Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Ventricular Dysfunction, Right: A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Mice, Inbred C57BLCardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Radionuclide Ventriculography: Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Atrial Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Troponin C: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A transient left ventricular apical dysfunction or ballooning accompanied by electrocardiographic (ECG) T wave inversions. This abnormality is associated with high levels of CATECHOLAMINES, either administered or endogenously secreted from a tumor or during extreme stress.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Mitral Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Defibrillators, Implantable: Implantable devices which continuously monitor the electrical activity of the heart and automatically detect and terminate ventricular tachycardia (TACHYCARDIA, VENTRICULAR) and VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION. They consist of an impulse generator, batteries, and electrodes.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Transposition of Great Vessels: A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tissue Survival: The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Gated Blood-Pool Imaging: Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
"Structural Abnormalities of the Inferoseptal Left Ventricular Wall Detected by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Carriers ... because of severe diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. They may also develop a left atrial thrombus that embolizes, ... It is often due to mutations in certain genes involved with making heart muscle proteins. Other causes may include Fabry ... Since the pacemaker activates the interventricular septum before the left ventricular free wall, the gradient across the left ...
"Left cardiac sympathetic denervation for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia". New England Journal of ... Medications to treat CPVT include beta blockers and verapamil. Flecainide inhibits the release of the cardiac ryanodine ... which in the main Ca2+ storage organelle in cardiac muscle. CASQ2 is also associated with regulating SR Ca2+ release when bound ... and a history of exercise or emotion-related palpitations and dizziness with an absence of structural cardiac abnormalities. ...
Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) is a treatment for people with moderate to severe left ventricular systolic heart ... whether the abnormality is due to insufficient contraction (systolic dysfunction), or due to insufficient relaxation of the ... As such, it can be caused by a wide number of conditions, including myocardial infarction (in which the heart muscle is starved ... In people with left ventricular ejection (LVEF) below 35%, the incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or sudden cardiac ...
Cardiac Abnormalities of the origin of the left coronary artery Pulmonary atresia Stenosis Right or Left ventricle obstruction ... In severe cases, where NCC has led to heart failure, with resulting surgical treatment including a heart valve operation, or a ... "Left Ventriuclar noncompaction" (PDF). Orphanet. Retrieved June 14, 2007. "Left Ventricular Non-compaction". Baylor College of ... Major clinical correlates include systolic and diastolic dysfunction, associated at times with systemic embolic events. Non- ...
... including cardiac tissues. This leads to cardiac dysfunction and neuromuscular consequences, such as muscle weakness, ... Cardiac failure (left ventricular systolic dysfunction) Kidney complications of diabetes mellitus (diabetic nephropathy) In ... Commonly reported fetal abnormalities include hypotension, renal dysplasia, anuria/oliguria, oligohydramnios, intrauterine ... A severe rare allergic reaction can affect the bowel wall and secondarily cause abdominal pain. Hematologic effects, such as ...
... making it one of the most common cardiac abnormalities. It may occur in isolation or in concert with other cardiac anomalies. ... In more severe cases it is a consequence of dilation of the right ventricle, leading to displacement of the papillary muscles ... Dilation of the right ventricle occurs secondary to ventricular septal defects, right to left shunting of blood, eisenmenger ... Valvular heart lesions associated with high maternal and fetal risk during pregnancy include: Severe aortic stenosis with or ...
Ventricular systole is the contraction of the ventricular syncytium of cardiac muscle cells of the left and right ventricles, ... However, some cardiac conduction abnormalities such as left bundle branch block (LBBB) allow the P2 sound to be heard before ... The cardiac cycle refers to the sequence of mechanical and electrical events that repeats with every heartbeat. It includes the ... In the event of severe pathology, the AV node can also act as a pacemaker; this is usually not the case because its rate of ...
Other peripheral signs include: sustained, heaving apex beat, which is not displaced unless systolic dysfunction of the left ... it still often leads to a number of electrocardiographic abnormalities. ECG manifestations of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH ... Since people with severe AS cannot increase their cardiac output, the blood pressure falls and the person will faint due to ... While the muscular layer of the left ventricle thickens, the arteries that supply the muscle do not get significantly longer or ...
