Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Diabetic Coma: A state of unconsciousness as a complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs in cases of extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA or extreme HYPOGLYCEMIA as a complication of INSULIN therapy.Insulin Coma: Severe HYPOGLYCEMIA induced by a large dose of exogenous INSULIN resulting in a COMA or profound state of unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Coma, Post-Head Injury: Prolonged unconsciousness from which the individual cannot be aroused, associated with traumatic injuries to the BRAIN. This may be defined as unconsciousness persisting for 6 hours or longer. Coma results from injury to both cerebral hemispheres or the RETICULAR FORMATION of the BRAIN STEM. Contributing mechanisms include DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY and BRAIN EDEMA. (From J Neurotrauma 1997 Oct;14(10):699-713)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myxedema: A condition characterized by a dry, waxy type of swelling (EDEMA) with abnormal deposits of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and other tissues. It is caused by a deficiency of THYROID HORMONES. The skin becomes puffy around the eyes and on the cheeks. The face is dull and expressionless with thickened nose and lips.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma: A serious complication of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA; DEHYDRATION; serum hyperosmolarity; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA in the absence of KETOSIS and ACIDOSIS.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Malaria, Cerebral: A condition characterized by somnolence or coma in the presence of an acute infection with PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM (and rarely other Plasmodium species). Initial clinical manifestations include HEADACHES; SEIZURES; and alterations of mentation followed by a rapid progression to COMA. Pathologic features include cerebral capillaries filled with parasitized erythrocytes and multiple small foci of cortical and subcortical necrosis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p136)Persistent Vegetative State: Vegetative state refers to the neurocognitive status of individuals with severe brain damage, in whom physiologic functions (sleep-wake cycles, autonomic control, and breathing) persist, but awareness (including all cognitive function and emotion) is abolished.Corneal Wavefront Aberration: Asymmetries in the topography and refractive index of the corneal surface that affect visual acuity.Aberrometry: The use of an aberrometer to measure eye tissue imperfections or abnormalities based on the way light passes through the eye which affects the ability of the eye to focus properly.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Published ErratumHypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Retraction of Publication as Topic: Authors' withdrawal or disavowal of their participation in performing research or writing the results of their study.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Prescription Drug Misuse: Improper use of drugs or medications outside the intended purpose, scope, or guidelines for use. This is in contrast to MEDICATION ADHERENCE, and distinguished from DRUG ABUSE, which is a deliberate or willful action.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
... low blood pressure, nausea, drowsiness, etc. If severe enough, an overdose can even result in coma or death. However, a ...
... low blood magnesium, eclampsia, and several other conditions. Magnesium is important to health. Usually in lower dosages, ... In very severe cases, it can cause coma, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest and death. Magnesium overdose can be counteracted ... In lower doses, they may be used as an oral magnesium source, however. Magnesium l-threonate is a new magnesium preparation ... Additionally, magnesium may also protect the blood-brain barrier and thereby limit formation of cerebral edema, or it may act ...
Acetaminophen: Liver and kidney failure, low blood sugar coma may occur. Hydrocodone/acetaminophen may demonstrate an enhanced ... Laboratory function tests should be used to monitor therapy in people with severe liver or renal disease. Mechanism of action: ... extreme somnolence progressing towards coma, muscle limpness, cold and clammy skin, slow heart rate, low blood pressure, abrupt ... For individuals who have a defect in the gene encoding CYP2D6, the clearance of the drug will be lower and less metabolite such ...
... low blood pressure), hyponatremia (insufficient sodium), and hypercapnia (increased carbon dioxide in the blood). Due to the ... This may be the case even if the injury is quite severe, though these may show up days after the injury. Hemorrhages may be ... This type of injury has a poor prognosis if the patient is comatose, even with no apparent causes for the coma. Since cerebral ... Contusion occurs in 20-30% of severe head injuries. A cerebral laceration is a similar injury except that, according to their ...
For people with severe symptoms (severe confusion, convulsions, or coma) hypertonic saline (3%) 1-2 ml/kg IV in 3-4 h should be ... First, in the extracellular fluid (ECF) space, there is a dilution of blood solutes, causing hypoosmolality, including a low ... First, in the extracellular fluid (ECF) space, there is a dilution of blood solutes, causing hypoosmolality, including a low ... are seen Diagnosis is based on clinical and laboratory findings of low serum osmolality and low serum sodium. Urinalysis ...
