Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.TriglyceridesDietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Insulin Lispro: Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Insulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Insulin Aspart: Insulin that has been modified to contain an ASPARTIC ACID instead of a PROLINE at position 38 of the B-chain.Insulin, Isophane: An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Insulin, Regular, Pork: Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Insulins: Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Imino Pyranoses: Six-carbon pyranose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Insulin, Regular, Human: Regular insulin preparations that contain the HUMAN insulin peptide sequence.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.beta-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.Tolazamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Mice, Inbred C57BLFructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Momordica: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE. It is a source of momordin.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Insulin, Short-Acting: Insulin derivatives and preparations that are designed to induce a rapid HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Tamarindus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for its sour fruit.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1: One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.PhosphoproteinsTestosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.GlycogenC-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Biphasic Insulins: An insulin preparation that is designed to provide immediate and long term glycemic control in a single dosage. Biphasic insulin typically contains a mixture of REGULAR INSULIN or SHORT-ACTING INSULIN combined with a LONG-ACTING INSULIN.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Infusions, Subcutaneous: The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Nomograms: Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
21 July 2016). "Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity". Nature. 535 (7612): 376-381. doi: ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin ... When nightly insulin is insufficient, twice daily insulin may achieve better control.[23] The long acting insulins glargine and ... Injections of insulin may either be added to oral medication or used alone.[24] Most people do not initially need insulin.[13] ...
... insulin resistance; and high serum levels of triglycerides. Genetic testing can also confirm the disease, as mutations in the ... CGL3 patients have serum creatine kinase concentrations much higher than normal (2.5 to 10 times the normal limit). This can be ... Leptin can also be used to reverse insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis, to cause reduced food intake, and decrease blood ... May 2002). "Leptin reverses insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in patients with severe lipodystrophy". Journal of ...
... serum glucose concentration) affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the ... Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while ... Examples of protein hormones include insulin and growth hormone. More complex protein hormones bear carbohydrate side-chains ... For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar ( ...
Kaye, Todd B.; Guay, André T.; Simonson, Donald C. (1993). "Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and elevated serum ferritin ... Studies have shown that even though the blood serum of patients receiving deferoxamine was not deficient in copper and zinc, ... Endocrine abnormalities in thalassemic patients involve the overloaded iron interfering with the production of insulin-like ... which results from iron overload in the pancreas impairing insulin secretion. Studies have shown that patients who were ...
... blood lipid profile and serum insulin levels in obese children". The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 51 (4): ... Borghouts, LB; Keizer, HA (January 2000). "Exercise and insulin sensitivity: a review". International Journal of Sports ...
Jenhani F, Bardi R, Gorgi Y, Ayed K, Jeddi M (Apr 1992). "C4 polymorphism in multiplex families with insulin dependent diabetes ... Vergani D, Johnston C, B-Abdullah N, Barnett AH (Mar 1983). "Low serum C4 concentrations: an inherited predisposition to ... Mijovic CH, Fletcher JA, Bradwell AR, Barnett AH (Oct 1987). "Low C4 levels in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes". ... "The susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with C4 allotypes independently of the association with ...
Afkhami-Ardekani M, Shojaoddiny-Ardekani A (2007). "Effect of vitamin C on blood glucose, serum lipids & serum insulin in type ... "The response of diabetic retinopathy to 41 months of multiple insulin injections, insulin pumps, and conventional insulin ... In insulin-deficient diabetes (exogenous) insulin levels do not decrease as glucose levels fall, and the combination of ... Lipohypertrophy may be caused by insulin therapy. Repeated insulin injections at the same site, or near to, causes an ...
2011). "Vitamin D status may contribute to serum insulin-like growth factor I concentrations in healthy subjects". J. ... Kleinberg DL, Wood TL, Furth PA, Lee AV (2009). "Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in the transition from normal ... Ibrahim YH, Yee D (2004). "Insulin-like growth factor-I and cancer risk". Growth Horm. IGF Res. 14 (4): 261-9. doi:10.1016/j. ... In women with Laron syndrome, where the growth hormone receptor (GHR) is defective and insensitive to GH and serum IGF-1 levels ...
... no effects on serum human growth hormone and insulin in male weightlifters". International Journal of Sport Nutrition. 3 (3): ...
