Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Serine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin: Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Leukocyte Elastase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.Protein C Inhibitor: A member of the serpin family of proteins that is found in plasma and urine. It is dependent on heparin and is able to inhibit activated PROTEIN C; THROMBIN; KALLIKREIN; and other SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.Complement C1 Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.Protease Nexins: Extracellular protease inhibitors that are secreted from FIBROBLASTS. They form a covalent complex with SERINE PROTEASES and can mediate their cellular internalization and degradation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Serpin E2: A protease nexin and serpin subtype that is specific for several SERINE PROTEASES including UROKINASE; THROMBIN; TRYPSIN; and PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATORS.Cathepsin G: A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.alpha-2-Antiplasmin: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Prolamins: A group of seed storage proteins restricted to the POACEAE family. They are rich in GLUTAMINE and PROLINE.Cystatin A: A cytastin subtype found at high levels in the SKIN and in BLOOD CELLS. Cystatin A incorporates into the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelial cells and may play a role in bacteriostatic properties of skin.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Heparin Cofactor II: A sulfated plasma protein with a MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Trypsin Inhibitors: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 2: Member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Camping: Living outdoors as a recreational activity.Recreation Therapy: The enhancement of physical, cognitive, emotional and social skills so an individual may participate in chosen activities. Recreational modalities are used in designed intervention strategies, incorporating individual's interests to make the therapy process meaningful and relevant.Health ResortsEvolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.

MENT, a heterochromatin protein that mediates higher order chromatin folding, is a new serpin family member. (1/1699)

Terminal cell differentiation is correlated with the extensive sequestering of previously active genes into compact transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. In vertebrate blood cells, these changes can be traced to the accumulation of a developmentally regulated heterochromatin protein, MENT. Cryoelectron microscopy of chicken granulocyte chromatin, which is highly enriched with MENT, reveals exceptionally compact polynucleosomes, which maintain a level of higher order folding above that imposed by linker histones. The amino acid sequence of MENT reveals a close structural relationship with serpins, a large family of proteins known for their ability to undergo dramatic conformational transitions. Conservation of the "hinge region" consensus in MENT indicates that this ability is retained by the protein. MENT is distinguished from the other serpins by being a basic protein, containing several positively charged surface clusters, which are likely to be involved in ionic interactions with DNA. One of the positively charged domains bears a significant similarity to the chromatin binding region of nuclear lamina proteins and with the A.T-rich DNA-binding motif, which may account for the targeting of MENT to peripheral heterochromatin. MENT ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line is transported into nuclei and is associated with intranuclear foci of condensed chromatin.  (+info)

The intracellular serpin proteinase inhibitor 6 is expressed in monocytes and granulocytes and is a potent inhibitor of the azurophilic granule protease, cathepsin G. (2/1699)

The monocyte and granulocyte azurophilic granule proteinases elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are implicated in acute and chronic diseases thought to result from an imbalance between the secreted proteinase(s) and circulating serpins such as alpha1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-antichymotrypsin. We show here that the intracellular serpin, proteinase inhibitor 6 (PI-6), is present in monocytes, granulocytes, and myelomonocytic cell lines. In extracts from these cells, PI-6 bound an endogenous membrane-associated serine proteinase to form an sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-stable complex. Using antibodies to urokinase, elastase, proteinase 3, or cathepsin G, we demonstrated that the complex contains cathepsin G. Native cathepsin G and recombinant PI-6 formed an SDS-stable complex in vitro similar in size to that observed in the extracts. Further kinetic analysis demonstrated that cathepsin G and PI-6 rapidly form a tight 1:1 complex (ka = 6.8 +/- 0.2 x 10(6) mol/L-1s-1 at 17 degrees C; Ki = 9.2 +/- 0.04 x 10(-10) mol/L). We propose that PI-6 complements alpha1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-antichymotrypsin (which control extracellular proteolysis) by neutralizing cathepsin G that leaks into the cytoplasm of monocytes or granulocytes during biosynthesis or phagocytosis. Control of intracellular cathepsin G may be particularly important, because it has recently been shown to activate the proapoptotic proteinase, caspase-7.  (+info)

Role for caspase-mediated cleavage of Rad51 in induction of apoptosis by DNA damage. (3/1699)

