Serum Albumin, Bovine
Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated
Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Kidney Failure, Chronic
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
2S Albumins, Plant
Rats, Inbred Strains
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Glycosylation End Products, Advanced
Nephelometry and Turbidimetry
Sensitivity and Specificity
Molecular Sequence Data
Amino Acid Sequence
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Predictive Value of Tests
Indicators and Reagents
Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Serum Response Factor
Disease Models, Animal
Liver Function Tests
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Reproducibility of Results
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (1/5528)A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair. (+info)
Upstream region of rat serum albumin gene promoter contributes to promoter activity: presence of functional binding site for hepatocyte nuclear factor-3. (2/5528)Transcription of the serum albumin gene occurs almost exclusively in the liver and is controlled in part by a strong liver-specific promoter. The upstream region of the serum albumin gene promoter is highly conserved among species and is footprinted in vitro by a number of nuclear proteins. However, the role of the upstream promoter region in regulating transcription and the identity of the transcription factors that bind to this region have not been established. In the present study, deletion analysis of the rat serum albumin promoter in transiently transfected HepG2 cells demonstrated that elimination of the region between -207 and -153 bp caused a two-fold decrease in promoter activity (P<0.05). Additional analysis of the -207 to -124 bp promoter interval led to the identification of two potential binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 (HNF-3) located at -168 to -157 bp (site X) and -145 to -134 bp (site Y). Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays performed with the HNF-3 X and Y sites demonstrated that both sites are capable of binding HNF-3alpha and HNF-3beta. Placement of a single copy of the HNF-3 X site upstream from a minimal promoter increased promoter activity by about four-fold in HepG2 cells, and the reporter construct containing this site could be transactivated if co-transfected with an HNF-3 expression construct. Furthermore, inactivation of the HNF-3 X site by site-directed mutagenesis within the context of the -261 bp albumin promoter construct resulted in a 40% decrease in transcription (P<0.05). These results indicate that the positive effect of the -207 to -153 bp promoter interval is attributable to the presence of the HNF-3 X site within this interval. Additional results obtained with transfected HepG2 cells suggest that the HNF-3 Y site plays a lesser role in activation of transcription than the X site. (+info)
Hypoalbuminemia increases lysophosphatidylcholine in low-density lipoprotein of normocholesterolemic subjects. (3/5528)BACKGROUND: A phospholipid, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), is the major determinant of the atherosclerotic properties of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Under normal circumstances most LPC is bound to albumin. We hypothesized that lipoprotein LPC concentrations are increased in hypoalbuminemic patients with the nephrotic syndrome, irrespective of their lipid levels. To test this hypothesis, we selected nephrotic and control subjects with matched LDL cholesterol levels. METHODS: Lipoproteins and the albumin-rich lipoprotein-deficient fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation and their phospholipid composition was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: Nephrotic subjects (albumin 23 +/- 2 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter) had a LDL LPC concentration that was increased (P < 0.05) to 66 +/- 7 vs. 35 +/- 6 micromol/liter in matched controls (albumin 42 +/- 5 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter). LPC in very low-density lipoprotein plus intermediate-density lipoprotein (VLDL + IDL) in these subjects was also increased to 33 +/- 7 vs. 9 +/- 2 micromol/liter in controls (P < 0.05). Conversely, LPC was decreased to 19 +/- 4 micromol/liter in the albumin-containing fraction of these hypoalbuminemic patients, as compared to 46 +/- 10 micromol/liter in the controls (P < 0.05). LPC was also low (14 +/- 4 micromol/liter) in the albumin-containing fraction of hypoalbuminemic, hypocholesterolemic patients with nonrenal diseases. In hyperlipidemic nephrotic subjects (albumin 21 +/- 2 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 5.7 +/- 0.5 mmol/liter) the LPC levels in LDL and VLDL + IDL were further increased, to 95 +/- 20 and 56 +/- 23 micromol/liter, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that in the presence of hypoalbuminemia in combination with proteinuria, LPC shifts from albumin to VLDL, IDL and LDL. This effect is independent of hyperlipidemia. Increased LPC in lipoproteins may be an important factor in the disproportionate increase in cardiovascular disease in nephrotic patients with hypoalbuminemia. (+info)
Serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure. (4/5528)BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism are known to be present, and several factors could contribute to the abnormalities. METHODS: We measured serum levels of three vitamin D metabolites, 1,25(OH)2D, 24, 25(OH)2D and 25(OH)D, and analyzed factors affecting their levels in 76 nondialyzed patients with CRF (serum creatinine> 1.6 and < 9.0 mg/dl), 37 of whom had diabetes mellitus (DM-CRF) and 39 of whom were nondiabetic (nonDM-CRF). RESULTS: Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were positively correlated with estimated creatinine clearance (CCr; r = 0.429; P < 0.0001), and levels of 24,25(OH)2D were weakly correlated with CCr (r = 0.252, P < 0.05); no correlation was noted for 25(OH)D. Serum levels of all three vitamin D metabolites were significantly and positively correlated with serum albumin. Although there were no significant differences in age, sex, estimated CCr, calcium and phosphate between DM-CRF and nonDM-CRF, all three vitamin D metabolites were significantly lower in DM-CRF than in nonDM-CRF. To analyze factors influencing vitamin D metabolite levels, we performed multiple regression analyses. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly and independently associated with serum albumin, presence of DM and serum phosphate (R2 = 0.599; P < 0.0001). 24,25(OH)2D levels were significantly and strongly associated with 25(OH)D (beta = 0.772; R2 = 0.446; P < 0.0001). Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels were significantly associated only with estimated CCr (R2 = 0. 409; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that hypoalbuminemia and the presence of DM independently affect serum 25(OH)D levels, probably via diabetic nephropathy and poor nutritional status associated with diabetes, and that 25(OH)D is actively catalyzed to 24,25(OH)2D in CRF, probably largely via extrarenal 24-hydroxylase. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were significantly affected by the degree of renal failure. Thus, this study indicates that patients with CRF, particularly those with DM, should receive supplements containing the active form of vitamin D prior to dialysis. (+info)
Septicemia in dialysis patients: incidence, risk factors, and prognosis. (5/5528)BACKGROUND: Infection is second to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and septicemia causes a majority of these infectious deaths. To identify patients at high risk and to characterize modifiable risk factors for septicemia, we examined the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis for septicemia in a large, representative group of U.S. dialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of incident ESRD patients in the case-mix study of the U.S. Renal Data System with seven years of follow-up from hospitalization and death records. Poisson regression was used to examine independent risk factors for hospital-managed septicemia. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the independent effect of septicemia on all-cause mortality and on death from septicemia. Separate analyses were performed for patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). RESULTS: Over seven years of follow-up, 11.7% of 4005 HD patients and 9.4% of 913 PD patients had at least one episode of septicemia. Older age and diabetes were independent risk factors for septicemia in all patients. Among HD patients, low serum albumin, temporary vascular access, and dialyzer reuse were also associated with increased risk. Among PD patients, white race and having no health insurance at dialysis initiation were also risk factors. Patients with septicemia had twice the risk of death from any cause and a fivefold to ninefold increased risk of death from septicemia. CONCLUSIONS: Septicemia, which carries a marked increased risk of death, occurs frequently in patients on PD as well as HD. Early referral to a nephrologist, improving nutrition, and avoiding temporary vascular access may decrease the incidence of septicemia. Further study of how race, insurance status, and dialyzer reuse can contribute to the risk of septicemia among ESRD patients is indicated. (+info)
Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. (6/5528)Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease. (+info)
Distinct clinical and laboratory activity of two recombinant interleukin-2 preparations. (7/5528)Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a potent lymphokine that activates natural killer cells, T cells, and other cells of the immune system. Several distinct recombinant human IL-2 preparations have shown antitumor activity, particularly for renal cell cancer and melanoma. Somewhat distinct immune and clinical effects have been noted when different IL-2 preparations have been tested clinically; however, the regimens and doses used were not identical. To compare these more directly, we have evaluated two clinical recombinant IL-2 preparations in vitro and in vivo using similar regimens and similar IUs of IL-2. We used the Food and Drug Administration-approved, commercially available Chiron IL-2 and the Hoffmann LaRoche (HLR) IL-2 supplied by the National Cancer Institute. Using equivalent IUs of IL-2, we noted quantitative differences in vitro and in vivo in the IL-2 activity of these two preparations. In patients receiving comparable IUs of the two preparations, HLR IL-2 induced the release of more soluble IL-2 receptor alpha into the serum than Chiron IL-2. In addition, more toxicities were noted in patients receiving 1.5 x 10(6) IU of HLR IL-2 than were seen in patients treated with 1.5 x 10(6) or even 4.5 x 10(6) IU of Chiron IL-2. These toxicities included fever, nausea and vomiting, and hepatic toxicity. In vitro proliferative assays using IL-2-dependent human and murine cell lines indicated that the IU of HLR IL-2 was more effective than Chiron IL-2 at inducing tritiated thymidine incorporation. Using flow cytometry, we also found quantitative differences in the ability of these two preparations to bind to IL-2 receptors. These findings indicate that approximately 3-6 IU of Chiron IL-2 are required to induce the same biological effect as 1 IU of HLR IL-2. (+info)
Phospholipid hydroperoxide cysteine peroxidase activity of human serum albumin. (8/5528)Human serum albumin (HSA) reduced the phospholipid hydroperoxide, 1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroperoxy-cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoyl)-l-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC-OOH) to the corresponding hydroxy-derivative with a high apparent affinity (Km=9. 23+/-0.95 microM). Removal of bound lipid during purification increased this activity. At physiological concentration, HSA reduced the phospholipid hydroperoxide in the absence of a cofactor. However, in the presence of a cofactor (reductant), the rate of the reaction was increased. All of the major aminothiols in plasma could act as reductants, the best being the most abundant, cysteine (Km=600+/-80 microM). For every nanomole of PLPC-OOH reduced by HSA, 1.26 nmol of cystine was formed, indicating a reaction stoichiometry of 1 mol PLPC-OOH to 2 mol cysteine. We used chemical modification to determine which amino acid residues on HSA were responsible for the activity. Oxidation of thiol group(s) by N-ethylmaleimide led to a reduction in the rate of activity, whereas reduction of thiols by either dithiothreitol or the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, increased the activity. Both N-ethylmaleimide-modified HSA and dithiothreitol-treated HSA exhibited increased apparent affinities for PLPC-OOH. For a range of preparations of albumin with different modifications, the activity on PLPC-OOH was dependent on the amount of free thiol groups on the albumin (correlation coefficient=0.91). Patients with lowered albumin concentrations after septic shock showed lowered total plasma thiol concentrations and decreased phospholipid hydroperoxide cysteine peroxidase (PHCPx) activities. These results therefore show for the first time that HSA exhibits PHCPx activity, and that the majority of the activity depends on the presence of reduced thiol group(s) on the albumin. (+info)
Serum albumin is a type of protein that is found in the blood plasma of humans and other animals. It is the most abundant protein in the blood, accounting for about 50-60% of the total protein content. Serum albumin plays a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood, transporting hormones, fatty acids, and other molecules, and serving as a buffer to regulate pH. It is also an important indicator of liver function, as the liver is responsible for producing most of the serum albumin in the body. Abnormal levels of serum albumin can be an indication of liver disease, kidney disease, or other medical conditions.