Causes of left ventricular stiffening include: A long-standing hypertension where, as a result of left ventricular muscle ... Grade III and IV diastolic dysfunction are called "restrictive filling dynamics". These are both severe forms of diastolic ... Complete left ventricular filling is essential to maintain maximum cardiac output. Left ventricular filling is dependent upon ... Class III diastolic dysfunction patients will demonstrate reversal of their diastolic abnormalities on echocardiogram when they ...
... coordinate with severe cardiac muscle abnormalities including left ventricular hyperplasia, sinuatrial valve abnormalities, ... "Detection of adenoviral genome in the myocardium of adult patients with idiopathic left ventricular dysfunction". Circulation. ... In cardiac muscle, CAR is localized to intercalated disc structures, which electrically and mechanically couple adjacent ... It is clear from studies employing transgenesis that CAR function at intercalated discs in cardiac muscle is critical for ...
... left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricle dilation, and involvement of the mitral and/or tricuspid valves. However, in acute ... A similar eosinophilic endocarditis occurs in mice immunized with the cardiac muscle protein, mouse myosin. In the latter model ... The DRESS syndrome is a severe immunological drug reaction. It differs from other drug reactions in that it: a) is caused by a ... These include elevations in blood markers for systemic inflammation (e.g. C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate), ...
Aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone or eplerenone) may be used if there is evidence of left ventricular dysfunction after ... including cardiac examination) ECG, and cardiac biomarkers suggest the likelihood of a problem. Echocardiography, an ultrasound ... Rarer severe differential diagnoses includes aortic dissection, esophageal rupture, tension pneumothorax, and pericardial ... In addition to myocardial infarction, other causes include angina, insufficient blood supply (ischemia) to the heart muscles ...
Severe emotional and physical stress leads to a form of heart dysfunction known as Takotsubo syndrome in some people. Stress, ... Cardiomyopathy - diseases of cardiac muscle Hypertensive heart disease - diseases of the heart secondary to high blood pressure ... and left ventricular hypertrophy. Blood pressure medication reduces cardiovascular disease in people at risk, irrespective of ... a failure at the right side of the heart with respiratory system involvement Cardiac dysrhythmias - abnormalities of heart ...
Left ventricular involvement Syncope Episode of ventricular arrhythmia Management options include pharmacological, surgical, ... ARVD is caused by genetic defects of the parts of heart muscle (also called myocardium or cardiac muscle) known as desmosomes, ... The right ventricle will fail before there is left ventricular dysfunction. However, by the time the individual has signs of ... right ventricular angiography, cardiac MRI, and genetic testing. 90% of individuals with ARVD have some EKG abnormality. The ...
Ankyrin-B has also been identified to associate at sarcomeric M-lines and costameres in cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, ... These mice also display several electrophysiological abnormalities, including bradycardia, variable heart rate, long QT ... patients with ANK2 variants exhibited greater maximum left ventricular wall thickness. In patients with both ischemic and non- ... Mechanistic studies on effects of these mutations in mice showed severe bradycardia and variability in heart rate, as well as ...
... and severe cardiac valve insufficiency". Journal of Medical Genetics. 28 (4): 267-273. doi:10.1136/jmg.28.4.267. ISSN 0022-2593 ... Including Marfan syndrome and LFS, marfanoid features of this type have also been observed with several other disorders, one of ... Additional effects on the heart that have been reported with LFS are ventricular and atrial septal defect. A missense mutation ... Psychopathology and related behavioral abnormalities are typically seen in LFS, and they may be considered in the diagnosis of ...
BNP and NT-proBNP are also typically increased in patients with left ventricular dysfunction, with or without symptoms (BNP ... Inhibits maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy Mice lacking cardiac NPRA develop increased cardiac mass and severe fibrosis and die ... Cosson S (2004). "Usefulness of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) as a screen for left ventricular abnormalities in diabetes ... Other terms for BNP include B-type natriuretic peptide, ventricular natriuretic peptide and natriuretic peptide B') C-type ...
... is a cardiac development defect in which the heart has 2 bilateral left atria and atrial appendages in the muscle wall. Left ... arrhythmia and heart murmur may raise further suspicion of a cardiac abnormality. Non-cardiac symptoms include impairments of ... Left-atrial isomeric patients have less severe complications, as they typically have 2 functional ventricles. In this case, ... Cardiac looping malformations: Fallot's tetralogy transposition of the great vessels Ventricular and atrial septal defects. ...
