An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
An enzyme that catalyzes the replication of the RNA of coliphage Q beta. EC 2.7.7.-.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising tick-borne viruses occasionally infecting humans. Dhori and Thogoto viruses were formerly thought to be members of BUNYAVIRIDAE. Thogoto virus is the type species.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the longer version of the genome and have no separate cell lysis gene.
A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The type species of the genus ALFAMOVIRUS that is non-persistently transmitted by aphids.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of plant viruses in the family FLEXIVIRIDAE, that cause mosaic and ringspot symptoms. Transmission occurs mechanically. Potato virus X is the type species.
Nucleic acid sequences that are involved in the negative regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by chromatin silencing.
This process is catalyzed by a viral RNA replicase.[clarification needed] A DNA transcription unit encoding for a protein may ... RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand. Hydrogen bonds of the RNA-DNA ... small nuclear RNA (snRNA), or enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes as well as larger non-coding RNAs such as ribosomal RNA ... RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase was established in vitro by several laboratories by 1965; however, the RNA synthesized by these ...
"RNA helicase activity of Semliki Forest virus replicase protein NSP2". FEBS Letters. 448 (1): 19-22. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99) ... Replication occurs via a negative strand intermediate giving rise to a full length genomic RNA for export in new virions and a ... The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... The 5' two thirds of the genome encode four non-structural proteins concerned with RNA synthesis and the structural proteins ...
Doudna, Jennifer Anne (1989). Towards the Design of an RNA Replicase (Ph.D. thesis). Harvard University. OCLC 23230360. ... Her Ph.D. dissertation was on a system that increased the efficiency of a self-replicating catalytic RNA and was supervised by ... This initial work to solve large RNA structures led to further structural studies on an internal ribosome entry site(IRES) and ... Early in her scientific career, Doudna worked to uncover the structure and biological function of RNA enzymes or ribozymes. ...
RNA1 is required in replication as it encodes for RNA replicase components. This RNA contains structural elements within the 3 ... RCNMV contains a genome that encodes for two positive sense RNA strands known as RNA1 and RNA2 and both these RNA strands lack ... RNA. 7 (12): 1743-1752. PMC 1370214. PMID 11780631. Pfingsten JS, Kieft JS (July 2008). "RNA structure-based ribosome ... An, M; Iwakawa, HO; Mine, A; Kaido, M; Mise, K; Okuno, T (Sep 15, 2010). "A Y-shaped RNA structure in the 3′ untranslated ...
For RNA-based phages, RNA replicase is synthesized early in the process. Proteins modify the bacterial RNA polymerase so it ... "Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene". Nature. 260 ( ... RNA phage such as MS2 have the smallest genomes, of only a few kilobases. However, some DNA phage such as T4 may have large ... Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome, and may have structures that are either simple or ...
This process is catalyzed by a viral RNA replicase.[2]. Contents. *1 Background ... ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes.[1] Overall, RNA helps synthesize ... RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase was established in vitro by several laboratories by 1965; however, the RNA synthesized by these ... RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand. ...
This process is catalyzed by a viral RNA replicase.[2][clarification needed] ... ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes.[1] Overall, RNA helps synthesize, ... Role of RNA Polymerase in Post-Transcriptional changes in RNA[edit]. Image showing RNA polymerase interacting with different ... RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase was established in vitro by several laboratories by 1965; however, the RNA synthesized by these ...
Bacteriophage RNA replicase keeps the template and daughter strand separated during RNA synthesis; duplex RNA is not an ... Borst P, Weissmann C. Replication of viral RNA, 8. Studies on the enzymatic mechanism of replication of MS2 RNA. Proc Natl Acad ... RNA splicing is required to make the messenger RNA for a variant surface antigen in trypanosomes. NAR. 1982;10:3591-604. Kooter ... 1977;80:360-4. Heyting C, Meijlink FC, Verbeet MP, Sanders JP, Bos JL, Borst P. Fine structure of the 21S ribosomal RNA region ...
... and the β-subunit of an RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) termed the replicase. The genome is highly structured, regulating ... The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that replicates both the positive and negative RNA strands is a complex of four proteins: the ... He ended up with Spiegelman's Monster, an minimal RNA chain of only 218 nucleotides that can be replicated by Qβ replicase. ... All positive-strand RNA phages encode a maturation protein, whose function is to bind the host pilus and the viral RNA. The ...
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), also called RNA replicase, produces RNA (ribonucleic acid) from RNA. RNA-dependent DNA ... RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), also called RNA replicase, which synthesizes RNA from RNA, and RNA-dependent DNA ... It includes RNA viruses that encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; and, it includes reverse-transcribing viruses (with either ... All members of Riboviria contain a gene that encodes for an RNA-dependent polymerase, also called RNA-directed polymerase. ...
The translation start of the replicase gene is normally hidden within RNA secondary structure, but can be transiently opened as ... Once the viral RNA has entered the cell, it begins to function as a messenger RNA for the production of phage proteins. The ... The positive-stranded RNA genome serves as messenger RNA, and is translated upon viral uncoating within the host cell. Although ... The start of the maturation protein gene is accessible in RNA being replicated but hidden within RNA secondary structure in the ...
"Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene". Nature. 260 ( ... For instance, bacteriophage MS2 consists of only 3569 nucleotides (single-stranded RNA) and encodes just four proteins. ... Mycoplasma laboratorium based on the 387 protein coding region and 43 structural RNA genes found in M. genitalium. This project ...
April 1976). "Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene". ... On the general nature of the RNA code". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 53 (5 ... Some new and exciting examples of progress in this field are the identification of genes for regulatory RNAs, insights into the ... Nirenberg M, Leder P, Bernfield M, Brimacombe R, Trupin J, Rottman F, O'Neal C (May 1965). "RNA codewords and protein synthesis ...
1976). "Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature. 260 ... The intervening sequences in the RNA strand are first spliced out so that only the RNA segment left behind after splicing would ... 1964: Howard Temin showed using RNA viruses that the direction of DNA to RNA transcription can be reversed. 1964: Lysenkoism ... 1933: Jean Brachet, while studying virgin sea urchin eggs, suggested that DNA is found in cell nucleus and that RNA is present ...
Synergism of mutations in bacteriophage Q_ RNA affecting host factor dependence of Q_ replicase. J. Mol. Biol. 295:149-154. The ... Evolvability of an RNA virus is determined by its mutational neighbourhood. Nature 406:625-628. Wichman, H. A., L. A. Scott, C ... Altered 3'-terminal RNA structure in phage Q_ adapted to host factor-less Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:10239 ... Fitness of RNA virus decreased by Muller's ratchet. Nature 348:454-455. Turner, P. E., and L. Chao. 2003. Escape from ...
"Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene". Nature. 260 ( ... RNA sequencing was one of the earliest forms of nucleotide sequencing. The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of ... A successful RNA extraction will yield a RNA sample that should be converted to complementary DNA (cDNA) using reverse ... Viral genomes can be based in DNA or RNA. RNA viruses are more time-sensitive for genome sequencing, as they degrade faster in ...
"Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene". Nature. 260 ( ... The genomes of RNA viruses can be either single-stranded RNA or double-stranded RNA, and may contain one or more separate RNA ... There are also viral RNA called single stranded RNA: serves as template for mRNA synthesis and single stranded RNA: serves as ... It consists of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses). The genome includes both the genes (the coding regions) and the noncoding DNA, as ...
For RNA-based phages, RNA replicase is synthesized early in the process. Proteins modify the bacterial RNA polymerase so it ... "Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene". Nature. 260 ( ... RNA phage such as MS2 have the smallest genomes of only a few kilobases. However, some DNA phages such as T4 may have large ... Of these, only two families have RNA genomes, and only five families are surrounded by an envelope. Of the viral families with ...
"Evidence for de novo production of self-replicating and environmentally adapted RNA structures by bacteriophage Qbeta replicase ... Both selection and screening can be performed in living cells (in vivo evolution) or performed directly on the protein or RNA ... Directed evolution has its origins in the 1960s with the evolution of RNA molecules in the "Spiegelman's Monster" experiment. ... When performed without cells, DE involves using in vitro transcription translation to produce proteins or RNA free in solution ...