Overall, complications are far less common and less severe in people with well-controlled blood sugar levels.[1][2][3] However ... Hypoglycemia, or abnormally low blood glucose, is an acute complication of several diabetes treatments. It is rare otherwise, ... Acute complications include hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, diabetic coma and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Chronic ... The complications of diabetes mellitus are far less common and less severe in people who have well-controlled blood sugar ...
When the poisoning becomes acute, symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, vomiting blood, blood in the urine, cramping muscles ... the results showed that the lower the As methylation capacity was, the lower the level of plasma antioxidant capacity. As ... A post mortem reveals brick red colored mucosa, due to severe hemorrhage. Although arsenic causes toxicity, it can also play a ... The final result of arsenic poisoning is coma and death. Arsenic is related to heart disease (hypertension-related ...
... is a low sodium level in the blood. It is generally defined as a sodium concentration of less than 135 mmol/L (135 ... Severe symptoms include confusion, seizures, and coma. The causes of hyponatremia are typically classified by a person's body ... The presence and severity of signs and symptoms are related to the level of salt in the blood, with lower levels of plasma ... Conditions that can lead to falsely low sodium measurements include high blood protein levels such as in multiple myeloma, high ...
Other measures may include Treat low blood sugar, with intravenous sugar solutions as ethanol induced low blood sugar ... Extreme levels of blood-borne alcohol may result in coma or death. Alcohol intoxication is the result of drinking alcohol such ... The signs and symptoms of acute alcohol poisoning include: severe confusion, unpredictable behavior and stupor sudden lapses ... The blood alcohol content (BAC) for legal operation of a vehicle is typically measured as a percentage of a unit volume of ...
Hemodialysis is usually indicated in patients with severe metabolic acidosis (blood pH less than 7.3), kidney failure, severe ... Additionally low calcium concentrations in the blood, overactive muscle reflexes, muscle spasms, QT interval prolongation, and ... Severe lethargy, coma, depression, vomiting, seizures, drooling, and inappetance may be seen. Other symptoms include acute ... Alternatively, patients presenting late with signs and symptoms of coma, hyperkalemia, seizures, or severe acidosis have a poor ...
In addition, loop diuretics tend to depress calcium reabsorption by the kidney thereby helping to lower blood calcium levels ... Severe hypercalcaemia (above 15-16 mg/dL or 3.75-4 mmol/l) is considered a medical emergency: at these levels, coma and cardiac ... Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum. The normal range is 2.1-2.6 mmol ... This explains the fatigue, muscle weakness, low tone and sluggish reflexes in muscle groups. The sluggish nerves also explain ...
Beta cells secrete insulin in response to increases in blood glucose. The resulting increase in insulin acts to lower blood ... Severe hypoglycemia may result in seizures, coma, and permanent neurological damage. Symptoms resulting from the ... As a result, patients present symptoms of low blood glucose (hypoglycemia), which are improved by eating. The diagnosis of an ... Capillary blood glucose is measured every 4 hours using a reflectance meter, until values < 60 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L) are obtained ...
It may cause drowsiness, confusion, hallucinations, coma, unsteadiness, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach upset, blood cell ... In a 2015 Cochrane systematic review, the only trial comparing it to placebo for acne found low-quality evidence of benefit. ... abnormalities, and severe rashes. It should be kept away from pets and children. Tea tree oil should not be used in or around ... It is typically used as a topical medication in low concentrations for folk medicine treatments of skin conditions. Tea tree ...
Coma and death if alprazolam is combined with other substances.. *Fainting. *Hypotension (low blood pressure) ... severe liver deficiencies (e.g., cirrhosis), severe sleep apnea, pre-existing respiratory depression, marked neuromuscular ... The low concentrations and low potencies of 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam indicate that they have little to no ... Anecdotally, injection of alprazolam has been reported, causing dangerous damage to blood vessels, closure of blood vessels ( ...
Very severe hypothyroidism and myxedema coma are characteristically associated with low sodium levels in the blood together ... Very severe hypothyroidism and myxedema coma are rare, with it estimated to occur in 0.22 per million people a year. The ... If the TSH level is normal or low and serum free T4 levels are low, this is suggestive of central hypothyroidism (not enough ... Myxedema coma or severe decompensated hypothyroidism usually requires admission to the intensive care, close observation and ...