... including congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease, heart attack, heart failure and a weakened heart muscle ( ... premature ventricular contractions originating from the ventricular outflow tract in patients with normal left ventricular ... It is advised for people with ventricular dysfunction and frequent arrhythmias or very frequent PVC (>20% in 24 h) and normal ... incidence of sustained ventricular tachycardia or cardiac arrest. One drawback comes from emerging data that suggests very ...
CCM: Cardiac Contractility Modulation (CCM) is a treatment for patients with moderate to severe left ventricular systolic heart ... Such measures include: Moderate physical activity, when symptoms are mild or moderate; or bed rest when symptoms are severe. If ... The CCM mechanism is based on stimulation of the cardiac muscle by non-excitatory electrical signals (NES), which are delivered ... Oct 2, 2012). "2012 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update of the 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities ...
Criteria for the classification of patients with left ventricular systolic heart failure include the severity of the disease ... In Cardiac contractility modulation therapy, electrical stimulation is applied to the cardiac muscle during the absolute ... for patients that are at least 18 years old who suffer from heart failure symptoms due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction ... Apr 2011). "Long-term outcome of cardiac contractility modulation in patients with severe congestive heart failure" (PDF). ...
... increased left ventricular mass index, increased cardiac contractility, diastolic dysfunction, and induction of ectopic atrial ... Evidence of mild or severe liver disease may be found. Reproductive symptoms in men may include reduced free testosterone (due ... Weakness or muscle weakness (especially in the large muscles of the arms and legs). This latter occurs in 60 to 80 percent of ... and that neurons are often more sensitive than other tissues to thyroid abnormalities, including sublicnical hyperthyroidism ...
Conduction abnormalities are the most common cardiac manifestations of sarcoidosis in humans and can include complete heart ... Inspiratory muscle training has also decreased severe fatigue perception in subjects with early stages of sarcoidosis, as well ... Sudden cardiac death, either due to ventricular arrhythmias or complete heart block is a rare complication of cardiac ... Other common manifestations of neurosarcoidosis include optic nerve dysfunction, papilledema, palate dysfunction, ...
Worse outcomes have been seen when echocardiography shows left ventricular wall thickness, poor systolic function and severe ... showing low voltage and conduction abnormalities like atrioventricular block or sinus node dysfunction.[5] ... Cardiac amyloidosis is a subcategory of amyloidosis where there is the depositing of the protein amyloid in the cardiac muscle ... Symptoms of cardiac amyloidosis include dyspnea on exertion, peripheral edema, ascites, thromboembolisms, and symmetric, ...
Real-time left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume loops provide a framework for understanding cardiac mechanics in experimental ... Low EF usually indicates systolic dysfunction, and severe heart failure can result in EF lower than 0.2. EF is also used as a ... The increased ventricular stroke volume in this case includes the volume of blood ejected into the aorta as well as the volume ... This increases the contractile force of the cardiac muscle, resulting in increased stroke volume. Frank-Starling curves can be ...
May 2007). "[Left ventricular diastolic function and dysfunction: a single cardiac target for various systemic diseases]". ... Signs and symptoms of hypertensive encephalopathy may include severe headache, nausea and vomiting (often of a projectile ... abnormalities of blood flow due to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and microvascular disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. ... necrosis of the smooth muscles and endothelial cells, exudation of blood and lipids, and retinal ischemia. These changes are ...
... of AAV-based AONs to Mybpc3-targeted knock-in newborn mice prevented both systolic dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy ... The cMyBP-C isoform expressed in cardiac muscle differs from those expressed in slow and fast skeletal muscle (MYBPC1 and ... Absence of cMyBP-C (Mybpc3-targeted knock-out mice) results in severe cardiac hypertrophy, increased heart-weight-to-body- ... With this approach, about half of missense or exonic/intronic truncating mutations could be removed, including 35 mutations in ...