Chai Y, Winans SC (June 2005). "A small antisense RNA downregulates expression of an essential replicase protein of an ... Furthermore, there is a small RNA known as RepE encoded between repB and repC that lowers the expression of repC. RepE is ... repE encodes for a small antisense RNA and is located between repB and repC. Additionally, there is a partitioning site (parS) ...
B1 is used as the end terminal for RNA replicase, but the function is to totally clear. B2 is a separate unique protein which ... Because the virus only has 2 initial RNAs, this is the simplest class of virus. There is an RNA 3 that does appear only in ... RNA1 sequence encodes for the virus' RNA-dependand RNA polymerase which is protein A. Thee virion also contains code for RNA2 ... Once in the cytoplasm, RNA is transcribed within envagininations of the host cell using its own RNA dependent polymerase. To ...
1974 - Manfred Eigen and Manfred Sumper showed that mixtures of nucleotide monomers and RNA replicase will give rise to RNA ... 1974 - Leslie Orgel showed that RNA can replicate without RNA-replicase and that zinc aids this replication. 1977 - John ... performed the first approved gene therapy on a human patient 1990 - Napoli, Lemieux and Jorgensen discovered RNA interference ( ... 1960 - Four separate researchers (S. Weiss, J. Hurwitz, Audrey Stevens and J. Bonner) discovered bacterial RNA polymerase, ...
"Comparisons among the larger genome segments of six nodaviruses and their encoded RNA replicases". Journal of General Virology ... After comparing the RNA genome of this virus with that of other members of the Nodaviridae, it was found to be different and ... Boolarra virus typically measures around 30 nano-meters and is approximately 21 percent RNA. Boolarra virus is characterized by ...
... "miR-122 does not modulate the elongation phase of hepatitis C virus RNA synthesis in isolated replicase complexes". Antiviral ... HCV RNA synthesis is not affected by miR-122, suggesting that regulation of other processes such as RNA stability may occur. ... RNA Biology. 1 (2): 106-113. doi:10.4161/rna.1.2.1066. PMID 17179747. Li, Zhen-Ya; Xi, Yang, Zhu, Wen-Nan, Zeng, Chao, Zhang, ... RNA. 14 (2): 336-346. doi:10.1261/rna.844108. PMC 2212241. PMID 18073344. Jopling CL, Norman KL, Sarnow P (2006). "Positive and ...
"Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene". Nature. 260 ( ... RNA sequencing[edit]. RNA sequencing was one of the earliest forms of nucleotide sequencing. The major landmark of RNA ... A successful RNA extraction will yield a RNA sample that should be converted to complementary DNA (cDNA) using reverse ... This method is based on use of RNA polymerase (RNAP), which is attached to a polystyrene bead. One end of DNA to be sequenced ...
... ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes.[1] Overall, RNA helps synthesize ... RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase was established in vitro by several laboratories by 1965; however, the RNA synthesized by these ... RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand. ... "Tentative identification of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of dsRNA viruses and their relationship to positive strand RNA viral ...
... including the first description of an RNA replicase. After his PhD, Baltimore returned to MIT for postdoctoral research with ... VSV entered a host cell as a single negative strand of RNA, but brought with it RNA polymerase to stimulate the processes of ... History of RNA biology List of Jewish Nobel laureates List of RNA biologists Baltimore classification 73079 Davidbaltimore " ... At MIT, Huang, Baltimore, and graduate student Martha Stampfer discovered that VSV involved an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ...
For example, humans can make neither RNA replicases nor reverse transcriptase, and the presence of these enzymes are ... An interesting fact that gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 16S ribosomal RNA analysis, omics, and other advanced ...
... involved in RNA capping. RNA2 (2.9 kb) encodes the 2a protein (94 kDa), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, responsible for ... Methylation and covalent binding of guanylate by replicase protein 1a". Journal of Virology. 73 (12): 10061-10069. PMC 113057 ... BMV has a genome that is divided into three 5' capped RNAs. RNA1 (3.2 kb) encodes a protein called 1a (109 kDa), which contains ... The sequence similarities of RNA replication genes and strategies for BMV have been shown to extend to a wide range of plant ...
"Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature 260 (5551 ... Namun, virus RNA memiliki genom RNA ds atau unting tunggal (single stranded, "ss"). Secara umum, setiap molekul asam nukleat ... namun sejumlah virus memiliki genom RNA (asam ribonukleat).[5] ...
"Replicas of the Alfred Jewel". The Anglo Saxon Index, Trinity College, Cambridge. Archived from the original on 2 November 2007 ... Fourth Element (wet suits) are on the A3083 at Cury, south of RNAS Culdrose and Helston. A.P. Valves make diving equipment in ...
This is mostly shown for plant RNA viruses. Viroplasm is the location within the infected cell where viral replication and ... The viroplasm is where components such as replicase enzymes, virus genetic material, and host proteins required for replication ...
Werner F (2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. PMID 17697097. doi: ... A división celular ten lugar despois de que o cromosoma se replica e os dous cromosomas fillos se separan.[142] Só se ... "A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, ...
Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of the cells through a mechanism similar to RNA interference, in which the ... In this process the first protein encoded on the genome, and this the first to be translated, is a replicase. This protein will ... The RNA carries genetic information to code for the production of new infectious particles. More recently virus research has ... Some viruses (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)) have RNA sequences that contain a "leaky" stop codon. In TMV 95% of the time the ...
Evidence for de novo production of self-replicating and environmentally adapted RNA structures by bacteriophage Qbeta replicase ...
... and a 1063 nucleotide single stranded RNA genome. One key finding is that the capsid is very unstable when there is no RNA ... The replica exchange method is a generalized ensemble. It was originally created to deal with the slow dynamics of disordered ... The replica exchange MD (REMD) formulation[21] tries to overcome the multiple-minima problem by exchanging the temperature of ... RNA structure in the ribosome and other large systems has been modeled with one pseudo-atom per nucleotide. ...
"Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene". Nature 260 (5551 ...
April 1976). "Complete nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage MS2 RNA: primary and secondary structure of the replicase gene". ... On the general nature of the RNA code". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 53 (5 ... Some new and exciting examples of progress in this field are the identification of genes for regulatory RNAs, insights into the ... Functional genomics attempts to answer questions about the function of DNA at the levels of genes, RNA transcripts, and protein ...
A maioria das proteínas do rotavírus acumula-se no viroplasma, onde se replica o RNA e se aglomeram as partículas de dupla ... Ao permanecer dentro do núcleo, o RNA viral consegue evadir as respostas imunitárias do hóspede que utilizam o RNA de ... As onze moléculas de RNA bicatenário permanecem dentro das duas camadas proteicas protectoras e a RNA polimerase DNA-dependente ... Esta tabela é baseada no estudo da cepa do rotavírus símio SA11.[104][105][106] As atribuições de codificação da RNA-proteína ...
In March 2015, NASA scientists reported that, for the first time, complex DNA and RNA organic compounds of life, including ... impacting accelerated particles with known properties onto a laboratory replica of the dust detector). Over the years dust ...
"Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature 260 (5551 ... Virus máis pequeno que se replica autonomamente en células eucarióticas.[14] Virus Bacteriófago MS2 3.569 3,5kb primeiro xenoma ...
X. Cui, G. Li, D. Wang, D. Hu and X. Zhou, A begomovirus DNA encoded protein binds DNA, function as a suppressor of RNA ... நகலாக்கத்திற்கு ரெப்ளிக்கேசு (Replicase) என்கிற புரதம் முக்கிய பணியாற்றுகிறது. இப்புரதம் நோநோ நியூக்கிளியோட்டைடு வரிசையில் ( ... Zrachya, A, Glick, E., Levy, Y., Arazi, T., Citovsky, V. and Gafni, Y. (2007) Suppressor of RNA silencing encoded by Tomato ...
Calmels C, Ventura M, Aknin C, Métifiot M, Andreola ML «De novo RNA synthesis catalyzed by the Zika Virus RNA polymerase domain ... ja que el virus es replica amb facilitat al tracte vaginal i manté la capacitat infecciosa durant setmanes.[272] Es detecta a ... Musso D, Richard V, Teissier A, Stone M, et al «Detection of ZIKV RNA in semen of asymptomatic blood donors» (en anglès). Clin ... Bingham, AM; Cone, M; Mock, V; Heberlein-Larson, L; et al «Comparison of Test Results for Zika Virus RNA in Urine, Serum, and ...