Serum insulin, insulin resistance, and homocysteine levels are higher in women with PCOS. Asians affected by PCOS are less ... Fasting insulin level or GTT with insulin levels (also called IGTT). Elevated insulin levels have been helpful to predict ... Nafiye Y, Sevtap K, Muammer D, Emre O, Senol K, Leyla M (2010). "The effect of serum and intrafollicular insulin resistance ... A majority of women with PCOS have insulin resistance and/or are obese. Their elevated insulin levels contribute to or cause ...
... appears to be regulated by insulin, growth factors, serum, and nutrient levels. Originally, mTORC2 was identified as a ... "mTORC2 promotes type I insulin-like growth factor receptor and insulin receptor activation through the tyrosine kinase activity ... Loss of mTORC2/Rictor in pancreatic beta cells results in reduced beta cell mass and insulin secretion, and hyperglycemia and ... Liver-specific disruption of mTORC2 through hepatic deletion of the gene Rictor leads to glucose intolerance, hepatic insulin ...
See also: Insulin § Physiological effects. Lowering of the concentration of insulin and substances related to insulin, such as ... Prolonged severe CR lowers total serum and free testosterone while increasing sex hormone binding globulin concentrations in ... low serum T3 concentration, and decreased resting heart rate and whole-body resting energy expenditure), but also caused a wide ... and it is still undecided whether insulin is the main concern.[28] Calorie restriction has been shown to increase DHEA in ...
Increased BMI and insulin resistance in subjects demonstrated higher serum FABP1 with a particular correlation in subjects with ... "Serum liver fatty acid binding protein levels correlate positively with obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese young adults ... Evaluation of increased levels of urinary and serum FABP1 have also shown to be effective markers in the detection of ... A study in Chinese young adults indicates a strong relationship between serum FABP1 levels and lipid profile, body measurements ...
Kurtz TA, Fineberg NS, Considine RV, Deeg MA (2004). "Insulin resistance is associated with increased serum levels of ... Serum glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase D (GPI-PLD) releases protective mucous barrier from oral mucosa". J. Physiol. ... Magnusson P, Sharp CA, Farley JR (2003). "Different distributions of human bone alkaline phosphatase isoforms in serum and bone ... Methodological study on the assay of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase D activity in serum]". Hunan Yi Ke Da ...
Levels of serum glucose may rise and the B1 vitamin thiamine may fall. Cardiac arrhythmias are the most common cause of death ... During refeeding, insulin secretion resumes in response to increased blood sugar, resulting in increased glycogen, fat and ... The low serum minerals, if severe enough, can be fatal. Any individual who has had negligible nutrient intake for many ... Importantly, insulin secretion is suppressed in this fasted state and glucagon secretion is increased. ...
"Adipose tissue adiponectin production and adiponectin serum concentration in human obesity and insulin resistance". The Journal ... Kim KS, Choi HM, Ji HI, Song R, Yang HI, Lee SK, Yoo MC, Park YB (January 2014). "Serum adipokine levels in rheumatoid ... Expression of the receptors is correlated with insulin levels, as well as reduced in mouse models of diabetes, particularly in ... Adiponectin in combination with leptin has been shown to completely reverse insulin resistance in mice. Adiponectin is secreted ...
This insulin-leptin relationship is notably similar to insulin's effect on the increase of IL-6 gene expression and secretion ... Serum level of leptin is reduced by sleep deprivation. Leptin levels are paradoxically increased in obesity. Leptin level is ... The PI3K pathway also is activated by the insulin receptor and is therefore an important area where leptin and insulin act ... Mice with type 1 diabetes treated with leptin or leptin plus insulin, compared to insulin alone had better metabolic profiles: ...
"Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in serum and other biological fluids: regulation and functions". Endocr. Rev. 18 (6 ... Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IBP-1) also known as placental protein 12 (PP12) is a protein that in humans is ... 1993). "Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 stimulates cell migration and binds to the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin by ... 1989). "Human insulin-like growth-factor-binding protein. Low-molecular-mass form: protein sequence and cDNA cloning". Eur. J. ...
Dubern B, Girardet JP, Tounian P (2007). "Insulin resistance and ferritin as major determinants of abnormal serum ... Kamei S, Ohkubo A, Yamanaka M (1979). "Apoenzyme of aspartate aminotransferase isozymes in serum and its diagnostic usefullness ... 2004). "Sequential changes of serum aminotransferase levels in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome". Am. J. Trop. ... 2003). "Glucose intolerance and serum aminotransferase activities in Japanese men". J. Hepatol. 38 (1): 18-23. doi:10.1016/ ...