Serum Albumin, Bovine is a type of albumin, which is a type of protein found in the blood plasma of mammals. It is derived from the blood of cows and is used as a source of albumin for medical purposes. Albumin is an important protein in the body that helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of blood and transport various substances, such as hormones, drugs, and fatty acids, throughout the body. It is often used as a plasma expander in patients who have lost a significant amount of blood or as a replacement for albumin in patients with liver disease or other conditions that affect albumin production.
Albumins are a group of water-soluble proteins that are found in the blood plasma of animals, including humans. They are the most abundant proteins in the blood, accounting for about 50-60% of the total protein content. Albumins play a number of important roles in the body, including maintaining osmotic pressure, transporting hormones and other molecules, and serving as a reservoir of amino acids for the liver to use in the production of other proteins. In the medical field, albumin levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess overall health and to monitor patients with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, or malnutrition. Low albumin levels (hypalbuminemia) can be a sign of underlying health problems and may require further evaluation and treatment. High albumin levels (hyperalbuminemia) are less common but can also be a cause for concern, particularly if they are accompanied by other symptoms or if they are the result of an underlying medical condition.
Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated is a radiopharmaceutical used in medical imaging to diagnose and monitor liver and kidney function. It is a modified form of serum albumin, a protein found in the blood, that has been labeled with radioactive iodine. The radioactive iodine allows the serum albumin to be detected by medical imaging equipment, such as a gamma camera or a PET scanner. When injected into the bloodstream, the serum albumin, radio-iodinated travels through the body and is taken up by the liver and kidneys. The amount of serum albumin that is taken up by these organs can be measured using medical imaging equipment, which can provide information about the function of the liver and kidneys. Serum albumin, radio-iodinated is often used to diagnose liver and kidney diseases, such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, and kidney failure. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions.
Hypoalbuminemia is a medical condition characterized by a low level of albumin in the blood. Albumin is a protein produced by the liver that plays a crucial role in maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood and transporting various substances throughout the body. A normal albumin level in the blood is typically between 3.5 and 5.0 grams per deciliter (g/dL) in adults. When the level falls below 3.5 g/dL, it is considered hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including malnutrition, liver disease, kidney disease, cancer, and inflammation. It can also be a side effect of certain medications or treatments, such as chemotherapy or long-term use of corticosteroids. The symptoms of hypoalbuminemia can vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include edema (swelling), fatigue, weakness, and decreased appetite. In severe cases, hypoalbuminemia can lead to more serious complications, such as fluid accumulation in the lungs or brain, and decreased blood flow to vital organs. Treatment for hypoalbuminemia depends on the underlying cause and may involve addressing the underlying condition, improving nutrition, or administering albumin replacement therapy. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment of hypoalbuminemia.
Receptors, Albumin refers to proteins on the surface of cells that bind to albumin, a type of protein found in the blood. These receptors play a role in regulating the concentration of albumin in the bloodstream and can also affect the transport of other molecules, such as hormones and drugs, throughout the body. In the medical field, the study of albumin receptors is important for understanding various diseases and conditions, such as kidney disease, liver disease, and certain types of cancer.
Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin is a radiopharmaceutical used in medical imaging to diagnose and monitor liver and spleen diseases. It is a complex of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope, and aggregated albumin, a protein found in the blood. The Tc-99m is attached to the albumin, which allows it to be transported to the liver and spleen, where it is taken up by the cells. The radiopharmaceutical is then imaged using a gamma camera to visualize the uptake of the Tc-99m in the liver and spleen, which can help diagnose conditions such as liver and spleen tumors, infections, and cirrhosis.
Blood proteins are proteins that are found in the blood plasma of humans and other animals. They play a variety of important roles in the body, including transporting oxygen and nutrients, regulating blood pressure, and fighting infections. There are several different types of blood proteins, including albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen. Each type of blood protein has a specific function and is produced by different cells in the body. For example, albumin is produced by the liver and helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood, while globulins are produced by the immune system and help to fight infections. Fibrinogen, on the other hand, is produced by the liver and is involved in the clotting of blood.
Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment that is produced when red blood cells are broken down in the body. It is primarily produced in the liver and is then excreted in the bile, which is released into the small intestine. Bilirubin is an important part of the body's waste removal system and helps to remove old red blood cells from the bloodstream. In the medical field, bilirubin levels are often measured as part of a routine blood test. High levels of bilirubin in the blood can be a sign of liver disease, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, or of problems with the gallbladder or bile ducts. Bilirubin levels can also be affected by certain medications, infections, or genetic disorders. Low levels of bilirubin can be a sign of anemia or other blood disorders.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. It is the most abundant type of immunoglobulin in the blood and is responsible for the majority of the body's defense against infections. IgG is produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a B cell encounters a foreign substance, it produces IgG antibodies that can recognize and bind to the substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. IgG antibodies can also be transferred from mother to child through the placenta during pregnancy, providing the baby with some protection against infections during the first few months of life. In addition, some vaccines contain IgG antibodies to help stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, IgG is an important component of the immune system and plays a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.
Albuminuria is a medical condition characterized by the presence of albumin, a protein produced by the liver, in the urine. It is a sign of kidney damage or dysfunction and can be an early indicator of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In healthy individuals, albumin is not normally present in the urine, and its presence in the urine is considered abnormal. The normal range for albumin in urine is less than 30 mg per day. Albuminuria can be classified as microalbuminuria, which is the presence of albumin in the urine at levels between 30 and 300 mg per day, or macroalbuminuria, which is the presence of albumin in the urine at levels greater than 300 mg per day. The causes of albuminuria can vary, including diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and certain medications. Treatment for albuminuria depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medications, or other therapies to manage the underlying condition and slow the progression of kidney disease.
Bromcresol Green (BCG) is a pH indicator that is used in medical and laboratory settings to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. It is a yellowish-green liquid that changes color depending on the pH of the solution it is mixed with. In the medical field, BCG is commonly used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of body fluids such as urine, saliva, and gastric juice. It is also used to monitor the acidity of the blood, which can be important in the treatment of certain medical conditions such as metabolic acidosis or alkalosis. BCG is usually administered as a solution that is mixed with the sample being tested. The color change of the solution is then used to determine the pH of the sample. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. A pH below 7 is considered acidic, while a pH above 7 is considered alkaline. It is important to note that BCG is not used for diagnostic purposes and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic renal failure, is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to function properly over a long period of time. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and glomerulonephritis. Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed when the kidneys are functioning at less than 60% of their normal capacity, and the condition has been present for at least three months. As the kidneys become less functional, they are unable to filter waste products from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body. This can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, nausea, and difficulty concentrating. Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as managing symptoms and complications. This may include medications to control blood pressure and blood sugar levels, as well as dietary changes and other lifestyle modifications. In some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to help the body remove waste products and maintain proper fluid balance.
Serum globulins are a group of proteins found in the blood plasma that are responsible for various functions in the body. They are classified into four main categories: albumin, alpha globulins, beta globulins, and gamma globulins. Albumin is the most abundant serum protein, accounting for about 50-60% of total serum protein. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood, transporting hormones and fatty acids, and serving as a reservoir for various substances. Alpha globulins are a diverse group of proteins that include haptoglobin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and alpha-2 macroglobulin. They play a role in the immune system, as well as in the transport and metabolism of various substances. Beta globulins include transferrin, which transports iron in the blood, and haptoglobin, which binds to free hemoglobin and helps to remove it from the bloodstream. Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins, are the most diverse group of serum proteins and are responsible for the immune response. They are produced by B cells in response to foreign substances and are involved in the destruction of pathogens and the production of antibodies. Abnormal levels of serum globulins can indicate various medical conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, or certain types of cancer.
Creatinine is a waste product that is produced by the muscles in the body as a result of normal metabolism. It is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. In the medical field, creatinine is often used as a marker of kidney function. A high level of creatinine in the blood can indicate that the kidneys are not functioning properly, while a low level can indicate that the kidneys are overworking. Creatinine levels can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for kidney disease.
Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. Antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific molecules on the surface of these foreign substances, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. There are five main classes of antibodies: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class of antibody has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Antibodies play a critical role in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease. They can neutralize pathogens by binding to them and preventing them from entering cells, or they can mark them for destruction by other immune cells. In some cases, antibodies can also help to stimulate the immune response by activating immune cells or by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection. Antibodies are often used in medical treatments, such as in the development of vaccines, where they are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a response to a specific pathogen. They are also used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of specific pathogens or to monitor the immune response to a particular treatment.
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein that is produced by the yolk sac and the fetal liver during pregnancy. It is normally present in small amounts in the blood of pregnant women, but levels can increase if there is a problem with the fetus, such as a neural tube defect or a tumor. In adults, high levels of AFP can be a sign of liver disease, cancer, or other conditions. It is often used as a tumor marker in the diagnosis and monitoring of certain types of cancer, such as liver cancer and testicular cancer.
Immune sera refers to a type of blood serum that contains antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection or vaccination. These antibodies are produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. Immune sera can be used to diagnose and treat certain infections, as well as to prevent future infections. For example, immune sera containing antibodies against a specific virus or bacteria can be used to diagnose a current infection or to prevent future infections in people who have been exposed to the virus or bacteria. Immune sera can also be used as a research tool to study the immune response to infections and to develop new vaccines and treatments. In some cases, immune sera may be used to treat patients with severe infections or allergies, although this is less common than using immune sera for diagnostic or preventive purposes.
