Respiratory Tract DiseasesRespiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Metapneumovirus: A genus of the subfamily PNEUMOVIRINAE, containing two members: Turkey rhinotracheitis virus and a human Metapneumovirus. Virions lack HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE.Bocavirus: A genus in the subfamily PARVOVIRINAE comprising three species: Bovine parvovirus, Canine minute virus, and HUMAN BOCAVIRUS.Paramyxoviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Human bocavirus: A member of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, originally isolated from human nasopharyngeal aspirates in patients with respiratory disease.Respirovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.TurtlesCoronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsCat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Esophagoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the esophagus.Gastroscopes: Endoscopes used for examining the interior of the stomach.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Vulvitis: Inflammation of the VULVA. It is characterized by PRURITUS and painful urination.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis: Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Bordetella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Bordetella bronchiseptica: A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Neisseriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.Bronchiolitis, Viral: An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Mice, Inbred BALB CPicornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Severe Dengue: A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Bodily Secretions: Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Moraxellaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Parvovirinae: A subfamily of DNA vertebrate viruses, in the family PARVOVIRIDAE. There are three genera: PARVOVIRUS; ERYTHROVIRUS; and DEPENDOVIRUS.Mice, Inbred C57BLSerotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the PALATINE TONSILS but the ADENOIDS (pharyngeal tonsils) and lingual tonsils may also be involved. Tonsillitis usually is caused by bacterial infection. Tonsillitis may be acute, chronic, or recurrent.Turbinates: The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Tracheal NeoplasmsOrthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Bordetella parapertussis: A species of BORDETELLA with similar morphology to BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS, but growth is more rapid. It is found only in the RESPIRATORY TRACT of humans.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Haemophilus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Bordetella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
Associated diseases include mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, severe lower respiratory tract infection, ... Center for Disease Control "About Coronavirus" Retrieved on July 22, 2015. Mayo Clinic "Kawasaki Disease" Retrieved on July 22 ... The first cases of the infection with HCoV-NL63 were found in young children with severe lower respiratory tract infections ... While the clinical presentation of the virus can be severe, it has also been found in mild cases of respiratory infection. The ...
Both viral and bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract can worsen the disease. Psychological stress may worsen ... a novel technique in the treatment of severe asthma". Therapeutic advances in respiratory disease. 4 (2): 101-16. doi:10.1177/ ... "Physical examination of the adult patient with respiratory diseases: inspection and palpation". European Respiratory Journal. 8 ... "Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: burden of disease". Allergy and Asthma Proceedings. 33 (2): 117-21. doi:10.2500/aap. ...
... infection with adenovirus 7 acquired by inhalation is associated with severe lower respiratory tract disease, whereas oral ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention--National Center for Infectious Diseases-Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases ... Acute respiratory disease (ARD), first recognized among military recruits during World War II, can be caused by adenovirus ... Outbreaks of adenovirus-associated respiratory disease have been more common in the late winter, spring, and early summer; ...
Inhalation of potassium permanganate can irritate the respiratory tract and can even lead to chronic lung diseases such as ... Silicosis is an often-fatal lung disease caused by the exposure to respirable silica dust. Silicosis often leads to more severe ... contributing to chronic inflammatory diseases of the skin and respiratory tract. Once this sensitization has occurred, an ... If potassium permanganate is exposed to the eye, severe irritation as well as permanent eye damage is possible. ...
... and is known to cause mild to severe respiratory tract illnesses. Paramyxoviruses are also responsible for a range of diseases ... The human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) are the second most common causes of respiratory tract disease in infants and children. ... Diseases associated with this negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus family include measles, mumps, and respiratory tract ... These include mumps, measles, which caused around 733,000 deaths in 2000, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is the ...
2004-01-29). "Human Metapneumovirus and Lower Respiratory Tract Disease in Otherwise Healthy Infants and Children". New England ... HMPV is associated with more severe disease in people with asthma and adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD ... "Children with Respiratory Disease Associated with Metapneumovirus in Hong Kong". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9 (6): 628-633. ... "An Outbreak of Severe Respiratory Tract Infection Due to Human Metapneumovirus in a Long-Term Care Facility". Clinical ...
