Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.SqualeneVaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.United StatesHemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Mice, Inbred BALB CPapillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Influenzavirus B: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Neonatology: A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)DucksAnthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Tetanus ToxoidRNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Treatment Refusal: Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thimerosal: An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Egg Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
"Estimating influenza vaccine efficacy from challenge and community-based study data". Am. J. Epidemiol. 168 (12): 1343-52. doi: ... "Prevention of influenza: recommendations for influenza immunization of children, 2007-2008". Pediatrics. 121 (4): e1016-31. doi ... "Current and future antiviral therapy of severe seasonal and avian influenza". Antiviral Res. 78 (1): 91-102. doi:10.1016/j. ... April 2006). "Type I IFN as a vaccine adjuvant for both systemic and mucosal vaccination against influenza virus". Vaccine. 24 ...
Thiomersal is now absent from all common US and European vaccines, except for some preparations of influenza vaccine. (Trace ... As a result, in 1999, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) asked vaccine makers ... These claims are not supported by scientific data; the incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases tended to fluctuate over time ... As with any medical treatment, there is a potential for vaccines to cause serious complications, such as severe allergic ...
"Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Supply for the U.S. 2016-2017 Influenza Season , Seasonal Influenza (Flu) , CDC". ... and the American Academy of Pediatrics asked vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccines as a purely precautionary ... "Safety data sheet, Thiomersal Ph Eur, BP, USP" (PDF). Merck. 2005-06-12. Retrieved 2010-01-01. Clarkson TW (2002). "The three ... Cases have been reported of severe mercury poisoning by accidental exposure or attempted suicide, with some fatalities. Animal ...
People with a known severe allergic reaction to influenza vaccine (which could be egg protein or the gelatin or the neomycin ... Each year the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) publishes recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in ... National survey data in the United States collected in 2005 and 2006 showed that from age six and older, the prevalence of ... "Recommendations for administering the triple viral vaccine and anti-influenza vaccine in patients with egg allergy". Allergol ...
Cates, CJ; Rowe, BH (Feb 28, 2013). "Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with asthma". The Cochrane Database of ... There is little data to support the effectiveness of most of these therapies. Evidence is insufficient to support the usage of ... Acute severe asthma, previously known as status asthmaticus, is an acute exacerbation of asthma that does not respond to ... ISBN 978-0-07-146633-2. McMahon, Maureen (2011). Pediatrics a competency-based companion. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. ...
Postexposure effectiveness of varicella vaccine. Pediatrics 2000;105(1 Pt 1):84-8. Borio L, Inglesby T, Peters CJ, et al. ... Likewise, available data indicate that colonization with VRE, MRSA, and possibly MDR-GNB, can persist for many months, ... Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome during intubation and mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004; ... Infectious agents for which droplet precautions are indicated are found in Appendix A and include B. pertussis, influenza virus ...
... but symptoms are usually more severe. Additionally, the influenza is less likely to result in a runny nose. There is no vaccine ... and there is a similar lack of data for the use of heated humidified air. One study has found chest vapor rub to provide some ... Pediatrics. 126 (6): 1092-99. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-1601. PMC 3600823 . PMID 21059712. Edward R. Laskowski (9 February 2017). " ... Severe complications, if they occur, are usually in the very old, the very young, or those who are immunosuppressed. Secondary ...
World Health Organization (2012). "Vaccines Against Influenza". Weekly Epidemiological Record. 47.. *^ Halbreich U, Karkun S ( ... "New York City, 2008-2012: Severe Maternal Morbidity" (PDF). New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. New York, NY ... A major factor is the lack of insurance and or access to dental services.[25] For this reason, more data needs to be collected ... whereas the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend that mothers do so for at ...
The Technical Working Group on Vaccines review data on vaccine preventable diseases and proposes recommendations for policies. ... and a 2007 study found that severe influenza epidemics cannot be prevented by voluntary vaccination without offering certain ... The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) advises physicians to respect the refusal of parents to vaccinate their child after ... HPV vaccine coverage increased well, and pneumococcal vaccine and meningococcal C vaccines faced positive public reception. ...
... and thiomersal has been phased out of US and European vaccines, except for some preparations of influenza vaccine. The CDC and ... No scientific data support the claim that mercury compounds in vaccine preservatives cause autism or its symptoms. Compounds of ... In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) asked vaccine makers to remove the ... No chelator for methylmercury or ethylmercury is approved by the FDA; DMSA is the most frequently used for severe methylmercury ...
Two commercial rotavirus vaccines exist and several more are in development. In Africa and Asia these vaccines reduced severe ... It is not related to influenza though it has been called the "stomach flu". Gastroenteritis can be due to infections by viruses ... The Journal of Pediatrics. 166 (4): 908-916.e6. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.12.029. PMID 25641247. Warrell D.A.; Cox T.M.; Firth J ... review of the first 3 years of postlicensure data". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 30 (1 Suppl): S56-60. doi:10.1097 ...
... and European vaccines, except for some preparations of influenza vaccine. Under the FDA Modernization Act (FDAMA) of 1997, the ... and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) asked vaccine makers to remove the organomercury compound thiomersal (spelled " ... A 2011 article in the British Medical Journal described how the data in the study had been falsified by Wakefield so it would ... Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities Journal. 39: 189-194. "The Autism National Committee". www.autcom. ...
