Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Serratia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.Prodigiosin: 4-Methoxy-5-((5-methyl-4-pentyl-2H-pyrrol-2-ylidene)methyl)- 2,2'-bi-1H-pyrrole. A toxic, bright red tripyrrole pigment from Serratia marcescens and others. It has antibacterial, anticoccidial, antimalarial, and antifungal activities, but is used mainly as a biochemical tool.Serratia liquefaciens: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SERRATIA found in plants and the DIGESTIVE TRACT of rodents. It is the most prevalent Serratia species in the natural environment.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.ChitinaseEnterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Citrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Proteus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Homoserine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of aspartic beta-semialdehyde to homoserine, which is the branch point in biosynthesis of methionine, lysine, threonine and leucine from aspartic acid. EC 1.1.1.3.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Buchnera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hand Disinfection: The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.North CarolinaAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Lower Extremity Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural abnormalities of the LOWER EXTREMITY.KentuckyUltrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.

Flagellar determinants of bacterial sensitivity to chi-phage. (1/272)

Bacteriophage chi is known to infect motile strains of enteric bacteria by adsorbing randomly along the length of a flagellar filament and then injecting its DNA into the bacterial cell at the filament base. Here, we provide evidence for a "nut and bolt" model for translocation of phage along the filament: the tail fiber of chi fits the grooves formed by helical rows of flagellin monomers, and active flagellar rotation forces the phage to follow the grooves as a nut follows the threads of a bolt.  (+info)

The phylogenetic position of Serratia, Buttiauxella and some other genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae. (2/272)

The phylogenetic relationships of the type strains of 38 species from 15 genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae were investigated by comparative 16S rDNA analysis. Several sequences of strains from the genera Citrobacter, Erwinia, Pantoea, Proteus, Rahnella and Serratia, analysed in this study, have been analysed previously. However, as the sequences of this study differ slightly from the published ones, they were included in the analysis. Of the 23 enterobacterial genera included in an overview dendrogram of relatedness, members of the genera Xenorhabdus, Photorhabdus, Proteus and Plesiomonas were used as a root. The other genera formed two groups which could be separated, although not exclusively, by signature nucleotides at positions 590-649 and 600-638. Group A contains species of Brenneria, Buttiauxella, Citrobacter, Escherichia, Erwinia, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pectobacterium and Salmonella. All seven type strains of Buttiauxella share 16S rDNA similarities greater than 99%. Group B embraces two phylogenetically separate Serratia clusters, a lineage containing Yersinia species, Rahnella aquatica, Ewingella americana, and also the highly related pair Hafnia alvei and Obesumbacterium proteus.  (+info)

Simultaneous enhancement of thermostability and catalytic activity of phospholipase A(1) by evolutionary molecular engineering. (3/272)

The thermal stability and catalytic activity of phospholipase A(1) from Serratia sp. strain MK1 were improved by evolutionary molecular engineering. Two thermostable mutants were isolated after sequential rounds of error-prone PCR performed to introduce random mutations and filter-based screening of the resultant mutant library; we determined that these mutants had six (mutant TA3) and seven (mutant TA13) amino acid substitutions. Different types of substitutions were found in the two mutants, and these substitutions resulted in an increase in nonpolar residues (mutant TA3) or in differences between side chains for polar or charged residues (mutant TA13). The wild-type and mutant enzymes were purified, and the effect of temperature on the stability and catalytic activity of the enzymes was investigated. The melting temperatures of the TA3 and TA13 enzymes were increased by 7 and 11 degrees C, respectively, compared with the melting temperature of the wild-type enzyme. Thus, we found that evolutionary molecular engineering was an effective and efficient approach for increasing thermostability without compromising enzyme activity.  (+info)

Identification of environmental Serratia plymuthica strains with the new combo panels type 1S. (4/272)

Automated systems are required when numerous samples need to be processed, offering both high through put and test of a multiple simultaneously. This study was performed to compare the MicroScan WalkAway automated identification system in conjunction with the new MicroScan Combo Neg Panels Type 1S with conventional biochemical methods for identifying ten environmental Serratia plymuthica strains. High correlation between both methods were observed for all the 21 tests evaluated, and the MicroScan system was found capable of correctly identifying all S. plymuthica strains tested. In all tests, the percentage of correlation was 100%, except in raffinose test (91%).  (+info)