Rajaram S, Baylink DJ, Mohan S (1997). "Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in serum and other biological fluids: ... "Isolation from adult human serum of four insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins and molecular cloning of one of them ... Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGFBP2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... 1991). "Two insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding proteins are responsible for the selective affinity for IGF-II of ...
Heterozygous Kmt2d+/- mice exhibit enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and increased serum bile acid. KMT2C and ...
"Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes". Nature. 436 (7049): 356-62. ... Rask L, Anundi H, Fohlman J, Peterson PA (1987). "The complete amino acid sequence of human serum retinol-binding protein". ... Retinol-binding protein 4 has recently been described as an adipokine that contributes to insulin resistance in the AG4KO mouse ... Cowan SW, Newcomer ME, Jones TA (1990). "Crystallographic refinement of human serum retinol binding protein at 2A resolution". ...
If resistin does contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in T2DM, then designing drugs to promote decreased serum ... can we conclude then that such serum resistin increases are accountable for the insulin resistance that appears to be ... "Relationship between serum resistin concentrations and insulin resistance in nonobese, obese, and obese diabetic subjects". J. ... Conversely, serum resistin levels have been found to decline with decreased adiposity following medical treatment. Specifically ...
"Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes". Nature. 436 (7049): 356-362 ... It secretes RBP4 which increases insulin resistance by blocking the action of insulin in muscle and liver. Fat cells also ... Inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα may activate the NF-κB pathway which has been linked to the development of insulin ... Shoelson SE, Lee J, Goldfine AB (July 2006). "Inflammation and insulin resistance". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 116 (7 ...
Insulin (e.g. intravenous injection of 10-15 units of regular insulin along with 50 ml of 50% dextrose to prevent the blood ... Normal serum potassium levels are generally considered to be between 3.5 and 5.3 mmol/L. Levels above 5.5 mmol/L generally ... The hormone insulin increases the uptake of potassium into the cells. Therefore, insulin deficiency can cause hyperkalemia. In ... The insulin is usually given with an appropriate amount of glucose to prevent hypoglycemia following the insulin administration ...
α-hydroxybutyrate may be useful as an early indicator of insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects. Moreover, elevated serum ... "alpha-hydroxybutyrate is an early biomarker of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in a nondiabetic population". PLOS ...
Marco Pantani (deceased) Corriere della Sera reported that Pantani was connected to Fuentes with the code name PTNI in 2003.[56 ... It described intake of EPO, growth hormones, testosterone and insulin on 114 days during the 200-day season of 2003.[53] ...
Phillips GB (April 1977). "Relationship between serum sex hormones and glucose, insulin and lipid abnormalities in men with ... Other signs of metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, decreased fasting serum HDL cholesterol, elevated fasting serum ... requires insulin resistance defined as the top 25% of the fasting insulin values among nondiabetic individuals AND two or more ... which results in raising glucose and insulin levels, which in turn cause insulin-mediated effects on adipose tissue, ultimately ...
Non-fasting insulin levels are determined by the ambient degree of insulin resistance together with the capacity of beta cells ... A raised proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (proinsulin/insulin) due to impaired processing of proinsulin is an early marker of beta ... In regression analyses we assessed the relationships between age and insulin, proinsulin, and proinsulin/insulin, while ... proinsulin/insulin) (p = 0.0001 for all). Negative associations of age with random insulin levels, together with positive ...
Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the ... Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight ... We investigated anthropometric indices, insulin sensitivity, levels of serum adipokines, and inflammatory markers in overweight ... Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also reduced only in the Lemon-D group. Hemoglobin and hematocrit ...
The serum glucose concentration was measured in duplicate by the glucose oxidase method. The serum insulin level was measured ... Serum samples. Analysis of serum FAs.. Following the method by Lepage and Roy (16), 100 μl serum obtained after a 12-h fast was ... Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, and Serum Fatty Acid Composition. José-Manuel Fernández-Real, Montserrat Broch, Joan Vendrell ... Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, and Serum Fatty Acid Composition. José-Manuel Fernández-Real, Montserrat Broch, Joan Vendrell ...
