A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Water-soluble proteins found in egg whites, blood, lymph, and other tissues and fluids. They coagulate upon heating.
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
A condition in which albumin level in blood (SERUM ALBUMIN) is below the normal range. Hypoalbuminemia may be due to decreased hepatic albumin synthesis, increased albumin catabolism, altered albumin distribution, or albumin loss through the urine (ALBUMINURIA).
Cell surface proteins that bind albumin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An indicator and reagent. It has been used in serum albumin determinations and as a pH indicator.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immune complex disease caused by the administration of foreign serum or serum proteins and characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and urticaria. When they are complexed to protein carriers, some drugs can also cause serum sickness when they act as haptens inducing antibody responses.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A major class of water-soluble seed storage proteins. Many proteins from this class are major PLANT ALLERGENS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An indicator and reagent. It has been used for several purposes including the determination of serum albumin concentrations
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
A condition in which total serum protein level is below the normal range. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by protein malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract, EDEMA, or PROTEINURIA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Pathological conditions in the INTESTINES that are characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of serum proteins, including SERUM ALBUMIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; and at times LYMPHOCYTES. Severe condition can result in HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA or LYMPHOPENIA. Protein-losing enteropathies are associated with a number of diseases including INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIS; WHIPPLE'S DISEASE; and NEOPLASMS of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Oxyphenbutazone eyedrops have been used abroad in the management of postoperative ocular inflammation, superficial eye injuries, and episcleritis. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2000) It had been used by mouth in rheumatic disorders such as ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis but such use is no longer considered justified owing to the risk of severe hematological adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p27)
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Stable iodine atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iodine, but differ in atomic weight. I-127 is the only naturally occurring stable iodine isotope.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
A MADS domain-containing transcription factor that binds to the SERUM RESPONSE ELEMENT in the promoter-enhancer region of many genes. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A suspension of metallic gold particles.
One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
An insoluble support for an ANTIGEN or ANTIBODIES that is used in AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY to adsorb the homologous antibody or antigen from a mixture. Many different substances are used, among them SEPHAROSE; GLUTARALDEHYDE; copolymers of ANHYDRIDES; polyacrylamides, etc.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Abnormally elevated THYROXINE level in the BLOOD.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Blood proteins that bind to THYROID HORMONES such as THYROXINE and transport them throughout the circulatory system.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (1/5528)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Upstream region of rat serum albumin gene promoter contributes to promoter activity: presence of functional binding site for hepatocyte nuclear factor-3. (2/5528)

Transcription of the serum albumin gene occurs almost exclusively in the liver and is controlled in part by a strong liver-specific promoter. The upstream region of the serum albumin gene promoter is highly conserved among species and is footprinted in vitro by a number of nuclear proteins. However, the role of the upstream promoter region in regulating transcription and the identity of the transcription factors that bind to this region have not been established. In the present study, deletion analysis of the rat serum albumin promoter in transiently transfected HepG2 cells demonstrated that elimination of the region between -207 and -153 bp caused a two-fold decrease in promoter activity (P<0.05). Additional analysis of the -207 to -124 bp promoter interval led to the identification of two potential binding sites for hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 (HNF-3) located at -168 to -157 bp (site X) and -145 to -134 bp (site Y). Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays performed with the HNF-3 X and Y sites demonstrated that both sites are capable of binding HNF-3alpha and HNF-3beta. Placement of a single copy of the HNF-3 X site upstream from a minimal promoter increased promoter activity by about four-fold in HepG2 cells, and the reporter construct containing this site could be transactivated if co-transfected with an HNF-3 expression construct. Furthermore, inactivation of the HNF-3 X site by site-directed mutagenesis within the context of the -261 bp albumin promoter construct resulted in a 40% decrease in transcription (P<0.05). These results indicate that the positive effect of the -207 to -153 bp promoter interval is attributable to the presence of the HNF-3 X site within this interval. Additional results obtained with transfected HepG2 cells suggest that the HNF-3 Y site plays a lesser role in activation of transcription than the X site.  (+info)

Hypoalbuminemia increases lysophosphatidylcholine in low-density lipoprotein of normocholesterolemic subjects. (3/5528)

BACKGROUND: A phospholipid, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), is the major determinant of the atherosclerotic properties of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Under normal circumstances most LPC is bound to albumin. We hypothesized that lipoprotein LPC concentrations are increased in hypoalbuminemic patients with the nephrotic syndrome, irrespective of their lipid levels. To test this hypothesis, we selected nephrotic and control subjects with matched LDL cholesterol levels. METHODS: Lipoproteins and the albumin-rich lipoprotein-deficient fractions were separated by ultracentrifugation and their phospholipid composition was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: Nephrotic subjects (albumin 23 +/- 2 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter) had a LDL LPC concentration that was increased (P < 0.05) to 66 +/- 7 vs. 35 +/- 6 micromol/liter in matched controls (albumin 42 +/- 5 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 3.1 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter). LPC in very low-density lipoprotein plus intermediate-density lipoprotein (VLDL + IDL) in these subjects was also increased to 33 +/- 7 vs. 9 +/- 2 micromol/liter in controls (P < 0.05). Conversely, LPC was decreased to 19 +/- 4 micromol/liter in the albumin-containing fraction of these hypoalbuminemic patients, as compared to 46 +/- 10 micromol/liter in the controls (P < 0.05). LPC was also low (14 +/- 4 micromol/liter) in the albumin-containing fraction of hypoalbuminemic, hypocholesterolemic patients with nonrenal diseases. In hyperlipidemic nephrotic subjects (albumin 21 +/- 2 g/liter and LDL cholesterol 5.7 +/- 0.5 mmol/liter) the LPC levels in LDL and VLDL + IDL were further increased, to 95 +/- 20 and 56 +/- 23 micromol/liter, respectively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that in the presence of hypoalbuminemia in combination with proteinuria, LPC shifts from albumin to VLDL, IDL and LDL. This effect is independent of hyperlipidemia. Increased LPC in lipoproteins may be an important factor in the disproportionate increase in cardiovascular disease in nephrotic patients with hypoalbuminemia.  (+info)

Serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure. (4/5528)

BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism are known to be present, and several factors could contribute to the abnormalities. METHODS: We measured serum levels of three vitamin D metabolites, 1,25(OH)2D, 24, 25(OH)2D and 25(OH)D, and analyzed factors affecting their levels in 76 nondialyzed patients with CRF (serum creatinine> 1.6 and < 9.0 mg/dl), 37 of whom had diabetes mellitus (DM-CRF) and 39 of whom were nondiabetic (nonDM-CRF). RESULTS: Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were positively correlated with estimated creatinine clearance (CCr; r = 0.429; P < 0.0001), and levels of 24,25(OH)2D were weakly correlated with CCr (r = 0.252, P < 0.05); no correlation was noted for 25(OH)D. Serum levels of all three vitamin D metabolites were significantly and positively correlated with serum albumin. Although there were no significant differences in age, sex, estimated CCr, calcium and phosphate between DM-CRF and nonDM-CRF, all three vitamin D metabolites were significantly lower in DM-CRF than in nonDM-CRF. To analyze factors influencing vitamin D metabolite levels, we performed multiple regression analyses. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly and independently associated with serum albumin, presence of DM and serum phosphate (R2 = 0.599; P < 0.0001). 24,25(OH)2D levels were significantly and strongly associated with 25(OH)D (beta = 0.772; R2 = 0.446; P < 0.0001). Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels were significantly associated only with estimated CCr (R2 = 0. 409; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that hypoalbuminemia and the presence of DM independently affect serum 25(OH)D levels, probably via diabetic nephropathy and poor nutritional status associated with diabetes, and that 25(OH)D is actively catalyzed to 24,25(OH)2D in CRF, probably largely via extrarenal 24-hydroxylase. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were significantly affected by the degree of renal failure. Thus, this study indicates that patients with CRF, particularly those with DM, should receive supplements containing the active form of vitamin D prior to dialysis.  (+info)

Septicemia in dialysis patients: incidence, risk factors, and prognosis. (5/5528)

BACKGROUND: Infection is second to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and septicemia causes a majority of these infectious deaths. To identify patients at high risk and to characterize modifiable risk factors for septicemia, we examined the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis for septicemia in a large, representative group of U.S. dialysis patients. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of incident ESRD patients in the case-mix study of the U.S. Renal Data System with seven years of follow-up from hospitalization and death records. Poisson regression was used to examine independent risk factors for hospital-managed septicemia. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the independent effect of septicemia on all-cause mortality and on death from septicemia. Separate analyses were performed for patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD). RESULTS: Over seven years of follow-up, 11.7% of 4005 HD patients and 9.4% of 913 PD patients had at least one episode of septicemia. Older age and diabetes were independent risk factors for septicemia in all patients. Among HD patients, low serum albumin, temporary vascular access, and dialyzer reuse were also associated with increased risk. Among PD patients, white race and having no health insurance at dialysis initiation were also risk factors. Patients with septicemia had twice the risk of death from any cause and a fivefold to ninefold increased risk of death from septicemia. CONCLUSIONS: Septicemia, which carries a marked increased risk of death, occurs frequently in patients on PD as well as HD. Early referral to a nephrologist, improving nutrition, and avoiding temporary vascular access may decrease the incidence of septicemia. Further study of how race, insurance status, and dialyzer reuse can contribute to the risk of septicemia among ESRD patients is indicated.  (+info)

Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. (6/5528)

Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease.  (+info)

Distinct clinical and laboratory activity of two recombinant interleukin-2 preparations. (7/5528)

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a potent lymphokine that activates natural killer cells, T cells, and other cells of the immune system. Several distinct recombinant human IL-2 preparations have shown antitumor activity, particularly for renal cell cancer and melanoma. Somewhat distinct immune and clinical effects have been noted when different IL-2 preparations have been tested clinically; however, the regimens and doses used were not identical. To compare these more directly, we have evaluated two clinical recombinant IL-2 preparations in vitro and in vivo using similar regimens and similar IUs of IL-2. We used the Food and Drug Administration-approved, commercially available Chiron IL-2 and the Hoffmann LaRoche (HLR) IL-2 supplied by the National Cancer Institute. Using equivalent IUs of IL-2, we noted quantitative differences in vitro and in vivo in the IL-2 activity of these two preparations. In patients receiving comparable IUs of the two preparations, HLR IL-2 induced the release of more soluble IL-2 receptor alpha into the serum than Chiron IL-2. In addition, more toxicities were noted in patients receiving 1.5 x 10(6) IU of HLR IL-2 than were seen in patients treated with 1.5 x 10(6) or even 4.5 x 10(6) IU of Chiron IL-2. These toxicities included fever, nausea and vomiting, and hepatic toxicity. In vitro proliferative assays using IL-2-dependent human and murine cell lines indicated that the IU of HLR IL-2 was more effective than Chiron IL-2 at inducing tritiated thymidine incorporation. Using flow cytometry, we also found quantitative differences in the ability of these two preparations to bind to IL-2 receptors. These findings indicate that approximately 3-6 IU of Chiron IL-2 are required to induce the same biological effect as 1 IU of HLR IL-2.  (+info)

Phospholipid hydroperoxide cysteine peroxidase activity of human serum albumin. (8/5528)

Human serum albumin (HSA) reduced the phospholipid hydroperoxide, 1-palmitoyl-2-(13-hydroperoxy-cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoyl)-l-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC-OOH) to the corresponding hydroxy-derivative with a high apparent affinity (Km=9. 23+/-0.95 microM). Removal of bound lipid during purification increased this activity. At physiological concentration, HSA reduced the phospholipid hydroperoxide in the absence of a cofactor. However, in the presence of a cofactor (reductant), the rate of the reaction was increased. All of the major aminothiols in plasma could act as reductants, the best being the most abundant, cysteine (Km=600+/-80 microM). For every nanomole of PLPC-OOH reduced by HSA, 1.26 nmol of cystine was formed, indicating a reaction stoichiometry of 1 mol PLPC-OOH to 2 mol cysteine. We used chemical modification to determine which amino acid residues on HSA were responsible for the activity. Oxidation of thiol group(s) by N-ethylmaleimide led to a reduction in the rate of activity, whereas reduction of thiols by either dithiothreitol or the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, increased the activity. Both N-ethylmaleimide-modified HSA and dithiothreitol-treated HSA exhibited increased apparent affinities for PLPC-OOH. For a range of preparations of albumin with different modifications, the activity on PLPC-OOH was dependent on the amount of free thiol groups on the albumin (correlation coefficient=0.91). Patients with lowered albumin concentrations after septic shock showed lowered total plasma thiol concentrations and decreased phospholipid hydroperoxide cysteine peroxidase (PHCPx) activities. These results therefore show for the first time that HSA exhibits PHCPx activity, and that the majority of the activity depends on the presence of reduced thiol group(s) on the albumin.  (+info)