Expression of the antifeeding gene anfA1 in Serratia entomophila requires rpoS. (5/272)

The rpoS gene of Serratia entomophila BC4B was cloned and used to create rpoS-mutant strain BC4BRS. Larvae of the New Zealand grass grub Costelytra zealandica infected with BC4BRS became amber colored but continued to feed, albeit to a lesser extent than infected larvae. Subsequently, we found that expression of the antifeeding gene anfA1 in trans was substantially reduced in BC4BRS relative to that in the parental strain BC4B. Our data show that a functional rpoS gene is vital for full expression of anfA1 and for development of the antifeeding component of amber disease.  (+info)

Assessment of flhDC mRNA levels in Serratia liquefaciens swarm cells. (6/272)

We reported previously that artificial overexpression of the flhDC operon in liquid-grown Serratia liquefaciens resulted in the formation of filamentous, multinucleated, and hyperflagellated cells that were indistinguishable from surface-induced swarm cells (L. Eberl, G. Christiansen, S. Molin, and M. Givskov, J. Bacteriol. 178:554-559, 1996). In the present report we show by means of reporter gene measurements, Northern analysis, and in situ reverse transcription-PCR that the amount of flhDC mRNA in surface-grown swarm cells does not exceed the maximum level found in nondifferentiated, vegetative cells. This suggests that surface-induced S. liquefaciens swarm cell differentiation, although dependent on flhDC gene expression, does not occur through elevated flhDC mRNA levels.  (+info)

Plants secrete substances that mimic bacterial N-acyl homoserine lactone signal activities and affect population density-dependent behaviors in associated bacteria. (7/272)

In gram-negative bacteria, many important changes in gene expression and behavior are regulated in a population density-dependent fashion by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules. Exudates from pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were found to contain several separable activities that mimicked AHL signals in well-characterized bacterial reporter strains, stimulating AHL-regulated behaviors in some strains while inhibiting such behaviors in others. The chemical nature of the active mimic compounds is currently unknown, but all extracted differently into organic solvents than common bacterial AHLs. Various species of higher plants in addition to pea were found to secrete AHL mimic activities. The AHL signal-mimic compounds could prove to be important in determining the outcome of interactions between higher plants and a diversity of pathogenic, symbiotic, and saprophytic bacteria.  (+info)

Antigen 43 from Escherichia coli induces inter- and intraspecies cell aggregation and changes in colony morphology of Pseudomonas fluorescens. (8/272)

Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a surface-displayed autotransporter protein of Escherichia coli. By virtue of its self-association characteristics, this protein is able to mediate autoaggregation and flocculation of E. coli cells in static cultures. Additionally, surface display of Ag43 is associated with a distinct frizzy colony morphology in E. coli. Here we show that Ag43 can be expressed in a functional form on the surface of the environmentally important Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SBW25 with ensuing cell aggregation and frizzy colony types. Using green fluorescence protein-tagged cells, we demonstrate that Ag43 can be used as a tool to provide interspecies cell aggregation between E. coli and P. fluorescens. Furthermore, Ag43 expression enhances biofilm formation in P. fluorescens to glass surfaces. The versatility of this protein was also reflected in Ag43 surface display in a variety of other gram-negative bacteria. Display of heterologous Ag43 in selected bacteria might offer opportunities for rational design of multispecies consortia where the concerted action of several bacterial species is required, e.g., waste treatment and degradation of pollutants.  (+info)