The common cold is generally mild and goes away on its own with most symptoms improving in one week.[2] Severe complications, ... Goldsobel AB, Chipps BE (March 2011). "Cough in the pediatric population". Journal of Pediatrics 156 (3): 352-358.e1. doi: ... The cough caused by a cold is usually mild compared to a cough caused by influenza (the flu).[3] A cough and a fever indicate a ... A similar lack of data exists for the use of heated humidified air.[41] One study found chest vapor rub to be effective in ...
Some cases may be triggered by the influenza virus and potentially influenza vaccine. An increased incidence of Guillain-Barré ... and presentation of immunization safety data". Vaccine. 29 (3): 599-612. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.06.003. PMID 20600491.. ... Severe muscle weakness similar to AMAN but with sensory loss - Axonal polyneuropathy, reduced or absent sensory action ... Ryan, Monique M. (December 2013). "Pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome". Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 25 (6): 689-693. doi: ...
... vaccines recommended for children 6 years of age and under, with the exception of inactivated influenza vaccine.[49] ... a critical review of published original data". Pediatrics. 114 (3): 793-804. CiteSeerX doi:10.1542/peds.2004- ... It is estimated that over 3,000 people suffered various deformities, severe mercury poisoning symptoms or death from what ... Thiomersal (called Thimerosal in the United States) is an organic compound used as a preservative in vaccines, though this use ...
2005). Pediatrics 115 (1): 200. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2402 PMID 15630018. "Thimerosal in vaccines". Center for Biologics ... a critical review of published original data". Pediatrics. 114 (3): 793-804. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0434. PMID 15342856. Erratum ... with the exception of inactivated influenza vaccine. Another mercury compound, merbromin (Mercurochrome), is a topical ... It is estimated that over 3,000 people suffered various deformities, severe mercury poisoning symptoms or death from what ...
... recommendations for use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and live oral poliovirus vaccine. American Academy of Pediatrics ... Wild Poliovirus case list 2000-2010; data in WHO/HQ as of 9 November 2010 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 ... Paralysis is often more severe proximally (where the limb joins the body) than distally (the fingertips and toes). Making up ... This sustained replication causes a major viremia, and leads to the development of minor influenza-like symptoms. Rarely, this ...
American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding. (March 2012). "Breastfeeding and the use of human milk". Pediatrics. ... "Breastfeeding: Data: Report Card" (PDF). Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 ... However, smallpox and yellow fever vaccines increase the risk of infants developing vaccinia and encephalitis.[127][128] ... However, in some cases, the infant may need additional treatments to keep the condition from progressing into more severe ...
Vaccine Research Center Information concerning vaccine research clinical trials for Emerging and re-Emerging Infectious ... 1993 data is included for comparison. Worldwide mortality due to infectious diseases[39][40] Rank. Cause of death. Deaths 2002 ... The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 (or the Spanish flu) killed 25-50 million people (about 2% of world population of 1.7 billion).[ ... Severe infections of the brain are usually treated with intravenous antibiotics. Sometimes, multiple antibiotics are used in ...
... vaccines, as well. The disease may remain manageable, but in more severe cases, lymph nodes in the neck may swell, and ... "ON THE TREATMENT OF DIPHTHERIA IN 1735". Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. 55 (1): 43. 1975. Bretonneau, Pierre (1826 ... Barry, John M. (2004) The Great Influenza; The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History. New York: Penguin Books. p. 70. ISBN ... "Infant mortality and malaria soar in Venezuela, according to government data". Reuters. 9 May 2017. Archived from the original ...
... vaccines that have proven effective include the influenza vaccine,[6] the HPV vaccine,[7] and the chicken pox vaccine.[8] The ... "Vaccine Status Table". Red Book Online. American Academy of Pediatrics. April 26, 2011. Archived from the original on December ... Severe side effects are extremely rare.[28] Varicella vaccine is rarely associated with complications in immunodeficient ... "Our World in Data.. *^ Hardman Reis T (2006). "The role of intellectual property in the global challenge for immunization". J ...
"Pediatrics. 126 (6): 1092-9. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-1601. PMID 21059712.. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link). ... The common cold is generally mild and goes away on its own with most symptoms improving in one week.[2] Severe complications, ... The cough caused by a cold is usually mild compared to a cough caused by influenza (the flu).[3] A cough and a fever indicate a ... A similar lack of data exists for the use of heated humidified air.[41] One study found chest vapor rub to be effective in ...
Unsuccessful clinical trials have been conducted for some glycoprotein subunit vaccines.[citation needed] As of 2017, the ... van Riel, Debby; Verdijk, Rob; Kuiken, Thijs (January 2015). "The olfactory nerve: a shortcut for influenza and other viral ... Most infected individuals experience fewer outbreaks and outbreak symptoms often become less severe. After several years, some ... "Pediatrics. 108 (2): 230-38. doi:10.1542/peds.108.2.230. PMID 11483782.. ...
Web-based electronic data capture (EDC) and clinical data management systems are used in a majority of clinical trials to ... For example, many drugs to treat cancer have severe side effects that would not be acceptable for an over-the-counter pain ... These approaches may include medicines, vitamins, vaccines, or lifestyle changes. Screening trials test the best way to detect ... Additional ethical concerns are present when conducting clinical trials on children (pediatrics), and in emergency or epidemic ...
Veljkovic, V; Paessler, S «Possible repurposing of seasonal influenza vaccine for prevention of Zika virus infection» (en ... Lednicky J, Beau De Rochars VM, El Badry M, Loeb J, et al «Zika Virus Outbreak in Haiti in 2014: Molecular and Clinical Data» ( ... Acosta-Reyes, J; Navarro, E; Herrera, MJ; Goenaga, E; et al «Severe Neurologic Disorders in 2 Fetuses with Zika Virus Infection ... Ventura CV, Ventura LO «Ophthalmologic Manifestations Associated With Zika Virus Infection» (en anglès). Pediatrics, 2018 Feb; ...