... must occur in the upper respiratory tract of humans, thus fundamentally undercutting the fatal trajectory of the disease. ... Most of the reported cases of human infection have resulted in severe respiratory illness. In the month following the report of ... Often, donor support can focus on HPAI control alone, while similar diseases such as Newcastle disease, acute fowl cholera, ... 2,3-linked SA receptors in humans are found predominantly in the lower respiratory tract, a fact that is the primary foundation ...
The often painful disease can cause joint deformity and be life-threatening if the respiratory tract, heart valves, or blood ... The symptoms consist of dyspnea, wheezing, a nonproductive cough, and recurrent, sometimes severe, lower respiratory tract ... Diseases and inflammation of tendons have been reported in small numbers of people with RP. During the course of the disease, ... For severe disease cyclophosphamide is often given in addition to high dose intravenous steroids. Many individuals have mild ...
... typically present in early childhood with recurrent bacterial and viral infections of the middle ear and respiratory tract. ... Consequently, individuals without functioning TPPII have severe disease. TRIANGLE disease is inherited in an autosomal ... Helen C. Su from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, and Dr. Sophie ... The disease was also described by the group of Ehl et al. TRIANGLE disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene ...
Because the mouth is a gateway to the respiratory and digestive tracts, oral health has a significant impact on other health ... after severe or failed childbirth, when adequate medical care is not available. It is considered a disease of poverty because ... Gum disease has been linked to diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Diseases of poverty reflect the dynamic relationship ... These diseases triggered in part by poverty are in contrast to so-called "diseases of affluence", which are diseases thought to ...
Stage II: include minor mucocutaneous manifestations and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. Stage III: includes ... these diseases are used as indicators of AIDS. WHO (1990). "Interim proposal for a WHO Staging System for HIV infection and ... unexplained chronic diarrhea for longer than a month, severe bacterial infections and pulmonary tuberculosis. Stage IV: ... WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease was first produced in 1990 by the World Health Organisation and ...
Respiratory tract disease vaccination may be given intra-nasally (in the nose) in some cases. Many recent protocols indicate ... Core vaccines protect animals from severe, life-threatening diseases which have global distribution. The latest (2006) North ... outdoor travel plans kennel/boarding plans underlying disease conditions other exposure risks, the disease and vaccine type ... studies have not shown this product to reduce severity of the feline respiratory disease complex. The following vaccines are ...
Addison's disease, hyperthyroidism, hypercalcaemia) Infection Especially respiratory and urinary tract infections Medication ... Non medication treatments are the first measure in delirium, unless there is severe agitation that places the person at risk of ... fluctuations of mentation due to changes in purely psychiatric processes or diseases, such as sudden psychosis from ... Dementia usually results from an identifiable degenerative brain disease (for example Alzheimer disease or Huntington's disease ...
... and will experience more severe reactions when exposed to mold. Damp indoor environments correlate with upper-respiratory-tract ... "Center For Disease Control. Retrieved 18 November 2011.. *^ "Chapter 6 - Containment and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)". ... People with chronic lung diseases are at higher risk for mold allergies, ... Infants may develop respiratory symptoms as a result of exposure to Penicillium, a fungal genus. Signs of mold-related ...
Respiratory tract disease vaccination may be given intra-nasally (in the nose) in some cases. Many recent protocols indicate ... Core vaccines protect animals from severe, life-threatening diseases which have global distribution. The latest (2011) North ... outdoor travel plans kennel/boarding plans underlying disease conditions other exposure risks, the disease and vaccine type ... Lyme disease is known to cause lethargy, fever, soreness, and in cases gone untreated, damage to joints, paralysis, and nerve ...
Overcrowded villages are breeding grounds for bacterial transmission and lead to a high prevalence of respiratory tract ... 13: Meningococcal Disease". In Atkinson W, Wolfe S, Hamborsky J. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases ( ... Cases of meningococcemia leading to severe meningoencephalitis are common among young children and the elderly. Deaths ... Meningococcal Disease: Frequently Asked Questions *^ Henry, Ronnie (July 2017). "Etymologia: Meningococcal Disease". Emerg ...