  • Serratia is the genus name of a group of relatively common bacteria , the most common of which is Serratia marcescens . (mrsa-today.com)
  • There are other species within the genus, a few of which have on rare occasion caused disease in humans, but the vast majority of infections with the Serratia occur with Serratia marcescens , and from this point forward, any mention of Serratia is understood to refer specifically to S. marcescens . (mrsa-today.com)
  • From an ecological perspective, our results illustrated the wide variation in sensitivity that closely related Serratia strains have towards various indigenous soil phages and that these phages have broad host ranges within the genus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The Serratia organism, of the same strain found to infect multiple patients, some of whom died from the infection, was found on the nurse's nails and in her hand cream in her home. (mrsa-today.com)
  • An esterase-encoding gene ( estS , 909 bp) from Serratia sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, a gene encoding a cold-active esterase, termed EstS, was cloned from the marine bacterium Serratia sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The artificial chromophoric substrate deoxythymidine 3',5'-bis-(p-nitrophenyl phosphate) is cleaved by NucA as well as by Serratia nuclease. (kpfu.ru)
  • 0.1%), similarly as observed for Serratia nuclease demonstrating that both enzymes share a similar mechanism of catalysis with differences only in detail. (kpfu.ru)
  • Serratia is what is most commonly known as an opportunistic pathogen in that under normal circumstances in an otherwise healthy person, infection and disease is uncommon. (mrsa-today.com)
  • Unfortunately, because Serratia is so commonly encountered in the environment, it is also a common cause of infections acquired by hospitalized people, a type of infection known as nosocomial, meaning the infection was acquired in a healthcare facility. (mrsa-today.com)
  • Serratia was intentionally released in the air over San Francisco and shortly thereafter, there was a marked increase in the reported number of cases of urinary and respiratory tract infections. (mrsa-today.com)
  • PCC7120 that has been obtained on the basis of the three-dimensional structure of the related Serratia nuclease, suggests that the overall architecture of the active site including amino acid residues H124, N155 and E163 (corresponding to H89, N119 and E127 in Serratia nuclease) is similar in both nucleases. (kpfu.ru)
  • The active site residue E163 seems to be the main target amino acid for inhibition of NucA by NuiA, but R93, R122 and R167 (corresponding to K55, R87, R131 in Serratia nuclease) are also involved in the NucA/NuiA interaction. (kpfu.ru)
  • Bartolomeo Bizio, a Venetian pharmacist, studied the mode of transmission of the red substance and named this microorganism Serratia in honor of Serafino Serrati, who ran the first steamboat on the Arno River in 1795, anticipating the discovery of Robert Fulton in 1807. (cdc.gov)
  • Serratia marcescens was later renamed Monas prodigiosus in 1846, then Bacillus prodigiosus , before the original name was restored in the 1920s in recognition of the work of Bizio. (cdc.gov)
  • Serratia marcescens Bizio 1823 (Approved Lists 1980). (bacterio.net)
  • Serratia was named in honor of an Italian physicist, Serafino Serrati, who Bizio thought had been slighted in favor of American inventors as to priority for the invention of the steamboat. (antimicrobe.org)
  • Biotyping, bacteriocin typing, phage typing, plasmid analysis, and ribotyping can also be used Serratia marcescens appears red on Trypticase Soy Agar slants when grown at around 25 degrees Celscius S. marcescensand S. liquefaciens can be easily confused in the lab when using the API system. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, protease influenced the quality of inoculated raw milk with Serratia liquefaciens. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • LCN16 is phylogenetically most closely related to the phytosphere group of Serratia, which includes S. proteamaculans , S. grimessi and S. liquefaciens . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Serratia marcescens causes bacterial keratitis and contact lens associated complications yet its virulence factors are poorly understood. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this study, a 15 kDa trialysin-like protein from the salivary gland of R. pedestris and a potent virulence factor of Serratia cells, a serralysin metalloprotease, from the culture medium of S. marcescens were successfully purified to homogeneity. (ovid.com)
  • Three sets of carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates have been identified in the United States: 1 isolate in Minnesota in 1985 (before approval of carbapenems for clinical use), 5 isolates in Los Angeles (University of California at Los Angeles [UCLA]) in 1992, and 19 isolates in Boston from 1994 to 1999. (asm.org)
  • T. Rehman, T. A. Moore and L. Seoane, "Serratia marcescens Necrotizing Fasciitis Presenting as Bilateral Breast Necrosis," Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Vol. 50, No. 10, 2012, pp. 3406-3408. (scirp.org)
  • V. L. Yu, "Serratia marcescens: Historical Perspective and Clinical Review," The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 300, No. 16, 1979, pp. 887-893. (scirp.org)
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