Vaccine Research Center Information concerning vaccine research clinical trials for Emerging and re-Emerging Infectious ... 1993 data is included for comparison. Worldwide mortality due to infectious diseases[47][48] Rank. Cause of death. Deaths 2002 ... The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 (or the Spanish flu) killed 25-50 million people (about 2% of world population of 1.7 billion).[ ... Severe infections of the brain are usually treated with intravenous antibiotics. Sometimes, multiple antibiotics are used in ...
... linking spontaneous abortions in women to flu vaccines. The study reviewed data ... 2017 JAMA Pediatrics 171: e163609) from insurance giant Northern California Kaiser Permanente. Kaisers data showed that those ... Eclampsia is the development of seizures in a woman with severe toxemia, a condition characterized by high blood pressure and ... The study reviewed data for the 2010-11 and 2011-12 flu seasons. Women vaccinated with the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) ...
... after influenza vaccine is considered a precaution for the administration of influenza vaccines. Data on the risk of GBS after ... and prospectively collected data used to determine the role of antiviral agents in treating severe influenza are limited, on ... inactivated influenza vaccine. IIV3 - trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. IIV4 - quadrivalent inactivated influenza ... Both inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) are options for influenza vaccination in ...
AAP-American Academy of Pediatrics • TIV-trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine • LAIV-live-attenuated influenza vaccine • CDC ... No data are available for other influenza vaccine-administration scenarios. Source: adapted with permission from American ... Less severe or local manifestations of allergy to eggs or feathers are not contraindications to administration of influenza ... trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) and live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). Both vaccines contain the same 2 ...
NHFS data indicated that 29.4% of children aged 6 months--18 years (22 million) had received at least 1 dose of vaccine, ... cases of 2009 H1N1 influenza, including cases of severe disease, continue to occur. The epidemiology of 2009 H1N1 influenza ... Pediatrics 2008;122:805--11.. * Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Rasmussen SA, et al. H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection during ... Since 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine first became available in October 2009, public health agencies have directed limited vaccine ...
"Estimating influenza vaccine efficacy from challenge and community-based study data". Am. J. Epidemiol. 168 (12): 1343-52. doi: ... "Prevention of influenza: recommendations for influenza immunization of children, 2007-2008". Pediatrics. 121 (4): e1016-31. doi ... "Current and future antiviral therapy of severe seasonal and avian influenza". Antiviral Res. 78 (1): 91-102. doi:10.1016/j. ... April 2006). "Type I IFN as a vaccine adjuvant for both systemic and mucosal vaccination against influenza virus". Vaccine. 24 ...
For instance, children with allergies to the egg protein found in influenza vaccine can be desensitized to the vaccine. One ... All about Data Logger, how to use. Wolfgang Rudolph explains: all information worth knowing about the data logger and the ... NASAs airborne Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel or HS3 mission, will revisit the Atlantic Ocean for the third year in a row ... The article, which summarizes studies of human and animal exposures, appears in the December 2003 issue of Pediatrics. Dr. ...
Most children at high risk for influenza-related complications do not receive the vaccine, and increased efforts are needed to ... cost-effectiveness and safety of licensed vaccines, adequate vaccine supply, and availability of intranasal products. ... Issues that need to be addressed include educating physicians and parents concerning influenza-related illness and ... Global evaluation of influenza vaccination in children indicates that current recommendations are not followed. ...
Influenza vaccine is not recommended for patients with a history of severe allergic reaction to the vaccine.[63436] The ... receiving the inactivated influenza vaccine and the conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (Prevnar 13) concomitantly occurred. Data ... and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), inactivated virus vaccines pose no risk for mothers or their infants. Additionally, ... recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV), or live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV)) to patients with egg allergy of any severity ...
Vaccines against a common cause of infant diarrhea have kept hundreds of thousands of children out of the hospital, saving ... "The data show so clearly that vaccines work," says Claire McCarthy, a pediatrician at Childrens Hospital Boston. "They keep us ... The study is one of three reports in todays Pediatrics that show the far-ranging impact of childhood vaccinations. The papers ... The first of the new studies focuses on rotavirus, which causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. In the first four years they ...
announced today that it has initiated its third human clinical trial of its norovirus vaccine. The Phase I/II study will assess ... will present safety and immunogenicity data on LigoCytes norovirus vaccine at the 5th International Conference on Vaccines for ... On September 9, 2009, Marcelo Sztein, M.D., Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine at the Center for Vaccine Development at the ... including vaccines against norovirus, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus. The company is also developing antibody ...
Children with a previous history of severe allergic reaction to the flu vaccine should not receive the flu vaccine. ... due to lack of data with the live, attenuated nasal flu vaccine. Flu vaccines should be administered in settings, such as their ... The safest, most effective method to prevent influenza infection is vaccination. The flu vaccine is recommended for all ... Barry is a nationally certified physician assistant specializing in pediatrics. He is a member of the American Academy of ...
No data are available on the response to live or inactive vaccines in patients receiving brodalumab therapy. Busulfan: (Severe ... The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI), and the American ... age-appropriate influenza vaccine (i.e., inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV), or LAIV) to ... The intranasal influenza vaccine is a live vaccine, and live vaccines are contraindicated for use by patients with severe ...