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Our study does not provide evidence that the effect of resuscitation with albumin compared with saline in the intensive care unit is different in patients with different baseline serum albumin concentrations. Nor does it provide evidence to support the suggestion that albumin increases the risk of mortality in patients with hypoalbuminaemia. When the odds ratios for death was compared in patients with a baseline serum albumin concentration of 25 g/l or less or of more than 25 g/l we found only limited evidence that treatment effects were different and this only after correction for other baseline risk factors. When we considered the effect of baseline serum albumin concentration as a continuous variable across the spectrum of albumin concentrations, baseline concentration had no impact on the treatment effect even after correction for other baseline risk factors. Taken together these results suggest that albumin and saline produce similar treatment effects across the range of albumin ...
Sarver R.W., Gao H., Tian F.. An NMR method was developed for determining binding sites of small molecules on human serum albumin (HSA) by competitive displacement of (13)C-labeled oleic acid. This method is based on the observation that in the crystal structure of HSA complexed with oleic acid, two principal drug-binding sites, Sudlows sites I (warfarin) and II (ibuprofen), are also occupied by fatty acids. In two-dimensional [(1)H,(13)C]heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR spectra, seven distinct resonances were observed for the (13)C-methyl-labeled oleic acid as a result of its binding to HSA. Resonances corresponding to the major drug-binding sites were identified through competitive displacement of molecules that bind specifically to each site. Thus, binding of molecules to these sites can be followed by their displacement of oleic acids. Furthermore, the amount of bound ligand at each site can be determined from changes in resonance intensities. For molecules containing fluorine, ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosages of recombinant human serum albumin/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor fusion protein by injection for
Recombinant Human Serum Albumin https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/sc-osrhsa https://www.sciencepro.com.br/@@site-logo/logo-novo.png ...
Clinical epidemiologists will be interested in the study by Corti and colleagues. Although the association between hypoalbuminemia and mortality has been examined before, this study has many strengths common to work coming from the EPESE. The data are from a population-based cohort study in which participants were followed for several years. The investigators had data on serum albumin, functional ability, chronic disease, and both disease-specific and all-cause mortality. Clinical investigators should also be interested in this study. The finding that serum albumin level is an independent risk factor for mortality should encourage its inclusion as a variable in many studies of elderly persons, especially in clinical trials that use mortality as an end point. Investigators in clinical trials should also consider adding simple measures of disability to data on albumin to create a more powerful measure of frailty and risk for mortality. In particular, trials using interventions such as exercise, ...
This study compared ischemia-modified albumin levels, a marker of ischemia in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Ischemia-modified albumin levels were significantly lower in patients with collateral circulation compared with those without collateral circulation.
Is ischemia-modified albumin a reliable tool for the assessment of acute pancreatitis? Abdurrahman Sahin,1 Semra Turkoglu,2 Nurettin Tunc,1 Deccane Duzenci,3 Ozgen Arslan Solmaz,4 Ibrahim Halil Bahcecioglu,1 Mehmet Yalniz1 1Medicine Faculty, Department of Gastroenterology, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey; 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Health Sciences Faculty, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Elazig Education and Training Hospital, Elazig, Turkey; 4Department of Pathology, Elazig Education and Training Hospital, Elazig, Turkey Purpose: Oxidative stress has been implicated in several disorders, including acute pancreatitis (AP). Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), which reflects the ability to bind cobalt, has been found to be elevated in conditions of oxidative stress and tissue hypoxia. This study examined IMA and adjusted IMA levels in patients with AP, and examined the associations of IMA and adjusted IMA levels to the severity of AP.Patients and methods: A
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Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is assumed “N-terminal modified” albumin which is generated immediately following myocardial ischemia. The diagnosis of IMA is based on reduced cobalt binding affinity to albumin which is attributed mainly to incapability of cobalt to bind at albumin’s modified N-terminus. Although the albumin cobalt binding test was accepted as a potentially powerful marker for discriminating acute coronary syndrome from nonischemic chest pain, its usefulness has been brought into question in recent years. Patients with acutely ischemic myocardium exhibit a rapid increase in serum levels of fatty acids (FAs). Almost all released FAs are strongly bound to albumin which create conformational changes in the protein with resultant reduced cobalt binding affinity. There is a clear metabolic and temporal relationship between IMA measured via albumin cobalt binding testing and serum levels of FAs. In line with what has been suggested recently in the literature, we conclude
Human serum albumin (HSA) is responsible for a number of biological functions including binding and delivering molecules and substances to the cell. It
Hypoalbuminemia is associated with morbidity and mortality in critically ill children. In this multi-centre retrospective study, we aimed to determine normative values of serum albumin in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease, evaluate perioperative changes in albumin levels, and determine if low serum albumin influences post-operative outcomes. Consecutive eligible neonates and infants who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at one of three medical centres, January 2012-August 2013, were included. Data on serum albumin levels from five data points (pre-operative, 0-24, 24-48, 48-72, 72 hours post-operative) were collected. Median pre-operative serum albumin level was 2.5 g/dl (IQR, 2.1-2.8) in neonates versus 4 g/dl (IQR, 3.5-4.4) in infants. Hypoalbuminemia was defined as ...
BPO-HSA - B pen linked to human serum albumin. Looking for abbreviations of BPO-HSA? It is B pen linked to human serum albumin. B pen linked to human serum albumin listed as BPO-HSA
Various types of markers have been used so far in order to reveal myocardial perfusion defect. However, these markers usually appear in the necrosis phase or in the late stage. Having been the focus of various investigations recently, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is helpful in establishing diagnosis in the early stages of ischemia, before necrosis develops. 30 patients that underwent only coronary bypass surgery due to ischemic heart disease within a specific period of time have been included in the study. IMA levels were studied in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods. The albumin cobalt binding assay was used for IMA determination. Hemodynamic parameters (atrial fibrillation, the need for inotropic support, ventricular arrhythmia) of the patients in the postoperative stage were evaluated. Intraoperative measurement values (mean ± SD) of IMA (0.67677 ± 0.09985) were statistically significantly higher than those in the preoperative (0.81516 ± 0.08894) and postoperative (0
Background: Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA)is a new biological marker of ischemia. Previous studies have found increased serum IMA levels after myocardial ischemia, but no study has investigated the possibility that stroke modifies IMA blood levels.. Materials and Methods: We studied 118 consecutive patients presenting within 3 h of the onset of an acute neurological deficit [84 brain infarctions (BI), 18 brain hemorrhages (ICH) and 16 transient ischemic attacks lasting less than 1 h or epileptic seizures]. Serum samples were obtained for all patients at initial presentation and repeated only in patients with stroke at 6, 12 and 24 h. IMA was measured by the albumin-cobalt-binding test (Ischemia Technologies, Denver, Colo., USA). Results: The initial median IMA (bootstrap 95% confidence interval, CI) was 83 U/ml (79-86) and 86 U/ml (75-90) in patients with BI and ICH, respectively (p = 0.76), and was 73 U/ml (58-79) in others (p = 0.003 compared with BI, and p = 0.017 with ICH). Baseline IMA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A liposome reversibly coated with serum albumin. AU - Sato, Hikari. AU - Nakamura, Yuta. AU - Nakhaei, Elnaz. AU - Funamoto, Daiki. AU - Kim, Chan Woo. AU - Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro. AU - Kishimura, Akihiro. AU - Mori, Takeshi. AU - Katayama, Yoshiki. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Herein, we reported a design of liposome affording a reversible coating of serum albumin on its surface. We synthesized a lipid modified with a serum albumin-specific endogenous ligand and prepared liposome, including this lipid. We successfully confirmed the coating of the liposome surface with serum albumin. The liposome presented here would be applicable to a drug carrier with enhanced blood circulation.. AB - Herein, we reported a design of liposome affording a reversible coating of serum albumin on its surface. We synthesized a lipid modified with a serum albumin-specific endogenous ligand and prepared liposome, including this lipid. We successfully confirmed the coating of the liposome surface with serum ...
1. The labelling of intracellular and extracellular serum albumin was studied in liver slices and in whole rats by using new methods for the purification of the protein. 2. The results suggest that a polypeptide precursor is formed that is converted relatively slowly into serum albumin. 3. The effect of liver cell K+has been examined by a double-label method and it is shown that K+accelerates the rate of conversion of precursor into albumin. The rate of transit of albumin across the cell membrane appears to be unrelated to the concentration of K+within the cell. 4. The time-course of incorporation of radioactive amino acid into albumin follows a sigmoidal mode. There is a pronounced time-lag before label starts to appear in intracellular albumin, and a further time-lag before it appears in extracellular albumin. 5. In slices the sum of intra- and extra-cellular label rises steadily from 30min after the start of labelling with a pulse of labelled leucine or valine and continues to rise for at ...
Catalog Number: 135-MSA-0100. Category: Serum. Supplier: Equitech Bio. Species: Mouse. To order Mouse Serum Albumin Lyophilized Powder from Equitech Bio Contact [email protected] ...
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Export Data And Price Of Human Albumin 20 100 Ml , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services is the place where you can find the recent and updated Trade intelligence report of Human Albumin 20 100 Ml Export Data. Whole information is based on updated Export shipment data of Indian Customs. All the compilation is done on the basis of All India ports data and has been done on daily basis. This helps you to get all India Human Albumin 20 100 Ml Export data. You can find previous two days Human Albumin 20 100 Ml Export data on Eximpulse Services. Human Albumin 20 100 Ml Export data can be useful in different kind of analysis such as: Export price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. Some Sample Shipment records for Human Albumin 20 100 Ml Export Data of India are mentioned above. Further for Free sample and pricing of detailed reports contact on [email protected] Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have names of Indian ...