This RNA copy is then decoded by a ribosome that reads the RNA sequence by base-pairing the messenger RNA to transfer RNA, ... Johnson A, O'Donnell M (2005). "Cellular DNA replicases: components and dynamics at the replication fork". Annual Review of ... One proposal is that antisense RNAs are involved in regulating gene expression through RNA-RNA base pairing.[34] ... RNA-dependent DNA polymerases are a specialized class of polymerases that copy the sequence of an RNA strand into DNA. They ...
All RNA viruses use their own RNA replicase enzymes to create copies of their genomes.[6]79. DNA viruses. The genome ... A virus has either RNA or DNA genes and is called an RNA virus or a DNA virus respectively. The vast majority of viruses have ... RNA viruses. Replication usually takes place in the cytoplasm. RNA viruses can be placed into four different groups depending ... Most DNA viruses are entirely dependent on the host cell's DNA and RNA synthesising machinery, and RNA processing machinery. ...
All RNA viruses use their own RNA replicase enzymes to create copies of their genomes.[117]. Reverse transcribing viruses. ... Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA-dependent RNA ... a b Temin HM, Baltimore D. RNA-directed DNA synthesis and RNA tumor viruses. Advances in Virus Research. 1972;17:129-86. doi: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
Most plant viruses have small, single-stranded RNA genomes. However some plant viruses also have double stranded RNA or single ... These genomes may encode only three or four proteins: a replicase, a coat protein, a movement protein, in order to allow cell ...
However, some modern craftsmen have occasionally revived the technique in the creation of replica pieces.[72][73] ... RNA, alkaloids, and the other organic nitrogen compounds necessary for life.[76] ...
Those mRNAs appear to be down-regulated or destroyed by micro interfering RNAs ( miRNAs ) that are cell-type and cell-lineage ... 5-bisphosphate in acinar cells of rat pancreas revealed with the freeze-fracture replica labeling method". PLoS ONE. 6 (8): ... May 1996). "Protein and messenger RNA expression of connexin43 in astrocytomas: implications in brain tumor gene therapy". J. ... Freeze-fracture replica immunolabelling or FRIL and thin section immunolabelling) showed gap junction plaques in vivo contained ...
"Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature 260: 500- ...
Fiers W; və b. (1976). "Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA: primary and secondary structure of replicase ... Ahlquist P. (2002). "RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases, Viruses, and RNA Silencing" (journal) (ingilis). 296 (5571) (Science): 1270 ... Jeffrey L Hansen, Alexander M Long, Steve C Schultz (1997). "Structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus" ( ... Shen, Liang.; Hong-Fang, Ji (2011). "Small Cofactors May Assist Protein Emergence from RNA World: Clues from RNA-Protein ...
... helped to discover RNA interference-gene silencing by double-stranded RNA. Nobel laureate Glenn T. Seaborg (PhD 1937) ... A T-Rex replica at the UC Museum of Paleontology. Wheeler Hall ...
Fiers W և այլք: (1976)։ «Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA: primary and secondary structure of replicase ... Ahlquist P (2002)։ «RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases, Viruses, and RNA Silencing»։ Science 296 (5571): 1270-73։ doi:10.1126/ ... RNA: The Versatile Molecule»։ Յուտայի համալսարան։ 2015 *↑ I. Tinoco & C. Bustamante (1999)։ «How RNA folds»։ J. Mol. Biol. 293 ... Kiss T (2001)։ «Small nucleolar RNA-guided post-transcriptional modification of cellular RNAs»։ The EMBO Journal 20 (14): 3617- ...
RNA]]. a partir. da transcriptase reversa. de outros. um íntron bacteriano. Os vírus de RNA podem ser considerados o único tipo ... íntrons escapados de outros que adquiriram a capacidade de se replicar em outros.,ref,{{cite journal , authors = Krupovic M, ... Vírus]]''': São partículas compostas de um único tipo de material genético, DNA ou RNA, e uma camada de proteína que protege o ... Intron]]''': Os íntrons dos grupos I e II são fragmentos de [[RNA]] com atividade catalítica nos transcritos do hospedeiro e ...
RNA silencing-based resistance is a powerful tool for engineering resistant crops. The advantage of RNAi as a novel gene ... Potato lines expressing viral replicase sequences that confer resistance to potato leafroll virus were sold under the trade ... Expression of viral coat protein gene sequences conferred virus resistance via small RNAs. This proved to be a widely ... Against viruses, plants often induce pathogen-specific gene silencing mechanisms mediated by RNA interference. This is a form ...
RNA helicase activity of Semliki Forest virus replicase protein NSP2.. Gomez de Cedrón M1, Ehsani N, Mikkola ML, García JA, ... Semliki Forest virus replicase protein nsP2 shares sequence homology with several putative NTPases and RNA helicases. NsP2 has ... and used it in RNA helicase assays. RNA helicase CI of plum pox potyvirus was used as a positive control. Unwinding of alpha- ... This is the first demonstration of RNA helicase activity within the large alphavirus superfamily. ...
Determinants of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (In)fidelity Revealed by Kinetic Analysis of the Polymerase Encoded by a Foot-and- ... The Crystal Structure of Coxsackievirus B3 RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase in Complex with Its Protein Primer VPg Confirms the ... Interaction of the Influenza A Virus Nucleocapsid Protein with the Viral RNA Polymerase Potentiates Unprimed Viral RNA ... Mutational Evidence for a Structural Model of the Lassa Virus RNA Polymerase Domain and Identification of Two Residues, Gly1394 ...
Requirements for De Novo Initiation of RNA Synthesis by Recombinant Flaviviral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases C. T. Ranjith- ... the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase, and with Viral Double-Stranded RNA Mirriam G. J. Tacken, Ben P. H. Peeters, Adri A. M. Thomas ... In Vitro RNA Replication Directed by Replicase Complexes Isolated from the Subgenomic Replicon Cells of Hepatitis C Virus Vicky ... Mechanism of De Novo Initiation by the Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase: Role of Divalent Metals C. T. Ranjith- ...
RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase; RNA-Directed RNA Polymerase; RNA Directed RNA Polymerase; RNA Polymerase, RNA-Dependent; RNA ... RNA Replicase (RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase) Summary Description: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of ... Key Diseases for which RNA Replicase is Relevant. * Infection : 1 outcome 1 study in 56 results ... the 3- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293). ...
In this article, we explore the possible conformations of DNA and RNA hairpins to better understand the fundamental differences ... RNA) have remarkably similar chemical structures, but despite this, they play significantly different roles in modern biology. ... Origins of biological function in DNA and RNA hairpin loop motifs from replica exchange molecular dynamics simulation ... Origins of biological function in DNA and RNA hairpin loop motifs from replica exchange molecular dynamics simulation J. B. ...
... replicase gene sequences is RNA-mediated and suggests the involvement of post-transcriptional gene silencing, Archives of ... Transgenic resistance in potato plants expressing potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) replicase gene sequences is RNA-mediated and ... Transgenic resistance in potato plants expressing potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) replicase gene sequences is RNA-mediated and ... Transgenic resistance in potato plants expressing potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) replicase gene... Vazquez Rovere, C.; Asurmendi ...
Further studies defined RNA motifs within two short DI RNA regions that enhanced active CNV replicase formation. In summary, ... To study the role of RNA during the assembly of functional tombusvirus replicase, recombinant CNV replicase that showed similar ... study showed that the conserved RNA binding motif of the tombusvirus replicase proteins and viral RNA are involved in replicase ... their associated DI RNAs, subgenomic (sg)RNA synthesis and DI RNA recombination in vivo. Experiments using a two-component ...
Replicase N_A \ 10-663-45516 for more molecular products just contact us ... Measles Virus Large structural Protein RNA Polymerase - Protein L; Transcriptase; ... Measles Virus Large structural Protein RNA Polymerase - Protein L; Transcriptase; Replicase N_A rna research rna is not so ... Replicase N_A. Related products : Measles Virus Large structural Protein RNA Polymerase - Protein L; Transcriptase; Replicase N ...