... were going to cover strains that are missed by the vaccine and will have broad spectrum activity that covers influenza A and B ... development antiviral candidate based on preclinical data demonstrating potent antiviral activity against both influenza A and ... an assistant professor of pediatrics at the Duke University School of Medicine. "In contrast, weve been trying to identify ... while mice with typical mouse bacteria developed severe symptoms. To "triangulate" the suspects identity, Surana and his team ...
Experience of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) introduction in the UK. • Challenges and successes. • Improving strain ... Support of dose selection by PK-PD using adult data and data from a second compound ... Dominiks clinical background is in Paediatrics with special interest in paediatric oncology. He worked in Germany and the UK, ... 9:10 Extrapolation in severe eosinophilic asthma: case studies using partial and full extrapolation approaches. • Regulatory ...
CDC WONDER is a system for disseminating Public Health data and information ... Recommendations for Vaccine Use and Other Preventive Measures Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee ... Ross E, Miller D. Risk and pertussis vaccine (letter). Arch Dis Child 1986;61:98-9. * Miller D, Wadsworth J, Ross E. Severe ... Pediatrics 1988; 81:237-46. * CDC. Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines for prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease ...
... the EMA ignored significant data showing there may be severe adverse events associated with the HPV vaccine, "the prominent ... FluMist Found to Be Worthless Against Influenza. In related news, The Washington Post8 recently wrote about the "mystery" of ... David Kimberlin, a professor of pediatrics at The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), the reason for FluMists failure ... it would appear the HPV vaccine carries a FAR higher risk of severe side effects than any other vaccine, yet the EMA claims no ...
That was the summer of 1999, but four years later, the insidious influenza vaccine manufacturers quietly reloaded flu shots ... can experience mild to severe mental retardation and severe gross motor impairment. Yep, its on Eli Lillys "Material Safety ... The American Academy of Pediatrics, along with the U.S. Public Health Service, demanded mercury be immediately REMOVED from ALL ... Data Sheet. Unless your unborn child already weighs 500 pounds, he or she is at HIGH RISK from the heavy metal toxins and other ...
Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: a critical review of published original data. Pediatrics. 2004; ... Severe pneumococcal pneumonia in previously healthy children: the role of preceding influenza infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2000; ... TOO MANY VACCINES. When studies of MMR vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines failed to show an association with autism, ... Pediatrics. 2000;105:e60. [PubMed]. 38. McCormick MC. Immunization safety review: vaccines and autism. Institute of Medicine; ...
Prevention and Control of Influenza: Part II, Antiviral Agents Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... CDC WONDER is a system for disseminating Public Health data and information ... Influenza vaccine may be contraindicated in persons with severe anaphylactic hypersensitivity to egg protein or other vaccine ... Children with influenza A infection: treatment with rimantadine. Pediatrics 1987;80:275-82. * Hayden FG, Belshe RB, Clover RD, ...
"Since viral upper respiratory infections often precede the development of bacterial pneumonia, the influenza vaccine is ... Pediatricians should also be aware that group A Streptococcus, which can cause severe necrotizing pneumonia, is increasing as a ... Dr Kaplan said that positive results are important for guiding antibiotic therapy and providing epidemiologic data. ... and fell further after implementation of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Although there appears to be a rise ...
WHO and vaccine manufacturers to continue progress on plan to create global stockpile of H5N1 avian influenza vaccine. On June ... The available data support the safety of the RotaTeq vaccine and its effectiveness in preventing rotavirus infection, a common ... cause of severe infant diarrhea and hospitalization. CDC and FDA continue to monitor the safety of RotaTeq and all vaccines ... AAFP, American Academy of Family Physicians; AAP, American Academy of Pediatrics; ACIP, Advisory Committee on Immunization ...
Vaccines ▼ Anthrax DTaP/Tdap/Td Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hib HPV Influenza Meningococcal MMR/MMRV Pneumococcal Polio Rotavirus ... Contraindications and Precautions: Severe allergic reaction (e.g. anaphylaxis) to a previous dose or vaccine component is a ... Pediatrics 2008;121:1281-6.. 8. Bonhoeffer J, Menkes J, Gold MS, et al. Generalized convulsive seizure as an adverse event ... following immunization: case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation. Vaccine 2004;22:557-62. ...
... we know the public often feels like many more children arent getting vaccines. Im haunted by the data published in Pediatrics ... Not just on the state-mandated vaccines, where we scored 100 percent a couple years ago, but on influenza vaccine, too. Often ... and severe complications. Even though the nasal flu mist isnt recommended this year, now is still a great time to get your ... Get even deeper into the data with online resources like School Digger that allow you to peruse the data on vaccine status at ...
Pediatrics 2015;136(4):e848-55.. 36. Li R, et al. Post licensure surveillance of influenza vaccines in the Vaccine Safety ... Use of the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register for vaccine safety data linkage. Vaccine 2010;28:4308-11.. 14. Kuter, B.J ... of severe febrile reactions in young children in Western Australia caused by a 2010 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. ... Pediatrics 2006;117:e821-6.. 33. Greene SK, Kulldorff M, Lewis EM, et al. Near real-time surveillance for influenza vaccine ...