Effects of cooking on serum glucose and insulin responses to starch. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981; 282 :1032 ... Effects of cooking on serum glucose and insulin responses to starch.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981; 282 doi: https://doi.org/ ...
Increased serum insulin associated with increased risk of prostate cancer recurrence.. Lehrer S1, Diamond EJ, Stagger S, Stone ... Further studies of serum insulin levels in prostate cancer as a biomarker might, therefore, be worthwhile. With more and better ... In the present study, we assessed the relationship of serum insulin levels and risk of recurrence in men with localized ... Serum insulin levels were determined by chemoluminescent assay with a standard, commercially available instrument (Immulite ...
Decreased Serum C-Peptide/Insulin Molar Ratios: A Reply Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Diabetes ...
LBXIN - Insulin (uU/mL). Variable Name: LBXIN. SAS Label: Insulin (uU/mL). English Text: Insulin (uU/mL). Target: Both males ... LBXINSI - Insulin: SI(pmol/L). Variable Name: LBXINSI. SAS Label: Insulin: SI(pmol/L). English Text: Insulin: SI(pmol/L). ... Diabetes mellitus was assessed by measures of plasma glucose, serum insulin, and serum C-peptide in participants aged 12 years ... Insulin Insulin radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a double-antibody batch method. Insulin in the specimen competes with a fixed amount ...
LBDINSI - Insulin: SI(pmol/L). Variable Name: LBDINSI. SAS Label: Insulin: SI(pmol/L). English Text: Insulin: SI(pmol/L) Target ... LBXIN - Insulin (uU/mL). Variable Name: LBXIN. SAS Label: Insulin (uU/mL). English Text: Insulin (uU/mL). English Instructions ... 1. Comparison of NHANES 2003-2004 to NHANES 1999-2002 Insulin Values: The serum insulin method changed for NHANES in 2003. A ... Plasma Fasting Glucose, Serum C-peptide & Insulin (L10AM_C) Data File: L10AM_C.xpt First Published: January 2006. Last Revised ...
... insulin levels and islet morphology in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. ...
Duclos M, Houdebine LM, Djiane J: Comparison of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin effects on prolactin-induced ... Effect of tamoxifen on serum insulin-like growth factor I levels in stage I breast cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 82:1693- ... breast neoplasms insulin-like growth factor I prolactin somatostatin somatotropin tamoxifen This is a preview of subscription ... Macaulay VM: Insulin-like growth factors and cancer. Br J Cancer 65:311-320, 1992PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Insulin in Serum.. Ann Intern Med. 1970;72:156. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-72-1-156_1 ...
... Johann Steiner,1 Aye Mu ... "S100B Serum Levels in Schizophrenia Are Presumably Related to Visceral Obesity and Insulin Resistance," Cardiovascular ...
... Johann Steiner,1 Aye Mu ... X. Fan, E. Liu, C. Pristach, D. C. Goff, and D. C. Henderson, "Higher fasting serum insulin levels are associated with a better ... K. Kouyama, K. Miyake, M. Zenibayashi et al., "Association of serum MCP-1 concentration and MCP-1 polymorphism with insulin ... G. Venkatasubramanian, S. Chittiprol, N. Neelakantachar et al., "Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 abnormalities in ...
Linkage of serum insulin concentrations to chromosome 3p in Mexican Americans.. B D Mitchell, S A Cole, W C Hsueh, A G Comuzzie ... Linkage of serum insulin concentrations to chromosome 3p in Mexican Americans.. B D Mitchell, S A Cole, W C Hsueh, A G Comuzzie ... Linkage of serum insulin concentrations to chromosome 3p in Mexican Americans. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... We conducted a genome-wide scan to detect genes influencing variation in fasting serum insulin concentrations in 391 ...
The serum metabolome of insulin-resistant individuals is characterized by increased levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs ... Here we show how the human gut microbiome impacts the serum metabolome and associates with insulin resistance in 277 non- ... Our findings suggest that microbial targets may have the potential to diminish insulin resistance and reduce the incidence of ... copri can induce insulin resistance, aggravate glucose intolerance and augment circulating levels of BCAAs. ...
Additionally, there were no differences in serum IGF-I levels among insulin-dependent diabetic subjects and non-insulin- ... the mean serum IGF-I concentration was similar among insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent subjects (116.8±47 µg/l versus ... Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in diabetic retinopathy. John F. Payne,1 Vin Tangpricha,2 Julia Cleveland,3 Michael J. Lynn, ... Insulin-like growth factor I analysis. Diabetic subjects had a similar mean serum IGF-I concentration compared to nondiabetic ...
