD. Gender was significant, ...
Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). *Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). *Gulf War Illness Symptoms ... Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). 120. All. Child, Adult, Senior. NCT03261674. B2319-I. May 1, 2018. December 31, 2021. December ... Difference in mean change on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) between YOCAS and CBT-I ... Development of a Polyphenol-rich Dietary Preparation for Treating Veterans With Gulf War Illness. *Gulf War Illness ...
Severity of Illness Index*. *Terbutaline/administration & dosage. *Terbutaline/pharmacology. *Time Factors. *Tocolytic Agents/ ... Time of first stool in premature infants: effect of gestational age and illness severity.. Kumar SL1, Dhanireddy R. ... To assess the effect of gestational age and illness severity, and the effect of antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate and ... Both the gestational age and the illness severity, as measured by the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP), independently ...
Severity of Illness Index * Time Factors * Treatment Outcome Grant support * R21 AT002324/AT/NCCIH NIH HHS/United States ...
Severity of Illness Index* • Substance-Related Disorders • complications • etiology* • psychology* ... including the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), HIV Risk Behavior Scale (HRBS), and SF-36 quality-of-life measures. METHODS: The ... Use of item response theory and latent class analysis to link poly-substance use disorders with addiction severity, HIV risk, ...
Severity of Illness Index * Young Adult ... and clinical severity (P , .001), suggesting that neurite and ... the relationship between NODDI and clinical severity of each hemisphere (Normal, Asymtpomatic, Symptomatic, and Infarcted) as ...
Severity of Illness Index • Sex Characteristics • Shoulder Impingement Syndrome • Shoulder Joint* • Single-Blind Method • ...
... duration of illness and functional disability in schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychosis and establish a basis for gene ... Global Severity Index; GSSH, oxidized form of glutathione; HCY, homocysteine; HPL, hydroxypyrroline-2-one; MAO, monoamine ... illness severity, duration of illness, and functional disability in schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychosis, and establish ... nevertheless play a significant role in relationship to functional disability and severity of illness. This effect is probably ...
80 Gestational age, BP, severity of illness assessment 192. Index 195. ""It would be a useful complement to more in-depth ...
Severity of Illness Index (SOI). *Sleep/Disorders/Therapy. *Social Support. *Somatoform Disorders ... ABSTRACT: FM, chronic fatigue syndrome, and related illnesses fall under the spectrum of chronic multi-symptom illnesses (CMI ... In treating these illnesses, pharmacotherapy generally is the mode of choice, with exercise being overlooked often. However, ... The results show the superiority of cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce the severity of FM both at the end of the ...
CRIB and CRIB II (Clinical Risk Index for Babies)46. Measures severity of illness in newborn infants. ... PIM (Pediatric Index of Mortality) and PIM-2100. Predicts the risk of death for children ,16 y of age in intensive care. ... Scores the severity of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in pediatric intensive care units. ...
Illness severity and average change during the study. *Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score ... Difference Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) as assessed by questionnaire before treatment and after the treatment ... Change in Insomnia Severity Index, From Baseline at 1-week Follow-up ... Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS): the Suicidal Ideation Scale. *Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep ...
Illness severity and average change during the study. *Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score ... Insomnia Severity Index- Change from Baseline (Remission). 224. All. 21 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult). NCT01651442. ... Change in Insomnia Severity Index, From Baseline at 1-week Follow-up ... Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS): the Suicidal Ideation Scale. *Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep ...
Potential Severity or Injury or Illness. *Potentially Fatal. *Potentially Disabling. *Minor. *None ... A to Z Index•. Select a letter to view all IHS.gov websites with names beginning in that letter ... Relative Risk of Injury/Illness Occurrence or Other Negative Outcome. *Continuously present ...
  • OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the impact of cumulative trauma exposure on current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity in a nonclinical sample of adults in their 60s. (duke.edu)
  • RESULTS: Cumulative trauma exposure predicted greater PTSD symptom severity in hierarchical regression analyses consistent with a dose-response model. (duke.edu)
  • Neuroticism and event centrality also emerged as robust predictors of PTSD symptom severity. (duke.edu)
  • Analyses concerning event categories revealed that cumulative exposure to childhood violence and adulthood physical assaults were most strongly associated with PTSD symptom severity in older adulthood. (duke.edu)
  • Moreover, cumulative self-oriented events accounted for a larger percentage of variance in symptom severity compared to events directed at others. (duke.edu)
  • Unfortunately, several researchers have mistakenly applied index score criteria to raw scores when assigning clinical significance and symptom severity ratings. (hindawi.com)
  • These scales typically suggest score ranges linked to symptom severity descriptors and have a "clinically significant" total scale score cut-off point beyond which scores are considered indicative of the presence of a disorder (see Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Several methods to evaluate the validity of the Index are presented. (ovid.com)
  • 2 The Flutracking surveillance system makes an important contribution to Australian influenza surveillance by providing weekly community level influenza-like illness (ILI) attack rates that are not biased by health seeking behaviour, clinician testing practices or differences in jurisdictional surveillance methods. (health.gov.au)
  • bleeding index any of various methods of assessing bleeding in the gingival sulcus before or after treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The ADO index can be used in any setting and we hope that it will serve as a basis for more individualized treatment selection in the near future," said Milo A. Puhan, MD, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and lead author of the study. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The predictive utility of cumulative trauma exposure was compared to other known predictors of PTSD, including trauma severity, personality traits, social support, and event centrality. (duke.edu)
  • The Range of Impaired Functioning Tool a brief scale for assessing functional impairment related to medical or psychiatric illness and has been demonstrated to possess good psychometric properties. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Flutracking is a national online community influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance system that monitors weekly ILI activity and field vaccine effectiveness (FVE). (health.gov.au)
  • Flutracking is a national online community influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance system that monitors weekly ILI activity and severity. (health.gov.au)
  • Greater attention should be directed to improving objective discharge abstract, billing, and laboratory data for measuring patient severity and adverse patient occurrences. (nih.gov)
  • A severity-of- asthma score, which is based on self-reported information, was previously developed and validated in subjects recruited from pulmonary and allergy subspecialty practices. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to validate the severity-of- asthma score in subjects treated by family practice physicians and to compare asthma severity in subjects treated by family practitioners (n = 150) with those seen by allergists (n = 217) and pulmonologists (n = 384). (cdc.gov)
  • In the family practice subjects, the severity-of- asthma score demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.76) and concurrent validity, correlating strongly with asthma -specific quality of life, SF-36 General Health and Physical Functioning scales, and subject-perceived asthma severity. (cdc.gov)
  • The mean severity score was highest in the pulmonary group (11.8 +/- 6.3), followed by the allergy (10.3 +/- 5.3) and family practice (9.3 +/- 5.5) groups. (cdc.gov)
  • The severity-of- asthma score was a valid measure in generalist-treated subjects. (cdc.gov)
  • In those papers where cut-off scores were used (i.e., 45/60 for SDS and 40/60 for SAS), up to 51% of SDS and 45% of SAS papers involved the incorrect application of index score criteria to raw scores. (hindawi.com)
  • The most common error-applying index score criteria to raw scores-produces a substantial elevation of the cut-off points for significance. (hindawi.com)
  • The raw score is then converted to an index score by dividing the raw score by the maximum score (80) and either expressing this as a decimal or multiplying by 100 to express it as a whole number with an index score range of 25 to 100. (hindawi.com)
  • The two gene variants and their different biochemical phenotypes govern findings in relationship to case-identification, illness severity, duration of illness, and functional disability in schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychosis, and establish a basis for trials of gene-guided precision treatment for the management of psychosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • A possible complication of volume loading is pulmonary edema, quantified at the bedside by the measurement of extravascular lung water index (ELWI). (hindawi.com)
  • Cardiac index (CI), ELWI, SVV, and global end-diastolic volume index (GEDI) were determined using the transpulmonary thermodilution technique during the first 12 hours after fluid loading. (hindawi.com)
  • An increase in ventricular preload will increase SV and therefore cardiac index (CI) which in turn will improve oxygen delivery. (hindawi.com)
  • cardiac index cardiac output corrected for body size. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Also in 1995, Masimo introduced perfusion index , quantifying the amplitude of the peripheral plethysmograph waveform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even in a nonoutbreak setting, CDAD had a statistically significant negative impact on patient illness and death, and the impact of CDAD persisted beyond hospital discharge. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza (also known as the flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by flu viruses. (wku.edu)
  • The novel virus, which is associated with severe respiratory illness with renal failure, was first recognized last September and caused alarm because it is genetically and clinically similar to the SARS virus, which caused hundreds of deaths worldwide. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The final case was a woman who developed respiratory illness on Feb. 5, after seeing the index patient in the hospital. (medpagetoday.com)
  • index Medicus a monthly publication of the national library of medicine in which the world's leading biomedical literature is indexed by author and subject. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pearson's chisquare tests and odds ratios were used to explore the relationship between severity and combined use of biomedical services and traditional healing. (who.int)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Severity of illness index. (who.int)
  • Our results suggest that HRH2 -1018 GG homozygote is a risk factor for the severity of gastric mucosal atrophy under the influence of H. pylori infection , especially in older subjects. (curehunter.com)