  • Both the U.S. Congress and the Supreme Court have concluded that government licensed vaccines are "unavoidably unsafe," 2 and this is what precipitated the decision to grant drug companies immunity against vaccine injuries and deaths. (
  • Depending on the season, influenza causes anywhere between 4,000 and 50,000 deaths a year in the US. (
  • Influenza-associated deaths dropped by 57 percent in the rest of Canada, but they fell by 74 percent in Ontario. (
  • What Have We Learned About Influenza Deaths in Children and How Can We Do Better? (
  • Influenza virus types or subtypes vary in virulence, affecting influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths. (
  • Seasonal human influenza causes about 36,000 deaths and 226,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. (
  • Four in-hospital deaths occurred (0.3%): one was considered influenza associated. (
  • While the majority of influenza-related deaths occur among adults aged 65 years and older [ 1 ], children are also at risk of severe disease, particularly those under 5 years of age [ 3 ]. (
  • Although it doesn't count adult deaths, the CDC estimates that 8.2 percent of those for the week ending January 13 were due to pneumonia and influenza - that's more than 1 percent higher than usual. (
  • Right behind them the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention declared that influenza has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with 7.3% of deaths last week caused by pneumonia and the flu. (
  • Moreover, rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrhoeal disease in young children throughout the world, with an estimated 527,000 deaths among children under five years old, most of whom live in low-income countries. (
  • Rotavirus gastroenteritis is the most common cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children throughout the world, with an estimated 527,000 deaths annually among children under five years old. (
  • The inactivated influenza vaccine has been associated with development of GBS since 1976, when an inactivated "swine flu" shot given to millions of healthy Americans caused GBS in several hundred previously healthy Americans and there were 30 deaths. (
  • The difference in magnitude of the number of deaths from influenza may have made the national handout more impactful," Stockwell says. (
  • Despite scientific consensus that recommended vaccines are safe and effective, unsubstantiated scares regarding their safety still occur, resulting in outbreaks and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases. (
  • If the plain polysaccharide vaccine was given first, the conjugate vaccine should be administered one year after the polysaccharide vaccine [1, (
  • All inactivated vaccines-whether killed whole organism or recombinant, subunit, toxoid, polysaccharide, or polysaccharide protein-conjugate-can be administered safely to individuals with altered immunocompetence. (
  • Omnihib (haemophilus b conjugate vaccine). (
  • 2 In the present article, we review the adverse events, contraindications, and precautions associated with administration of the Tdap, meningococcal conjugate, HPV, and influenza vaccines. (
  • In addition to the deadly disease, one of the most significant factors that prevents many developing countries from controlling or curbs the Hib vaccine is the lack of awareness of the Hib conjugate vaccine. (
  • Data are not currently available to support this recommendation for LAIV . (
  • Widespread influenza activity, predominantly A(H3N2), was observed throughout most regions of the province. (
  • On September 9, 2009, Marcelo Sztein, M.D., Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine at the Center for Vaccine Development at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, will present safety and immunogenicity data on LigoCyte's norovirus vaccine at the 5th International Conference on Vaccines for Enteric Diseases (VED2009) in Malaga, Spain. (
  • Dr. Bernstein has 30 years of experience as a general pediatrician in private practice and he is also a Professor of Pediatrics at Hofstra Northwell LIJ School of Medicine. (
  • We identified seven patients who reported convincing allergic reactions to tetanus vaccines," reported Scott Sicherer, MD, professor of pediatrics at the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, during his poster presentation at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology here. (
  • Greenhawt, who is also an associate professor of pediatrics at Children's Hospital Colorado, estimates that egg allergy affects 2% of children in the United States. (
  • One significant concern is the risk for intraventricular hemorrhage, according to Hitesh Deshmukh, MD, PhD, attending neonatologist and assistant professor of pediatrics at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. (
  • Parents' concerns and misperceptions about vaccines are on the rise," says Melissa Stockwell, MD, MPH, associate professor of pediatrics and population and family health at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and senior author on the paper. (
  • No trivalent vaccines are expected to be available for children this season. (
  • New formulations of licensed influenza vaccines with a volume of 0.5 mL per dose have been approved for children 6 through 36 months of age. (
  • Children 6 months through 8 years of age who are receiving influenza vaccine for the first time or who have received only 1 dose before July 1, 2019, should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine ideally by the end of October, and vaccines should be offered as soon as they become available. (
  • The purpose of this statement is to update current recommendations for routine use of influenza vaccine in children and adolescents, which originally were published in a comprehensive format in Pediatrics in April 2008. (
  • This expansion targets all school-aged children, the population that bears the greatest disease burden and is at significantly higher risk of needing influenza-related medical care compared with healthy adults. (
  • In addition, reducing influenza transmission among school-aged children will, in turn, reduce transmission of influenza to household contacts and community members. (
  • Household members and out-of-home care providers of all children at high risk and adolescents and of all healthy children younger than 5 years also should receive influenza vaccine each year. (
  • Children younger than 9 years who received only 1 dose of influenza vaccine in the first season they were vaccinated should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine the following season. (
  • These include: Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen Dizziness Confusion Severe or persistent vomiting In children other warning signs include irritability, failing to wake up and interact, rapid breathing, and a blueish skin color. (
  • After reviewing dozens of scientific studies, a leading vaccine expert concludes that preservatives, additives and other substances contained in vaccines pose very little risk to children receiving those vaccines. (