Serum sickness is a type of allergic reaction that occurs when the immune system reacts to foreign proteins, such as those found in blood products or vaccines. It is also known as serum protein reaction or anaphylactic serum reaction. The symptoms of serum sickness typically develop within a few days to a week after exposure to the foreign protein and can include fever, rash, joint pain and swelling, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. In severe cases, serum sickness can lead to more serious complications such as kidney failure or shock. The diagnosis of serum sickness is usually based on the patient's symptoms and medical history, as well as blood tests to check for the presence of antibodies to the foreign protein. Treatment typically involves the use of antihistamines to reduce symptoms, as well as corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune response. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a condition that occurs when a person's diet lacks sufficient amounts of both protein and energy (calories). This can lead to a variety of health problems, including stunted growth, weakened immune system, and organ damage. PEM is commonly seen in developing countries where access to adequate nutrition is limited, but it can also occur in developed countries in cases of illness, injury, or certain medical conditions. Treatment for PEM typically involves increasing the intake of protein and calories through dietary changes or supplements.
Proteinuria is a medical condition characterized by the presence of excess protein in the urine. Normally, the kidneys filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood, but they also retain most of the protein in the blood. When the kidneys are damaged or diseased, they may not be able to filter the protein properly, leading to proteinuria. Proteinuria can be classified as either microscopic or macroscopic. Microscopic proteinuria refers to the presence of small amounts of protein in the urine, typically less than 150 mg per day. Macroscopic proteinuria, on the other hand, refers to the presence of larger amounts of protein in the urine, typically greater than 150 mg per day. Proteinuria can be caused by a variety of medical conditions, including kidney disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain infections. It is often an indicator of underlying kidney damage or disease and can lead to serious complications if left untreated. Treatment for proteinuria depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation.
In the medical field, "2S Albumins, Plant" refers to a group of plant proteins that are found in the albumin fraction of plant seeds. These proteins are characterized by the presence of two disulfide bonds and are commonly found in legumes, such as soybeans, peas, and lentils. 2S albumins are important sources of dietary protein and are also used in the production of various food products, such as tofu and tempeh. They have been the subject of extensive research due to their potential health benefits, including their ability to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of heart disease. In addition to their nutritional and health benefits, 2S albumins have also been studied for their potential use in the development of new drugs and therapies. For example, some studies have suggested that 2S albumins may have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, making them a promising target for the development of new treatments for a variety of diseases.
Bromcresol Purple is a pH indicator that is used in medical laboratories to measure the acidity or alkalinity of body fluids, such as urine, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. It is a yellowish-red dye that changes color depending on the pH of the solution it is in. In the acidic range, Bromcresol Purple turns yellow, and in the alkaline range, it turns blue. This color change allows medical professionals to determine the pH of a sample and diagnose certain medical conditions, such as acidosis or alkalosis. Bromcresol Purple is also used in some antiseptic solutions and as a dye in the textile industry. However, in the medical field, it is primarily used as a pH indicator.
Transferrin is a plasma protein that plays a crucial role in the transport of iron in the bloodstream. It is synthesized in the liver and transported to the bone marrow, where it helps to regulate the production of red blood cells. Transferrin also plays a role in the immune system by binding to and transporting iron to immune cells, where it is used to produce antibodies. In the medical field, low levels of transferrin can be a sign of iron deficiency anemia, while high levels may indicate an excess of iron in the body.
An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antigen (a foreign substance that triggers an immune response) binds to an antibody (a protein produced by the immune system to recognize and neutralize antigens). When an antigen enters the body, it is recognized by specific antibodies that bind to it, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This complex can then be targeted by other immune cells, such as phagocytes, which engulf and destroy the complex. Antigen-antibody complexes can also deposit in tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. This can occur in conditions such as immune complex-mediated diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues that have been coated with antigens and antibodies. Overall, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes is a normal part of the immune response, but when it becomes dysregulated, it can lead to a variety of medical conditions.
Gamma-globulins are a type of protein found in the blood plasma. They are a component of the immune system and play a role in protecting the body against infections and diseases. There are several different types of gamma-globulins, including immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin D (IgD). Each type of gamma-globulin has a specific function in the immune system and is produced by different types of white blood cells. Gamma-globulins can be measured in the blood as part of a routine blood test and can be used to diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions.
Prealbumin is a type of protein that is produced in the liver and is found in the bloodstream. It is a precursor to albumin, which is the most abundant protein in the blood and plays a key role in maintaining the osmotic pressure of blood vessels and transporting nutrients and hormones throughout the body. Prealbumin levels can be measured in the blood as a way to assess liver function and nutritional status. Low levels of prealbumin may indicate liver disease, malnutrition, or other conditions that affect protein synthesis in the liver. High levels of prealbumin may indicate liver disease or other conditions that cause the liver to produce more prealbumin than normal.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
Glycosylation End Products, Advanced (AGEs) are a group of compounds that are formed when sugars (such as glucose) bind to proteins and lipids in the body. AGEs are produced naturally as part of normal metabolism, but their production can be increased under certain conditions, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and oxidative stress. AGEs can accumulate in the body over time and have been linked to a number of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. They are thought to contribute to the development of these conditions by damaging blood vessels, promoting inflammation, and impairing the function of cells and tissues. AGEs can be detected in the blood and urine, and they can be measured using laboratory tests. They can also be found in foods, particularly those that are high in sugar or fat, and are thought to contribute to the development of AGE-related health problems when consumed in excess. Overall, AGEs are an important area of research in the medical field, as they are thought to play a role in the development of a number of chronic diseases.
Lactoglobulins are a group of proteins found in milk that play important roles in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. They are the most abundant proteins in milk, accounting for about 20% of the total protein content. Lactoglobulins have a number of functions in the body. They help to stabilize and transport fat molecules in the digestive tract, which aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. They also have immune-modulating properties, and may help to protect against certain infections and diseases. In the medical field, lactoglobulins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, they have been used in the development of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. They have also been studied for their potential use in the prevention and treatment of certain types of cancer. Overall, lactoglobulins are an important component of milk and play a number of important roles in the body.
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced by the liver and is also found in some foods. It is an essential component of cell membranes and is necessary for the production of hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke. There are two main types of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of arteries and lead to plaque formation, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing.
Nutrition disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that arise due to imbalances or deficiencies in the intake, absorption, or utilization of nutrients by the body. These disorders can affect any aspect of nutrition, including macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), and fluids. Some common examples of nutrition disorders include: 1. Malnutrition: A condition characterized by an inadequate intake of nutrients, leading to weight loss, weakness, and other health problems. 2. Overnutrition: A condition characterized by an excessive intake of nutrients, leading to obesity, diabetes, and other health problems. 3. Eating disorders: Conditions that involve abnormal eating habits, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. 4. Nutrient deficiencies: Conditions caused by a lack of essential nutrients, such as vitamin deficiencies, mineral deficiencies, and protein-energy malnutrition. 5. Food intolerances and allergies: Conditions caused by an inability to digest certain foods, such as lactose intolerance, gluten intolerance, and food allergies. Nutrition disorders can have a significant impact on a person's health and well-being, and they may require medical treatment and dietary changes to manage.
Fatty acids are organic compounds that are composed of a long chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them. They are a type of lipid, which are molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Fatty acids are an important source of energy for the body and are also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as hormones and cell membranes. In the medical field, fatty acids are often studied in relation to their role in various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. They are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies.
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a protein that is produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is a nonspecific marker of inflammation and is often used as a diagnostic tool in the medical field. CRP levels can be measured in the blood using a blood test. Elevated levels of CRP are often seen in people with infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP levels can also be elevated in response to other factors such as exercise, injury, and stress. In addition to its diagnostic role, CRP has also been studied as a potential predictor of future health outcomes. For example, high levels of CRP have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other chronic conditions. Overall, CRP is an important biomarker in the medical field that can provide valuable information about a person's health and help guide treatment decisions.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is produced by B cells in response to an infection or foreign substance. It is the first antibody to be produced during an immune response and is present in the blood and other body fluids in relatively low concentrations. IgM antibodies are large, Y-shaped molecules that can bind to multiple antigens at once, making them highly effective at neutralizing pathogens and marking them for destruction by other immune cells. They are also able to activate the complement system, a series of proteins that can directly destroy pathogens or mark them for destruction by immune cells. IgM antibodies are often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as they are typically the first antibodies to be produced in response to a new infection. They can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of vaccines and to detect the presence of certain diseases, such as viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer.
Hypoproteinemia is a medical condition characterized by a decrease in the concentration of proteins in the blood. The normal range of total protein concentration in the blood is 6.0-8.0 grams per deciliter (g/dL) for adults. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including malnutrition, liver disease, kidney disease, cancer, and certain medications. It can also be a side effect of certain medical treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Symptoms of hypoproteinemia may include swelling in the legs and feet, shortness of breath, fatigue, and a decreased appetite. Treatment for hypoproteinemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, medications, or other medical interventions.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. It is the most abundant antibody in the mucous membranes, which line the surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. IgA is produced by plasma cells in the bone marrow and is secreted into the bloodstream and mucous membranes. It is particularly important in protecting against infections in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, where it helps to neutralize and eliminate pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. IgA can also be found in tears, saliva, and breast milk, where it provides protection against infections in the eyes, mouth, and digestive tract. In addition, IgA plays a role in the immune response to certain types of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Overall, IgA is a critical component of the body's immune system and plays a vital role in protecting against infections and diseases.
Nephrotic Syndrome is a group of symptoms that occur when the kidneys are not functioning properly. It is characterized by the presence of large amounts of protein in the urine, low levels of protein in the blood, and swelling in the legs, feet, and sometimes the face and abdomen. Other symptoms may include fatigue, loss of appetite, and nausea. Nephrotic Syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as kidney disease or cancer. The diagnosis of Nephrotic Syndrome typically involves a physical examination, blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications to reduce protein loss in the urine, manage symptoms, and prevent complications such as infections or blood clots. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary.
Hemoglobins are a group of proteins found in red blood cells (erythrocytes) that are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Hemoglobin is composed of four subunits, each of which contains a heme group that binds to oxygen. The oxygen binds to the iron atom in the heme group, allowing the hemoglobin to transport oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin also plays a role in regulating the pH of the blood and in the immune response. Abnormalities in hemoglobin can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, sickle cell disease, and thalassemia.