COVID-19 Antiviral Candidate Hobbles RNA Replicase. COVID-19 Candidates INOVIO Pharmaceuticals - INO-4802. ...
RNA genome of viruses belonging to the Reoviridae family requires the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to ... RNA genome of viruses belonging to the Reoviridae family requires the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to use 10-12 ... Template recognition and formation of initiation complexes by the replicase of a segmented double-stranded RNA virus. ... sequence that caused viral mRNAs to be poorly replicated in vitro did not necessarily prevent efficient recognition of the RNA ...
The replicase interacts with cis-acting elements located near the intergenic region and at the ends of the viral RNA genome. A ... Cross-utilisation of template RNAs by alphavirus replicases. Research output: Contribution to journal › A1: Web of Science- ... Replicases of alphaviruses of the Semliki Forest virus complex were able to cross-utilize each others templates as well as ... The trans-replicase tools and approaches developed here can be instrumental in studying alphavirus recombination and evolution ...
Sequence analysis of RNA species synthesized by Q beta replicase without template. ... Sequence analysis of RNA species synthesized by Q beta replicase without template. Biebricher, C. K., & Luce, R. (1993). ... Sequence analysis of RNA species synthesized by Q beta replicase without template. Biochemistry, 32(18), 4848-4854. ... 1Research Group of RNA Replication, MPI for biophysical chemistry, Max Planck Society, ou_578611 2Department of Cellular ...
NV3Dpol can be used as an RNA replicase in in vitro RNA + protein evolution with the RNA of special terminal sequences. ... Although Qβ replicase has been traditionally used as an enzyme for this purpose, we planned to use norovirus replicase (NV3Dpol ... The efficiency of the initiation of replication was dependent on the 3-terminal structure of single-stranded RNA template, and ... Based on these results, we present a scheme of the primer-independent isothermal amplification of RNA with NV3Dpolin vitro. ...
... heterologous replicase failed to generate Q(sat) multimers, a hallmark feature of homologous replicase dependent replication of ... a set of biologically active agrotransformants corresponding to the three genomic RNAs of TAV was developed. Analysis of ... progeny from heterologous vs homologous driven replicases are remarkably very similar. The significance of these observations ... Qsat; (ii) manifestation of severe symptom phenotypes and progeny analysis suggested that heterologous replicase was competent ...
RNA Replicase/chemistry. *RNA Replicase/genetics. Substance. *RNA Replicase. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. * ... Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel ...
The identification of temperature sensitive allelic lesions within the Beau-R replicase gene opens up the possibility of using ... in other IBV strains for future vaccine development as well as a method to investigate the functions of the IBV replicase ... identifying that the Beau-R replicase gene was a determinant of temperature sensitivity and that sub-genomic mRNA synthesis had ... RNA synthesis coronavirus; IBV; temperature sensitivity; replicase; RNA synthesis ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Regulation of the hepatitis C virus RNA replicase by endogenous lipid ... Regulation of the hepatitis C virus RNA replicase by endogenous lipid peroxidation. ...
In Vitro Synthesis of an Infectious Mutant RNA with a Normal RNA Replicase ...
Probing RNA-protein interactions using pyrene-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides: Q beta replicase efficiently binds small RNAs by ... Probing RNA-protein interactions using pyrene-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides: Q beta replicase efficiently binds small RNAs by ... Free keywords: fluorescence lifetime; fluorometry; MDV; real-time detection; RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ... Q beta replicase efficiently binds small RNAs by recognizing pyrimidine residues. Journal of Molecular Biology, 273(3), 600-613 ...
The expression of engineered single-chain variable fragments specific to the NIb RNA replicase of Plum pox virus (PPV) (scFv2A ... to Plum pox virus in plants expressing cytosolic and nuclear single-chain antibodies against the viral RNA NIb replicase. ... The success of this interference with PPV infection opens new possibilities for the control of this RNA virus and could be ... to Plum pox virus in plants expressing cytosolic and nuclear single-chain antibodies against the viral RNA NIb replicase. Plant ...
Rpn11p interacts with the viral replication proteins and is recruited to the viral replicase complex (VRC). Analysis of the ... Tombusviruses and a yeast model host are used to identify cellular factors affecting RNA virus replication and RNA ... Tombusviruses and a yeast model host are used to identify cellular factors affecting RNA virus replication and RNA ... Tombusviruses and a yeast model host are used to identify cellular factors affecting RNA virus replication and RNA ...
Endogenous RNA interference (endo-RNAi) pathways use a variety of mechanisms to generate siRNA and to mediate gene silencing. ... RNA Replicase / genetics * RNA Replicase / metabolism* * RNA, Small Interfering / genetics * RNA, Small Interfering / ... Tudor domain ERI-5 tethers an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to DCR-1 to potentiate endo-RNAi Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011 Dec 18;19 ... We show that the tandem tudor protein ERI-5 potentiates ERI endo-RNAi by tethering an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) ...
Posttranscriptional gene silencing is a defense mechanism in plants that is similar to quelling in fungi and RNA interference ... RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional* * RNA Replicase / genetics* * Sequence Homology, Amino Acid * Tobacco Mosaic Virus / ... An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in Arabidopsis is required for posttranscriptional gene silencing mediated by a transgene ... One of these, SDE1, is a plant homolog of QDE-1 in Neurospora crassa that encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The sde1 ...
RNA replicase-dependent amplification scheme that is unusual in that the probes, rather that the targets, are amplified ... RNA replicase (Lizardi and Kramer. 1991. TIB 9: 53-58), cycling probe reaction (CPR) (Duck et al. 1991. Biotechniques 9: 142- ... When two oligonucleotides differing by a single DNA base are supplied as primers in a reaction containing a single DNA or RNA ... The N-terminus corresponds to the 5′ end of a DNA or RNA strand. The binding characteristics of PNA/DNA facilitate the ...
This process is catalyzed by a viral RNA replicase.[2]. Contents. *1 Background ... ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes.[1] Overall, RNA helps synthesize ... RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase was established in vitro by several laboratories by 1965; however, the RNA synthesized by these ... RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand. ...
This process is catalyzed by a viral RNA replicase.[2][clarification needed] ... ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes.[1] Overall, RNA helps synthesize, ... Role of RNA Polymerase in Post-Transcriptional changes in RNA[edit]. Image showing RNA polymerase interacting with different ... RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase was established in vitro by several laboratories by 1965; however, the RNA synthesized by these ...
Most of the in vitro evolution studies concerning replication processes have been based on Qβ RNA replicase. The RNA-dependent ... Molecular in vitro evolution was first described by Mills et al. (1) using the bacteriophage Qβ RNA replicase. Since then, ... RNA polymerase of bacteriophage Qβ is a very versatile enzyme, able to replicate a large variety of RNA molecules (ref. 3 and ... Basic properties of the Qβ RNA replication process have been elucidated by means of this strategy (6-9). ...
The HCV Replicase Complex and Viral RNA Synthesis Inés Romero-Brey, Volker Lohmann ...
RNA replicases nor reverse transcriptase, and the presence of these enzymes are characteristic of specific types of viral ...
Replicase, an RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase. (2002) * 17. YOMO TETSUYA ID: 9000310318897 Osaka University (2010 from CiNii) ...