  • Those proteins may cause severe hypersensitivity reactions in children with allergies to gelatin or eggs. (
  • For instance, children with allergies to the egg protein found in influenza vaccine can be desensitized to the vaccine. (
  • Under the direction of Dr. Offit, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia established The Vaccine Education Center in October 2000 to respond to the rapidly growing need for accurate, up-to-date, science-based information about vaccines and the diseases they prevent. (
  • Most children at high risk for influenza-related complications do not receive the vaccine, and increased efforts are needed to protect them. (
  • For children who have not received at least 2 doses of trivalent or quadrivalent influenza vaccine before July 1, 2018, administer a second dose of 0.5 mL IM at least 4 weeks after the initial dose. (
  • Vaccines against a common cause of infant diarrhea have kept hundreds of thousands of children out of the hospital, saving nearly $1 billion in their first four years, a new study shows. (
  • Vaccines against rotavirus have kept hundreds of thousands of children out of the hospital, saving nearly $1 billion in healthcare costs. (
  • The vaccine is for children aged 6 weeks to 6 months of age, to prevent diarrhea caused by rotavirus. (
  • The vaccines continue to protect children against the virus years later, with no sign that immunity weakens over time, the study says. (
  • Up to 60 American children a year died before the vaccine was available, despite the best medical care. (
  • Good afternoon and thanks very much for the opportunity to speak with you today.For my portion of the presentation, I will be covering recommendations for influenza prevention and treatment and children from the CDC perspective. (
  • A proposed law was introduced in the House of Delegates in January 2016 to strip away not just the religious vaccine exemption, but also the medical exemption for all children, whether they are being homeschooled or are enrolled in public or private schools. (
  • which means that 99.99 percent of children would not qualify for the medical vaccine exemption in Virginia. (
  • No wonder the Amish children never get autism, they don't get the vaccines that cause it. (
  • On 28 February 1998, Andrew Wakefield, a British gastroenterologist, and colleagues [ 1 ] published a paper in The Lancet that described 8 children whose first symptoms of autism appeared within 1 month after receiving an MMR vaccine. (
  • Because ~50,000 British children per month received MMR vaccine between ages 1 and 2 years-at a time when autism typically presents-coincidental associations were inevitable. (
  • Indeed, given the prevalence of autism in England in 1998 of 1 in 2000 children [ 2 ], ~25 children per month would receive a diagnosis of the disorder soon after receiving MMR vaccine by chance alone. (
  • 3 ] found that the measles vaccine virus genome was not detected more commonly in children with or without autism. (
  • children and teenagers (6 months-18 years of age) who are receiving long- term aspirin therapy and therefore may be at risk for developing Reye syndrome after influenza. (
  • We know vaccines aren't 100 percent protective, of course, but I took stock in knowing that his class of children was protected as best they could be. (
  • Although we know 9 out of 10 parents immunize their children based on the AAP and CDC schedules, we know the public often feels like many more children aren't getting vaccines. (
  • I'm haunted by the data published in Pediatrics in 2011 that found that more than 1 in 4 parents (28%) who followed the recommended schedule seemed to think those children whose parents who didn't - who delayed vaccines or followed an alternative schedule - were safer. (
  • However, all vaccines that cause fever in young children also have a small inherent risk of causing febrile seizures. (
  • Between 5% and 15% of children receiving the first dose of measles-containing vaccines develop a transient fever ≥ 103 F, 7-12 days after the first dose. (
  • There is no increased risk of fever or febrile seizures in children receiving their second dose of measles-containing vaccine at 4 to 6 years of age, whether given MMR or MMRV [22- (
  • Children will be grouped according to age and younger children will not receive drug until safety data from the groups of older children are reviewed. (
  • The primary objective of this study is to define the pharmacokinetics (PK) of peramivir in children with confirmed influenza. (
  • This more cautious approach will allow the evaluation of some safety and PK data prior to exposure of youngest children to an untested dose, even though it is likely that younger children may receive peramivir under emergency use conditions. (
  • The vaccine is not approved for use in children younger than 6 months. (
  • In 2013 I was awarded a postdoctoral fellowship from the National Institute for Health Research to determine the burden of severe influenza in children, and examine whether influenza vaccines, antivirals and antibiotics can prevent hospital admissions, in collaboration with the UCL Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health, and the University of Leeds where I am an honorary research fellow. (
  • Vaccines are an extremely effective primary prevention tool, and vaccines that protect against 16 diseases are recommended for routine use in children and adolescents in the United States. (
  • HIV-infected children should be protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. (
  • Most vaccines recommended for routine use can be administered safely to HIV-exposed or HIV-infected children. (
  • These schedules will be updated periodically to reflect additional ACIP-approved vaccine recommendations that pertain to HIV-exposed or HIV-infected children. (
  • TIV continues to be recommended for HIV-infected children as part of routine prevention for influenza. (
  • When receiving the influenza vaccine for the first time, children aged 6 months through 8 years should receive a second dose 1 month after the first dose is administered to help elicit an appropriate immune response. (
  • Questions are limited to clinicians who have questions about strategies to improve influenza prevention and control in children during the 2016 and 2017 season. (
  • Early Use of Anti-influenza Medications in Hospitalized Children With Tracheostomy. (
  • Influenza Prophylaxis in Children: Could a Single Dose of One Drug Be an Option? (
  • Inhaled Laninamivir Octanoate as Prophylaxis for Influenza in Children. (
  • Because of this possibility, historically caution has been advised in providing TIV to these children, and the vaccine has been withheld in certain individuals, though for many it has been safely administered after vaccine skin testing and stepwise administration. (
  • The prevention of influenza in children with HIV aged ≥6 months should include annual administration of inactivated influenza vaccine (either quadrivalent or trivalent, depending on availability) (strong, moderate) . (