Healthy volunteers in the postabsorptive state (n = 10), patients with acute inflammatory abdominal disease and plasma C-reactive protein over 100 mg/L (n = 10), and patients scheduled for elective pancreatic resection at the beginning of surgical procedure (n = 10) were studied. The albumin synthesis rate was measured by the flooding dose technique comprising the incorporation of deuterium-labeled phenylalanine in de novo synthesized albumin determined by a gas chromatography mass spectrometer.[1] Total albumin pool was determined by measuring plasma volume using 125I-albumin and plasma albumin concentrations. The 3 groups were compared by means of one-way analysis of variance. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insights into the molecular interaction between two polyoxygenated cinnamoylcoumarin derivatives and human serum albumin. AU - Khammari, Anahita. AU - Saboury, Ali Akbar. AU - Karimi-Jafari, Mohammad Hossein. AU - Khoobi, Mehdi. AU - Ghasemi, Atiyeh. AU - Yousefinejad, Saeed. AU - Abou-Zied, Osama K.. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Ligand binding studies on human serum albumin (HSA) are crucial in determining the pharmacological properties of drug candidates. Here, two representatives of coumarin-chalcone hybrids were selected and their binding mechanism was identified via thermodynamics techniques, curve resolution analysis and computational methods at molecular levels. The binding parameters were derived using spectroscopic approaches and the results point to only one pocket located near the Trp214 residue in subdomain IIA of HSA. The protein tertiary structure was altered during ligand binding and formed an intermediate structure to create stronger ligand binding interactions. The ...
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Valor de la albúmina sérica en niños admitidos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos / Serum albumin value in children admitted in an intensive care unit
Albumin is the primary component of plasma proteins and accounts for 80% of colloid osmotic pressure. Its three domains determine the binding properties for several endogenous molecules and drugs. The cystein -SH residue accounts for its antioxidant properties and binding of nitric oxide, modulating its effect. The imidazole residues of 16 istidine molecules make albumin the most powerful buffer in the extravascular space. Plasma albumin concentration is a powerful dose-dependent predictor of mortality. Three relevant subsequent metanalysis, in sequence, found albumin administration harmful, neutral and advantageous. The blind, controlled and randomized SAFE study, performed in a large Intensive Care population, found similar outcomes in patient treated with 4% albumin or crystalloids for fluid resuscitation. The subgroup analysis showed a beneficial trend in septic patients treated with albumin and unfavourable trend in trauma patients with brain injury. Unfortunately albumin has been mainly ...
Title:Structural Basis of Drug Recognition by Human Serum Albumin. VOLUME: 27 ISSUE: 30. Author(s):Loris Leboffe, Alessandra di Masi*, Fabio Polticelli, Viviana Trezza and Paolo Ascenzi. Affiliation:Department of Sciences, University Roma Tre, Viale Guglielmo Marconi 446, I-00146 Roma, Department of Sciences, University Roma Tre, Viale Guglielmo Marconi 446, I-00146 Roma, Department of Sciences, University Roma Tre, Viale Guglielmo Marconi 446, I-00146 Roma, Department of Sciences, University Roma Tre, Viale Guglielmo Marconi 446, I-00146 Roma, Interdepartmental Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, Roma Tre University, Via della Vasca Navale 79, I- 00146 Roma. Keywords:Human serum albumin, drug carrier, drug recognition, structural basis, allosteric modulation of drug binding, competitive modulation of drug binding.. Abstract:. Background: Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in plasma, is a monomeric multi-domain macromolecule with at least nine binding sites for endogenous and ...
Albumin is a blood protein. The word albumin comes from the Latin for egg white (egg white contains albumin, which is one reason why eggs are a rich source of protein). Albumin is produced in the liver. It is important in the maintenance of blood consistency and regulating blood pressure, and in the transmission of certain nutrients through the bloodstream. Its reasonable to say that this is a very important substance in the blood.. Test. A test for albumin is useful in the diagnosis of many different illnesses. Low levels of albumin can be an indicator of kidney dysfunction. Thats because healthy kidneys that are functioning properly leave albumin in the blood for the most part while removing waste substances. A low serum albumin level combined with the detection of higher than normal levels of albumin in urine shows that the kidneys are not doing this properly.. Causes. Other causes of low albumin include certain liver diseases such as liver cancer or hepatitis. This can interfere with the ...
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Serum albumins from mammalian species differ in amino acid sequence and protein structure. Consistent with this, binding-site affinity and selectivity vary from species to species. Site I on human serum albumin consists of two overlapping subregions, one for warfarin and one for azapropazone (Fehske et al., 1982). These subregions overlap in rat and are separate in bovine and absent in dog (Kosa et al., 1997). We observed differences in binding affinity of warfarin with rat, bovine, and human albumin that correlated with reported KD constants (Seller et al., 1977). Because of these differences, albumins from separate species should not be considered interchangeable. Nonetheless, no statistically significant differences were observed between predicted and measured up-take Kin with any of the three albumins.. A number of studies have been published suggesting enhanced dissociation of ligands that bind fairly selectively to Sudlow site II of albumin (e.g., benzodiazepines and tryptophan) (Jones et ...
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Albumins are a group of acidic proteins which occur plentifully in the body fluids and tissues of mammals and in some plant seeds. Unlike globulins, albumins have comparatively low molecular weights, are soluble in water, are easily crystallized, and contain an excess of acidic amino acids. Serum and plasma albumin is carbohydrate-free and comprises 55-62% of the protein present.. Albumin binds water, Ca2+, Na+, and K+. Due to a hydrophobic cleft, albumin binds fatty acids, bilirubin, hormones, and drugs. The main biological function of albumin is to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Human and bovine albumins contain 16% nitrogen and are often used as standards in protein calibration studies. Albumin is used to solubilize lipids, and is also used as a blocking agent in Western blots or ELISA applications. Globulin free albumins are suitable for use in applications where no other proteins should be present (e.g., electrophoresis).. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycated albumin at 4 weeks correlates with a1c levels at 12 weeks and reflects short-term glucose fluctuations. AU - Desouza, Cyrus V. AU - Rosenstock, Julio. AU - Zhou, Rong. AU - Holcomb, Richard G.. AU - Fonseca, Vivian A.. PY - 2015/11. Y1 - 2015/11. N2 - Objective: Evaluate the performance of glycated albumin (GA) monitoring by comparing it to other measures of glycemic control during intensification of antidiabetic therapy. Methods: This 12-week, prospective, multicenter study compared the diagnostic clinical performance of GA to glycated hemoglobin A1C (A1C), fructosamine corrected for albumin (FRA), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and mean blood glucose (MBG) estimated from self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in 30 patients with suboptimally controlled type 1 or 2 diabetes. Results: Mean A1C decreased from 9.5% to 8.1%. Mean SMBG correlated closely with CGM (Pearson r = 0.783 for daily estimates and r = 0.746 for weekly ...
GenWay offers the human serum albumin depletion column to dig deeper into the proteome. Visit the GenWay website to learn more about the human serum albumin depletion column and other serum protein depletion column products currently available.
Albumin is the most abundant plasmatic protein. It is only produced by the liver and the full extent of its metabolic functions is not known in detail. One of the main roles assigned to albumin is as an indicator of malnutrition. There are many factors, in addition to nutrition, that influence levels of albumin in plasma. The main aim of this review is to assess the clinical significance of albumin in elderly people in the community, in hospital and in care homes. Following the review, it can be stated that age is not a cause of hypoalbuminemia. Albumin is a good marker of nutritional status in clinically stable people. Significant loss of muscle mass has been observed in elderly people with low albumin levels. Hypoalbuminemia is a mortality prognostic factor in elderly people, whether they live in the community or they are in hospital or institutionalized. Low levels of albumin are associated to worse recovery following acute pathologies. Inflammatory state and, particularly, high concentrations of IL
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneity of igE epitopes of vinyl sulphone reactive dye. T2 - Human serum albumin that react with igE. AU - Park, J. W.. AU - Kang, D. B.. AU - Choi, S. Y.. AU - Kim, C. W.. AU - Kim, K. S.. AU - Hong, C. S.. PY - 2001/12/1. Y1 - 2001/12/1. N2 - Background: Vinyl sulphone reactive dye (vRD), which consists of vinyl sulphone reactive groups and a chromogen, can elicit IgE-mediated occupational asthma (OA) by haptenation. Human serum albumin (HSA) is known as the most reliable carrier protein for the vRD, the IgE epitopes of vRD-HSA are not well characterized. In this study we evaluated the epitope of vRD-HAS-specific IgE. Methods: Two vRD (Remazole Black-GR and Remazole Orange-3R), Procion Red-MX-5B, which has a dichlorotriazine reactive group, and vinyl sulphone (VS), were haptenated to HSA, respectively. vRD-HSA was denatured by heat or mercaptoethanol treatment and the allergenicities of denatured and non-denatured vRD-HSA were compared by ELISA and IgE immunoblotting ...
Serum albumin is the most abundant plasma protein and has a long half-life due to neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated transcytosis by many cell types, including proximal tubule cells of the kidney. Albumin also interacts with, and is modified by, many small and large molecules. Therefore, the focus of the present study was to address the impact of specific known biological albumin modifications on albumin-FcRn binding and cellular handling. Binding at pH 6.0 and 7.4 was performed since FcRn binds albumin strongly at acidic pH and releases it after transcytosis at physiological pH. Equilibrium dissociation constants were measured using microscale thermophoresis. Since studies have shown that glycated albumin is excreted in the urine at a higher rate than unmodified albumin, we studied glucose and methylgloxal modified albumins (21 days). All had reduced affinity to FcRn at pH 6.0, suggesting these albumins would not be returned to the circulation via the transcytotic pathway. To address why ...
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Cellastim S is recombinant human serum albumin that is completely blood-free and has been optimized specifically to enhance the performance in animal-free cell culture media due to the favorable lipid profile and other engineered attributes of the molecule. Cellastim S is ideally suited for a variety of different stem, primary, and production cell types that include immune cells, VERO, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, HEK, CHO and other cell types. Each lot tested in cell culture systems to ensure consistent quality and performance.. ...