Protein-losing enteropathies (PLE) are a group of disorders that cause excessive loss of proteins from the digestive tract. This loss of proteins can lead to a variety of symptoms, including edema (swelling), fatigue, weakness, and malnutrition. PLE can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation of the digestive tract, damage to the lining of the small intestine, and certain genetic disorders. Treatment for PLE typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the disorder and managing symptoms such as edema and malnutrition.
Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive forms of the element iodine that are used in medical imaging and treatment procedures. These isotopes have a nucleus that contains an odd number of neutrons, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation as they decay back to a more stable form of iodine. There are several different iodine radioisotopes that are commonly used in medical applications, including iodine-123, iodine-125, and iodine-131. Each of these isotopes has a different half-life, which is the amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive material to decay. The half-life of an iodine radioisotope determines how long it will remain in the body and how much radiation will be emitted during that time. Iodine radioisotopes are often used in diagnostic imaging procedures, such as thyroid scans, to help doctors visualize the structure and function of the thyroid gland. They may also be used in therapeutic procedures, such as radiation therapy, to treat thyroid cancer or other thyroid disorders. In these cases, the radioactive iodine is administered to the patient and selectively absorbed by the thyroid gland, where it emits radiation that damages or destroys cancerous cells.
Malnutrition is a condition that occurs when a person's diet does not provide enough nutrients, or the body is unable to absorb or utilize the nutrients properly. This can lead to a variety of health problems, including weakness, fatigue, weight loss, and impaired immune function. Malnutrition can be caused by a variety of factors, including poverty, food insecurity, chronic illness, and certain medical conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders or eating disorders. In severe cases, malnutrition can be life-threatening and may require medical intervention.
In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.
Amino acids are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. They are composed of an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), and a side chain (R group) that varies in size and structure. There are 20 different amino acids that are commonly found in proteins, each with a unique side chain that gives it distinct chemical and physical properties. In the medical field, amino acids are important for a variety of functions, including the synthesis of proteins, enzymes, and hormones. They are also involved in energy metabolism and the maintenance of healthy tissues. Deficiencies in certain amino acids can lead to a range of health problems, including muscle wasting, anemia, and neurological disorders. In some cases, amino acids may be prescribed as supplements to help treat these conditions or to support overall health and wellness.
Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or chloroform. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and signaling in the body. In the medical field, lipids are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The main types of lipids that are measured include: 1. Total cholesterol: This includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. 2. Triglycerides: These are a type of fat that is stored in the body and can be converted into energy when needed. 3. Phospholipids: These are a type of lipid that is a major component of cell membranes and helps to regulate the flow of substances in and out of cells. 4. Steroids: These are a type of lipid that includes hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, as well as cholesterol. Abnormal levels of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Therefore, monitoring and managing lipid levels is an important part of maintaining overall health and preventing these conditions.
Urea is a chemical compound that is produced in the liver as a waste product of protein metabolism. It is then transported to the kidneys, where it is filtered out of the blood and excreted in the urine. In the medical field, urea is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure kidney function. High levels of urea in the blood can be a sign of kidney disease or other medical conditions, while low levels may indicate malnutrition or other problems. Urea is also used as a source of nitrogen in fertilizers and as a raw material in the production of plastics and other chemicals.
Orosomucoid is a glycoprotein that is produced by the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. It is also known as alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) or alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI). In the medical field, orosomucoid is often used as a diagnostic marker for various conditions, including liver disease, inflammation, and infection. It is also used as a therapeutic agent to treat certain types of bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease. Orosomucoid functions as an antiproteinase, meaning it inhibits the activity of certain enzymes that can break down proteins in the body. It is particularly effective at inhibiting proteases that are involved in the inflammatory response, such as elastase and collagenase. This makes orosomucoid an important component of the body's defense against tissue damage and inflammation.
Oxyphenbutazone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to relieve pain and reduce inflammation. It is also sometimes used to treat fever. It works by blocking the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause pain, inflammation, and fever. Oxyphenbutazone is available in both over-the-counter and prescription forms, and it is usually taken by mouth. It can cause side effects such as stomach pain, nausea, and dizziness, and it should not be taken by people who are allergic to aspirin or other NSAIDs.
Thyroxine, also known as T4, is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland in the neck. It plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development in the body. In the medical field, thyroxine is often prescribed to treat hypothyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. In this case, thyroxine is given to replace the missing hormone and help restore normal metabolic function. Thyroxine is also used to treat certain types of thyroid cancer, as well as to prevent the recurrence of thyroid cancer after surgery. In some cases, thyroxine may be used to treat other conditions, such as Turner syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects females. Thyroxine is typically taken orally in the form of a tablet or liquid, and the dosage is adjusted based on the patient's individual needs and response to treatment. It is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare provider when taking thyroxine, as taking too much or too little can have serious consequences.
Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in plant oils, such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and canola oil. It is a liquid at room temperature and has a distinctive nutty flavor. In the medical field, oleic acid has several potential uses. For example, it has been studied as a potential treatment for high blood pressure, as it may help to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow. It has also been studied as a potential treatment for certain types of cancer, as it may help to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. In addition to its potential therapeutic uses, oleic acid is also used in a variety of other applications in the medical field. For example, it is used as a component of some types of lubricants and as a component of certain types of medical devices. It is also used as a food additive, as it has a long shelf life and a neutral flavor that makes it useful in a variety of food products.
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that is required for the production of proteins in the body. It is also a precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep. In the medical field, tryptophan is often used to treat conditions such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. It is also used to help manage symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and to improve athletic performance. Tryptophan supplements are available over-the-counter, but it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking them, as they can interact with certain medications and may have side effects.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
Diabetic nephropathy is a type of kidney disease that occurs as a complication of diabetes mellitus. It is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys as a result of long-term high blood sugar levels. The damage can lead to the development of protein in the urine, swelling in the legs and feet, and eventually, kidney failure. There are three stages of diabetic nephropathy: microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, and end-stage renal disease. Treatment typically involves managing blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and blood cholesterol, as well as medications to slow the progression of the disease.
In the medical field, a peptide fragment refers to a short chain of amino acids that are derived from a larger peptide or protein molecule. Peptide fragments can be generated through various techniques, such as enzymatic digestion or chemical cleavage, and are often used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Peptide fragments can be used as biomarkers for various diseases, as they may be present in the body at elevated levels in response to specific conditions. For example, certain peptide fragments have been identified as potential biomarkers for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, peptide fragments can be used as therapeutic agents themselves. For example, some peptide fragments have been shown to have anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for various diseases. Overall, peptide fragments play an important role in the medical field, both as diagnostic tools and as potential therapeutic agents.
In the medical field, iodine isotopes refer to different forms of the element iodine that have different atomic weights due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most commonly used iodine isotopes in medicine are iodine-123 (I-123) and iodine-131 (I-131). I-123 is a short-lived isotope with a half-life of 13.2 hours, which makes it useful for imaging the thyroid gland and other organs. It is often used in diagnostic procedures such as thyroid scans and radioiodine uptake tests. I-131, on the other hand, is a longer-lived isotope with a half-life of 8 days. It is commonly used in the treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. In these treatments, I-131 is administered to the patient, and it is taken up by the thyroid gland, where it emits beta particles that destroy the cancerous or overactive cells. Overall, iodine isotopes play an important role in medical imaging and treatment, particularly in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders.
Trypsin is a proteolytic enzyme that is produced by the pancreas and is responsible for breaking down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids. It is a serine protease that cleaves peptide bonds on the carboxyl side of lysine and arginine residues. Trypsin is an important digestive enzyme that helps to break down dietary proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids that can be absorbed and used by the body. It is also used in medical research and in the development of diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents.
Glycoproteins are a type of protein that contains one or more carbohydrate chains covalently attached to the protein molecule. These carbohydrate chains are made up of sugars and are often referred to as glycans. Glycoproteins play important roles in many biological processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and immune response. They are found in many different types of cells and tissues throughout the body, and are often used as markers for various diseases and conditions. In the medical field, glycoproteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs and therapies.
Kidney diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the kidneys, which are two bean-shaped organs located in the back of the abdomen. The kidneys play a crucial role in filtering waste products from the blood and regulating the body's fluid balance, electrolyte levels, and blood pressure. Kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and severe decline in kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, including dehydration, infection, injury, or certain medications. CKD, on the other hand, is a progressive and chronic condition that develops over time and is characterized by a gradual decline in kidney function. Some common types of kidney diseases include glomerulonephritis, which is an inflammation of the glomeruli (the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys), polycystic kidney disease, which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys, and kidney stones, which are hard deposits that can form in the kidneys and cause pain and other symptoms. Treatment for kidney diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as diet modification and exercise may be sufficient to manage the condition. In more severe cases, medications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation may be necessary. Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Serum Response Factor (SRF) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to various stimuli, including growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. It is a member of the MADS-box family of transcription factors, which are involved in the regulation of gene expression in a wide range of biological processes, including development, differentiation, and cell cycle control. In the medical field, SRF is involved in the regulation of a number of important biological processes, including muscle development, wound healing, and the response to inflammation. It has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and muscular dystrophy. SRF is also a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases, as it has been shown to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival.
Charcoal is a black, porous material that is made by heating wood or other organic materials in the absence of air. In the medical field, charcoal is often used as an adsorbent to remove toxins and other harmful substances from the body. It is commonly used to treat poisoning from drugs, alcohol, or other substances, as well as to treat certain digestive disorders such as diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome. Charcoal is available in various forms, including capsules, tablets, and powders, and is typically taken orally. It is important to note that charcoal should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment, and that it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme that is found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the liver, heart, muscles, and kidneys. It plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids and is involved in the production of energy. In the medical field, AST is often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess liver function. When the liver is damaged or diseased, AST levels may increase in the blood. This can be an indication of a variety of liver conditions, including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. AST levels may also be elevated in other conditions that affect the heart, muscles, or kidneys. For example, AST levels may be increased in people with heart muscle damage or inflammation, such as from a heart attack or myocarditis. In addition, AST levels may be elevated in people with muscle damage or inflammation, such as from a muscle strain or injury. Overall, AST is an important biomarker that can provide valuable information about the health of the liver and other organs in the body.