Concurrent infections, such as viral upper respiratory tract infection or other febrile diseases, can cause outbreaks. ... Herpes cycles between periods of active disease followed by periods without symptoms. The first episode is often more severe ... Antivirals may improve the condition slightly when used together with corticosteroids in those with severe disease. HSV-1 has ... "Condom Effectiveness - Male Latex Condoms and Sexually Transmitted Diseases". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. ...
el-Demiry M, James K (1988). "Lymphocyte subsets and macrophages in the male genital tract in health and disease. A monoclonal ... The mumps virus lives in the upper respiratory tract and spreads through direct contact with saliva. Prior to widespread ... Mumps is generally not serious in children, but in adults, where sperm have matured in the testis, it can cause more severe ... They are also involved in the development of autoimmune diseases and allergies. Mast cells have been found in relatively low ...
"Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer, Sexually Transmitted Diseases". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Some evidence exists to indicate that it could be justified in persons exposed to brief periods of severe physical exercise and ... Lower respiratory tract infection GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). " ... Upper respiratory tract infections can also be fungal or helminth in origin, but these are far less common. In 2015, 17.2 ...
... es can cause diseases that range from a less-severe upper-respiratory illness to severe bronchiolitis or ... "A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease". Nature Medicine. 7 (6): 719- ... The genus Orthopneumovirus consists of pathogens that target the upper respiratory tract within their specific hosts. Every ... RSV is the leading viral agent among pneumoviruses in pediatric upper respiratory diseases globally. New pneumoviruses have ...
The seeds of the Strychnine tree, Strychnos nux-vomica, are sometimes used to treat diseases of the respiratory tract, anemia, ... Asian ginseng is believed to enhance the immune system in preventing and treating infection and disease. Several clinical ... severe vomiting (sometimes with blood), chills, high fever, and irregular heart beat. Long term inproper use may result in ... including potential benefits against cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, vision-related diseases (such as age-related ...
"Detection of Respiratory Viruses and Bordetella Bronchiseptica in Dogs with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections". The Veterinary ... In one study it was found that 43.3% of all dogs in the study population with respiratory disease had in fact been vaccinated. ... Symptoms are more severe than the first form, and may include rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and fever in addition to a hacking ... Greene, Craig E (2006). "6". Infectious Diseases in Dogs and Cats (third ed.). St Louis. Zoetis (formerly Pfizer Animal Health ...
However, it has been noted that upper and lower respiratory tract infection, parasitic and intestinal infections are frequent ... The Queensland Health Multicultural Services suggests that Ischaemic heart disease, cancer and cerebrovascular disease are the ... However, such diseases appear to be low in Australia. Whilst the minority of illegal immigrants are females, pregnancy has been ... Dental health amongst detainees is poor with the severe cases being acknowledged and attended to within the detention centres. ...
... such as typically of the respiratory tract. Pathogenesis is dependent on cross reaction of M proteins produced by bacteria with ... Aortic and mitral valve disease are termed left heart diseases. Diseases of these valves are more prevalent than disease of the ... Aortic and/or mitral valve disease with severe LV dysfunction (EF less than 0.40) Mechanical prosthetic valve requiring ... Pulmonary and tricuspid valve diseases are right heart diseases. Pulmonary valve diseases are the least common heart valve ...
... trauma or upper respiratory tract infection or may have an insidious onset related to chronic middle ear disease, otosclerosis ... More severe barotrauma can lead to middle ear fluid or even permanent sensorineural hearing loss. ... Diseases of the ear and mastoid process (H60-H99, 380-389). Outer ear. *Otitis externa ...