  • Replication of the segmented double-stranded (ds) RNA genome of viruses belonging to the Reoviridae family requires the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to use 10-12 different mRNAs as templates for (-) strand synthesis. (pasteur.fr)
  • We show that the tandem tudor protein ERI-5 potentiates ERI endo-RNAi by tethering an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) module to DCR-1. (nih.gov)
  • One of these, SDE1, is a plant homolog of QDE-1 in Neurospora crassa that encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (nih.gov)
  • According to this idea, when a virus induces posttranscriptional gene silencing, the virus-encoded RNA polymerase would produce the double-stranded RNA and SDE1 would be redundant. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription is the first step of gene expression , in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA ) by the enzyme RNA polymerase . (wikipedia.org)
  • During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand called a primary transcript . (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors , binds to promoter DNA . (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase creates a transcription bubble , which separates the two strands of the DNA helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase adds RNA nucleotides (which are complementary to the nucleotides of one DNA strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • This directionality is because RNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing mRNA chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of bacteriophage Qβ is a very versatile enzyme, able to replicate a large variety of RNA molecules (ref. 3 and references therein). (pnas.org)
  • Replicase, an RNA Dependent RNA Polymerase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • C12N9/127 - RNA-directed RNA polymerase (2.7.7.48), i.e. (google.com)
  • The synthesis of RNA catalyzed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase takes place on one of the chains of the double-helical DNA template. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Flanegan, James B. and Baltimore, David (1977) Poliovirus-specific primer-dependent RNA polymerase able to copy poly(A). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 74 (9). (caltech.edu)
  • A template-dependent RNA polymerase has been isolated from poliovirus-infected cells by assaying for the ability of the enzyme to copy poly(A) complexed to an oligo(U) primer. (caltech.edu)
  • The polymerase was solubilized with detergent, and RNA was removed by precipitation with 2 M LiCl. (caltech.edu)
  • Analysis of the polymerase by glycerol gradient centrifugation showed that the majority of the activity sedimented at about 4 S, indicating that it was no longer complexed with high-molecular-weight RNA or cellular membranes. (caltech.edu)
  • This poly(A)· oligo(U)-dependent polymerase activity could represent an important component of the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (caltech.edu)
  • Host RNA polymerase is recruited to preferentially transcribe viral mRNA, interrupting the normal synthesis of host proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • among them the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is responsible of viral genome replication originating double-strand RNA molecules (dsRNA) as intermediates, which accumulate representing a potent threat for cellular dsRNA receptors to initiate an antiviral response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Endogenous oxidative membrane damage lowers the 50% effective concentration of direct-acting antivirals in vitro, suggesting critical regulation of the conformation of the NS3-4A protease and the NS5B polymerase, membrane-bound HCV replicase components. (nih.gov)
  • The respiratory syncytial virus polymerase has multiple RNA synthesis activities at the promoter. (nih.gov)
  • RSV RNA synthesis was reconstituted in vitro using recombinant, isolated polymerase and an RNA oligonucleotide template representing nucleotides 1-25 of the trailer complement (TrC) promoter. (nih.gov)
  • The RSV polymerase was found to have two RNA synthesis activities, initiating RNA synthesis from the +3 site on the promoter, and adding a specific sequence of nucleotides to the 3' end of the TrC RNA using a back-priming mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Intrahost genetic diversity and replication error rates are intricately linked to RNA virus pathogenesis, with alterations in viral polymerase fidelity typically leading to attenuation during infections in vivo. (dtu.dk)
  • We have identified a high-fidelity norovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutant (I391L) which displays delayed replication kinetics in vivo but not in cell culture. (dtu.dk)
  • In vitro transcription of poliovirus RNA was catalyzed by the combination of a virus-coded polymerase and a host cell protein (host factor). (caltech.edu)
  • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase which is responsible for replication and transcription of the viral RNA genome using antigenomic RNA as an intermediate. (uniprot.org)
  • We report that 5-nitroindole ribonucleoside triphosphate (1) can be universally incorporated opposite each native RNA base by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) from poliovirus, and inhibits this enzyme more potently than the triphosphate metabolite of the antiviral drug, ribavirin. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we report that one of such redox switches is the NS5B protein that exhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Since 2011, multiple compounds that target enzymatic activity and/or functions of the HCV protease (NS3 protein), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, NS5B protein), and the regulatory NS5A protein were approved for the treatment of CHC [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Brome mosaic virus (BMV), a positive-strand RNA virus, encodes two replication proteins: the 2a protein, which contains polymerase-like sequences, and the 1a protein, with N-terminal putative capping and C-terminal helicase-like sequences. (unl.edu)
  • It has 4 open-reading frames and its genes encode for RNA dependent RNA Polymerase, a replicase and a movement protein(8,9). (ipl.org)
  • RNA-directed RNA polymerase that is involved in both transcription and genome replication. (uniprot.org)
  • In this study, the role of RPR motif and viral RNA in tombusvirus replication and recombination, as well as involvement of viral RNA in tombusvirus replicase assembly was examined. (uky.edu)
  • Analysis of RPR mutants defined that wild type RPR motif, especially two of the four arginines, were required for efficient RNA binding in vitro, for replication of tombusviruses, their associated DI RNAs, subgenomic (sg)RNA synthesis and DI RNA recombination in vivo. (uky.edu)
  • Identified DI RNA recombinants were mostly imprecise, with recombination sites clustered around a replication enchancer and an additional putative cis-acting element that might facilitate the template switching events by the tombusvirus replicase. (uky.edu)
  • In summary, this study showed that the conserved RNA binding motif of the tombusvirus replicase proteins and viral RNA are involved in replicase assembly, viral RNA replication, subgenomic RNA synthesis and RNA recombination. (uky.edu)
  • A trans-replication assay was developed and used to analyse the template requirements for nine alphavirus replicases. (itg.be)
  • The determinants important for efficient replication of template RNA were mapped to the 5' region of the genome. (itg.be)
  • Virus-associated small satellite RNAs and viroids display similarities in their replication strategies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Functional significance of a hepta nucleotide motif present at the junction of Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA multimers in helper-virus dependent replication. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using a panel of rIBVs with defined mutations in the structural and accessory genes, viral replication at permissive and non-permissive temperatures was investigated, identifying that the Beau-R replicase gene was a determinant of temperature sensitivity and that sub-genomic mRNA synthesis had been affected. (mdpi.com)
  • RNA viruses co-opt a large number of cellular proteins that affect virus replication and, in some cases, viral genetic recombination. (utmb.edu)
  • Tombusviruses and a yeast model host are used to identify cellular factors affecting RNA virus replication and RNA recombination. (utmb.edu)
  • Depletion or mutations of Rpn11p lead to the rapid formation of viral RNA recombinants in combination with reduced levels of viral RNA replication in yeast or in vitro based on cell extracts. (utmb.edu)
  • Rpn11p interacts with the viral replication proteins and is recruited to the viral replicase complex (VRC). (utmb.edu)
  • Prasanth, KR, Barajas, D & Nagy, PD 2015, ' The proteasomal Rpn11 metalloprotease suppresses tombusvirus RNA recombination and promotes viral replication via facilitating assembly of the viral replicase complex ', Journal of Virology , vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 2750-2763. (utmb.edu)
  • As opposed to DNA replication , transcription results in an RNA complement that includes the nucleotide uracil (U) in all instances where thymine (T) would have occurred in a DNA complement. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] This also removes the need for an RNA primer to initiate RNA synthesis, as is the case in DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the in vitro evolution studies concerning replication processes have been based on Qβ RNA replicase. (pnas.org)
  • Basic properties of the Qβ RNA replication process have been elucidated by means of this strategy ( 6 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Replication occurs via a negative strand intermediate giving rise to a full length genomic RNA for export in new virions and a subgenomic message that is translated into the structural proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This raises the possibility that the RNA-2 product is potentially involved in the regulation of cell-to-cell movement of viral infectious material during CMV replication. (wikigenes.org)
  • The L protein produces nascent genomes by replication via a positive-sense RNA intermediate. (cdc.gov)
  • The synthesis of a new chain of DNA (replication) or RNA (transcription) on a DNA template is accomplished with strict adherence to the principle of complementarity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • RNA has properties of autocatalytic self-replication and assembly, contributing to its exponential increase in number. (wikibooks.org)