We report here that the Rad51 recombinase is cleaved in mammalian cells during the induction of apoptosis by ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. The results demonstrate that IR induces Rad51 cleavage by a caspase-dependent mechanism. Further support for involvement of caspases is provided by the finding that IR-induced proteolysis of Rad51 is inhibited by Ac-DEVD-CHO. In vitro studies show that Rad51 is cleaved by caspase 3 at a DVLD/N site. Stable expression of a Rad51 mutant in which the aspartic acid residues were mutated to alanines (AVLA/N) confirmed that the DVLD/N site is responsible for the cleavage of Rad51 in IR-induced apoptosis. The functional significance of Rad51 proteolysis is supported by the finding that, unlike intact Rad51, the N- and C-terminal cleavage products fail to exhibit recombinase activity. In cells, overexpression of the Rad51(D-A) mutant had no effect on activation of caspase 3 but did abrogate in part the apoptotic response to IR exposure. We conclude that proteolytic inactivation of Rad51 by a caspase-mediated mechanism contributes to the cell death response induced by DNA damage.  (+info)

Bcl-xL blocks activation of related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase in the cellular response to methylmethane sulfonate. (4/1699)

The stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) is induced in response to ionizing radiation and other DNA-damaging agents. Recent studies indicate that activation of JNK is necessary for induction of apoptosis in response to diverse agents. Here we demonstrate that methylmethane sulfonate (MMS)-induced activation of JNK is inhibited by overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL, but not by caspase inhibitors CrmA and p35. By contrast, UV-induced JNK activity is insensitive to Bcl-xL. The results demonstrate that treatment with MMS is associated with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of related adhesion focal tyrosine kinase (RAFTK)/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), an upstream effector of JNK and that this phosphorylation is inhibited by overexpression of Bcl-xL. Furthermore, overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of RAFTK (RAFTK K-M) inhibits MMS-induced JNK activation. The results indicate that inhibition of RAFTK phosphorylation by MMS in Bcl-xL cells is attributed to an increase in tyrosine phosphatase activity in these cells. Hence, treatment of Bcl-xL cells with sodium vanadate, a tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, restores MMS-induced activation of RAFTK and JNK. These findings indicate that RAFTK-dependent induction of JNK in response to MMS is sensitive to Bcl-xL, but not to CrmA and p35, by a mechanism that inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation and thereby activation of RAFTK. Taken together, these findings support a novel role for Bcl-xL that is independent of the caspase cascade.  (+info)

Ligand binding properties of the very low density lipoprotein receptor. Absence of the third complement-type repeat encoded by exon 4 is associated with reduced binding of Mr 40,000 receptor-associated protein. (5/1699)

The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) binds, among other ligands, the Mr 40,000 receptor-associated protein (RAP) and a variety of serine proteinase-serpin complexes, including complexes of the proteinase urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) with the serpins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and protease nexin-1 (PN-1). We have analyzed the binding of RAP, uPA.PAI-1, and uPA.PN-1 to two naturally occurring VLDLR variants, VLDLR-I, containing all eight complement-type repeats, and VLDLR-III, lacking the third complement-type repeat, encoded by exon 4. VLDLR-III displayed approximately 4-fold lower binding of RAP than VLDLR-I and approximately 10-fold lower binding of the most C-terminal one of the three domains of RAP. In contrast, the binding of uPA.PAI-1 and uPA.PN-1 to the two VLDLR variants was indistinguishable. Surprisingly, uPA.PN-1, but not uPA.PAI-1, competed RAP binding to both VLDLR variants. These observations show that the third complement-type repeat plays a crucial role in maintaining the contact sites needed for optimal recognition of RAP, but does not affect the proteinase-serpin complex contact sites, and that two ligands can show full cross-competition without sharing the same contacts with the receptor. These results elucidate the mechanisms of molecular recognition of ligands by receptors of the low density lipoprotein receptor family.  (+info)

Suppression of breast cancer growth and metastasis by a serpin myoepithelium-derived serine proteinase inhibitor expressed in the mammary myoepithelial cells. (6/1699)