... daily insulin dose, maximum serum insulin binding capacity, serum ILA and serum extract ILA, only insulin binding capacity and ... In eleven insulin sensitive and in six insulin resistant diabetic patients, insulin-like activity was measured in unmodified ... four insulin resistant diabetic patients exhibited a similar ratio of insulin-like activity of serum to the respective serum ... serum and in the corresponding acid ethanol extract shown to be free of insulin antibodies. Whereas most of the insulin ...
"Serum cortisol and insulin concentrations in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis.." Veterinarski arhiv, vol. 84, br. 6, ... "Serum cortisol and insulin concentrations in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis.." Veterinarski arhiv 84, br. 6 (2014 ... 2014). Serum cortisol and insulin concentrations in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis., Veterinarski arhiv, 84(6), ... Serum cortisol and insulin concentrations in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis.. Veterinarski arhiv [Internet]. 2014 [ ...
title = {Role of Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Ghrelin in Chronic Liver Diseases}. author = {EI-Nashar, N A}. ... ETDEWEB / Search Results / Role of Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Ghrelin in Chronic Liver Diseases ... EI-Nashar, N A. Role of Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Ghrelin in Chronic Liver Diseases. Egypt: N. p., 2008. Web. ... In view of these alternations, this study was conducted to investigate the role of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) ...
... and sex-specific serum IGF-I levels were established for the first time in a large sample of Chinese adults. The serum IGF-I ... Results Serum IGF-I levels in the adults gradually decreased with increasing age from 18 to 70 years in both the male and ... and the serum IGF-I level in the Guizhou population was higher than that in the Beijing population (P,0.05). Conclusion The ... The serum IGF-I levels were measured by performing a chemiluminescent assay (Immulite 2000®), and the LMS (Lambda-Mu-Sigma) ...
Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fibre and polyphenols increases plasma glucose and serum insulin responses in ... The intake of 5 and 10 g carob fibre increased the plasma glucose by 47 % and 64 % (P , 0·001), and serum insulin by 19·9 and ... Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fibre and polyphenols increases plasma glucose and serum insulin responses in ... Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fibre and polyphenols increases plasma glucose and serum insulin responses in ...
Insulin resistance and decreased levels of the serum adiponectin were not detected in the patients. There was no relationship ... Adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and their relationship with serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in patients with ... The aim of our study was to investigate insulin resistance and serum adiponectin levels as cardiovascular risk markers in ... Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance method. Erythrocyte sedimentation ...
Serum insulin. Monthly variations of insulin concentrations were recorded in all sheep breeds included in the study (Figure 2 ... Correlation coefficients (r 2 ) between the body weights (BW), serum cortisol, insulin, and NEFA concentrations in Jezesko- ... Fluctuations of serum cortisol, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations in growing ewes over the year. ... Insulin levels in all three breeds at all sampling times were in line with insulin values reported for adult Romane breed ewes ...
To investigate the effect of environmental hypoxia at 4300-m altitude on the maternal serum concentration of insulin-like ... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of environmental hypoxia at 4300-m altitude on the maternal serum concentration of insulin ... Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 / blood*. Peru. Pregnancy / blood*. Reference Values. ... This stimulates increased production of IGFBP-1, which in turn restricts the insulin-like growth factor-mediated fetal growth ...
Serum gel Specimen Volume: 0.8 mL Collection Instructions: Spin down promptly. Additional Information: Indicate patients age ... Serum. Specimen Required Defines the optimal specimen. This field describes the type of specimen required to perform the test ...