  • Scientists today have assumed that replication was not perfect in the time of primitive life, and therefore variations of RNA developed. (wikibooks.org)
  • Some of the peptides formed may have supported the self-replication of RNA and provided the possibility of undergoing modifications. (wikibooks.org)
  • Specifically, the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMVs), a hallmark of coronavirus replication, was greatly impaired upon K22 treatment accompanied by near-complete inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. (slideshare.net)
  • K22-resistant viruses contained substitutions in non-structural protein 6 (nsp6), a membrane-spanning integral component of the viral replication complex implicated in DMV formation, corroborating that K22 targets membrane bound viral RNA synthesis. (slideshare.net)
  • Collectively, this study proposes an evolutionary conserved step in the life cycle of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the recruitment of cellular membranes for viral replication, as vulnerable and, most importantly, druggable target for antiviral intervention. (slideshare.net)
  • Thus, the typical, wild-type HCV replicase is uniquely regulated by lipid peroxidation, providing a mechanism for attenuating replication in stressed tissue and possibly facilitating long-term viral persistence. (nih.gov)
  • Now the investigation of in vitro evolution of bacteriophage RNA for application in studies of structural principles of replication and translational control is in progress. (lza.lv)
  • A common feature among positive-strand RNA viruses is their assembly of replication-transcription complexes in association with cytoplasmic membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • This review will summarize the current knowledge on the biogenesis of the replicative structures, the membrane anchoring of the replication-transcription complexes, and the location of viral RNA synthesis, with particular focus on the dynamics of the coronavirus replicative structures and individual replication-associated proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • A distinctive common feature of +RNA viruses is the replication of their genomes in the cytoplasm of the host cell in association with rearranged cellular membranes that are remodeled into organelle-like membranous structures to which the viral replication-transcription complexes (RTCs) localize. (mdpi.com)
  • Analysis of the replication, viral-host interactions and virus induce pathogenesis of viruses with RNA genomes and inhibition or practical usage of these processes. (etis.ee)
  • their enormous and constantly increasing medical importance results from fundamental properties of their RNA-replication. (etis.ee)
  • The target protein for the new agents is the NS5B replicase protein, which is the central catalytic enzyme in HCV replication. (asm.org)
  • Inhibition of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication by specific RNA aptamers against HCV NS5B RNA replicase. (asm.org)
  • The latter event provided the mechanism of RNA replication using the double-helical RNAs as a communal genofond (gene pool) of a Darwin pond, and thus initiated the fast evolution of the ancient RNA world. (springer.com)
  • Interactions between the Structural Domains of the RNA Replication Pro" by Erin K. O'Reilly, Zhaohui Wang et al. (unl.edu)
  • These two proteins are part of a multisubunit complex which is necessary for viral RNA replication. (unl.edu)
  • We have previously shown that the yeast two-hybrid assay consistently duplicated results obtained from in vivo RNA replication assays and biochemical assays of protein-protein interaction, thus permitting the identification of additional interacting domains. (unl.edu)
  • This intermolecular interaction between the putative capping domain and itself was detected in another tripartite RNA virus, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), suggesting that the 1a-1a interaction is a feature necessary for the replication of tripartite RNA viruses. (unl.edu)
  • While there are experimental systems suitable for studying replication fidelity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRP), comparison of host-associated virus sequences in nature and tissue culture- passaged virus sequences is not one of them. (bio.net)
  • When in addition to p33 and p92 proteins DI RNA was co-expressed in yeast cells, the isolated replicase activity was increased ~40 fold. (uky.edu)
  • The identification of temperature sensitive allelic lesions within the Beau-R replicase gene opens up the possibility of using this method of attenuation in other IBV strains for future vaccine development as well as a method to investigate the functions of the IBV replicase proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • The segments of DNA transcribed into RNA molecules that can encode proteins are said to produce messenger RNA (mRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 5' two thirds of the genome encode four non-structural proteins concerned with RNA synthesis and the structural proteins are encoded in the 3' third. (wikipedia.org)
  • Francis Crick and Leslie Orgel proposed the idea that RNA once did the work of DNA and proteins in 1968. (wikibooks.org)
  • RNA is the ribosome's tool for synthesizing proteins and catalyzing the formation of peptide bonds. (wikibooks.org)
  • One may ask, if RNA was the precursor of DNA and proteins, how did this evolution occur? (wikibooks.org)
  • Our data show that ONOOH and HClO cross-linked the capsid proteins and RNA genomes of Qβ and MS2 phages. (frontiersin.org)
  • Together, these data show that HClO and ONOOH consistently target oxidant-sensitive amino acids regardless of the structural organization of Qβ and MS2, even though the phenotypes change as a function of the interaction with adjacent proteins/RNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most enteric viruses are small particles (20-40 nm) composed of single-stranded RNA protected inside a capsid made of proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Upon infection, coronaviruses extensively rearrange cellular membranes into organelle-like replicative structures that consist of double-membrane vesicles and convoluted membranes to which the nonstructural proteins involved in RNA synthesis localize. (mdpi.com)
  • Structural information about Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) is lagging behind that of proteins, in part due to its high charge and conformational variability. (nist.gov)
  • We also found that RdRP recognition signals are distinct from cis-acting signals that promote (-) strand synthesis, because deletions of portions of the 3′-consensus sequence that caused viral mRNAs to be poorly replicated in vitro did not necessarily prevent efficient recognition of the RNA by the RdRP. (pasteur.fr)
  • In virology , the term may also be used when referring to mRNA synthesis from an RNA molecule (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotidyltransferase), an enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the synthesis of nucleic acids from nucleoside triphosphates in the presence of DNA or RNA, which serves as the template. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. Targeting Membrane-Bound Viral RNA Synthesis Reveals Potent Inhibition of Diverse Coronaviruses Including the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus Anna Lundin1. (slideshare.net)
  • Here we screened a collection of 16671 diverse compounds for anti-human coronavirus 229E activity and identified an inhibitor, designated K22, that specifically targets membrane-bound coronaviral RNA synthesis. (slideshare.net)
  • Analysis of the impact of the 3' terminal extension on promoter activity indicated that it can inhibit RNA synthesis initiation. (nih.gov)
  • B) GTP incorporation into the 26 nt product is independent of RNA synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • To enable detailed analysis of the mechanisms involved in RSV RNA synthesis initiation, an assay was developed in which RSV RNA synthesis was reconstituted in vitro using isolated components. (nih.gov)
  • Double-stranded RNA, presumably functioning as replicative intermediate during viral RNA synthesis, has been detected at the double-membrane vesicle interior. (mdpi.com)
  • Antibody to host factor inhibited template-dependent synthesis of complementary RNA where presumably RNA chain initiation occurred. (caltech.edu)
  • These results strongly favored our previous notion that the host factor was needed for the initiation step of viral complementary RNA synthesis. (caltech.edu)
  • Tombusviruses are single, positive strand RNA viruses of plants, often associated with parasitic defective interfering (DI) RNAs. (uky.edu)
  • The trans-replicase tools and approaches developed here can be instrumental in studying alphavirus recombination and evolution, but can also be applied to study other viruses such as picornaviruses, flaviviruses and coronaviruses. (itg.be)
  • Evolution of a quadripartite hybrid virus by interspecific exchange and recombination between replicase components of two related tripartite RNA viruses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • RNA recombination helps viruses in an evolutionary arms race with the host's antiviral responses and adaptation of viruses to new hosts. (utmb.edu)
  • Each is made up of negative-sensed, single-stranded RNA viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Like other members of the bunyavirus family, hantaviruses are enveloped viruses with a genome that consists of three single-stranded RNA segments designated S (small), M (medium), and L (large). (cdc.gov)
  • Voinnet, O., Pinto, Y. M. & Baulcombe, D. C. Suppression of gene silencing: a general strategy used by diverse DNA and RNA viruses of plants. (nature.com)
  • Positive-single stranded RNA (+sRNA) viruses are an important group of viral agents illustrating this interesting phenomenon. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show that multiple hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes are exquisitely sensitive to oxidative membrane damage, a property distinguishing them from other pathogenic RNA viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings indicate that high levels of coinfection exceed an optimum where sex may be beneficial to populations of φ6, and suggest that genetic conflicts can evolve in RNA viruses. (genetics.org)
  • Coronaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses that are important infectious agents of both animals and humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses are the most abundant viruses in nature. (mdpi.com)