  • Household members and close contacts (aged ≥6 months) of children with HIV should receive yearly influenza vaccine (any recommended and otherwise medically appropriate influenza vaccine) (strong, moderate) . (
  • It can impact healthy children as well as those at high risk of influenza complications (e.g., children with chronic medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, and neurologic disorders). (
  • Getting a flu vaccine is important for all of us, for our own protection and for the protection of those around us who may be more vulnerable to flu, such as young children, people with certain chronic health conditions and the elderly,' says Frieden. (
  • The data used in the study is from a surveillance project of 350,000 children in California. (
  • Children get the MMR vaccine just before this age, so some people believe that the MMR vaccine causes autism. (
  • Because of the study, many British parents have refused to let their children get the vaccine. (
  • Children are given vaccines at a young age because this is when they are most likely to get the disease. (
  • Note that in one of these studies, milk allergy reactions were observed in children receiving DPT vaccines (which may have contained traces of milk protein) and most had prior allergic reactions to cow's milk. (
  • SAN FRANCISCO -- Some children highly allergic to milk products should be watched with caution when receiving the diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) vaccine because trace milk proteins in the vaccine could trigger reactions, researchers suggested. (
  • We observed several children with severe milk allergy to have reacted to the common childhood vaccine called the DPT or tetanus booster," Sicherer explained in an email to MedPage Today in response to questions. (
  • These cases were an observation in a relatively short period of two and one-half years where we encountered seven children with milk allergy having a severe anaphylactic reaction to the injection of the DPT shot," said co-author Hugh Sampson, MD, director of the Jaffe Food Allergy Institute at Mt. Sinai. (
  • In two of the cases we were able to find that even though the children were from different areas they received the same lot of vaccine. (
  • While evidence about the decision on whether to vaccinate healthy children is robust, evidence supporting the decision of which of available vaccines to use remains unclear. (
  • This review will summarize the evidence about the efficacy and safety of the available vaccines for seasonal influenza licensed in the United States for use in healthy children. (
  • For these reasons, much emphasis has been placed on preventing influenza in children. (
  • I thought that maybe peanuts were used in vaccine cultures and maybe the little buggers were eating the peanut protein and it was in their tummies and somehow that created the allergy when children were vaccinated. (
  • It has been known that the egg protein in vaccines can cause egg allergy in children. (
  • ), 16,582 adverse events related to the Tdap vaccine occurred from January 2000 to January 2013, with 6779 adverse events in children aged 6 to 17 years. (
  • Ousseny Zerbo, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at Kaiser Permanente in Oakland, California, and colleagues analyzed data from a large birth cohort (n = 196,929) of children born at Kaiser Permanente between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. (
  • Over the entire follow-up period, the incidence rate of chicken pox in this cohort was 9 to 10 times lower than corresponding rates in unvaccinated children of the same age in the pre-vaccine era. (
  • The more children vaccinated, the more effective the vaccine is for the entire community. (
  • Very few cases were severe (only 28 of 7,585 children over 14 years), whereas in the pre-vaccine era most children experienced severe symptoms. (
  • The risk of herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles, was not increased in vaccinated children, and appeared to be lower in vaccinated children than in the pre-vaccine era. (
  • Data from medical records and parental questionnaires were examined to determine the time course and prevalence of signs and symptoms in meningococcal disease (sepsis and meningitis) in 448 children in Wales, England, and Northern Ireland. (
  • However, six children (6%) needed treatment at an intensive care unit for severe complications. (
  • Based upon observational data that suggest harms, adjunctive corticosteroid treatment is currently not recommended for children or adults hospitalized with influenza, including critically ill patients, unless clinically indicated for another reason, such as treatment of asthma or COPD exacerbation, or septic shock. (
  • MMRV vaccine may be used in healthy children aged 12 months to less than 13 years. (
  • Incidence, complications, and risk factors for prolonged stay in children hospitalized with community-acquired influenza. (
  • Much less evidence exists to guide the management of children with influenza compared with adults. (
  • A team of researchers from the Yale School of Medicine and Penn State College of Medicine have found a disturbing association between the timing of vaccines and the onset of certain brain disorders in a subset of children. (
  • Analyzing five years' worth of private health insurance data on children ages 6-15, these scientists found that young people vaccinated in the previous three to 12 months were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with certain neuropsychiatric disorders than their non-vaccinated counterparts. (
  • NACI now recommends that a full dose of influenza vaccine should be used for children 6 to 35 months of age, based on evidence showing moderate improvement in antibody response without increase in reactogenicity. (
  • No data is available on how many children have received flu shots this season, but in the past it has fallen far short of public health experts recommendation that everyone 6 months and older be vaccinated. (
  • From 2004 to 2009, fewer than 45 percent of children were vaccinated against the flu, researchers led by Dr. Katherine Poehling of Wake Forest School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, reported this week in the journal Pediatrics. (
  • A total of 58 children were hospitalized due to influenza over 2 viral seasons. (
  • Interestingly, the percentage of children with underlying conditions that exhibited severe disease that led to PICU admission was equal to those with no co-morbidities. (
  • The objective of this review is to use medical literature and Brazilian epidemiological data to briefly characterize the impact of the flu and the benefits, immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of vaccinating healthy children against the influenza virus, especially in the 6 to 23 months age group. (
  • Young children are more likely to suffer severe, even life-threatening complications from the flu, but only around half of children in the US get the flu vaccine. (