Inflammatory reaction (e.g. acute respiratory tract infections, chronic sinusitis, rhinitis or environmental irritants) ... U.S. Centers for Disease Control Published 2001-05-11.. *^ a b c Wackym,, James B. Snow,... P. Ashley (2009). Ballenger's ... Sometimes in more severe cases, the blood can come up the nasolacrimal duct and out from the eye. Fresh blood and clotted blood ... Infectious diseases (e.g. common cold). *Hypertension. Other possible factors[edit]. This section does not cite any sources. ...
symptoms of bullous lung disease over a year ago. Cigarette smoke inhaled directly/passively equally dangerous over a year ago ... Is severe emphysema painful? over a year ago. Emphysema over a year ago. ... As the disease progresses both of these symptoms are becoming worse.. Other signs and symptoms of emphysema include:. *Chronic ... The result is that the small airways collapse during expiration, leading to an obstructive form of lung disease . Cigarette ...
Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways which causes their narrowing with consequent breathing difficulties ... Although allergic asthma is a self-sustaining disease once it is triggered, the symptoms and the progression of the disease can ... Antibiotic Can Help In Severe Asthma Treatment. over a year ago. What kind of herbal tea remedies can asthmatic use?. over a ... Does having asthma cause constant respiratory infections?. over a year ago. Comments and reviews on article Signs and Symptoms ...
Liver Diseases. Digestive System Diseases. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Subcutaneous ... Carbamazepine in Severe Liver Disease Due to Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (CBZ). The safety and scientific validity of this ... Carbamazepine in Severe Liver Disease Due to Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Publications of Results: Perlmutter D.H., Alpha-1- ... A Preliminary Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Carbamazepine in Severe Liver Disease Due to Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. ...
Lung Diseases, Interstitial. Vascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Pathologic Processes. Respiratory Tract Diseases. ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Interstitial Lung Disease Idiopathic ... Treprostinil Therapy For Patients With Interstitial Lung Disease And Severe Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. The safety and ... MedlinePlus related topics: Interstitial Lung Diseases Lung Diseases Pulmonary Fibrosis Drug Information available for: ...
Epidemiological update: case of severe lower respiratory tract disease associated with a novel coronavirus Epidemiological ... Infectious disease * Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (41) *Respiratory diseases (41) *Coronavirus (41) ... Epidemiological update: Case of severe lower respiratory tract disease associated with a novel coronavirus Epidemiological ... Epidemiological update: additional case of severe lower respiratory tract disease associated with a novel coronavirus in Saudi ...
Respiratory tract diseases. *Rheumatology. *Sexual health. *Skin and connective tissue disease. *Skin and connective tissue ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prevalence: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence in severe asthma may ... Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Prevalence: GORD is common in patients with asthma, particularly severe asthma, with a ... Severe asthma can be crippling; associated comorbid conditions often play a key role in the significant disease morbidity and ...
Bronchial Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Hypersensitivity. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or other lung diseases (eg, emphysema, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Churg- ... The time to first severe exacerbation was defined as the time from the date of first dose to the date of the first severe ... The time to first severe exacerbation was defined as the time from the date of first dose to the date of the first severe ...
However, in a few children, the disease can be severe and result in substantial morbidity. We describe the epidemiologic, ... clinical, radiologic features and outcome of adenovirus lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in Aboriginal and Non- ... Adenovirus infection is associated with significant respiratory morbidities, especially in young infants. The infection appears ... The disease primarily affected infants (median age, 9.5 months). Most children presented with bronchiolitis or pneumonia, with ...
Curcumin may be effective for the prevention of severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children.Dec 31, ... Diseases : Oxidative Stress, Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections, Respiratory Tract Infections. Pharmacological Actions : ... Diseases : Cold and Flu, Common Cold, Flu, Influenza A, Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections, Upper Respiratory Infections ... Diseases : Lower Respiratory Infections, Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections. Pharmacological Actions : Antiviral Agents, ...
P. vivax and P. falciparum accounted for 83% and 13% of cases, respectively; 79.9% of patients with severe malaria were ... His research interests are asthma, interstitial lung disease, and respiratory tract infections. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ... Severe Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Pakistan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(11):1851-1854. doi:10.3201/eid1911.130495.. ...
certain chronic diseases of the respiratory tract;. *certain heart diseases;. *certain forms of immune deficiency due to a ... However, it cannot be ruled out that a child may have a severe form of COVID-19 or that a complication of the disease may occur ... the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The new coronavirus (nCoV) is a new ... The disease can be spread from person to person through very small particles, so-called aerosols, and respiratory droplets ...