  • Recombinant viruses and reconstructed replicase complexes will be used as tools for these studies. (etis.ee)
  • Genome is one complete set of hereditary information that characterizes an organism , as encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Some viruses utilize RNA, but are not universally considered living organisms. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For those viruses that utilize only RNA as hereditary material, genome is equivalent to the RNA sequence. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In biology the genome of an organism is its whole hereditary information and is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA ). (bionity.com)
  • RNA helicase activity of Semliki Forest virus replicase protein NSP2. (nih.gov)
  • Semliki Forest virus replicase protein nsP2 shares sequence homology with several putative NTPases and RNA helicases. (nih.gov)
  • Grafting infection experiments showed that resistant transgenic plants could be obtained with any of the constructs, suggesting that the mechanism of protection is independent of the expression of protein and is RNA mediated. (deepdyve.com)
  • Recombination studies using a novel tombusvirus three-component system revealed that mutations in RPR motif of p33 replicase protein resulted in an altered viral RNA recombination rate. (uky.edu)
  • The success of this interference with PPV infection opens new possibilities for the control of this RNA virus and could be exploited not only to confer resistance in transgenic plants, but also to elucidate the role of the non-structural NIb protein in different cell compartments during viral infection. (gva.es)
  • The S RNA encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. (cdc.gov)
  • The L RNA encodes the L protein, which functions as the viral transcriptase/replicase. (cdc.gov)
  • Within virions, the genomic RNAs of hantaviruses are thought to complex with the N protein to form helical nucleocapsids, which circularize due to sequence complementarity between the 5′ and 3′ terminal sequences of each genomic segment. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to transcriptase and replicase functions, the viral L protein is also thought to have an endonuclease activity that cleaves cellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for the production of capped primers used to initiate transcription of viral mRNAs. (cdc.gov)
  • The recovered leaves contain infectious, replicating virus, but exhibit a loss of viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) protein activity. (nature.com)
  • [24] The RNA is surrounded by a three-layered icosahedral protein capsid . (bionity.com)
  • It is proposed that RNA preceded the current genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ), and led the evolution of the DNA → RNA → protein world. (wikibooks.org)
  • They are comprised of a protein capsule around an RNA or DNA genome. (news-medical.net)
  • [13] Fiers' group expanded on their MS2 coat protein work, determining the complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA (whose genome encodes just four genes in 3569 base pairs [bp]) and Simian virus 40 in 1976 and 1978, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers developed "RNA aptamers" which bind tightly to the part of that protein that performs the catalysis, disabling the replicase. (asm.org)
  • DNA teams with the nucleic acid RNA (ribonucleic acid) to together oversee and carry out the construction of the tens of thousands of protein molecules needed by living organisms. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Led by Professor Dave Rowlands and Dr Nicola Stonehouse from the University's Faculty of Biological Sciences, the research team will design a replica virus particle that looks and behaves like the real virus, but is actually an empty protein shell. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • It is constituting of 2130 coat protein molecules and a single-stranded RNA of 6400 bases. (ipl.org)
  • By studying embryos that die at a particular early developmental stage - when new ribosomes, cellular protein factories, start accumulating - Brown, in collaboration with John Gurdon (Lasker Basic Medical Research Award, 2009), discerned that a structure called the nucleolus performs a crucial job for the cell: It manufactures structural RNAs of the ribosome (ribosomal RNAs, or rRNAs). (laskerfoundation.org)
  • This observation led to Robert Roeder's (Lasker Basic Medical Research Award, 2003) purification of a protein that binds to this sequence and thus allows the enzyme that copies DNA into RNA to choose its target - the inaugural example of a gene-specific eukaryotic transcription factor. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • In contrast, no tools existed for separating a single-copy protein-coding gene - or its corresponding messenger RNA (mRNA) - from the rest of the genome or the bulk of mRNAs. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • The isolated RSV RdRp adds nts to the 3′ end of the TrC template RNA. (nih.gov)
  • Wt or mutant (LN812A) RdRp was incubated with 0.2 µM TrC RNA template, or its complement Tr 1-25, as indicated, in a reaction containing 200 µM of each NTP and [α-32P]GTP. (nih.gov)
  • The tobacco mosaic virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus tobamovirus, the genus that specifically affects the family Solanaceae and belongs to the family Virgaviridae. (ipl.org)
  • The TMV genome consists of 6.3-6.5 kb single stranded RNA and has a 3' end which a t-RNA like structure and the 5' end cap is methylated(8). (ipl.org)
  • I. Processing of Xenopus laevis ribosomal RNA and structure of single-stranded ribosomal DNA. (xenbase.org)
  • We use large parallel temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics ensembles to sample the full conformational landscape of these hairpin molecules so that we can identify the stable structures formed by the hairpin sequence. (rsc.org)
  • Alternatively, the transcribed gene may encode for either non-coding RNA (such as microRNA ), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other segments of DNA are copied into RNA molecules called non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other stretches of DNA may be transcribed into small non-coding RNAs such as microRNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), or enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes as well as larger non-coding RNAs such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of rotavirus consists of eleven unique double helix molecules of RNA which are 18,555 nucleoside base-pairs in total. (bionity.com)
  • replicase and template RNA molecules. (mpg.de)
  • Those modifications led to more efficient sequences of RNA molecules. (wikibooks.org)
  • Recognition of viral double-strand RNA (dsRNA) molecules by intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or retinoic acid inducible gene I-like receptors (RLRs) is a central event which entails the early steps of the immune response elicited during viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • BIOCHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Why are scientists excited to find that RNA molecules can be made that are self-replica. (bartleby.com)
  • Examination of viral RNA isolated from RSV infected cells identified RNAs initiated at the +3 site on the TrC promoter, in addition to the expected +1 site, and showed that a significant proportion of antigenome RNAs contained specific nucleotide additions at the 3' end, demonstrating that the observations made in vitro reflected events that occur during RSV infection. (nih.gov)
  • The first open reading frame in their positive strand RNA genome encodes for the non-structural polyprotein, a precursor to four separate subunits of the replicase. (itg.be)
  • The stretch of DNA transcribed into an RNA molecule is called a transcription unit and encodes at least one gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • The M RNA encodes a polyprotein that is cotranslationally cleaved to yield the envelope glycoproteins G1 and G2. (cdc.gov)
  • Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids , which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. (wikipedia.org)
  • As nucleic acids, DNA and RNA contain numerous nucleotides (each composed of a phosphate unit, a sugar unit, and a "base" unit) linked recursively through the sugar and phosphate units to form a long chain with base units protruding from it. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • To study the role of RNA during the assembly of functional tombusvirus replicase, recombinant CNV replicase that showed similar properties to plant-derived CNV replicase was purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (uky.edu)
  • When this new era arrived, Brown used the methods of recombinant DNA to analyze a small rRNA, 5S RNA. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • The replicase interacts with cis-acting elements located near the intergenic region and at the ends of the viral RNA genome. (itg.be)
  • In 1976, Walter Fiers at the University of Ghent (Belgium) was the first to establish the complete nucleotide sequence of a viral RNA-genome ( bacteriophage MS2 ). (bionity.com)
  • 1 ) using the bacteriophage Qβ RNA replicase. (pnas.org)
  • If the bacteriophage has an RNA genome, RNA replicase is synthesized early in this process. (news-medical.net)
  • The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2 , identified and published by Walter Fiers and his coworkers at the University of Ghent ( Ghent , Belgium ), between 1972 [ 2 ] and 1976. (thefullwiki.org)
  • To investigate the extent of the 3' end repair in a satellite RNA of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain Q (Q(sat)) by a heterologous Tomato aspermy virus (TAV), a set of biologically active agrotransformants corresponding to the three genomic RNAs of TAV was developed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • DNA complements the RNA sequence and stores genomic information. (wikibooks.org)
  • O primeiro xenoma bacteriano secuenciado foi o de Haemophilus influenzae , en 1995 polo Institute for Genomic Research . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pouco despois, en 1996, rematouse a primeira secuencia xenómica dunha arquea , Methanococcus jannaschii , outrra vez polo Institute for Genomic Research . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence analysis of RNA species synthesized by Q beta replicase without template. (mpg.de)