Too low blood glucose is called hypoglycemia. It can also cause acute complications. If too low, diabetics can have many ... They may also suffer severe constipation and frequent urination. Doctors may also use a blood test called a hemoglobin A1C. ... Another acute complication, more common in type 2 diabetics, is non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma which is also very dangerous. ... An electronic blood glucose meter measures the amount of glucose in the blood. Regular blood glucose monitoring is very ...
... coma, and death Orthostatic hypotension (severe drop in systolic blood pressure when standing up suddenly) and significantly ... The risk of addiction is low in the anticholinergic class, and recreational use is uncommon. Long-term use may increase the ... Older patients are at a higher risk of experiencing CNS sideffects due to lower acetylcholine production. A common mnemonic for ...
... and sometimes slow heart rate and low blood pressure. In a severe case of overdose, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest ... sleepiness progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle weakness, cold and clammy skin, ... Some protocols for severe breakthrough pain in chronic pain conditions add Numorphan ampoules as a third form of the drug. As ... Oxymorphone is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe pain and also as a preoperative medication to alleviate ...
Low levels of magnesium in blood may mean that there is not enough magnesium in the diet, the intestines are not absorbing ... For those with severe disease intravenous magnesium sulfate may be used. The prefix hypo- means under (contrast with hyper-, ... basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death. Other symptoms that ... is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a low level of magnesium in the blood. Normal magnesium levels are between 1.46 ...
Common side effects include hair loss, vomiting, blood in the urine, infections, and kidney problems. Other severe side effects ... to severe (nonconvulsive status epilepticus or coma). In children, this can interfere with neurological development. Apart from ... Previous brain problems and low levels of albumin in the blood increase the likelihood of ifosfamide encephalopathy. In most ... The most effective treatment for severe (grade III-IV) encephalopathy is an intravenous solution of methylene blue, which ...
Acute low blood sugar symptoms are best treated by consuming small amounts of sweet foods, so as to regain balance in the ... coma can be a result in severe untreated episodes The majority of these symptoms, often correlated with feelings of hunger, ... In contrast, the hormone glucagon is released by the pancreas as a response to lower than normal blood sugar levels. Glucagon ... "Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in People Without Diabetes". Diabetes Health Center. WebMD, LLC. Retrieved 8 November 2011. " ...
... coma, low blood pressure and shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with widespread purpura, rapidly developing ... Acidosis and acute kidney failure can be seen as in any severe sepsis. Meningococci can be readily cultured from blood or ... Low levels of blood glucose and sodium, high levels of potassium in the blood, and the ACTH stimulation test demonstrate the ... Low blood pressure (hypotension) develops and rapidly leads to septic shock. The cyanosis of extremities can be extreme and the ...
... coma, hyperpyrexia (high fever), seizures and severe changes in blood pressure. Treatment-resistant and hospitalized patients ... In general, lower dosages are recommended for patients over 60 years of age. Dosages of 50 mg to 75 mg daily are usually ... Combining maprotiline and thioridazine could induce severe arrhythmias. Additionally, increased blood-levels of Maprotiline are ... Additionally the blood-concentrations of phenytoin or carbamazepine may be increased, leading to a higher incidents of side ...
Neurostorms may occur after a severe TBI. The lower the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), the higher the chance of Neurostorming. ... in which blood vessels constrict and restrict blood flow, and the formation of aneurysms, in which the side of a blood vessel ... Disorders of consciousness affect a significant number of people who suffer severe TBI; of those with severe TBI discharged ... blocking blood flow to the brain. Blood clots also can develop in other parts of the head. Other types of vascular ...
The risk of accidental nicotine exposure from e-cigarettes is most severe in children under age 6,[150] who have a lower median ... late effects include low blood pressure (hypotension) and reduced breathing (respiratory depression or hypoventilation),[86] ... and rare effects include coma, seizure, sustained inability to breath (respiratory arrest), heart attack (cardiac arrest), and ... In practice e-cigarette users tend to reach lower blood nicotine concentrations than smokers, particularly when the users are ...
Blood pressure lowering. Many international guidelines recommend blood pressure treatment targets that are lower than 140/90 ... Metformin should not be used in those with severe kidney or liver problems.[23] ... a condition of very high blood sugar associated with a decreased level of consciousness and low blood pressure).[13] ... Intensive blood sugar lowering (HbA1c,6%) as opposed to standard blood sugar lowering (HbA1c of 7-7.9%) does not appear to ...

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