  • A cheap and simple pamphlet about the flu, handed to parents in their pediatrician's waiting room, can have a significant impact on the number of children who get the flu vaccine, a new study from researchers at Columbia University has found. (
  • Influenza spreads easily and affects about 8% of children each year. (
  • Several theories have been proposed to explain why SIRVA is reported less frequently in children, despite the number of vaccines administered. (
  • A major project has been to identify the molecular epidemiology of factors affecting the immunogenicity of oral polio vaccine (OPV) among children living in developing areas of the world, where OPV immunogenicity is poor. (
  • These children are therefore more likely to get critically ill from influenza. (
  • 39% for preventing medically attended laboratory confirmed influenza and the is current as of June of this year and end of season final estimates on vaccine effectiveness are forthcoming from CDC. (
  • By estimating parameters from multiyear time series of laboratory-confirmed cases from the intermountain west region of the United States and using statistical inference, we show that models of immune-mediated interactions better explain the data than those based on ecological competition by convalescence. (
  • Symptoms of the flu are typically more severe than those of a cold. (
  • Chinese Restaurant Syndrome has all the same symptoms as monosodium glutamate allergy which could be due to the MSG in the MMR vaccine. (
  • Much of the systemic symptoms that any of us have with influenza - the fever, the aches and pains, the sense of exhaustion - all of those are part of (our body's) response to the virus," said Schaffner. (
  • Oseltamivir was licensed primarily based on phase 3 randomized, placebo-controlled trials demonstrating a reduction in the duration of symptoms due to influenza in healthy outpatients. (
  • The 2009 pandemic thus highlighted a further factor which must be considered when determining which public health intervention strategies to recommend, namely the severity of symptoms arising from a given emergent influenza strain. (
  • One theory suggests that an immune reaction to one or more components of the vaccine may be responsible for signs and symptoms of SIRVA. (
  • The presentation will not include any discussion of the unlabeled use of a product or product under investigational use with the exception of Dr. Dawood and Dr. Munoz who may discussed neuron neuraminidase, inhibitor medications, antivirus which I'd be approved only for the treatment of uncomplicated influenza. (
  • Influenza type A is subcategorized by the presence of 2 surface antigens, hemagglutinin antigen (HA) and neuraminidase antigen (NA). (
  • One study estimated that during 2010-2016, approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population experienced symptomatic influenza each year [ 7 ]. (
  • A study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of 11 rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) that were given clearance by the FDA found variations in the tests' ability to detect flu virus. (
  • Once the vaccine is being used, the FDA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention monitor it through the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). (
  • In the midst of that intense information campaign, the rotavirus vaccine Rotashield was released to the joy and relief of The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), pediatricians and parents. (
  • In 2010, 18.4 percent of adults who were immunized received the flu vaccine at a supermarket or drugstore, just edging out workplace vaccinations for the second most popular venue, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • People with egg allergy of any severity can receive the influenza vaccine without any special precautions,' said Dr. Matthew Greenhawt, the paper's lead author and chairman of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. (
  • Health care professionals administering vaccines should take appropriate precautions to prevent allergic reactions in vaccine recipients. (
  • This review synopses, (1) asthma and influenza independently, (2) epidemiologic data surrounding asthma during the 2009 influenza pandemic, and (3) recent advances in our understanding of allergic host-pathogen interactions in the context of allergic airways disease and influenza in mouse models. (
  • No allergic reactions resulted, regardless of the results of skin testing, the method of administration, ovalbumin content of the vaccine, or use of a different booster lot without pre-testing. (
  • The researchers concluded that someone who is allergic to eggs is not at an increased risk of experiencing an adverse reaction to the flu vaccine. (
  • Anaphylaxis -- a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction -- 'can occur rarely after the administration of any vaccine to any patient at a rate of approximately 1 per million,' according to research conducted by Dr. John Kelso, an allergist and immunologist at Scripps Health, who co-authored the new guidelines. (
  • The Phase I/II study will assess safety and immunogenicity associated with LigoCyte's investigational, nasally-delivered, dry powder vaccine in healthy adults. (
  • Measles-containing vaccine is recommended for susceptible adults born in or after 1970. (
  • 17 described the typical progression of an influenza epidemic, with an average duration of 6 to 8 weeks, starting among schoolchildren and later passing to economically active adults. (
  • W]hile more people are going to the pharmacy, the number of Americans who get the flu vaccine each year has remained fairly constant at about 40 percent of all adults. (
  • He frequently lectures to national and international healthcare organizations about vaccine safety and efficacy. (
  • Two reviewers will independently determine study eligibility and will extract descriptive, methodological (using the Cochrane risk of bias tool for RCTs and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies) and efficacy data. (
  • Why Do Pertussis Vaccines Fail Despite Claimed Efficacy? (
  • Interestingly in a recent article published in the journal Pediatrics , author James D. Cherry, MD, reveals that estimates for pertussis vaccine efficacy have been significantly inflated due to the case definitions adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1991, which required laboratory confirmation and 21 days or more of paroxysmal cough. (
  • Manufacturer(s) have sought approval of the vaccine(s) and provided evidence as to safety and efficacy only when it is used in accordance with the product monographs. (
  • Dr. Charlotte Ingle is telling her cancer patients, "We would advise that all cancer and hematology patients receive the vaccine unless they have contraindicated allergies regardless of whether or not they are receiving chemotherapy. (
  • That is considered moderate effectiveness and means that almost four in 10 people who receive the vaccine and are exposed to the virus will nevertheless become infected. (