The cardiac abnormalities are related to direct effects of thyroid hormone on cardiac muscle and indirect effects mediated ... emaciation and severe cardiac and metabolic dysfunction and eventual death. However, although severe cases are rarely seen in ... conduction disturbances and atrial and ventricular arrhythmias on electrocardiographic examination and left ventricular ... It is largely reversible but when severe can induce ocular abnormalities including haemorrhage, oedema and retinal detachment ...
Left ventricular dysfunction is also a risk factor for sudden cardiac death. Brugada Terradellas said that effective risk ... defined as severe dysfunction of the heart muscle, are at increased risk of dangerous arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. ... prediction for sudden cardiac death requires using of a combination of measures, including age, left ventricular ejection ... Conduction abnormalities in the right ventricular outflow tract in Brugada syndrome detected body surface potential mapping. ...
... thickened mitral papillary muscle, mild left ventricular hypertrophy, first degree diastolic dysfunction; and (4) 75-year-old ... The typical cardiac type of AFD presents with concentric or sometimes asymmetric LVH, with or without RVH. ECG changes include ... it is caused by other genetic disorders including inherited metabolic and neuromuscular diseases, chromosome abnormalities, and ... from the classic severe phenotype in males to the asymptomatic disease course in females, with a variety of clinical ...
... dysfunction, we deleted Bmpr1a in vascular smooth muscle cells and in cardiac myocytes in mice using the SM22alpha;TRE-Cre/LoxP ... signaling during early development results in severe respiratory tract abnormalities, including lung agenesis. Previous studies ... was not a function of elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure but was associated with increased periadventitial ... Smooth muscle protein 22 alpha-mediated patchy deletion of Bmpr1a impairs cardiac contractility but protects against pulmonary ...
"Cofilin-1 phosphorylation catalyzed by ERK1/2 alters cardiac actin dynamics in dilated cardiomyopathy caused by lamin A/C gene ... Abnormalities of actin dynamics will hamper sarcomeric organization and may be a pathway common to left ventricular dysfunction ... showed that left ventricular tissue from LmnaH222P/H222P mice exhibited severe disruption of myofibrillar structure including ... SRF is playing a critical role in the normal cardiac muscle development and in the sarcomerogenesis (72-74). Cardiac SRF-null ...
Echocardiographic features of DCM are left ventricular (LV) dilation and systolic dysfunction with impaired... ... LV dysfunction without severe dilation, LV hypertrophy, non-coronary wall motion abnormalities, LV thrombi ... These include primarily the diagnosis of DCM and its differentiation from other diseases causing LV dysfunction in heart ... The Heart Muscle Disease Study Group. Br Heart J. 1994;72(6 Suppl):S46-51.Google Scholar ...
Valvular dysfunctions,• Left ventricular dysfunction• Arrhythmias.• MI- Myocardial infarction is a complication of coronary ... KAWASAKI DX: COMPLICATIONS (TINTINALLI-PG 827)• Cardiac complications are the most severe sequelae of Kawasaki Dx. Included are ... and a marked decrease in muscle tone.• Pathologic apnea is a respiratory pause , 20 sec, or associated with cyanosis, pallor, ... of untreated children develop some degree of coronary artery abnormality.• Etiology: UNKNOWN. Postulated to be a possible ...
The left ventricle compensates for the increased pressure by increasing muscle mass, resulting in left ventricular (LV) ... Cardiac: The patient should continue all cardiac medications prior to surgery, including antihypertensives, antidysrhythmics, ... LV dysfunction leads to increased pulmonary pressures and congestive heart failure. Symptoms of chronic AR include dyspnea, ... and wall motion abnormalities. A thorough history should be obtained to assess for symptoms of AS including angina, syncope, ...
The cardiovascular manifestations of FD include left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) also involving the papillary muscles, rhythm ... and conduction abnormalities, valvular dysfunction and ischemic heart disease. The cardiovascular changes appear to be ... The main feature of cardiac involvement in FD is left ventricular hypertrophy (Figure 1A, Figure 1B). However, as LVH can also ... The LVH is progressive in nature, and is rarely severe in children or adolescents. Of note, the echocardiographically derived ...
... diastolic dysfunction resulting in a stiff ventricle and reduced ventricular filling, or abnormalities to physical structures ... Dogs with severe left-sided congestive heart failure and fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) may not get enough oxygen. Oxygen ... The damage again reduces the ability of the heart muscle to contract and leads to a cascade of actions, including the release ... Heart failure resulting from the impedance (obstruction) to cardiac inflow may result in a decrease in blood flow. This may be ...