... restrictive pulmonary disease); or widespread lung damage (interstitial lung disease). These respiratory tract problems can be ... duodenal strictures) and severe constipation. People with Myhre syndrome also may have an increased risk of developing ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. *Myhre syndrome Patient Support and Advocacy Resources. *Disease InfoSearch ... Abnormalities of the lungs and airways (respiratory tract. ) in people with Myhre syndrome include narrowing of the windpipe ( ...
Immune evasion by pathogens of bovine respiratory disease complex - Volume 8 Issue 2 - Subramaniam Srikumaran, Clayton L. ... Frequently, severe respiratory tract disease in cattle is associated with concurrent infections of these pathogens. Like other ... concurrent bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infections on respiratory and enteric diseases in ... Bovine respiratory tract disease is a multi-factorial disease complex involving several viruses and bacteria. Viruses that play ...
Mycoplasma pneumoniae had the highest frequency of 16.9% (11/65). Upper and lower respiratory tract illness were common ... is a newly discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI) and gastrointestinal illness. Our study ... in respiratory secretions of children with respiratory tract disease in Sweden. HBoV is a single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid ... Over the past few years, several novel respiratory viruses including human metapneumovirus (hMPV) [1], severe acute respiratory ...
New human coronavirus, HCoV-NL63, associated with severe lower respiratory tract disease in Australia. J Med Virol.2005;75 :455 ... ARI-acute respiratory illness • hMPV-human metapneumovirus • hCoV-human coronavirus • VIDRL-Victorian Infectious Diseases ... A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease. Nat Med.2001;7 :719- 724. ... Evidence of a novel human coronavirus that is associated with respiratory tract disease in infants and young children. J Infect ...
Air leaks from the respiratory tract in mechanically ventilated children with severe respiratory disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. ... Drugs & Diseases , Pediatrics: General Medicine , Pneumomediastinum Q&A What causes elevated alveolar pressure in ... Spontaneous pneumomediastinum complicating severe acute asthma exacerbation in adult patients. J Asthma. 2017 Oct 9. 1-7. [ ... The relation of pneumothorax and other air leaks to mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1998 ...
Air leaks from the respiratory tract in mechanically ventilated children with severe respiratory disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. ... Drugs & Diseases , Pediatrics: General Medicine , Pneumomediastinum Q&A How does the prevalence of pneumomediastinum (PM) vary ... Spontaneous pneumomediastinum complicating severe acute asthma exacerbation in adult patients. J Asthma. 2017 Oct 9. 1-7. [ ... The relation of pneumothorax and other air leaks to mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1998 ...
Increased Prevalence of H1N1-Induced Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Diseases in Children With Atopic Sensitization.. Authors:. ... Retroelements: molecular features and implications for disease.. Authors:. Yi-Deun Jung Kung Ahn Yun-Ji Kim Jin-Han Bae Ja-Rang ...
Air leaks from the respiratory tract in mechanically ventilated children with severe respiratory disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. ... Related Conditions and Diseases. * Fast Five Quiz: Test Your Knowledge of Severe Asthma ... Patients with severe respiratory distress, increasing oxygen requirements, other air leak syndromes, or signs of cardiovascular ... Spontaneous pneumomediastinum complicating severe acute asthma exacerbation in adult patients. J Asthma. 2017 Oct 9. 1-7. [ ...
Air leaks from the respiratory tract in mechanically ventilated children with severe respiratory disease. Pediatr Pulmonol. ... Drugs & Diseases , Pediatrics: General Medicine Pneumomediastinum Treatment & Management. Updated: Feb 26, 2019 ... Spontaneous pneumomediastinum complicating severe acute asthma exacerbation in adult patients. J Asthma. 2017 Oct 9. 1-7. [ ... The relation of pneumothorax and other air leaks to mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1998 ...