Can f 3, also known as Dog Serum Albumin (DSA), is a protein with a molecular weight of 69-70 kDa. It is a serum albumin. It is found in dog serum, saliva, dander, hair and epithelia, and it is also synthesised in the dog salivary gland and dog liver. (37) Dog serum albumin has been reported to be a particularly abundant allergen in dog epithelia extracts. (55) Dog and cat serum albumins are also allergens very commonly present in house dust. (44) A recombinant Can f 3 has been produced. (37). Sensitisation to dog serum albumin has previously been documented as varying from around 35-48%, although early studies reported even lower frequencies. (5, 28, 33, 59) The importance and frequency of sensitisation to DSA also varies in different populations. (3). In a study, 51 patients with a clinical history of dog allergy were evaluated for skin-specific IgE for 8 individual, standardised dog breed allergen preparations, and for 1 mixed-breed allergen preparation, dog serum albumin, and histamine ...
Purpose: Dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common finding during seizures or following epileptogenic brain injuries, and experimentally induced BBB opening promotes seizures both in naive and epileptic animals. Brain albumin extravasation was reported to promote hyperexcitability by inducing astrocytes dysfunction. To provide in vivo evidence for a direct role of extravasated serum albumin in seizures independently on the pathologic context, we did the following: (1) quantified the amount of serum albumin extravasated in the rat brain parenchyma during status epilepticus (SE); (2) reproduced a similar concentration in the hippocampus by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) albumin injection in naive rats; (3) measured electroencephalography (EEG) activity in these rats, their susceptibility to kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures, and their hippocampal afterdischarge threshold (ADT). Methods: Brain albumin concentration was measured in the rat hippocampus and other forebrain regions 2 ...
Considering the importance of pharmacology and the influence of drugs on biological materials, the effects of a newly designed and synthesized platin complex (2,2′-Bipyridine-3,3′-dicarboxylic acid,...
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|b||i|Objectives:|/i||/b| This study aimed to compare the value of serum glycated albumin (GA) level versus glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for evaluating
HRP偶联Human Serum Albumin抗体(ab8941)可与人样本反应并经ELISA实验严格验证,实验条件参看说明书。Abcam对所有产品均提供质保服务和专属技术支持,中国75%以上现货。
According to WebMD, a normal albumin level is 3.5 to 5.0 grams per deciliter, or 35 to 50 grams per liter. This level is determined by a blood...
Amphiphilic 2,17-bis-sulfonato-5,10,15(trispentafluorophenyl)corrole (2) and its Ga and Mn complexes (2-Ga and 2-Mn) form tightly bound noncovalent conjugates with human serum albumin (HSA). Protein-induced changes in the electronic absorption, emission, and circular dichroism spectra of these corroles, as well as results obtained from HPLC profiles of the conjugates and selective fluorescence quenching of the single HSA tryptophan, are interpreted in terms of multiple corrole:HSA binding sites. High-affinity binding sites, close to the unique tryptophan, are fully occupied at very low concentrations. At biologically relevant HSA concentrations (2−3 orders of magnitude larger than those employed in our studies), all corroles (2, 2-Ga, and 2-Mn) may be considered as fully conjugated. ...
The antitrypanosomal and antitumour activities of (2,2:6,2-terpyridine)platinum(II) complexes have been postulated to be due to their ability to inhibit irreversibly the NADPH/FAD redox enzymes trypanothione reductase and human thioredoxin reductase respectively. Here we show that these platinum(II) complexes metallate recombinant human albumin (rHA) at the single free thiol group (Cys-34). Moreover, the (2,2:6,2-terpyridine)platinum(II) complex can be transferred from rHA to other thiols, such as 2-hydroxyethanethiol or glutathione. Human serum albumin could therefore provide a natural transport mechanism for the selective delivery of these agents to tumor cells by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) mechanism.
Development of cancer treatment regimens including immunotoxins is partly hampered by their immunogenicity. Recently, deimmunized versions of toxins have been described, potentially being better suited for translation to the clinic. In this study, a recombinant tripartite fusion toxin consisting of a deimmunized version of exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PE38) genetically fused to an affibody molecule specifically interacting with the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and also an albumin binding domain (ABD) for half-life extension, has been produced and characterized in terms of functionality of the three moieties. Biosensor based assays showed that the fusion toxin was able to interact with human and mouse serum albumin, but not with bovine serum albumin and that it interacted with HER2 (K-D=5 nM). Interestingly, a complex of the fusion toxin and human serum albumin also interacted with HER2 but with a somewhat weaker affinity (K-D=12 nM). The IC50-values of the fusion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromatographic studies of chlorpropamide interactions with normal and glycated human serum albumin based on affinity microcolumns. AU - Tao, Pingyang. AU - Li, Zhao. AU - Matsuda, Ryan. AU - Hage, David S.. PY - 2018/10/15. Y1 - 2018/10/15. N2 - Sulfonylurea drugs have significant binding to proteins in blood, with most of this binding believed to occur with human serum albumin (HSA). High performance affinity chromatography and affinity microcolumns containing immobilized HSA were used to investigate binding by the sulfonylurea drug chlorpropamide to normal HSA and glycated HSA, which is a modified form of HSA that has an increased serum concentration in diabetes. Experiments employing frontal analysis indicated that the binding by chlorpropamide gave a good fit to a two-site model for both normal HSA and glycated HSA samples that were representative of controlled or advanced diabetes. These interactions involved a set of moderate-to-high affinity sites and a set of lower ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fatty acid modulated human serum albumin binding of the β-carboline alkaloids norharmane and harmane. AU - Domonkos, Celesztina. AU - Fitos, Ilona. AU - Visy, Júlia. AU - Zsila, Ferenc. PY - 2013/12/2. Y1 - 2013/12/2. N2 - Harmane and norharmane are representative members of the large group of natural β-carboline alkaloids featured with diverse pharmacological activities. In blood, these agents are transported by human serum albumin (HSA) which has a profound impact on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of many therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics. By combination of various spectroscopic methods, the present contribution is aimed to elucidate how nonesterified fatty acids (FAs), the primary endogenous ligands of HSA, affect the binding properties of harmane and norharmane. Analysis of induced circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopic data indicates the inclusion of the neutral form of both molecules into the binding pocket of subdomain IIIA, which ...
Could anybody tell me please what happens to serum albumin on platinum Surfaces. More precisely : How can the unusual adsorption behaviour of serum albumin on platinum, measured by means of ellipsometry, be explained. The time dependence of the amount adsorbed is not reproducible. Thanks a lot ! Trixi Leistner, Joachim Steiner ...
This report used high-performance affinity microcolumns to examine the changes in binding by sulfonylurea drugs to in vivo glycated HSA that had been isolated from individual patients with diabetes. An immunoextraction approach was developed to isolate HSA and glycated HSA from clinical samples, using only 20 μL of plasma or serum and 6-12 nmol of protein to prepare each affinity microcolumn. It was found that the affinity microcolumns could be used in either frontal analysis or zonal elution studies, which typically required only 4-8 min per run. The microcolumns had good stability and allowed data to be obtained for multiple drugs and experimental conditions over hundreds of sample application cycles. Both the overall binding, as measured by frontal analysis, and site-specific interactions, as examined by zonal elution, showed good agreement with previous data that had been obtained for in vitro glycated HSA with similar levels of modification. It was also possible to directly compare the changes in
The warfarin binding behaviour of a large tryptic fragment (residues 198-585 which comprise domains two and three) and of a large peptic fragment (residues 1-387 which comprise domains one and two) of human serum albumin has been studied by circular dichroism and equilibrium dialysis in order to locate and characterize ... read more the primary warfarin binding site. The induced ellipticity of the warfarin-peptic fragment complex turned out to be pH dependent. This pH dependence occurs in the region of the neutral-to-base transition of the albumin molecule. The induced ellipticity of the warfarin-tryptic fragment complex is pH independent. Difference CD-spectra showed that the peptic fragment and albumin have similar warfarin binding properties whereas the tryptic fragment has deviant warfarin binding properties. The equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that the affinity of warfarin to the peptic fragment and to albumin is practically the same whereas the affinity of warfarin to the tryptic ...
We have determined the solution structure of an albumin binding domain of protein G, a surface protein of group C and G streptococci. We find that it folds into a left handed three-helix bundle similar to the albumin binding domain of protein PAB from Peptostreptococcus magnus. The two domains share 59% sequence identity, are thermally very stable, and bind to the same site on human serum albumin. The albumin binding site, the first determined for this structural motif known as the GA module, comprises residues spanning the first loop to the beginning of the third helix and includes the most conserved region of GA modules. The two GA modules have different affinities for albumin from different species, and their albumin binding patterns correspond directly to the host specificity of C/G streptococci and P. magnus, respectively. These studies of the evolution, structure, and binding properties of the GA module emphasize the power of bacterial adaptation and underline ecological and medical ...
Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) is not a rare occurrence in severe burns and is an important complication leading to an increase in mortality. The severity of the burn is largely determined by the burn size, and severe burns are likely to cause enough loss of extracellular fluid and albumin from plasma volume to produce shock and hypoalbuminemia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that initial serum albumin level may be useful as an indicator of prognosis and severity of injury in burned patients. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 147 adult patients with second- and third-degree burns covering 30% or more of their body surface area were analyzed retrospectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risks of ARF and mortality associated with the larger burn size and the lower serum albumin level at admission. Results: Mean burned body surface was 60.0 +/- 21.8% (range 30-100%). Twenty-eight (19.0%) out of 147 patients experienced ARF, defined as a serum creatinine ,/=2 ...
We have tabulated the 77 currently known mutations of the familiar human blood protein, serum albumin (ALB). A total of 65 mutations result in bisalbuminemia. Physiological and structural effects of these mutations are included where observed. Most of the changes are benign. The majority of them were detected upon clinical electrophoretic studies, as a result of a point mutation of a charged amino acid residue. Three were discovered by their strong binding of thyroxine or triiodothyronine. A total of 12 of the tabulated mutations result in analbuminemia, defined as a serum albumin concentration of ,1 g/L. These were generally detected upon finding a low albumin concentration in patients with mild edema, and involve either splicing errors negating translation or premature stop codons producing truncated albumin molecules. A total of nine mutations, five of those with analbuminemia and four resulting in variants modified near the C-terminal end, cause frameshifts. Allotypes from three of the point ...