Abnormal myocardial insulin signalling in type 2 diabetes and left-ventricular dysfunction. Eur Heart J. 2010;31:100-111. ... including liver and skeletal muscle.44 Although triglyceride accumulation is often interpreted as a cause of lipotoxicity, it ... given the broad spectrum of abnormalities that may characterize cardiac insulin resistance, it is critical to dissect and ... In animal models with long-term exposure to high-fat diets or in genetic models of severe insulin resistance such as ob/ob and ...
... is a condition in which the cardiac muscle does not pump blood efficiently through the various valves ... Once patients with heart failure symptoms have moderate to severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction, the mortality is quite ... Congestive heart failure is a condition in which the cardiac muscle does not pump blood efficiently through the various valves ... Other factors that have been shown to have prognostic value include functional classification; electrolyte abnormalities such ...
... underlying energy limitations in heart failure are still being elucidated but are presently thought to include abnormalities of ... Evaluation of different ventricular pacing sites in patients with severe heart failure: results of an acute hemodynamic study. ... 8 43 and coronary flow reserve from endothelial dysfunction.44 Thus, although therapies that improve systolic function yet ... 4 Resynchronization therapy by LV or BiV pacing/stimulation is a novel approach whereby the timing rather than intrinsic muscle ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... Cardiac investigations displayed left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular dysfunction, or both abnormalities in 18 ... and muscle at initial admission, and the occurrence of cardiac life-threatening adverse events and death during follow-up. ... including 6 hospitalizations for severe heart failure and 1 resuscitated cardiac arrest. By multivariate analysis, left ...
... but with severe transient left ventricular dysfunction. Diagnosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy should be based on typical left ... Latent left ventricular outflow tract obstruction induced by abnormal hypertrophic papillary muscle ... ... distribution regional wall-motion abnormalities of the left ventricle on echocardiography had changed from a mid-ventricular ... Typically, decreased left ventricular compliance results in abnormal diastolic functions but left ventricular systolic ...
A peculiarity of this form was the onset with severe conduction defect and only minor ventricular dysfunction, subsequently ... The first group included two families characterized by hypokinetic left ventricle with localized apical hypertrophy of the left ... In this study, minor cardiac abnormalities were frequently seen in patients relatives which could be early signs of disease ( ... including 63 affected members of 28 families with AD or AR FDC) and patients with skeletal muscle involvement (including 11 ...
... is a reversible form of left ventricular dysfunction with an apparently benign natural history after left ventricular recovery ... papillary muscles, and left atrial and left ventricular myocardium. Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration is prevalent in the ... Active contiguous abnormalities can frequently involve the pericardium. Prominent among these are cardiac conditions which ... Involvement of the thoracic and abdominal aortas, although rare, causes marked hypertension and may lead to severe heart ...
... cardiac arrhythmias, and pain.The purpose of the present review is to summarize existing knowledge of the pathophysiology, ... DCM is the most common cardiac disorder. It is characterized by left ventricular dilatation (,117%) and systolic dysfunction ( ... The most common symptoms include skeletal muscle overactivity, muscle twitching and painful cramps (Jurkat-Rott et al., 2010). ... 2003). Compound heterozygosity for mutations (W156X and R225W) in SCN5A associated with severe cardiac conduction disturbances ...
An EKG may show conduction abnormalities and/or arrhythmias. Echocardiography may show left and/or right ventricular dilation ... B) Amastigotes in cardiac muscle. (Reprinted with permission from Bern et al. JAMA 2007;298:2171-2181.) ... causing conduction abnormalities and myopathy leading to dilatation and contractile dysfunction.. Figure 4.. (A) ... In some cases severe exfoliative dermatitis can occur in which case the drug should be discontinued immediately. In addition, ...
... as this could be a potential target for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction treatment [44-46]. The ischemic heart uses ... 6. Cardiac Cachexia. Cardiac cachexia is a severe, complex, multifactorial condition associated with chronic heart failure that ... and cardiac output, atrial enlargement and ventricular dilation, and electrocardiogram and conduction system abnormalities [1, ... Cardiac visceral obesity may be an important pathogenic factor, including epicardial adipose tissue, perivascular adipose ...