Antibodies, Bacterial are proteins produced by the immune system in response to bacterial infections. They are also known as bacterial antibodies or bacterial immunoglobulins. These antibodies are specific to bacterial antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of bacteria that trigger an immune response. When the immune system detects a bacterial infection, it produces antibodies that bind to the bacterial antigens and mark them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to neutralize the bacteria and prevent them from causing harm to the body. Bacterial antibodies can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests. These tests are often used to diagnose bacterial infections and to monitor the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
Dextrans are a group of polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) that are derived from cornstarch. They are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a thickening agent in intravenous fluids, as a diagnostic tool for measuring kidney function, and as a component of certain medications. Dextrans are also used in some medical devices, such as catheters and wound dressings. They are generally considered safe and well-tolerated, but like all medications and medical treatments, they can have potential side effects and risks.
Uremia is a condition that occurs when there is a buildup of waste products in the blood that cannot be removed by the kidneys. This buildup of waste products, which includes urea, creatinine, and other toxins, can lead to a variety of symptoms and complications, including fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, confusion, and swelling in the legs and feet. Uremia is typically a sign that the kidneys are not functioning properly, and it is often associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In CKD, the kidneys gradually lose their ability to filter waste products from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body. Uremia can also occur as a result of acute kidney injury, which is a sudden and severe loss of kidney function. Treatment for uremia typically involves managing the underlying cause of the condition, such as treating a kidney infection or addressing a blockage in the urinary tract. In some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to help remove waste products from the blood and prevent further damage to the kidneys.
Phthalic anhydrides are a class of organic compounds that are commonly used as intermediates in the production of various chemicals, including plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. In the medical field, phthalic anhydrides are used as starting materials for the synthesis of a variety of drugs and other therapeutic agents. One example of a drug that is derived from phthalic anhydrides is diethyl phthalate (DEP), which is used as a solvent and plasticizer in medical devices and pharmaceuticals. DEP has been shown to have estrogenic effects in animal studies, which has raised concerns about its potential impact on human health. Other phthalic anhydrides that are used in the medical field include isophthalic anhydride, which is used as a starting material for the synthesis of certain antibiotics, and terephthalic anhydride, which is used in the production of resins and plastics that are used in medical devices. It is important to note that the use of phthalic anhydrides in the medical field is regulated by various government agencies, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), to ensure that they are safe and effective for their intended uses.
Sulfhydryl compounds are organic compounds that contain a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom. They are also known as thiol compounds. In the medical field, sulfhydryl compounds are important because they play a role in many biological processes, including metabolism, detoxification, and antioxidant defense. They are also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as heart disease and diabetes. Some examples of sulfhydryl compounds include cysteine, glutathione, and methionine.
Liver cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue, leading to a loss of liver function. This scarring, or fibrosis, is caused by a variety of factors, including chronic alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune liver diseases. As the liver becomes increasingly damaged, it becomes less able to perform its many functions, such as filtering toxins from the blood, producing bile to aid in digestion, and regulating blood sugar levels. This can lead to a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, jaundice, and confusion. In advanced cases, liver cirrhosis can lead to liver failure, which can be life-threatening. Treatment options for liver cirrhosis depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, liver transplantation.
Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in plant oils, such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and canola oil. It is a liquid at room temperature and has a melting point of 13.4°C (56.1°F). In the medical field, oleic acid is used in a variety of applications. One of its most common uses is as a lubricant for medical instruments and procedures, such as colonoscopies and endoscopies. It is also used as a component in some medications, such as oral contraceptives and topical creams. Oleic acid has anti-inflammatory properties and has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in a variety of conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. It may also have potential as a natural preservative in food products. However, it is important to note that while oleic acid has some potential health benefits, it is also a type of fat and should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
Fibrinogen is a plasma protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is synthesized in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream as a soluble protein. When the blood vessels are damaged, platelets aggregate at the site of injury and release various substances, including thrombin. Thrombin then converts fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin strands, which form a mesh-like structure that stabilizes the platelet plug and prevents further bleeding. This process is known as coagulation and is essential for stopping bleeding and healing wounds. Fibrinogen levels can be measured in the blood as a diagnostic tool for various medical conditions, including bleeding disorders, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease.
In the medical field, a gold colloid is a suspension of tiny gold particles in a liquid, usually water or a saline solution. Gold colloids have been used in medicine for various purposes, including as a contrast agent for diagnostic imaging, such as X-rays and computed tomography (CT) scans. They can also be used as a treatment for certain medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and as a radiation sensitizer in cancer therapy. Gold colloids are generally considered safe and well-tolerated by patients, although they can cause some side effects, such as allergic reactions or skin irritation.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme that is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, bone, and intestines. In the medical field, ALP levels are often measured as a diagnostic tool to help identify various conditions and diseases. There are several types of ALP, including tissue-nonspecific ALP (TN-ALP), bone-specific ALP (B-ALP), and liver-specific ALP (L-ALP). Each type of ALP is produced by different tissues and has different functions. In general, elevated levels of ALP can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including liver disease, bone disease, and certain types of cancer. For example, elevated levels of ALP in the blood can be a sign of liver damage or disease, while elevated levels in the urine can be a sign of bone disease or kidney problems. On the other hand, low levels of ALP can also be a cause for concern, as they may indicate a deficiency in certain vitamins or minerals, such as vitamin D or calcium. Overall, ALP is an important biomarker that can provide valuable information to healthcare providers in the diagnosis and management of various medical conditions.
Triglycerides are a type of fat that are found in the blood and are an important source of energy for the body. They are made up of three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule, and are stored in fat cells (adipocytes) in the body. Triglycerides are transported in the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are complex particles that also carry cholesterol and other lipids. In the medical field, triglycerides are often measured as part of a routine lipid panel, which is a blood test that assesses levels of various types of lipids in the blood. High levels of triglycerides, known as hypertriglyceridemia, can increase the risk of heart disease and other health problems. Treatment for high triglyceride levels may include lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medications.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune system's response to allergens and parasites. It is produced by B cells in response to specific antigens, such as those found in pollen, dust mites, or certain foods. When an allergen enters the body, it triggers the production of IgE antibodies by B cells. These antibodies then bind to mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells that are involved in the inflammatory response. When the same allergen enters the body again, the IgE antibodies on the mast cells and basophils bind to the allergen and cause the release of histamine and other inflammatory chemicals. This leads to symptoms such as itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. IgE is also involved in the immune response to parasites, such as worms. In this case, the IgE antibodies help to trap and kill the parasites by binding to them and marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Overall, IgE is an important part of the immune system's defense against allergens and parasites, but it can also contribute to allergic reactions and other inflammatory conditions when it binds to inappropriate antigens.
Ferritins are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in the storage and regulation of iron in the body. They are found in almost all living organisms and are responsible for protecting iron from oxidation and preventing the formation of toxic free radicals. In the medical field, ferritins are often measured as a marker of iron status in the body. Low levels of ferritin can indicate iron deficiency, while high levels can indicate iron overload or other medical conditions such as inflammation or liver disease. Ferritins are also being studied for their potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.
Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) is a fluorescent dye that is commonly used in the medical field for various diagnostic and research purposes. It is a water-soluble, yellow-green fluorescent dye that is highly sensitive to light and can be easily excited by ultraviolet light. In medical applications, FITC is often used as a fluorescent marker to label cells, proteins, and other molecules. It can be conjugated to antibodies, nucleic acids, and other molecules to enable visualization and analysis of these molecules in cells and tissues. FITC is also used in diagnostic tests, such as flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, to detect and quantify specific cells or molecules in biological samples. It is also used in research to study cell biology, immunology, and other areas of biomedical science. Overall, FITC is a valuable tool in the medical field due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a group of water-soluble polymers that are commonly used in the medical field as solvents, dispersants, and stabilizers. They are made by polymerizing ethylene oxide and have a hydroxyl (-OH) group at each end of the molecule. PEGs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a carrier for drugs and other therapeutic agents, as a lubricant for medical devices, and as an ingredient in various medical products such as ointments, creams, and lotions. They are also used in diagnostic imaging agents, such as contrast agents for X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PEGs are generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses or prolonged exposure may cause irritation or allergic reactions. They are also used in food and personal care products, and are generally recognized as safe for these applications as well.
In the medical field, colloids are suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a liquid medium. They are often used as a means of delivering medication or nutrients to the body, particularly in cases where the patient is unable to absorb nutrients through their digestive system. Colloids can be classified into two main categories: hydrophilic colloids and hydrophobic colloids. Hydrophilic colloids are those that are soluble in water and are often used as plasma expanders to increase blood volume. Examples of hydrophilic colloids include gelatin, dextran, and albumin. Hydrophobic colloids, on the other hand, are insoluble in water and are often used to deliver medications or nutrients directly to the bloodstream. Examples of hydrophobic colloids include liposomes and micelles. Colloids are commonly used in medical treatments such as chemotherapy, blood transfusions, and fluid replacement therapy. They are also used in diagnostic procedures such as radiography and computed tomography (CT) scans. However, it is important to note that colloids can also have potential side effects and risks, and their use should be carefully monitored by medical professionals.
In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.
Lysine is an essential amino acid that is required for the growth and maintenance of tissues in the human body. It is one of the nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. Lysine plays a crucial role in the production of proteins, including enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. It is also involved in the absorption of calcium and the production of niacin, a B vitamin that is important for energy metabolism and the prevention of pellagra. In the medical field, lysine is used to treat and prevent various conditions, including: 1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): Lysine supplements have been shown to reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks of HSV-1 and HSV-2, which cause cold sores and genital herpes, respectively. 2. Cold sores: Lysine supplements can help reduce the frequency and severity of cold sore outbreaks by inhibiting the replication of the herpes simplex virus. 3. Depression: Lysine has been shown to increase levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, in the brain. 4. Hair loss: Lysine is important for the production of hair, and deficiency in lysine has been linked to hair loss. 5. Wound healing: Lysine is involved in the production of collagen, a protein that is important for wound healing. Overall, lysine is an important nutrient that plays a crucial role in many aspects of human health and is used in the treatment and prevention of various medical conditions.
Inflammation is a complex biological response of the body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective mechanism that helps to eliminate the cause of injury, remove damaged tissue, and initiate the healing process. Inflammation involves the activation of immune cells, such as white blood cells, and the release of chemical mediators, such as cytokines and prostaglandins. This leads to the characteristic signs and symptoms of inflammation, including redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response that lasts for a few days to a few weeks and is usually beneficial. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged response that lasts for months or years and can be harmful if it persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders.