A serpin was identified in normal mammary gland by differential cDNA sequencing. In situ hybridization has detected this serpin exclusively in the myoepithelial cells on the normal and noninvasive mammary epithelial side of the basement membrane and thus was named myoepithelium-derived serine proteinase inhibitor (MEPI). No MEPI expression was detected in the malignant breast carcinomas. MEPI encodes a 405-aa precursor, including an 18-residue secretion signal with a calculated molecular mass of 46 kDa. The predicted sequence of the new protein shares 33% sequence identity and 58% sequence similarity to plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 and PAI-2. To determine whether MEPI can modulate the in vivo growth and progression of human breast cancers, we transfected a full-length MEPI cDNA into human breast cancer cells and studied the orthotopic growth of MEPI-transfected vs. control clones in the mammary fat pad of athymic nude mice. Overexpression of MEPI inhibited the invasion of the cells in the in vitro invasion assay. When injected orthotopically into nude mice, the primary tumor volumes, axillary lymph node metastasis, and lung metastasis were significantly inhibited in MEPI-transfected clones as compared with controls. The expression of MEPI in myoepithelial cells may prevent breast cancer malignant progression leading to metastasis.  (+info)

Regulation of pro-apoptotic leucocyte granule serine proteinases by intracellular serpins. (7/1699)

Caspase activation and apoptosis can be initiated by the introduction of serine proteinases into the cytoplasm of a cell. Cytotoxic lymphocytes have evolved at least one serine proteinase with specific pro-apoptotic activity (granzyme B), as well as the mechanisms to deliver it into a target cell, and recent evidence suggests that other leucocyte granule proteinases may also have the capacity to kill if released into the interior of cells. For example, the monocyte/granulocyte proteinase cathepsin G can activate caspases in vitro, and will induce apoptosis if its entry into cells is mediated by a bacterial pore-forming protein. The potent pro-apoptotic activity of granzyme B and cathepsin G suggests that cells producing these (or other) proteinases would be at risk from self-induced death if the systems involved in packaging, degranulation or targeting fail and allow proteinases to enter the host cell cytoplasm. The purpose of the present review is to describe recent work on a group of intracellular serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) which may function in leucocytes to prevent autolysis induced by the granule serine proteinases.  (+info)

Anti-viral strategies of cytotoxic T lymphocytes are manifested through a variety of granule-bound pathways of apoptosis induction. (8/1699)

Cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells together constitute a major defence against virus infection, through their ability to induce apoptotic death in infected cells. These cytolytic lymphocytes kill their targets through two principal mechanisms, and one of these, granule exocytosis, is essential for an effective in vivo immune response against many viruses. In recent years, the authors and other investigators have identified several distinct mechanisms that can induce death in a targeted cell. In the present article, it is postulated that the reason for this redundancy of lethal mechanisms is to deal with the array of anti-apoptotic molecules elaborated by viruses to extend the life of infected cells. The fate of such a cell therefore reflects the balance of pro-apoptotic (immune) and anti-apoptotic (viral) strategies that have developed over eons of evolutionary time.  (+info)