Here the authors show that NF-κB is activated in the heart of dystrophin-deficient mice and that its ablation rescues cardiac ... Left ventricular pressure-volume relationship analysis. Cardiac hemodynamic measurements were assessed via a closed chest ... stress induced cardiac muscle dysfunction, and that inhibition of NF-κB systemically and specifically in cardiomyocytes ... Left panel includes genes upregulated and right panel includes genes downregulated in the microarray. e-h Data expressed as ...
With papillary muscle dysfunction due to ischemia or other causes of ventricular disease, cusp closure is not complete, leading ... short-term therapy to improve the hemodynamic profile of patients with severe heart failure symptoms and severe LV dysfunction ... including papillary muscle fibers and the circumferential muscle layer supporting the mitral ring. Each of these components ... In addition, an electrocardiogram should be carried out to screen for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), ischemia, and atrial ...
Included are cardiomyopathies associated with inflammation, toxic chemicals, metabolic abnormalities, and inherited muscle ... Other forms of HCM may affect only the cardiac apex or cause diffuse enlargement of the heart muscle. The mass of the left ... diastolic dysfunction), a reduction in the size of ventricular cavities, and, often, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. ... Enlargement of heart muscle resulting from long-standing or severe hypertension or aortic stenosis. Like all other forms of ...
  • Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked disease of lysosomal metabolism resulting in attenuated activity or absence of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (a-Gal A). Impaired glycosphingolipid metabolism leads to systemic lysosomal globotriaosylceramide accumulation with multiorgan systemic involvement and complex clinical presentation: acroparesthesias, angiokeratoma, hypohidrosis, corneal and lenticular opacities, gastrointestinal and endocrine abnormalities, renal impairment, and neural and cardiovascular disease [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is a syndrome in which severe dysfunction results in failure of the cardiovascular system to maintain adequate blood circulation. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In recent years, obesity and visceral fat have been recognized as a worldwide health problem and an independent risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases such as insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, arterial hypertension, chronic subclinical inflammation, atherosclerosis, and cardiac steatosis. (hindawi.com)
  • these questions include the etiology of visceral obesity, the process by which healthy fat tissue becomes stressed, the role of genetics, environment, gender, and ageing, mechanical, and metabolic effects of excess adipose visceral tissue on the cardiovascular system, and the role of inflammation and catabolism in heart failure-related cachexia [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cardiovascular complications of chemotherapy can include direct effects on metabolism as well as injury to myocardial tissue by effects on endothelial function, hypertension or ischemia. (omicsonline.org)
  • Cardiac mitochondrial function is altered in a variety of inherited and acquired cardiovascular diseases. (jci.org)
  • CKD is associated with a higher incidence of CVD and a worse prognosis after a cardiovascular (CV) event, including a greater risk of recurrent events and CV mortality. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Cardiovascular MR measurements of left ventricular (LV)function (Figure 2),are usually obtained from a series of ECG-gated SSFPimages obtained in the short axis view. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The principal cardiovascular abnormality in ILD is the increased vascular resistance in the pre-capillary pulmonary circulation that leads to increased pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and the development of pulmonary hypertension. (ersjournals.com)
  • The changes were more severe among women who developed the condition early - before the 34th week of pregnancy, according to research presented today at the American Heart Association (AHA) Council on Hypertension, AHA Council on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, American Society of Hypertension Joint Scientific Sessions 2017, in San Francisco. (healthcanal.com)
  • Cardiac involvement is one of the three major causes of morbidity and mortality in Fabry disease (FD), together with end-stage renal disease and cerebrovascular events . (escardio.org)
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea results from increased left ventricular filling pressures (due to nocturnal fluid redistribution and enhanced renal reabsorption) and therefore has a greater sensitivity and predictive value. (bmj.com)
  • Toxicity associated with chemotherapy treatment can affect the hematologic, cardiac, renal, gastrointestinal and immune systems [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Proponents of off-pump CABG suggest that it decreases the length of hospital stay, the amount of blood loss during surgery, and other complications such as renal insufficiency and neurocognitive dysfunction. (appliedradiology.com)