Digitoxin is a medication that is used to treat heart failure and certain types of abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation. It works by increasing the strength and efficiency of the heart's contractions, which can help to improve blood flow and reduce symptoms such as shortness of breath and fatigue. Digitoxin is a type of medication called a digitalis glycoside, which is derived from the foxglove plant. It is available in tablet form and is usually taken once or twice a day, depending on the specific dosage and the individual patient's needs. It is important to note that digitoxin can have serious side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and irregular heartbeats. It is also toxic in high doses and can cause serious complications if not taken as directed by a healthcare provider. Therefore, it is important to closely follow the instructions provided by your doctor and to report any side effects or concerns to your healthcare provider right away.
Palmitic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is commonly found in animal fats and some plant oils. It is a long-chain fatty acid with 16 carbon atoms and is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the human body. Palmitic acid is an important source of energy for the body and is also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as cholesterol and hormones. In the medical field, palmitic acid is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or as a component of certain medications. It is also sometimes used in the production of medical devices, such as catheters and implants. However, excessive consumption of palmitic acid has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease and other health problems, so it is important to consume it in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
Hyperthyroxinemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high level of thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in the bloodstream. This can occur due to various reasons, including overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland, decreased clearance of thyroid hormones from the bloodstream, or a combination of both. Hyperthyroxinemia can lead to a range of symptoms, including weight loss, increased heart rate, nervousness, anxiety, irritability, tremors, and difficulty sleeping. In severe cases, it can cause more serious complications such as heart problems, bone loss, and eye problems. Treatment for hyperthyroxinemia typically involves medications to reduce the production of thyroid hormones or to block their absorption in the bloodstream. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove part or all of the thyroid gland. It is important to diagnose and treat hyperthyroxinemia promptly to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and toxins. They are Y-shaped molecules that recognize and bind to specific antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of pathogens. There are five main classes of immunoglobulins: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Immunoglobulins play a critical role in the immune response by neutralizing pathogens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells, and activating the complement system, which helps to destroy pathogens. They are also used in medical treatments, such as immunoglobulin replacement therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiencies, and in the development of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of various diseases.
Thyroxine-binding proteins (TBPs) are proteins that bind to thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in the bloodstream. There are three main types of TBPs: thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA), and albumin. TBG is the most abundant TBP in the blood, accounting for about 75% of the total TBP concentration. It is synthesized in the liver and binds to T4 and T3 with high affinity, preventing their degradation and transport to target tissues. TBG also plays a role in regulating the availability of thyroid hormones to tissues. TBPA is a minor TBP that is synthesized in the liver and binds to T4 and T3 with lower affinity than TBG. It is involved in the transport of thyroid hormones to tissues and also plays a role in regulating thyroid hormone levels. Albumin is a major plasma protein that binds to T4 and T3 with low affinity. It is synthesized in the liver and plays a role in the transport of thyroid hormones to tissues. TBPs play an important role in regulating thyroid hormone levels in the body. Changes in the levels of TBPs can affect the availability of thyroid hormones to tissues and can lead to thyroid hormone disorders.
Uric acid is a chemical compound that is produced when the body breaks down purines, which are found in many foods and beverages. It is the main component of uric acid crystals, which can accumulate in the joints and other tissues if levels of uric acid in the blood become too high. This condition is known as gout. Uric acid is also a natural antioxidant that helps protect the body against damage from free radicals. It is excreted from the body through the kidneys in the urine. In the medical field, high levels of uric acid in the blood are often associated with gout, kidney stones, and other health problems. Treatment for high uric acid levels may include lifestyle changes, such as reducing the intake of purine-rich foods and increasing physical activity, as well as medications to lower uric acid levels in the blood.
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of lactate, a byproduct of cellular respiration. In the medical field, LDH is often used as a diagnostic marker for various diseases and conditions, including liver and heart diseases, cancer, and muscle injuries. LDH is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, heart, muscles, kidneys, and red blood cells. When these tissues are damaged or injured, LDH is released into the bloodstream, which can be detected through blood tests. In addition to its diagnostic use, LDH is also used as a prognostic marker in certain diseases, such as cancer. High levels of LDH in the blood can indicate a more aggressive form of cancer or a poorer prognosis for the patient. Overall, LDH is an important enzyme in the body's metabolism and plays a critical role in the diagnosis and management of various medical conditions.
Alanine transaminase (ALT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids in the liver. It is also known as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and is found in high concentrations in liver cells. When liver cells are damaged or destroyed, ALT is released into the bloodstream, where it can be measured in a blood test. Elevated levels of ALT in the blood are often an indication of liver damage or disease, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, or fatty liver disease. ALT is also found in other tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle, and kidneys, but in lower concentrations than in the liver. In these tissues, elevated levels of ALT can indicate injury or disease. Overall, ALT is an important biomarker for liver function and can be used to diagnose and monitor liver diseases.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands, which are four small glands located in the neck, near the thyroid gland. PTH plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body. PTH acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase the levels of calcium in the blood. It stimulates the release of calcium from the bones into the bloodstream, increases the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys, and promotes the absorption of calcium from the intestines. PTH also plays a role in regulating the levels of phosphorus in the body. It stimulates the kidneys to excrete phosphorus in the urine, which helps to maintain the proper balance of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Abnormal levels of PTH can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hyperparathyroidism (too much PTH), hypoparathyroidism (too little PTH), and parathyroid cancer. Hyperparathyroidism can cause osteoporosis, kidney stones, and other complications, while hypoparathyroidism can lead to muscle cramps, seizures, and other symptoms.
Dansyl compounds are a class of fluorescent organic compounds that are commonly used in the medical field for various analytical and diagnostic purposes. They are named after the dansyl group, which is a derivative of dansyl chloride, a compound that was first synthesized in the 1950s. Dansyl compounds are highly fluorescent, meaning that they emit light when excited by ultraviolet or visible light. This property makes them useful for labeling and detecting various molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules. In the medical field, dansyl compounds are often used as fluorescent tags for proteins and other biomolecules. For example, dansylated antibodies can be used to detect specific proteins in biological samples, such as blood or tissue. Dansylated nucleic acids can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as detecting genetic mutations or identifying specific DNA or RNA sequences. In addition to their use as fluorescent tags, dansyl compounds are also used as probes for studying the properties of various molecules. For example, dansylated small molecules can be used to study the interactions between proteins and other molecules, or to study the dynamics of molecular processes in living cells. Overall, dansyl compounds are a versatile and useful class of fluorescent compounds that have a wide range of applications in the medical field.
In the medical field, Sepharose is a brand name for a type of gel that is commonly used in protein purification and separation techniques. Sepharose is a cross-linked agarose derivative that is made from seaweed and has a porous structure that allows it to bind to specific proteins or other molecules. In protein purification, Sepharose is often used in affinity chromatography, a technique in which a protein of interest is bound to a specific ligand that is immobilized on the Sepharose beads. The mixture of proteins is then passed through the column, and the protein of interest is selectively retained on the beads while other proteins pass through. The protein can then be eluted from the beads by washing with a buffer that disrupts the interaction between the protein and the ligand. Sepharose is also used in other applications in the medical field, such as in the separation of DNA fragments in gel electrophoresis and in the purification of enzymes and other proteins.
In the medical field, dietary proteins refer to the proteins that are obtained from food sources and are consumed by individuals as part of their daily diet. These proteins are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues in the body, including muscles, bones, skin, and organs. Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that can be combined in various ways to form different proteins. The body requires a specific set of amino acids, known as essential amino acids, which cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. Dietary proteins can be classified into two categories: complete and incomplete proteins. Complete proteins are those that contain all of the essential amino acids in the required proportions, while incomplete proteins are those that lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal-based foods, such as meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products, are typically complete proteins, while plant-based foods, such as beans, lentils, and grains, are often incomplete proteins. In the medical field, the amount and quality of dietary proteins consumed by individuals are important factors in maintaining optimal health and preventing various diseases, including malnutrition, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.
Complement C3 is a protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system's defense against infections. It is one of the proteins that make up the complement system, a series of proteins that work together to help the immune system identify and destroy invading pathogens. C3 is synthesized in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream. When it encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and splits into two fragments: C3a and C3b. C3a is a small protein that acts as a signaling molecule, attracting immune cells to the site of infection and promoting inflammation. C3b, on the other hand, binds to the surface of the pathogen and helps to recruit other immune cells to destroy it. In medical testing, the level of complement C3 in the blood can be measured to help diagnose and monitor certain medical conditions. For example, low levels of C3 can be a sign of complement deficiency, which can increase the risk of infections. High levels of C3 can be a sign of certain autoimmune disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
In the medical field, copper is a trace element that is essential for various bodily functions. It plays a crucial role in the formation of red blood cells, the maintenance of healthy bones, and the proper functioning of the immune system. Copper is also involved in the metabolism of iron and the production of energy in the body. Copper deficiency can lead to a range of health problems, including anemia, osteoporosis, and impaired immune function. On the other hand, excessive copper intake can be toxic and can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and other organs. In some medical treatments, copper is used as a component of certain medications, such as antibiotics and antifungal drugs. Copper is also used in medical devices, such as catheters and implants, due to its antimicrobial properties. Overall, copper is an important nutrient in the medical field, and its proper balance is crucial for maintaining good health.
Lipoproteins are complex particles that consist of a lipid core surrounded by a protein shell. They are responsible for transporting lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, throughout the bloodstream. There are several types of lipoproteins, including low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL). LDL, often referred to as "bad cholesterol," carries cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body. When there is too much LDL in the bloodstream, it can build up in the walls of arteries, leading to the formation of plaques that can cause heart disease and stroke. HDL, often referred to as "good cholesterol," helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing and elimination. High levels of HDL are generally considered protective against heart disease. VLDL and IDL are intermediate lipoproteins that are produced by the liver and transport triglycerides to other parts of the body. VLDL is converted to IDL, which is then converted to LDL. Lipoprotein levels can be measured through blood tests, and their levels are often used as a diagnostic tool for assessing cardiovascular risk.
Caseins are a group of proteins found in milk and other dairy products. They are the major protein component of milk and are responsible for its thick, creamy texture. There are four main types of caseins: alpha-casein, beta-casein, kappa-casein, and omega-casein. These proteins are important for the nutritional value of milk and are also used in the production of cheese and other dairy products. In the medical field, caseins have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to promote bone health and reduce the risk of certain diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects of caseins on human health.