IDENTIFICATION AND USE: used for treating a variety of conditions, including shock due to blood loss in the body, burns, low protein levels due to surgery or liver failure, and as an additional medicine in bypass surgery. It may be used for certain conditions as determined by your doctor. Human Albumin is a concentrate of plasma proteins from human blood. It works by increasing plasma volume or serum albumin levels.. Human Albumin is prepared from human pool plasma by alcoholic precipitation [12]. For pathogen inactivation albumin is pasteurized for at least 10 h at 60 °C (see also European Pharmacopoeia).. QUALITY CRITERIA: human albumin solutions for transfusion are obtained from human plasma proteins as sterile preparations which, according to the monograph Human Albumin Solutions of the European Pharmacopoeia, must contain a minimum of 95% albumin. Aside from human albumin, preparations currently available have a sodium concentration between 87 and 160 mmol/l and a potassium concentration ...
Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 12-20% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Several studies have shown a reduction of free light chains (FLC) using hemodialysis with High-Cut-Off membranes. However, this technique entails albumin loss. Hemodiafiltration with ultrafiltrate regeneration is a technique that includes a process of adsorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of hemodiafiltration with ultrafiltrate regeneration in reducing FLC levels without causing albumin loss. This is an observational study (2012 to 2018) including nine patients with MM (5 kappa, 4 lambda) and AKI. All patients were treated with chemotherapy and hemodiafiltration with ultrafiltrate regeneration. Blood Samples (pre and post-dialysis) and ultrafiltrate were collected pre and post-resin at 5 min after initiation of the session and 5 min before the end of the procedure. The serum levels of kappa and lambda were reduced by a 57.6 ± 10% and 33.5 ± 25% respectively. Serum albumin concentration remained
TY - JOUR. T1 - A catalytic immuno-reactor for the amperometric determination of human serum albumin. AU - Karube, Isao. AU - Matsunaga, Tadashi. AU - Satoh, Takeru. AU - Suzuki, Shuichi. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. N2 - A catalytic immuno-reactor for the determination of human serum albumin (HSA) was constructed by using immobilized antibody and an amperometric detector. A sandwich assay with hemin-labeled antibody to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was used, the catalytic activity of the hemin-antibody conjugate being determined by measuring the decrease in hydrogen peroxide concentration. The reaction of hemin-labeled antibody with antigen was complete within 30 min and the current decrease was correlated with the HSA concentration. The relative standard deviation was about 9% at an HSA concentration of 1 mg ml-1.. AB - A catalytic immuno-reactor for the determination of human serum albumin (HSA) was constructed by using immobilized antibody and an amperometric detector. A sandwich ...
Cigarette smoking and hyperfibrinogenaemia are both significant risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Two studies are described here which aimed to establish the metabolic mechanism responsible for the raised plasma fibrinogen concentration observed in smokers. Chronic smokers had a significantly elevated absolute rate of fibrinogen synthesis (ASR) compared with non-smokers (22.7±1.3 mg/kg per day versus 16.0±1.3 mg/kg per day; means±S.E.M., P , 0.01), with plasma levels of fibrinogen significantly correlated with fibrinogen synthesis (r = 0.65, P = 0.04). Unlike fibrinogen, plasma albumin concentrations were lower in smokers than in non-smokers (45±0.4 versus 47±0.7 g/l, P , 0.05), but there was no difference in rates of albumin synthesis between the two groups. Two weeks cessation from smoking by previously chronic smokers was associated with a rapid and marked fall in plasma fibrinogen concentration (from 3.06±0.11 g/l to 2.49±0.14 g/l, P , 0.001), and a ...
The normal range of human serum albumin in adults (, 3 y.o.) is 3.5 to 5 g/dL. For children less than three years of age, the normal range is broader, 2.9-5.5 g/dL.[9] Low albumin (hypoalbuminemia) may be caused by liver disease, nephrotic syndrome, burns, protein-losing enteropathy, malabsorption, malnutrition, late pregnancy, artefact, genetic variations and malignancy. High albumin (hyperalbuminemia) is almost always caused by dehydration. In some cases of retinol (Vitamin A) deficiency, the albumin level can be elevated to high-normal values (e.g., 4.9 g/dL). This is because retinol causes cells to swell with water (this is also the reason too much Vitamin A is toxic).[10] This swelling also likely occurs during treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid (isotretnoin), a pharmaceutical for treating severe acne, amongst other conditions. In lab experiments it has been shown that all-trans retinoic acid down regulates human albumin production.[11] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Uptake of [3H]bilirubin in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. T2 - Role of free bilirubin concentration. AU - Mediavilla, Maria Gabriela. AU - Pascolo, Lorella. AU - Rodriguez, Joaquin V.. AU - Guibert, Edgardo E.. AU - Ostrow, J. Donald. AU - Tiribelli, Claudio. PY - 1999/12/10. Y1 - 1999/12/10. N2 - Hepatocytic transport of physiological concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) has not been determined in isolated liver cells. Initial uptake of highly purified [3H]UCB was measured in rat hepatocytes in the presence of human serum albumin at various free, unbound UCB concentrations, [UCB]. At [UCB]=42 nM (below aqueous solubility of 70 nM), uptake was strictly temperature dependent; this was much less evident at [UCB]=166 nM (supersaturated). At low, physiological UCB concentrations, specific UCB uptake showed saturative kinetics with an apparent K(m) of 41 nM, indicating carrier-mediated transport. With aqueous supersaturation, UCB entered hepatocytes mainly by passive ...
Hypoalbuminemia can be the result of numerous conditions including protein losing nephropathy, protein losing enteropathy, intra-thoracic or intra-abdominal effusions, liver failure, or severe hemorrhage. Prior to the availability of canine serum albumin, albumin replacement required plasma transfusions or the use of human serum albumin. Although effective, both options carried potential risk. Use of frozen plasma to correct hypoalbuminemia requires 22.5ml/kg for an expected increase of 0.5mg/dL in albumin. This dose may be of concern in small patients or in patients for which there is potential for fluid overload. Human serum albumin requires a much smaller volume to replenish patient albumin, but it is highly antigenic and complications can include glomerulonephritis, hypersensitivity reactions, and polyarthropathy.. In 2004, the Saline verses Albumin Fluid Evaluation (SAFE) study showed that the use of 4% albumin solution had similar outcomes at 28 days as 0.9% saline when used as a ...
The chiral complexation of bilirubin (BR) with bovine and human serum albumin (BSA and HSA), and the aggregation of the complexes at the heptane+chloroform(5:1)/water interface were studied via UV/Vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD) measurements in combination with the centrifugal liquid membrane (CLM) method. The interfacial adsorptivities of BR, BSA and their complexes were also studied by performing interfacial tension measurements at the interface. The changes in the absorbances and the induced CD amplitudes of the interfacial BRâ€BSA complex provided insights into the mechanism of the conformational enantioselective complexation at the interface, and indicated that the chiral conversion induced by the complexation with BSA was from the P(+) form to the M(âˆ) form of BR. The broadening of the 450 nm band and the appearance of a new shoulder at 474 nm further supported the formation of aggregates of the complexes at the interface. The dependence of the CD amplitude on the molar ...
If a patient has a penytoin level of 15mg/L and has a Albumin level of 15g/L. He is showing signs of toxicities. If the average albumin level is. Free level. This calculator accounts for renal dysfunction, serum albumin level, age, and comorbidities Dilantin correction calculator for hypoalbuminemia. Adjusted phenytoin concentrations provided superior classification of patients than total plasma protein binding is a low plasma albumin level. ...
Bilirubin is a degradation product of haem, which is constantly formed in all. mammals. Increased levels of bilirubin in humans lead to jaundice, a condition. that is very common during the first days after birth. This neonatal. jaundice can routinely be treated by phototherapy without any serious side. effects. During this treatment, bilirubin undergoes a photoreaction to isomers. that can be excreted. The most efficient photoreaction is the isomerisation. around a double bond (Z-E-isomerisation), which results in more soluble. photoproducts.. The work presented in this thesis shows results of a femtosecond optical. spectroscopy study, combined with quantum-mechanical investigations, of. the mechanism of isomerisation of bilirubin. The spectroscopic research was. conducted with bilirubin in organic solvents, and in buffer complexed by. human serum albumin. This albumin complex is present in the blood, and. has thus medical importance. Quantum-chemical calculations (CASSCF) on. a bilirubin model ...
Peroxidase Conjugated Affinity Purified Anti-SHEEP IgG F(ab)2 (RABBIT) (Min X Human Serum Proteins), Peroxidase Conjugated Affinity Purified anti-Sheep IgG F(ab)2 [Rabbit] Minimum Cross Reactivity to Human Serum Proteins; N/A Peroxidase Conjugated Affin
Decreased albumin synthesis by hepatocytes in liver injury is thought to occur in response to Kupffer cell-derived acute-phase cytokines. In this study we used hepatocytes maintained in a differentiated phenotype, by culture on a laminin-rich gel substratum (Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm matrix), to investigate the effects of Kupffer cell-conditioned medium and purified cytokines (interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-a) on albumin synthesis. Kupffer cell-conditioned medium caused a reversible decrease in albumin synthesis to 64.7% of control (p , 0.01, Wilcoxons rank sum test, n = 11) on day 2. Repeated doses caused further dose-dependent reversible responses. The same result was obtained when protease inhibitors (α1-antitrypsin and α2-macroglobulin) were added to Kupffer cell-conditioned medium (n = 3), thus eliminating the potential effect of matrix degradation. Pure interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α also inhibited albumin synthesis (p , 0.05, Wilcoxons ...
Ethos Biosciences offers an Albuwell Hu strip plate kit for testing human albumin. This ELISA kit contains all components and reagents needed to assay human albumin in up to 80 urine and cell free liquid samples (plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant). This product can assess in vitro kidney function in humans.
We aimed to evaluate the role of fecal calprotectin (FC) as a noninvasive marker for the disease activity of ulcerative colitis (UC) in a Korean cohort. A total of 181 fecal samples were collected from 181 consecutive UC patients between April 2015 and September 2016. FC levels were measured using the Quantum Blue® Calprotectin rapid test. The laboratory test results, partial Mayo Score (pMS), and colonoscopic imaging findings at FC level measurement were retrospectively reviewed. The Mayo endoscopic subscore (MES) and UC endoscopic index of severity (UCEIS) were graded by 2 certified endoscopists after training with 50 other cases. The FC levels were significantly correlated with pMS (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.428, p | 0.001), MES (r = 0.304, p | 0.001), UCEIS (r = 0.430, p | 0.001), and CRP (r = 0.379, p | 0.001). FC levels exhibited a significantly better correlation with UCEIS than with MES (Mengs z = − 2.457, p = 0.01). The FC cut-off level of 187.0 mg/kg indicated complete mucosal