  • Although this finding could reflect beta cell failure in ageing, it might also be due to alterations in diet or gastric emptying, or even to an enhancement in insulin sensitivity in older age. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesised that in a general population, signs of beta cell failure with advancing age manifest not only by decreases in random insulin, but also with a corresponding increase in its precursor proinsulin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we assessed the relationship of serum insulin levels and risk of recurrence in men with localized prostate cancer because of the relationship of insulin to the development of prostate cancer, and because insulin is a growth factor. (nih.gov)
  • Sara VR, Hall K: Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins. (springer.com)
  • Macaulay VM: Insulin-like growth factors and cancer. (springer.com)
  • Pollak MN, Polychronakos C, Yousefi S, et al: Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) receptors of human breast cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Rohlik QT, Adams D, Kull FC Jr, et al: An antibody to the receptor for insulin-like growth factor I inhibits the growth of MCF-7 cells in tissue culture. (springer.com)
  • De Leon DD, Bakker B, Wilson DM, et al: Demonstration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 and -II) receptors and binding protein in human breast cancer cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Duclos M, Houdebine LM, Djiane J: Comparison of insulin-like growth factor I and insulin effects on prolactin-induced lactogenesis in rabbit mammary gland in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Pekonen F, Paranen S, Makinen T, et al: Receptors for epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I and their relation to steroid receptors in human breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Peyrat JP, Bonneterre J, Beuscart R, et al: Insulin-like growth factor I receptors in human breast cancer and their relation to estradiol and progesterone receptors. (springer.com)
  • To assess the relationship between serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and diabetic retinopathy. (molvis.org)
  • In view of these alternations, this study was conducted to investigate the role of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and ghrelin in CLD with or without cirrhosis and evaluate their relationships with liver functions and clinical complications. (osti.gov)
  • misc{etde_20957130, title = {Role of Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor I and Ghrelin in Chronic Liver Diseases} author = {EI-Nashar, N A} abstractNote = {Chronic liver disease (CLD) is characterized by numerous metabolic alterations resulting in the clinical picture of malnutrition or even cachexia and contributing to complications such as hepatic encephalopathy and ascetics. (osti.gov)
  • A gradual increase of insulin level in the examined ewes was in parallel with their growth. (springer.com)
  • Maternal serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in pregnancy at high altitude. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This stimulates increased production of IGFBP-1, which in turn restricts the insulin-like growth factor-mediated fetal growth as an adaptive mechanism to prevent worsening of the fetoplacental hypoxia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In a subsample of this study, we measured five interrelated factors: free circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-1), insulin, glucose, and leptin, to assess the influence of the intervention on these factors after 12 months of follow-up. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vitro studies have shown that insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is a mitogen for breast cancer cells. (karger.com)
  • Daughaday WH, Rotwein P: Insulin-like growth factors I and II. (karger.com)
  • Werner H, Adamo M, Roberts CT Jr, LeRoith D: Molecular and cellular aspects of insulin-like growth factor action. (karger.com)
  • Shimatsu A, Rotwein P: Mosaic evolution of the insulin-like growth factors. (karger.com)
  • The involvement of circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in the beneficial effects of physical exercise on the brain makes this abundant serum growth factor a physiologically relevant neuroprotective signal. (csic.es)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)s are believed to one of several growth factors that play an adjunctive role in ovarian follicular development. (koreamed.org)
  • This study was designed to investigate the effect of adenotonsillectomy on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels and correlation between A/N ratio and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin, and a transforming growth factor from fetal bovine serum on protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, and morphology in confluent cultures of AKR-2B mouse cells have been examined. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fetal serum transforming growth factor activity, which stimulated multiple rounds of cell replication in soft agar in serum-containing medium, did not stimulate DNA synthesis in serum-free monolayer cultures of these cells when added alone or in combination with EGF or insulin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Fetal serum transforming growth factor did, however, stimulate a rapid change in the morphologty of these cells from flat, nonoverlapping cells to bipolar, multilayered cultures when added to the serum-free medium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Among them, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a major factor, acting in many levels. (ebscohost.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been implicated in cancer development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To investigate the following relationships: 1) maternal body weight and composition versus insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 in maternal serum before and during pregnancy, and 2) IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in maternal serum during pregnancy versus infant birth weight, body composition and ponderal index. (diva-portal.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IOF)-system has been suggested to be one mediator between maternal nutritional status and fetal growth. (diva-portal.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which is mostly carried in blood by IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), was associated to the glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease in a multiethnic study among US adults. (springer.com)
  • Mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II-binding proteins in human serum and urine. (biochemj.org)
  • Serum insulin-like growth factor-1, T3 and T4 concentrations were measured using ELISA. (thescipub.com)
  • Vasopressin and insulin-like growth factors synergistically induce myogenesis in serum-free medium -- Minotti et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Terminal differentiation of myogenic cells has long been known to be positively regulated by insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, the effects and the mechanisms of action of AVP and IGFs on myogenic cells have been investigated under conditions allowing growth and differentiation of myogenic cells in a simple serum-free medium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-system has been implicated in colorectal tumor carcinogenesis. (metabolomicscentre.nl)
  • Previous studies have reported that both serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) decline with ageing, particularly in chronically institutionalized elderly men, with an association with disease morbidity. (nus.edu.sg)
  • 2009). 'Association of Serum Retinol and Carotenoids with Insulin-like Growth Factors and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 among Control Subjects of a Nested Case-control Study in the JACC Study', Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , 10(Supplement), pp. 29-35. (waocp.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and its main binding protein, IGFBP-3, modulate cell growth and survival,and thus are thought to be important for tumor development. (waocp.org)
  • Zinc (Zn) deficiency can result in severe growth retardation in mammals, and in a number of animal model systems it leads to low circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • Clegg, MS, Keen, CL & Donovan, SM 1995, ' Zinc deficiency-induced anorexia influences the distribution of serum insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in the rat ', Metabolism , vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 1495-1501. (elsevier.com)
  • Although insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) has been reported to be overexpressed in steatosis and steatohepatitis, a causal role of IGF2 in steatosis development remains elusive. (frontiersin.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are mitogenic peptides that are important for fetal and maternal tissue growth during pregnancy. (elsevier.com)
  • The purpose of the current study was to clarify whether elevated levels of IGF-I in serum can rescue the severe growth retardation and organ development and function of igf-I null mice. (elsevier.com)
  • However, the association between blood lead levels (BLLs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has not been characterized in a large cohort with low-level lead exposure. (umassmed.edu)
  • Some hormones are completely active when released into the bloodstream (as is the case for insulin and growth hormones), while others are prohormones that must be activated in specific cells through a series of activation steps that are commonly highly regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • These observations support the notion that the Zn2+-binding properties of albumin improve the dissociation of Zn2+-insulin into subunits after exocytosis, which may be useful in insulin determination, insulin pharmacokinetic assays and islet transplantation. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • To obtain cDNAs encoding autoantigens recognized by islet specific autoantibodies in IDDM sera, cDNA library was prepared using mRNAs purified from human islet beta-cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Serum IGF-I levels were measured using an immunoassay that was calibrated against an international standard. (molvis.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between serum IGF-I levels and diabetic retinopathy, using a novel immunoassay calibrated to the new World Health Organization standard. (molvis.org)
  • The developed immunoassay has the ability to insulin in human blood serum samples of healthy individuals. (derpharmachemica.com)
  • No special preparation is needed for C - Peptide Insulin Suppression Test Immunoassay / Eia Blood Serum. (practo.com)
  • Inform your doctor if you are on any medications or have any underlying medical conditions or allergies before undergoing C - Peptide Insulin Suppression Test Immunoassay / Eia Blood Serum. (practo.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In peripubertal boys with low-level lead exposure, higher BLLs were associated with lower serum IGF-1. (umassmed.edu)
  • In this case-control study, we analyzed the relationship between serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and SILs of the cervix. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the correlation between selenium status and GDM is still controversial, hence a systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to evaluate the relationship between serum selenium and GDM. (medindia.net)
  • In a randomized single-blind cross-over study involving twenty healthy subjects (aged 22-62 years), plasma glucose, total and acylated ghrelin, and serum insulin were repeatedly assessed before and after the ingestion of 200 ml water with 50 g glucose and 0, 5, 10 or 20 g carob fibre over a period of 180 min. (cambridge.org)
  • Plasma IGF-I and serum IGFBP3 were correlated with tumor histopathology, menopausal status, treatment modality, recurrence rates, and probability of survival. (karger.com)
  • Plasma IGF-I and serum IGFBP3 were measured by radioimmunoassay. (karger.com)
  • Plasma anticoagulated with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) is reported to produce plasma insulin values equal to serum, but heparin is said to be associated with plasma insulin values greater than serum. (med-life.net)
  • Obese rats treated with HESc showed a twofold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Serum from Zn-deficient animals labeled in vitro with [ 125 I]IGF-I displayed three peaks of tracer activity: 150 kd (IGFBP-3), 37 kd (IGFBP-2 and -1), and 8 kd (free [ 125 I]IGF-I). Relative to controls, Zn-deficient animals demonstrated more tracer binding in the 37-kd region, whereas less was found in the 150- and 8-kd peaks. (elsevier.com)