  • The action of polymerases involves the transfer of a molecule of ribonucleoside or deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate to the end of a chain of RNA or DNA that is being synthesized, which results in extension of the chain and liberation of a molecule of pyrophosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thereupon, unwinding RNA polymerases could appear as a result of association or fusion of helicases and polyribonucleotide-polymerizing ribozymes. (springer.com)
  • Such a framework suggests that cellularity may have emerged to encourage coordination between RNA species and sheds light on other aspects of RNA world biochemistry yet to be fully understood. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • PDF] Heterologous replicase driven 3' end repair of Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Repair of the 3' proximal and internal deletions of a satellite RNA associated with Cucumber mosaic virus is directed toward restoring structural integrity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Comparative studies on two satellite RNAs of cucumber mosaic virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The complementary RNA is created in the opposite direction, in the 5' → 3' direction, matching the sequence of the sense strand with the exception of switching uracil for thymine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proposed hypothesis is that the simplest and primary type of molecular machines could be nucleoside triphosphate-dependent RNA-based helicases, which were capable of unwinding the stable double-helical RNAs inevitably formed during RNA syntheses on complementary templates. (springer.com)
  • These discoveries provide fundamental insight into how RNA forms complex folded tertiary structures which confer enzymatic-like function in ribozymes, whereas DNA retains structural motifs in order to facilitate function such as translation of sequence. (rsc.org)
  • Replicases of alphaviruses of the Semliki Forest virus complex were able to cross-utilize each other's templates as well as those of outgroup alphaviruses. (itg.be)
  • The RNA may remain in the nucleus or exit to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific fragments of phage MS2 and fr RNA comprising the translation initiation region of the replicase gene were purified, sequenced and used as template to investigate structural determinants of formation of ribosomal initiation complex. (lza.lv)
  • On the contrary, elongation of already initiated RNA chains catalyzed by the replicase-template complex was not inhibited by anti-host factor antibody. (caltech.edu)
  • Purification and characterization of poliovirus induced infectious double-stranded RNA. (springer.com)
  • Competence of suspended HeLa Cells for infection by inactivated poliovirus particles and by isolated viral RNA. (springer.com)
  • Endogenous RNA interference (endo-RNAi) pathways use a variety of mechanisms to generate siRNA and to mediate gene silencing. (nih.gov)
  • Posttranscriptional gene silencing is a defense mechanism in plants that is similar to quelling in fungi and RNA interference in animals. (nih.gov)
  • Co-expression of Argonaute2 Enhances Short Hairpin RNA-induced RNA Interference in Xenopus CNS Neurons In Vivo. (xenbase.org)
  • RNA recombination between cucumoviruses: possible role of predicted stem-loop structures and an internal subgenomic promoter-like motif. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During transcription, synthesizes subgenomic RNAs and assures their capping by a cap-snatching mechanism. (uniprot.org)
  • Transcription is the process of copying a segment of DNA into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This proposes that there may be a pre-RNA molecule that used RNA or by change created RNA as a side product. (wikibooks.org)
  • In the 1970s, Cech was studying the splicing of RNA in a single-celled organism, Tetrahymena thermophila , when he discovered that an unprocessed RNA molecule could splice itself. (wikibooks.org)
  • These nucleotides sequenced spontaneously and randomly, eventually forming an RNA molecule (or a similar molecule) with catalytic characteristics. (wikibooks.org)
  • Therefore, this points to the fact that RNA is multifunctional, and can act as a synthesizer, transporter, messenger, and ribosome molecule. (wikibooks.org)
  • Since DNA is a more stable molecule than RNA, it makes sense for DNA to adapt to the environment and take over this job of RNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • He announced his discovery in 1982 and became the first to show that RNA has catalytic functions. (wikibooks.org)
  • The phrase "RNA World Hypothesis" was then coined later in 1986 by Harvard molecular biologist and Nobel Prize laureate Walter Gilbert as he commented on the recent observations of the catalytic properties of RNA [3] . (wikibooks.org)
  • It is postulated that the appearance of catalytic RNAs - ribozymes - via spontaneous cis - and trans -rearrangements of polyribonucleotides in primordial Darwin ponds should not have been sufficient for the start of evolution, until a new class of functional RNA, namely energy-dependent molecular machines, arose. (springer.com)
  • Arrangement of the redundant gene sequences for 28 s and 18 s ribosomal RNA. (xenbase.org)
  • Oocyte nuclei contain extrachromosomal replicas of the genes for ribosomal RNA. (xenbase.org)
  • The genes for ribosomal RNA during oögenesis. (xenbase.org)
  • The amplification of ribosomal RNA genes involves a rolling circle intermediate. (xenbase.org)
  • Ribosomal RNA gene amplification by rolling circles. (xenbase.org)
  • Secondary structure maps of ribosomal RNA and DNA. (xenbase.org)
  • Csorba, T., Bovi, A., Dalmay, T. & Burgyan, J. The p122 subunit of Tobacco mosaic virus replicase is a potent silencing suppressor and compromises both small interfering RNA- and microRNA-mediated pathways. (nature.com)
  • Another possibility scientists are exploring is the idea that reverse transcriptase (RT) played a role in the transformation from RNA to DNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • Reverse transcriptase catalyzes the formation of DNA from an RNA template, and RT is the defining feature of retroviruses like HIV. (wikibooks.org)
  • RNA sequencing was one of the earliest forms of nucleotide sequencing. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Could anybody tell me the best way to replica plate or screen 10000+ yeast colonies, ie velvet pads, nitrocellulose, nylon membranes or any other unusual method? (bio.net)
  • Hopp, H. E. 2001-07-01 00:00:00 Genetically engineered expression of replicase encoding sequences has been proposed as an efficient system to confer protection against virus diseases by eliciting protection mechanisms in the plant. (deepdyve.com)
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) have remarkably similar chemical structures, but despite this, they play significantly different roles in modern biology. (rsc.org)
  • The RNA World Hypothesis speculates that the origin of life began with ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) because of its ability to serve both as a storage for genetic information and enzymatic activity. (wikibooks.org)
  • The expression of engineered single-chain variable fragments specific to the NIb RNA replicase of Plum pox virus (PPV) (scFv2A) in transgenic plants was successfully used as a strategy to interfere with viral infection. (gva.es)
  • Specific impact of tobamovirus infection on the Arabidopsis small RNA profile. (nature.com)
  • We further demonstrate that viral replicase activity is responsible for inhibiting subsequent infection. (asm.org)
  • Unwinding of alpha-32P-labelled partially double-stranded RNA required nsP2, Mg2+ and NTPs. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that the role of SDE1 is to synthesize a double-stranded RNA initiator of posttranscriptional gene silencing. (nih.gov)
  • Rotavirus , a leading cause of death among infants and children under the age of five, is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the taxonomic family Reoviridae . (bionity.com)
  • Telomeric function of the tRNA-like structure of brome mosaic virus RNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A form of RNA known as transfer RNA (tRNA) is responsible for delivering free amino acids to the ribosome and growing peptide chain. (wikibooks.org)
  • Transgenic resistance in potato plants expressing potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) replicase gene. (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast, coinjection of CMV 3a MP and CMV TOTO-RNA failed to move in transgenic resistant plants expressing the CMV truncated replicase gene. (wikigenes.org)
  • Besides K22 resistance, the nsp6 mutants induced a reduced number of DMVs, displayed decreased specific infectivity, while RNA synthesiswasnot affected. (slideshare.net)
  • Enhancement of polio-RNA infectivity with dimethylsulfoxide, Fed. (springer.com)
  • Brown's isolation and purification of the 5S RNA gene relied upon the fact that it is repeated many times. (laskerfoundation.org)
  • Bologna, N. G. & Voinnet, O. The diversity, biogenesis, and activities of endogenous silencing small RNAs in Arabidopsis . (nature.com)
  • In the context of an RNA world merging with a nascent amino acid one, such a game's equilibrium is alluded to by the genetic code, which is nearly optimal in terms of information transfer, but is also near-universal and nearly immutable. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The overlapping domains of p33 and p92 contain an arginine/proline-rich (RPR) RNA binding motif. (uky.edu)
  • 1. According to the Genetic Takeover Hypothesis, an earlier form of life on earth used RNA as its only genetic component. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2. The first form of life on earth used RNA as its only genetic component. (wikibooks.org)
  • The book, The Genetic Code, written in 1967 by Carl Woese, was the first published material that supported RNA World Hypothesis [2] . (wikibooks.org)
  • That is, a genome is equivalent to the complete genetic sequence on one of the two sets of chromosomes of the somatic cells of a diploid individual, or the total genetic sequence in the single chromosome of a bacteria , or the sequence of RNA in an RNA virus. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • With polio, the virus particle's surface matures and changes because of the genetic material inside, and so ensuring that our replica particle mimics this surface exactly is not going to be easy. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • One way to save a genetic sequence - whether it's RNA or DNA - is to put it into a form that can be introduced into a living cell and reproduced there. (laskerfoundation.org)