HYPOTHESIS:The levels of cholesterol, its fractions (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]), and serum albumin reflect nutritional status and are related to in-hospital death, nosocomial infection, and length of stay in the hospital. DESIGN:A prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients. SETTING:The Service of General Surgery of a tertiary hospital. PATIENTS:A consecutive series of 2989 patients admitted for more than 1 day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nosocomial infection, in-hospital death, and length of stay. RESULTS:During follow-up, 62 (2%) of the patients died, 382 (13%) developed a nosocomial infection, and 257 (9%) developed a surgical site infection. Serum albumin (lowest quintile vs highest quintile: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.9) and HDL-C (lowest quintile vs highest quintile: OR, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0) levels showed an inverse and highly significant relationship with nosocomial ...
Occupational asthma from nickel sensitivity was confirmed in a male worker (SB) by allergy skin tests and inhalational challenge. In an ammonium sulphate coprecipitation test 63Ni was selectively precipitated from SB plasma indicating antibody with nickel related specificity. Preincubation of 63Ni with human serum albumin (HSA) increased the specificity of the coprecipitation test. Blocking experiments with nickel and copper(II) salts effectively inhibited the binding of 63Ni to antibody of SB plasma but did not affect control tests or that for antibodies to an unrelated antigen, ampicillin. Co2+ slightly inhibited the binding of 63Ni, while Zn2+ and Mn2+ failed to inhibit. This deactivation pattern corresponds to the known sequence of binding of these metals to the primary copper binding site of HSA. It is concluded that the antigenic determinant depends on the combination of Ni2+ with HSA at this specific copper/nickel plasma transport site.. ...
We report the molecular defect of albumin Herborn, a new genetic variant of human serum albumin which has been found in Germany. Isoelectric focusing analysis of CNBr fragments from the purified variant allowed us to localize the mutation in fragment CNBr 3 (residues 124-298). This fragment was isolated on a preparative scale and subjected to tryptic and V8 protease digestion. Sequence determination of the abnormal tryptic and V8 peptides revealed that the variant arises from the substitution Lys240→Glu. The -2 charge change of albumin Herborn, which is probably due to a A→G transition in the first position of the corresponding codon in the structural gene, has no significant effect on its electrophoretic mobility under non-denaturating conditions. Therefore we have assumed that residue 240, which has been implicated in the bilirubin primary binding site (Jacobsen, C. (1978) Biochem. J. 171, 453-459), is buried. The binding of bilirubin and biliverdin by albumin Herborn was quantified using ...
Abstract Levofloxacin (LVFX) is widely used in clinical treatment due to it has a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in plasma and constitutes approximately half of the protein founds in human blood. And more than 90% of the drugs used in people are bound to HSA. So it is commonly used for the investigation of drug-serum albumin interaction because the binding will significantly influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism excretion, stability and toxicity of the drugs. Therefore, detailed investigating the interaction of LVFX with HSA is very important to understand the pharmacokinetic behavior of the LVFX. In this paper, the interaction of LVFX and HSA has been studied fluorescence, UV, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and molecular modeling method. The results indicated that LVFX induced the intrinsic fluorescence quenching of HSA though a static quenching procedure, and the ...
Bertucci C., Cimitan S., Riva A., Morazzoni P.. The binding to human serum albumin (HSA) of the antitumoural drug paclitaxel and of several structural analogues has been characterized by bioaffinity chromatography and circular dichroism. A ranking of the taxanes was obtained for their affinity to the protein by measuring their retention times on an albumin chromatographic column. This also allowed the calculation of the drug bound percentage. Affinity resulted significantly affected by the nature of the isoserinic side chain, the presence of the 1,14-carbonate moiety and the substituent at C-7, showing that the hydrophobicity of the drug is fundamental in the binding process. The analysis demonstrated that the organic solvent highly alters the interaction mechanism of taxanes to the protein and so the affinity results. Circular dichroism experiments supported this hypothesis. Furthermore, taxanes binding to the serum carrier was characterized by displacement chromatography, by adding into the ...
This case-control study reaffirmed that the use of inhaled corticosteroids and atypical antipsychotic drugs was independently associated with an increased risk for CAP among hospitalized older adults of a rural community with the adjustment of nutritional status based on serum albumin levels and other risk factors. However, the association between current PPI exposure and the risk for CAP was not observed in our study. Our study also demonstrated that by decreasing serum albumin level by one gram per deciliter, the risk for CAP can be increased by 1.89- fold in older adults.. COPD has been demonstrated as a major risk factor for CAP. Inhaled corticosteroids, often prescribed for the treatments of COPD and/or asthma, were also identified as an independent risk factor by our study and others [20-24]. Although inhaled corticosteroid therapy may improve the quality of life [26], inappropriate prescriptions of these medications may be highly prevalent among stable COPD patients [27]. Re-evaluating ...
Human serum albumin (HSA) complexation with quercetin, a flavonoid commonly present in human diet, was monitored by means of fluorescence decays of the single HSA tryptophan - Trp214. Data analysis based on fitting to multiexponential functions and determining the lifetime distributions revealed a high sensitivity of tryptophan fluorescence to binding quercetin. Results are discussed in terms of the rotamer model for tryptophan, HSA-quercetin complexation and potential HSA to quercetin energy transfer. Evidence for quercetin stabilising tryptophan rotamers in HSA is presented.. ...
Albumin and prealbumin concentrations in patients receiving postoperative parenteral nutrition.: This prospective, nonrandomized study was conducted to compare
Normally potassium iodide is referred to as an organic compound and is less hygroscopic thus it has the property of working easily with other chemical reactants. Usually, because iodine is a mild oxidizing agent it thus oxides easily when mixed with chlorinated items. Potassium iodide is the said to be a precursor to silver(I) iodide, which is thus used to provide high speed photogenic film: KI(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgI(s) + KNO 3 (aq).on the other hand protein albumin refers to any kind of protein that is water soluble that is moderately and soluble in any concentrated salt solution. Glucose (C6H12O6) is a very important carbohydrate that is used as a source of energy. The principles behind these diagnostics are readily demonstrated, using potassium iodide as the chromagen (color-change reagent) (Lyday, 2005). Different sugars can be used to indicate the specificity of the reaction catalyzed by glucose oxidizes. When a dialysis tubing which is a semi permeable membrane tubing where it can be used ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of molecular hybridization technology to evaluate albumin and procollagen mrna content in baboons and man. AU - Weiner, Francis R.. AU - Czaja, Mark J.. AU - Giambrone, Marie‐Adele ‐A. AU - Wu, Catherine H.. AU - Wu, George Y.. AU - Zern, Mark A.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - We have developed the methodology for evaluating the effects of pathophysiological conditions on the molecular mechanisms of hepatic protein synthesis and fibrogenesis in baboons and man. Total RNA was extracted from percutaneous liver biopsies of five baboons who were chronically fed an ethanol‐rich liquid diet, their pair‐fed controls and from humans with a variety of liver abnormalities. Chronic alcohol administration in baboons with liver fibrosis and normal serum albumin levels increased in vitro protein synthesis as measured by [35S]methionine incorporation, albumin mRNA content and Type I procollagen mRNA content. There was no difference in the β‐actin (a constitutive ...
Abstract. Continuously monitoring cell cultures is essential for both controlling critical parameters and improving understanding of key processes. An ideal technique in this context is surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, which essentially exploits changes in the angle of incident light that occur when molecules bind to a surface. It provides the ability to monitor real-time changes in small concentrations of various molecules, with no need for additional labels or sample preparation. Here we present an SPR-based immunoassay for monitoring concentrations of human serum albumin (HSA), and compare its sensitivity when used in conjunction with a Biacore platform and the cheaper, smaller liSPR system. In conjunction with either system, the immunoassay can detect HSA (a hepatocyte viability marker) at concentrations typically present in three-dimensional hepatocyte cultures mimicking the liver used to evaluate effects of drug candidates before exposure to humans or animals. Furthermore, in ...
BULGULAR: Yirmi dokuz (%67.4) hastaya hafif AP tan s konarken, 14 (%32.6) hasta orta iddetli veya iddetli hastal k formuna sahipti ve iddetli AP olarak s n fland r ld . Hasta gruplar aras nda MA d zeylerinde anlaml bir fark yoktu (p=0.737). skemi modifiye alb min d zeyleri ile amilaz d zeyleri (p=0.470), Ranson skoru (p=0.664) ve hastal k iddeti (p=0.741) aras nda korelasyon saptanmad ...
Page contains details about CHX-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles/dental adhesive resin composite . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Page contains details about polyethyleneimine-coated human serum albumin nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
β-cells release hexameric Zn2+-insulin into the extracellular space, but monomeric Zn2+-free insulin appears to be the only biologically active form. The mechanisms implicated in dissociation of the hexamer remain unclear, but they seem to be Zn2+ concentration-dependent. In this study, we investigate the influence of albumin binding to Zn2+ on Zn2+-insulin dissociation into Zn2+-free insulin and its physiological, methodological and therapeutic relevance. Glucose and K+-induced insulin release were analyzed in isolated mouse islets by static incubation and perifusion experiments in the presence and absence of albumin and Zn2+ chelators. Insulin tolerance tests were performed in rats using different insulin solutions with and without Zn2+ and/or albumin. Albumin-free buffer does not alter quantification by RIA of Zn2+-free insulin but strongly affects RIA measurements of Zn2+-insulin. In contrast, accurate determination of Zn2+-insulin was obtained only when bovine serum albumin or Zn2+ ...
The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has taken steps today to quarantine CSL Human Albumin solutions from further use while an asse
Experimentally high dose of hyperoncotic human serum albumin improve neurological recovery after head injury reduce cerebral edema and normalize apparent diffusion coefficient of water after ischemia reperfusion. The main hypothesis is that early administration of hyperoncotic serum albumin is able to reduce intracranial pressure for several days after severe head injury and thus reduce mortality and morbidity ...
Description: A polyclonal antibody for detection of Bovine Serum Albumin from Cow. This Bovine Serum Albumin antibody is for WB, ELISA. It is affinity-purified from rabbit antiserum by affinity-chromatography using the specific immunogenand is unconjugated. The antibody is produced in rabbit by using as an immunogen recombinant ...