  • These altered forms of inhibitory serpins are detected in tissues and fluids recovered from inflammatory sites, but the important questions of how they are generated, what their biological activities are, and which of them are directly linked to pathologies and/or may be useful markers for characterisation of disease states, remain to be answered. (alta-awards.com)
  • This mechanistic complexity, however, renders serpins highly susceptible to disease-causing mutations. (nih.gov)
  • Vertebrate serpins are classified into six groups (V1-V6), based on three independent biological features-genomic organization, diagnostic amino acid sites and rare indels. (peerj.com)
  • Serpins usually have a single domain (Pfam ID PF00079 or Interpro ID IPR023795) with a conserved core of ∼350-400 residues. (peerj.com)
  • This method supports the intron and indel based vertebrate classification and proves that serpins have been maintained from lampreys to humans for about 500 MY. (peerj.com)
  • Additionally in this study, details of the phylogenetic history and genomic characteristics of vertebrate serpins are revisited. (peerj.com)
  • Among the clades in which uterine serpin genes exist are the Cetartiodactyla (dolphin, cow, water buffalo, sheep, goat, pig), Perissodactyla (horse) and some carnivores (dog, giant panda) The uterine serpin gene is not expressed in all carnivores since the only uterine serpin identified in the cat is a pseudogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major regulator of uterine serpin gene expression is progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cow, estrogen can also increase uterine serpin gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single nucleotide polymorphism at position 1269 of the bovine uterine serpin gene has been associated with productive life in cattle populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 3q26.1 that encodes a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors that inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study, we characterized the serpin ( SRPN ) gene family in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae , the major malaria vector in Sub-Saharan Africa. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We completed sequencing of cDNAs for the A. gambiae serpins to obtain complete coding sequence information and to verify or improve gene predictions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This article reports the gene sequencing, cloning, expression and preliminary biochemical and bioinformatically-based structural characterization of a new Anisakis serpin (ANISERP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • α1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1), the most studied member of this family, is encoded by a gene located within the proximal 14q32.1 SERPIN subcluster, together with the highly homologous α1-antitrypsin-like sequence (SERPINA2), which was previously proposed to be a pseudogene. (ovid.com)
  • We also show that the SERPINA2 gene is expressed and probably encodes a functional SERPIN. (ovid.com)
  • NCBI/Uniprot data below describe general gene information for serpin-1 . (mybiosource.com)
  • Mutations in this gene are associated with nonsyndromic progressive hearing loss, suggesting that this serpin plays an important role in the inner ear in the protection against leakage of lysosomal content during stress, and that loss of this protection results in cell death and sensorineural hearing loss. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Among these clones, there are 11 variants of the reactive center region, each encoded by a different version of the ninth exon in the serpin gene. (symbolical.us)
  • Thus, evolution of this insect serpin gene has resulted from duplication and sequence divergence of only the exon encoding the reactive site. (symbolical.us)
  • The Human Serpin A1 solid-phase sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is designed to measure the amount of the target bound between a matched antibody pair. (thermofisher.com)
  • Serpin F1/PEDF Monoclonal antibody specifically detects Serpin F1/PEDF in Human samples. (fishersci.com)
  • Antibody binding rendered β-sheet A - on the opposite face of the molecule - more liable to adopt an 'open' state, mediated by changes distal to the breach region and proximal to helix F. The allosteric propagation of induced changes through the molecule was evidenced by an increased rate of peptide incorporation and destabilisation of pre-formed serpin-enzyme complex following mAb 4B12 binding. (biochemj.org)
  • This antibody detects specifically mouse Serpin C1 with WB. (angioproteomie.com)
  • Serpins thus provide stoichiometric, irreversible inhibition, and their dependence on conformational change is exploited for signalling and clearance. (nih.gov)
  • After a protease cleaves the RCL at the scissile bond between amino acid residues designated P1 and P1′, the serpin undergoes a large conformational change, and the protease is trapped with its active site distorted, resulting in its inactivation ( Gettins, 2007 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this chapter, we review the principles of the two most commonly employed structural mass spectrometry techniques-hydrogen/deuterium exchange and chemical footprinting-and describe their application to studying serpin flexibility, stability, and conformational change in solution. (caltech.edu)
  • Secondary structure of OVAX is similar to that of ovalbumin, but the three-dimensional model of OVAX reveals the presence of a cluster of exposed positive charges, which potentially explains the affinity of this ov-serpin for heparin, as opposed to ovalbumin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As a member of the ovalbumin-related serpin family, PAI-2 is genetically similar to chicken ovalbumin ( Gallus gallus ), and is a close mammalian homolog. (wikipedia.org)
  • After 16h of serum starvation, the cells were pretreated with full-length recombinant human PEDF, PN-1 and PN-1-[R346A], an altered version at its serpin reactive center, as well as synthetic peptides derived from PEDF termed 34mer, 44mer and 17mer, and from PN-1 termed 17mer and incubated at 37C for 2 h. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mutually exclusive exon use and reactive center diversity in insect serpins. (symbolical.us)
  • We have isolated 38 cDNA clones for serpins from a lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta, and have found that they are identical in sequence, except for a region encoding the carboxyl-terminal 40-45 residues, which includes the reactive center. (symbolical.us)
  • The D. melanogaster genome contains at least 29 serpin genes ( Reichhart, 2005 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cytotoxicity assays showed that deletion of the VV serpin genes B13R and B22R and other genes between B13R and B24R did not increase the level of lysis, indicating that these genes are not involved in inhibition of antigen presentation of the epitopes tested. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In insects, serpins have been identified in several species, but most studies of insect serpins are from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Vaccinia virus serpins B13R and B22R do not inhibit antigen presentation to class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent crystal structures reveal the intricate conformational rearrangements involved in protease inhibition, activity modulation and the unique molecular pathology of the remarkable shape-shifting serpins. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that SRPN1, 2, 3, 8, 9 and 10 formed phylogenetic clusters with known inhibitory serpins from Drosophila melanogaster and Manduca sexta . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • With the exception of Manduca serpin-2, they all are involved in regulation of the prophenoloxidase (PPO) activation cascade, an innate immune response, but they are likely to have additional functions not yet discovered. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • when associated with an inter-molecular interaction, this yields linear polymers of hyperstable serpin molecules, which accumulate at the site of synthesis. (biochemj.org)
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