  • In contrast, more severe hepatic and renal insufciency or failure. (river-centre.org)
  • Noninflammatory etiologies and associations include alcoholism, anthracycline drugs, ingestion of metals, autoimmune and systemic disorders, and mitochondrial disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiac sarcoidosis is an under-recognized entity that has a heterogeneous presentation and may occur independently or with any severity of systemic disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several hemodynamic alterations have been described in association with normal sleep, including a decrease in systemic blood pressure and heart rate. (phaonlineuniv.org)
  • However, although severe cases are rarely seen in practice today, there are a number of consequences and complications associated with hyperthyroidism that must be considered in individual cats. (vin.com)
  • This model may be suitable to test the significance of myocardial NO in the cardiac complications of diabetes, because the transgene is overexpressed permanently and specifically in the heart. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Besides its severe neurological injuries، spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) commonly causes cardiac complications. (magiran.com)
  • These complications could include three different aspects of cardiac diseases، that is، electrocardiographic abnormalities، myocardial injuries، and left ventricular dysfunction. (magiran.com)
  • In this review، we described all cardiac complications during SAH and explained the appropriate monitoring and management of these problems. (magiran.com)
  • There is often is 1% of an intricate structure or complications include primary. (qcl.me)
  • Improved cardiac imaging to detect chemotherapy-related toxicity could lead to a reduction in the health care cost related to complications arising from advanced disease and merits further investigation. (omicsonline.org)
  • Diagnosing cardiac sarcoidosis remains problematic with endomyocardial biopsies associated with a high risk of complications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Potential cardiac toxicity associated with some chemotherapy treatments can cause significant morbidity. (omicsonline.org)
  • Aside from the fallopian tubes oviducts and fimbriae uterus cervix vagina posterior two thirds of liver disease and lessen morbidity and indirect bilirubin levels by more specific question should be treated with analgesics such as exposure to fermentable carbohydrates through a traumatic laceration near his left jaw area. (nrha.org)
  • Unidentified and untreated cardiac sarcoidosis risks significant morbidity and mortality, but early detection can facilitate disease-modifying immunosuppression and cardiac-specific interventions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Systolic myocardial failure is a general reduction in the ability of the heart muscle to contract. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Studies have shown that the administration of an ACE inhibitor (captopril or enalapril) was associated with a reduction of morbid events, an apparent slowing of the progression of left ventricular dysfunction, and a trend toward a reduction in mortality. (rjmatthewsmd.com)
  • Cordarone prolongs the duration of the action potential of all cardiac fibers while causing minimal reduction of dV/dt (maximal upstroke velocity of the action potential). (drugs.com)
  • 10-12 The introduction of 64-slice MDCT and dual-source CT permitted improved temporal resolution (up to 83 msec) and spatial resolution (0.4 × 0.4 × 0.4 mm 3 ) and reduction of both cardiac and respiratory motion, leading to improved assessment of graft stenosis and occlusion. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Those dysfunctions are characterized by small airways obstruction, a reduction in diffusion capacity and in dynamic pulmonary compliance, and an increase in ventilation in the upper zones of the lung 3 . (scielo.br)
  • Molecular positron emission tomography (PET) to assess cardiac metabolism is a promising technology that could increase our knowledge of chemotherapy-related toxicity in the heart. (omicsonline.org)
  • Acute mitral regurgitation is usually associated with inferior MI due to ischemia or infarction of the papillary muscle. (medscape.com)
  • High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTNT) is normally used to diagnose acute cardiac injury but is also prognostic for outcome in intensive care. (biomedcentral.com)
  • hypertension (CTEPH), we found that acute correction of this dyssynchrony by temporary pacing (prior to pulmonary endarterectomy, presently the therapy of choice for CTEPH) results in significant improvement in cardiac output. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A bicuspid valve in itself does not give rise to significant hemodynamic abnormality, but it has a tendency to calcify and a predisposition to infective endocarditis (see Table 2 ). (nih.gov)
  • G mutation have a high incidence of cardiac death and life-threatening adverse events. (cdc.gov)
  • The incidence of HCM in the general population is approximately 1 in 500, and is most often caused by mutations in genes encoding the components of the cardiac sarcomere. (mayomedicallaboratories.com)