Bovine Bovine Serum Albumin, FITC conjugated/tagged from Biomeda Corporation,FITC~Bovine Serum Albumin,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is used to treat acute and chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD). There is scant evidence in the literature about mycophenolic acid (MPA) trough level monitoring in GvHD. We therefore reviewed 32 patients treated with MMF for acute (n = 19) or chronic GvHD (n = 13). Twelve (63%) of 19 patients with acute GvHD and nine (69%) of 13 with chronic GvHD showed a good response. In all 21 patients who responded to MMF, their mean total MPA levels were therapeutic (1-3.5 mg/L), whereas five of 11 patients who did not respond had sub-therapeutic mean MPA levels (p = 0.002). Sixteen (66%) of 24 steroid refractory or dependent patients responded to MMF. Associations between the mean total MPA level for each patient and the corresponding mean serum albumin concentration showed therapeutic mean total MPA levels for all 23 patients with mean albumin ,= 31 g/L but sub-therapeutic mean total MPA levels in five of nine patients with mean albumin , 31 g/L (p = 0.0006). In conclusion, ...
We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to investigate the effect of long-term oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the event-free survival in 622 patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In the present study, the development of liver cancer was analyzed as an endpoint in particular. Subjects received either treatment with BCAA at 12g/day or dietary therapy containing the matched daily energy and protein intake. A Cox regression analysis was carried out to estimate the hazard ratios for different background factors stratified by treatment group. Liver cancer was noted in 89 patients. The risk for liver cancer was significantly higher for males, patients with concurrent diabetes mellitus, patients with an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level of 20ng/mL or higher, patients with higher body mass index (BMI), and patients with lower serum albumin levels. When the BCAA group and the diet group were compared for factors that interacted with the treatment arms, the ...
The maximum cell population density of mouse fibroblast (strain LS) cells growing in static suspension culture was found to be directly proportional to the dialysed calf serum concentration. This was due to choline limitation and the fact that serum protein was a major source of choline. The growth yield (Y) was 3.2 x 105 cells/µg choline chloride.. Studies on the role of serum in the presence of excess choline showed the following. When protein was omitted from the medium, cell death occurred. Whole serum protein could be replaced by either (1) bovine serum albumin fraction V, or (2) crystalline bovine serum albumin + sodium pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate, or (3) polyvinylpyrrolidone + methylcellulose + pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate.. The population doubling time was 24 h in the presence of whole serum protein and increased considerably with the substitutes (1-3). The increase in maximum cell population density (without medium changes) exceeded 2.9 x 106 cells/ml with either whole serum protein ...
When using this server please cite the following paper:. Zsila F, Bikadi Z, Malik D, Hari P, Pechan I, Berces A, Hazai E.. Evaluation of drug-human serum albumin binding interactions with support vector machine aided online automated docking.. Bioinformatics. 2011 May 18. ...
For example, optical control of ligand binding in human serum albumin has been demonstrated to influence its allosteric binding ... July 2018). "Photoprogramming Allostery in Human Serum Albumin". Bioconjugate Chemistry. 29 (7): 2215-2224. doi:10.1021/acs. ...
Serum-derived Albumin) and concentration of ions. As enamel is secreted, some mineralisation occurs by Ca2+ deposition between ...
... bovine serum albumin)". Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. 16 (10): 919-925. doi:10.1007/s10856-005-4426-z. ...
"Serum Albumin in Mammalian Cornea: Implications for Clinical Application". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 44 (8 ... The most abundant soluble protein in mammalian cornea is albumin. The human cornea borders with the sclera via the corneal ...
PMID 4056372.; Bowling, AT; Nickel, LS (January-February 1985). "Inheritance of Equus asinus serum albumin variants in hybrid ...
The liver produces albumin, the most abundant protein in blood serum. It is essential in the maintenance of oncotic pressure, ... Swelling of the abdomen, and swelling of the ankles and feet occurs because the liver fails to make albumin. Excessive fatigue ...
... docosahexaenoic acid and human serum albumin in flax Chlorogen, Inc. - cholera, anthrax, and plague vaccines, albumin, ... The first recombinant plant-derived protein (PDP) was human serum albumin, initially produced in 1990 in transgenic tobacco and ... 1990). "Production of Correctly Processed Human Serum Albumin in Transgenic Plants". Bio/Technology. 8 (3): 217-21. doi:10.1038 ... recovery of a secreted recombinant human growth factor using stabilizing additives and by co-expression of human serum albumin ...
... has the ability to quench the inner fluorescence of bovine serum albumin. Aesculetin can be transformed into ... "Interaction between natural pharmaceutical homologues of coumarin and bovine serum albumin". Huaxue Xuebao. 62 (16): 1484-1490 ...
Human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the most abundant blood proteins. It serves as a transport protein for several endogenous ... amounts of drugs can be incorporated into the particle matrix because of the large number of drug binding sites on the albumin ...
Serum albumin concentrations decreased with age, but not in the control group. Although no cure for this disease has been found ... However, test patients had lower values for total protein, CRP, albumin and creatinine. Moreover, the value for fibrinogen was ... In patients aged 10-20 years, serum concentrations of bilirubin, bile acids and transaminases (alanine aminotransferase, ... There was no significant difference in serum bile acid concentrations between patients and control group. ...
... bovine serum albumin (~8%) (see also serum albumin), and immunoglobulins. These are soluble in their native forms, independent ... The proteins consist of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and immunoglobulins. Whey protein is commonly marketed as ...
Merlot, AM; Kalinowski, DS; Richardson, DR (2014). "Unraveling the mysteries of serum albumin-more than just a serum protein". ... In medicine and pharmacology, albondin (gp60) is a cell receptor that binds serum albumin. It seems to be expressed on ... Differential role of receptors in endothelial transcytosis and endocytosis of native and modified albumins". The Journal of ... Schnitzer, J. E.; Oh, P. (1994). "Albondin-mediated capillary permeability to albumin. ...
The most promising compound for the nanoparticles is Human Serum Albumin (HSA). The main benefits of this is that particles ... Dadparvar, M., Wagner, S., Wien, S., Kufleitner, J., Worek, F., von Briesen, H., & Kreuter, J. (2011). HI 6 human serum albumin ... made of HSA are well tolerated without serious side effects as well as the albumin functional groups can be utilized for ...
It acts as a blood pool agent by binding to human serum albumin. The manufacturer (Lantheus Medical) discontinued production in ...
... with bovine serum albumin". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 135: 110933. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2019.110933. ISSN 0278-6915. PMID ...
Proteins expressed by silkworms include; human serum albumin, human collagen α-chain, mouse monoclonal antibody and N-glycanase ...
An example of this was the rabies vaccine containing a significant amount of Bovine serum albumin (BSA). BSA can cause severe ... Loughney JW, Lancaster C, Ha S, Rustandi RR (September 2014). "Residual bovine serum albumin (BSA) quantitation in vaccines ... "The Antibody Initiative -- Veterinary Vaccines and Serums". National Museum of American History. Retrieved 2020-05-20. Donadeu ... "The Antibody Initiative -- Veterinary Vaccines and Serums". National Museum of American History. Retrieved 2020-05-26. Meeusen ...
Serum albumin is the major carrier of free fatty acids in the blood. The glycerol also enters the bloodstream and is absorbed ... Free fatty acids not immediately taken up by cells may bind to albumin for transport to surrounding tissues that require energy ...
... serum albumins, hemoglobin, and lysozyme". Biophysical Reviews (published November 16, 2015). 7 (4): 407-420. doi:10.1007/ ...
Abuchowski, A; Van Es, T; Palczuk, N. C.; Davis, F. F. (1977). "Alteration of immunological properties of bovine serum albumin ... Antimicrobial and Anti-Biofilm Activities of Surface Engineered Polycationic Albumin Nanoparticles with Reduced Hemolytic ...
Her brother didn't ever get any albumin, although his serum contained only 60 µg/ml of an albumin-like protein. He suffered ... Human serums were better suited for the specific insulin detection method than rat or guinea pig serums at the time, because ... The female analbuminaemia patient was treated with a substitution therapy mit human serum albumin. Laboratory analysis before ... Comparative studies on the half-life of 131I-labeled alubumins and nonradioactive human serum albumin in a case of ...
July 1999). "99mTc-human serum albumin: an effective radiotracer for identifying sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma". J. Nucl. ...
The drug has high protein binding, ranging from 90-96% bound to serum albumin. Bromocriptine is metabolized by CYP3A4 and ...
Karligiotou, E.; Kollia, P.; Kallitsaris, A.; Messinis, I.E. (2005-10-27). "Expression of human serum albumin (HSA) mRNA in ... Tavoulari, S. (2004). "The recombinant subdomain IIIB of human serum albumin displays activity of gonadotrophin surge- ... The time-course production of GnSAF depends on the serum FSH concentrations. Higher serum concentrations of FSH increases the ... is a large molecule consisting of subunits that has the same structure as the carboxyl terminal fragment of human serum albumin ...
Various other surface treatments also exist, including polyethylene glycol, bovine serum albumin, and silicon dioxide. There ... Reverse-phase protein arrays test replicates of cell lysates and serum samples with different antibodies to study the changes ... Analytical or capture protein arrays display antigens and antibodies to profile protein or antibody expression in serum. These ... been patterned to co-culture at specific cell densities with fibroblasts to maintain liver-specific functions such as albumin ...
Acidosis decreases binding of calcium to albumin and tends to increase serum ionized calcium levels. In addition, acidemia ... The expected change in serum bicarbonate concentration in respiratory acidosis can be estimated as follows: Acute respiratory ...
Bilirubin, for instance, is highly fluorescent when bound to a specific site on serum albumin. Zinc protoporphyrin, formed in ...
The most common carriers include serum globulin, albumins, ovalbumin and many others. Although proteins are mostly employed for ...
In affinity purification of serum albumin, the stationary used for collecting or attracting serum proteins can be Cibacron Blue ... Serum albumin purification[edit]. Of many uses of affinity chromatography, one use of it is seen in affinity purification of ... If the serum is known to contain antibodies against a specific antigen (for example if the serum comes from an organism ... Naval, Javier; Calvo, Miguel; Lampreave, Fermin; Piñeiro, Andrés (1983-01-01). "Affinity chromatography of serum albumin: An ...
"Modification of continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration with single-pass albumin dialysate allows for removal of serum ... Hehk (2000). "Removal of Albumin Bound Drugs in Albumin Dialysis (MARS)- A New Liver Support System". J. Hepatol. Suppl. 2. 32 ... "Dialysis against a recycled albumin solution enables the removal of albumin-bound toxins". Artificial Organs. 17 (9): 809-13. ... MARS treatment lowers serum urea and creatinine levels improving their clearance, and even favors resolution of hepatorenal ...

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