In the medical field, "Fatty Acids, Nonesterified" refers to free fatty acids that are not bound to glycerol in triglycerides. These fatty acids are found in the bloodstream and are an important source of energy for the body. They can be obtained from dietary fats or synthesized by the liver and adipose tissue. Nonesterified fatty acids are also involved in various physiological processes, such as the regulation of insulin sensitivity and the production of signaling molecules. Abnormal levels of nonesterified fatty acids in the blood can be associated with various medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
Lauric acid is a saturated fatty acid that is naturally found in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and some animal fats. In the medical field, lauric acid has been studied for its potential health benefits, including antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Some studies have suggested that lauric acid may have antifungal and antibacterial effects, making it a potential treatment for a variety of infections. It has also been studied for its potential antiviral effects, including against the viruses that cause influenza and herpes. In addition to its potential therapeutic effects, lauric acid has also been studied for its potential role in weight loss and weight management. Some studies have suggested that lauric acid may help to increase feelings of fullness and reduce appetite, which could potentially aid in weight loss. However, it is important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks of lauric acid. As with any dietary supplement or food ingredient, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional before using lauric acid for any health-related purpose.
Ascites is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity. This fluid can cause the abdomen to become distended and tender, and can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, abdominal pain, and nausea. Ascites can be caused by a variety of underlying medical conditions, including liver disease, heart failure, kidney disease, and cancer. Treatment for ascites depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Caprylates are a group of compounds that are derived from caprylic acid, which is an eight-carbon saturated fatty acid. In the medical field, caprylates are often used as emollients, which are substances that help to soften and moisturize the skin. They are also used as surfactants, which are substances that help to reduce surface tension and improve the spreading and penetration of other ingredients in skincare products. Caprylates are generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated by the skin, and they are commonly used in a variety of skincare products, including lotions, creams, and shampoos.
Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a type of kidney disease that affects the glomeruli, which are tiny blood vessels in the kidneys responsible for filtering waste products from the blood. In MGN, the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), a thin layer of tissue that separates the glomerular capillaries from the Bowman's capsule, becomes thickened and abnormal. This thickening can lead to the formation of small pockets or blebs on the GBM, which can trap proteins and other substances in the urine, leading to proteinuria (excess protein in the urine). MGN can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. It is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies such as kidney biopsies. Treatment for MGN depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to reduce proteinuria, control blood pressure, and manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged kidney tissue.
Autoantibodies are antibodies that are produced by the immune system against the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. In other words, they are antibodies that mistakenly target and attack the body's own components instead of foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria. Autoantibodies can be present in people with various medical conditions, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. They can also be found in people with certain infections, cancer, and other diseases. Autoantibodies can cause damage to the body's own cells, tissues, or organs, leading to inflammation, tissue destruction, and other symptoms. They can also interfere with the normal functioning of the body's systems, such as the nervous system, digestive system, and cardiovascular system. Diagnosis of autoantibodies is typically done through blood tests, which can detect the presence of specific autoantibodies in the blood. Treatment for autoimmune diseases that involve autoantibodies may include medications to suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, as well as other therapies to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells, and it is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream in response to the body's needs. In the medical field, blood glucose levels are often measured as part of a routine check-up or to monitor the health of people with diabetes or other conditions that affect blood sugar levels. Normal blood glucose levels for adults are typically between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before a meal and between 80 and 120 mg/dL two hours after a meal. Elevated blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia, can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, stress, certain medications, and high-carbohydrate meals. Low blood glucose levels, also known as hypoglycemia, can be caused by diabetes treatment that is too aggressive, skipping meals, or certain medications. Monitoring blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes, as it helps them manage their condition and prevent complications such as nerve damage, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disease.
Zinc is a chemical element that is essential for human health. In the medical field, zinc is used in a variety of ways, including as a supplement to treat and prevent certain health conditions. Zinc is involved in many important bodily functions, including immune system function, wound healing, and DNA synthesis. It is also important for the proper functioning of the senses of taste and smell. Zinc deficiency can lead to a range of health problems, including impaired immune function, delayed wound healing, and impaired growth and development in children. Zinc supplements are often recommended for people who are at risk of zinc deficiency, such as pregnant and breastfeeding women, people with certain medical conditions, and people who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet. In addition to its use as a supplement, zinc is also used in some medications, such as those used to treat acne and the common cold. It is also used in some over-the-counter products, such as antacids and nasal sprays. Overall, zinc is an important nutrient that plays a vital role in maintaining good health.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by a variety of cells, including immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and T cells, as well as non-immune cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. IL-6 has a wide range of functions in the body, including regulating the immune response, promoting inflammation, and stimulating the growth and differentiation of immune cells. It is also involved in the regulation of metabolism, bone metabolism, and hematopoiesis (the production of blood cells). In the medical field, IL-6 is often measured as a marker of inflammation and is used to diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases, infections, and cancer. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions, as well as for the management of chronic pain and other conditions.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.
In the medical field, carbonates refer to compounds that contain the carbonate ion (CO3^2-), which is formed by combining a carbon atom with three oxygen atoms. Carbonates are commonly found in minerals and rocks, and they can also be produced synthetically. In medicine, carbonates are used as antacids to neutralize stomach acid and relieve heartburn and indigestion. They work by binding to the hydrogen ions in stomach acid, reducing its acidity and making it less irritating to the lining of the esophagus and stomach. Some common examples of carbonates used in medicine include sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), potassium carbonate (K2CO3), and calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These compounds are often combined with other ingredients, such as magnesium hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide, to create more effective antacids. It's worth noting that while carbonates can be effective at relieving symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn, they should not be used as a long-term solution for these conditions. If you experience frequent or persistent heartburn or acid reflux, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and develop a more effective treatment plan.
Povidone is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is also known as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and is a white, odorless powder that is easily soluble in water. Povidone is used in a variety of medical applications, including wound care, surgical procedures, and the treatment of skin infections. It is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and is often used in combination with other antiseptic agents to enhance its effectiveness. Povidone is available in a variety of forms, including solutions, gels, and ointments, and is typically applied topically to the skin or applied to medical devices and surfaces to disinfect them. It is generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated by most people, although it may cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals.
Dinitrobenzenes are a class of organic compounds that contain two nitro groups (-NO2) attached to a benzene ring. They are commonly used as intermediates in the synthesis of various chemicals and as pesticides. In the medical field, dinitrobenzenes have been studied for their potential use as antimalarial agents, as well as for their ability to inhibit the growth of certain types of cancer cells. However, they can also be toxic and may cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and other adverse effects. As a result, their use in medicine is limited and further research is needed to fully understand their potential benefits and risks.
Testosterone is a hormone that is primarily produced in the testicles in males and in smaller amounts in the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. It is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. Testosterone also plays a role in bone density, red blood cell production, and the regulation of the body's metabolism. In the medical field, testosterone is often used to treat conditions related to low testosterone levels, such as hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone), delayed puberty, and certain types of breast cancer in men. It can also be used to treat conditions related to low estrogen levels in women, such as osteoporosis and menopause symptoms. Testosterone therapy can be administered in various forms, including injections, gels, patches, and pellets. However, it is important to note that testosterone therapy can have side effects, such as acne, hair loss, and an increased risk of blood clots, and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional.
In the medical field, polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units or monomers. Polymers are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and medical devices. One common use of polymers in medicine is in drug delivery systems. Polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, allowing for more controlled and sustained release of the drug. This can help to improve the effectiveness of the drug and reduce side effects. Polymers are also used in tissue engineering, where they are used to create scaffolds for growing new tissue. These scaffolds can be designed to mimic the structure and properties of natural tissue, allowing cells to grow and differentiate into the desired tissue type. In addition, polymers are used in a variety of medical devices, including implants, prosthetics, and surgical sutures. For example, polymers can be used to create biodegradable implants that are absorbed by the body over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove the implant. Overall, polymers play an important role in the medical field, providing a range of useful materials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical device applications.
Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate is a radiopharmaceutical used in medical imaging to diagnose various conditions, particularly in the field of nuclear medicine. It is a radioactive tracer that is injected into the body and travels to specific organs or tissues, where it can be detected by a gamma camera to create images of the body's internal structures. Pentetate is a chelating agent that binds to the Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) isotope, which is a short-lived radioactive form of Technetium. The resulting compound, Tc-99m Pentetate, is a water-soluble complex that can be easily injected into the bloodstream and taken up by cells in the body. Tc-99m Pentetate is commonly used to diagnose conditions such as bone disorders, heart disease, and kidney problems. It can also be used to evaluate blood flow to the brain, heart, and other organs. The radiopharmaceutical is safe and has a low risk of side effects, as the amount of radiation exposure is carefully controlled.
Dinitrophenols (DNP) are a class of organic compounds that contain two nitro groups (-NO2) attached to a phenol ring. They have been used as a weight loss drug in the past, but their use has been banned due to their toxic effects on the body. In the medical field, DNP is primarily studied as a research tool to investigate the effects of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) on energy metabolism. UCP1 is a protein found in brown adipose tissue (BAT) that plays a role in thermogenesis, the process by which the body generates heat. DNP is known to activate UCP1 and increase energy expenditure, which can lead to weight loss. However, DNP is also a potent uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which cells generate ATP, the energy currency of the body. This can lead to a number of harmful effects, including increased heart rate, arrhythmias, and even death. As a result, the use of DNP as a weight loss drug has been banned in many countries, and its use in research is highly regulated.
Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease that involves inflammation of the glomeruli, which are tiny blood vessels in the kidneys responsible for filtering waste products from the blood. This inflammation can cause damage to the glomeruli, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. There are many different types of glomerulonephritis, which can be classified based on their underlying cause. Some common causes include infections (such as strep throat or hepatitis B), autoimmune disorders (such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis), and certain medications or toxins. Symptoms of glomerulonephritis can vary depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition. Common symptoms may include blood in the urine, swelling in the legs or feet, high blood pressure, fatigue, and changes in urine output. Treatment for glomerulonephritis typically involves managing symptoms and addressing the underlying cause of the inflammation. This may include medications to reduce inflammation, control blood pressure, and prevent further damage to the kidneys. In some cases, more aggressive treatments such as dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary.