... is a disease characterized by skin lesions and low-grade fever, and is common in the United States [1] and other countries ... Researchers think that the lesions on the respiratory tract may help transmit the disease. If a person with respiratory lesions ... Occasionally, if the rash is severe, the fever may be higher. Varicells is more serious in adults, who usually have a higher ... Although both varicella and smallpox are viral diseases that cause skin lesions, smallpox is more deadly and its lesions cause ...
Associated diseases include mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, severe lower respiratory tract infection, ... Center for Disease Control "About Coronavirus" Retrieved on July 22, 2015. Mayo Clinic "Kawasaki Disease" Retrieved on July 22 ... The first cases of the infection with HCoV-NL63 were found in young children with severe lower respiratory tract infections ... While the clinical presentation of the virus can be severe, it has also been found in mild cases of respiratory infection. The ...
Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ... Patients with severe respiratory disease also should have lower ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) protects peoples health and safety by preventing and controlling diseases ... Multiple respiratory tract specimens should be collected from persons with suspected HPAI H5 virus infection, including ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ... Patients with severe respiratory disease also should have lower ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) protects peoples health and safety by preventing and controlling diseases ... Multiple respiratory tract specimens should be collected from persons with infections suspected to be associated with this ... severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). . Update: Severe respiratory illness associated with Middle East Respiratory ... International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. LRTI - lower respiratory tract infection. Whats Known on This ... Hospitalizations for Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Adena H. Greenbaum, Jufu Chen, Carrie Reed, Suzanne Beavers, ... Hospitalizations for Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infections. Adena H. Greenbaum, Jufu Chen, Carrie Reed, Suzanne Beavers, ...
  • Under the law on the mandatory reporting of infectious diseases, laboratories are required to report test results for certain infectious diseases within specified time limits. (gouvernement.lu)
  • Red Book 2018 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases [online edition]. (cdc.gov)
  • Hemolysis may also be caused by cancer, exposure to certain drugs, vaccine reactions, heavy metal toxicity (zinc, copper), and infectious diseases, several tick-borne diseases in particular. (petplace.com)
  • But SARS can also infiltrate brain tissue, causing significant central nervous system problems, according to an article in the Oct. 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, now available online. (innovations-report.com)
  • A Lancet Infectious Diseases study shows antibody response persists for two years or more after a single shot of Merck's rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine. (fiercepharma.com)
  • It's both interesting and not terribly surprising in the sense that with the original SARS epidemic, civet cats were implicated as one of the vectors that may have transmitted virus to humans," said Daniel Kuritzkes, head of infectious diseases at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital. (metro.us)
  • Founded in 1979, Clinical Infectious Diseases publishes clinical articles twice monthly in a variety of areas of infectious disease, and is one of the most highly regarded journals in this specialty. (rxpgnews.com)
  • It is published under the auspices of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). (rxpgnews.com)
  • Based in Alexandria, Virginia, IDSA is a professional society representing about 8,000 physicians and scientists who specialize in infectious diseases. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Cases are being referred to Sukraraj Tropical Infectious Diseases Hospital as the focal center and the Epidemiology and Disease Control Division is monitoring signs of possible outbreaks in country. (nepalitimes.com)
  • NVAX ) is a clinical-stage biotechnology company creating novel vaccines, including H1N1, to address a broad range of infectious diseases worldwide using advanced proprietary virus-like-particle (VLP) technology. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Many infectious diseases, including influenza and Ebola, can be transmitted to humans from animals (and vice-versa). (europa.eu)
  • ZAPI brings together experts in human and animal health to create new platforms and technologies that will facilitate a fast, coordinated, and practical response to new infectious diseases as soon as they emerge. (europa.eu)
  • New infectious diseases are emerging at an increasing frequency in the EU and other regions of the world, with the potential to profoundly impact public and animal health, and strongly disrupt local and international economies. (europa.eu)
  • By bringing together more than 20 partners, including leading human and veterinary research institutions, non-governmental organisations, regulatory agencies, academic groups and manufacturers, ZAPI aims to shorten the time to respond to emerging infectious diseases by using a multidisciplinary, One Health approach. (europa.eu)
  • Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways which causes their narrowing with consequent breathing difficulties (dyspnea). (steadyhealth.com)
  • Based on the origin of the disease, it can be classified as allergic and non-allergic asthma. (steadyhealth.com)
  • Asthma care has increasingly focused on personalised management for severe asthma, and recognition of the role and importance of comorbid conditions has increased. (mja.com.au)
  • associated comorbid conditions often play a key role in the significant disease morbidity and frequently contribute to a severe and difficult-to-treat asthma phenotype. (mja.com.au)
  • A diagnostic and management algorithm for comorbid conditions in severe asthma is outlined. (mja.com.au)
  • They often contribute to a severe and difficult-to-treat asthma phenotype. (mja.com.au)
  • Teasing apart the different components of comorbidity in severe asthma can be difficult, and general practitioners are often confronted by complexity that may seem beyond the scope of everyday care. (mja.com.au)
  • 4 This has important implications for therapy, as outlined elsewhere in this supplement in the article on the diagnosis of severe asthma. (mja.com.au)
  • We also outline a simplified, iterative approach to assessing and managing comorbid conditions in severe asthma. (mja.com.au)
  • In conducting this review, we searched English language literature in PubMed using the key words severe asthma, comorbidity, treatment and management. (mja.com.au)
  • A broad spectrum of comorbid conditions has been noted in association with severe asthma. (mja.com.au)
  • To evaluate the efficacy of different doses and regimens of dupilumab in participants with moderate to severe uncontrolled asthma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Here, we report a case of a 32-month-old male with a previous history of asthma, who developed respiratory failure two weeks after onset of cough and rhinorrhea and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for 9 days after failing high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we present the case of a thirty-two-month-old immunocompetent boy with HMPV-induced respiratory failure and a history of asthma who was supported with ECMO and survived. (hindawi.com)
  • Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of other health conditions occur more frequently in those with asthma, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhinosinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comorbidity is the presence of one or more diseases or disorders occurring concurrently with a primary disease or disorder. (mja.com.au)
  • Human-produced toxins in the soil have cancer causing elements and can also lead to lung and kidney disease as well as liver damage, skin diseases, respiratory disorders, and birth defects for pregnant women. (prweb.com)
  • This can be secondary to cancer, severely low platelet counts (platelets are the blood cells that aid in blood clotting), or severe inflammatory disorders of the gut. (petplace.com)
  • Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are genetic disorders characterized by blocked T-lymphocyte differentiation or function and often are associated with abnormal development of other lymphocyte lineages (B cells and natural killer [NK] cells). (arupconsult.com)
  • Hemolytic disease results from the hereditary or acquired acquisition of abnormal forms of hemoglobin or from abnormalities of the red blood cell membrane in disorders such as sickle cell anemia , thalassemia , or acquired hemolytic anemias. (britannica.com)
  • Discovered in 2001, HMPV is in the paramyxovirus family along with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (cdc.gov)
  • Surveillance data from CDC's the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) shows HMPV to be most active during late winter and spring in temperate climates. (cdc.gov)
  • Since HMPV is a recently recognized respiratory virus, healthcare professionals may not routinely consider or test for HMPV. (cdc.gov)
  • This case highlights three critical points: the potentially fatal causative role of HMPV in respiratory failure in an older pediatric age group of immunocompetent hosts, the importance of early recognition of impending respiratory failure, and the timely utilization of ECMO. (hindawi.com)
  • Chickenpox (also called varicella) is a common and extremely infectious childhood disease that also affects adults on occasion. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The period during which infected people are able to spread the disease is believed to start one or two days before the rash breaks out and to continue until all the blisters have formed scabs, which usually happens four to 7 days after the rash breaks out but may be longer in adolescents and adults. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Again, the most severe cases of the disease tend to be found among older children and adults. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although aggressive disease is more common in children, adults can still potentially develop an aggressive form of the disorder. (rarediseases.org)
  • Early detection of some neglected tropical diseases will allow more children to continue school and adults to work while reducing the costs associated with treating more advanced forms of these diseases. (who.int)