Liver diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the liver, which is a vital organ responsible for many essential functions in the body. These diseases can be caused by various factors, including viral infections, alcohol abuse, drug toxicity, autoimmune disorders, genetic mutations, and metabolic disorders. Some common liver diseases include: 1. Hepatitis: An inflammation of the liver caused by a viral infection, such as hepatitis A, B, or C. 2. Cirrhosis: A chronic liver disease characterized by the scarring and hardening of liver tissue, which can lead to liver failure. 3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver, often as a result of obesity, insulin resistance, or a high-fat diet. 4. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A group of liver diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. 5. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC): A chronic autoimmune liver disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver. 6. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC): A chronic autoimmune liver disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver and can lead to cirrhosis. 7. Wilson's disease: A genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and other organs, leading to liver damage and other health problems. 8. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, leading to iron overload in the liver and other organs. Treatment for liver diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise may be sufficient to manage the disease. In more severe cases, medications, surgery, or liver transplantation may be necessary.
Human serum albumin
Radioiodinated serum albumin
Bovine serum albumin
Serum-ascites albumin gradient
Timeline of events related to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
Walter Ruggles Campbell
Gordon Wallace (professor)
Lymphoma in animals
Ann T. Bowling
Dennis Wallace Watson
Biological aspects of fluorine
Albumin blood (serum) test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
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- Albumin can also be measured in the urine . (medlineplus.gov)
- 3.5 g of protein in the urine, a low serum albumin , edema, and hyperlipidemia. (medscape.com)
- Hepatorenal syndrome is diagnosed when a creatinine clearance rate of less than 40 mL/min is present or when a serum creatinine level of greater than 1.5 mg/dL, a urine volume of less than 500 mL/day, and a urine sodium level of less than 10 mEq/L are present. (medscape.com)
- Coskun AF, Nagi R, Sadeghi K, Phillips S, Ozcan A. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone. (medscape.com)
- Albumin is a protein made by the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
- A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- In addition to the fibrillar amyloid protein, the deposits also contain serum amyloid P component and glycosaminoglycans. (msdmanuals.com)
- A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. (bvsalud.org)
- Albumin is a blood plasma protein synthesized in the liver. (medscape.com)
- Because it is the main protein in human blood, decreases in albumin due to decreased synthesis or losses result in impaired regulation of intravascular oncotic pressure and manifests as edema. (medscape.com)
- The albumin test helps to determine if the patient has liver or kidney disease or if the body is not absorbing enough protein. (medscape.com)
- 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and measurements of serum phosphorus, creatinine and hemoglobin. (medscape.com)
- Conditions associated with "high" levels of albumin: dehydration. (medscape.com)
- Serum phosphorus concentration can be elevated in milk-alkali syndrome due to a low PTH level, although this finding is less prevalent in the present era than it was when ingestion of milk and bicarbonate caused the syndrome. (medscape.com)
- Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease. (bvsalud.org)
- The product of serum calcium and phosphorus is an important predictor of the risk of metastatic calcification. (medscape.com)
- Serum phosphorus levels ≥3.5 mg/dL were associated with both mild and moderate anemia. (medscape.com)
- Additional independent anemia risk factors, including female sex, Asian race, diabetes, low albumin and low iron saturation, were observed, but did not alter the anemia-phosphorus association. (medscape.com)
- [ 1 ] Dysregulation of these processes resulting in chronically low or high serum phosphorus has been associated with adverse outcomes. (medscape.com)
- [ 7 ] These few studies that evaluated the relationship between serum phosphorus and anemia have been limited in various ways, including smaller population size, lack of heterogeneity and non-consideration of secondary causes of anemia. (medscape.com)
- The hospital course of a patient with milk-alkali syndrome who, during treatment, developed symptomatic hypocalcemia with a markedly elevated serum parathyroid hormone level (PTH). (medscape.com)
- Acute acidemia decreases calcium binding to albumin, whereas alkalemia increases binding, which decreases ionized calcium. (medscape.com)
- About half (54.3%) of the patients had elevated alanine aminotransfe- rase levels and detectable serum HBV DNA. (who.int)
- Several methods exist for determining albumin levels, including dye-binding methods, electrophoresis, and immunochemical methods, as well as dipstick methods for urinary albumin. (medscape.com)
- Serum calcium levels must be interpreted with regard to serum albumin levels, although use of the formula for correction of calcium for hypoalbuminemia is validated only in cirrhosis of the liver. (medscape.com)
- Marked lipemia can interfere with albumin measurement. (medscape.com)
- Serum calcium levels can range from a mild elevation to a severe, life-threatening elevation of higher than 18 mg/dL. (medscape.com)
- Hyperthyroidism can cause elevated serum calcium levels due to high bone turnover. (medscape.com)
- Adrenal failure also can be associated with high serum calcium levels, although the mechanism has not been fully explained. (medscape.com)
- If serum PTH is measured after treatment has started, the levels will be unpredictable and the results will be confusing. (medscape.com)
- The combination of severe renal impairment and a high serum PTH level suggests secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism. (medscape.com)
- A blood sample is put in a centrifuge, which spins and separates the cells from the serum. (medscape.com)
- An elevated arterial or free venous serum ammonia level is the classic laboratory abnormality reported in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. (medscape.com)
- [ 17 ] Another study of kidney transplant patients showed that a one standard deviation higher of serum phosphorous level (0.8 mg/dL) was associated with 77% greater odds for anemia. (medscape.com)
- RÉSUMÉ Les polymorphismes mononucléotidiques du gène de l' Interleukine (IL)-28B , en l'occurence le rs12979860, permettent de prédire la réponse au traitement par interféron- pégylé associé à la ribavirine chez des patients infectés par le virus de l'hépatite C de génotype 1. (who.int)
- Rasmussen MH, Brændholt Olsen MW, Alifrangis L, Klim S, Suntum M. A Reversible Albumin-binding Growth Hormone Derivative is Well-tolerated and Possesses a Potential Once-weekly Treatment Profile. (medscape.com)
- The chief functions of albumin are to transport a wide variety of ligands, to maintain plasma oncotic pressure, and to serve as a source for endogenous amino acids. (medscape.com)
- Albumin testing is part of a comprehensive metabolic panel. (medscape.com)
Abundant serum protein2
- Immunoglobulins are another class of highly abundant serum protein. (nih.gov)
- The imaging agent binds with high affinity to serum albumin, the most abundant serum protein, and can be tagged with several isotopes making it suitable for magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomographic imaging. (nih.gov)
- The serum ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) is a formula used to assist in determining the etiology of ascites . (medscape.com)
- Also see Medscape's Ascites Albumin Gradient Calculator . (medscape.com)
- The serum to ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) can be used to help determine the etiology of ascites by identifying the presence of portal hypertension. (medscape.com)
- The serum-ascites albumin gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept in the differential diagnosis of ascites. (medscape.com)
- The Serum Ascites to Albumin Gradient (SAAG) calculator is created by QxMD. (medscape.com)
- Drinking too much water (water intoxication) may also cause abnormal albumin results. (medlineplus.gov)
- Our objective is to develop an improved, optimized, simple, reproducible and clinically translatable method to label serum albumins with fluorine-18 for use as a blood pool imaging agent. (nih.gov)
- METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline serum albumin levels were measured in 456 AHF subjects randomized in the DOSE-AHF and ROSE-AHF trials. (nih.gov)
- This Aβ deposition could be prevented by directed enhancement of Aβ binding to its natural depot, human serum albumin (HSA). (nih.gov)
- Efficient and specific removal of albumin from human serum samples. (nih.gov)
- We have used monoclonal antibodies against human serum albumin (HSA) to develop an immunoaffinity resin that is effective in the removal of both full-length HSA and many of the HSA fragments present in serum. (nih.gov)
- Final conjugation of the serum albumin with [18F] fluoronicotinic acid-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl ester in phosphate buffer, pH 9, for 20 min produced fluorine-18-radiolabeled albumins (rat & human). (nih.gov)
- Albumin (Human) 5%, USP (Plasbumin ® -5) is made from large pools of human venous plasma by the Cohn cold ethanol fractionation process. (nih.gov)
- but where there is an oncotic deficit, Albumin (Human) 25%, USP (Plasbumin ® -25) may be preferred. (nih.gov)
- Evans blue dye has been an important tool in many physiological and clinical investigations because of its high affinity for plasma albumin and has been used for a long time in clinical practice for determination of patient plasma volume. (nih.gov)
- Clinical Implications of Serum Albumin Levels in Acute Heart Failure: Insights From DOSE-AHF and ROSE-AHF. (nih.gov)
- Albumin was not associated with WRF, WHF, or clinical decongestion by 72 hours. (nih.gov)
- CONCLUSIONS: Baseline serum albumin levels were not associated with short-term clinical outcomes for AHF patients undergoing decongestive therapies. (nih.gov)
- The association between pretransplant serum albumin concentration and post-transplant outcomes in kidney transplant recipients is unclear. (medscape.com)
- We hypothesized that in transplant-waitlisted hemodialysis patients, lower serum albumin concentrations are associated with worse post-transplant outcomes. (medscape.com)
- Hence, lower pretransplant serum albumin level is associated with worse post-transplant outcomes. (medscape.com)
- To our knowledge no study has thoroughly examined the association between pretransplant serum albumin level and short-term outcome such as DGF and long-term outcomes such as mortality and graft failure after kidney transplantation. (medscape.com)
- The higher pretransplant serum albumin was associated with lower mortality, graft failure and DGF risk even after multivariate adjustment for case-mix, malnutrition-inflammation complex and transplant related variable. (medscape.com)
- Albumin was not associated with 60-day mortality, rehospitalization, or unscheduled emergency room visits. (nih.gov)
- We hypothesized that lower pretransplant serum albumin during the weeks immediately prior to kidney transplantation is associated with worse post-transplant patient and graft survival and DGF in a large prospective cohort of incident kidney transplant recipients across the United States. (medscape.com)
- The unusually high abundance of albumin in serum can interfere with the resolution and sensitivity of many proteome profiling techniques. (nih.gov)
- By taking advantage of the high in-vivo EB binding affinity to albumin, the current imaging agent is a NOTA conjugate of truncated form of Evans blue (NEB) for in vivo albumin labeling and then labeling with 18 F labeling by the formation of 18 F-aluminum fluoride complex. (nih.gov)
- thus the imaging results will reflect the distribution and metabolism of serum albumin accurately. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, there was no association between continuous albumin levels and symptom change according to visual analog scale or weight change by 72 hours. (nih.gov)
- Fluorine-18 labeling of albumin was achieved by an indirect method. (nih.gov)
- Information in this record refers to the use of albumin, iodinated I 125 serum (I 125 HSA) as a diagnostic agent. (nih.gov)
- Plasbumin-5 is a 5% sterile solution of albumin in an aqueous diluent. (nih.gov)