Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with PLEURISY, inflammation of the PLEURA.
A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria which are common parasitic inhabitants of the urogenital tracts of humans, cattle, dogs, and monkeys.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A species of anaerobic, spiral bacteria that was formerly classified as Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Treponema hyodysenteriae (and for a short while, Serpula hyodysenteriae). This organism is the agent of swine dysentery.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A species of gram-negative bacteria found in the human genitourinary tract (UROGENITAL SYSTEM), oropharynx, and anal canal. Serovars 1, 3, 6, and 14 have been reclassed into a separate species UREAPLASMA parvum.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Infections with bacteria of the genus UREAPLASMA.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
An order of BIRDS comprised of several families and more than 300 species. It includes COCKATOOS; PARROTS; PARAKEETS; macaws; and BUDGERIGARS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
An acute and chronic contagious disease of young pigs caused by Erysipelothrix insidiosa.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.
Gram-negative rods isolated from human urine and feces.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that has a tendency to form long filaments. Its organisms are widely distributed in nature and are found in MAMMALS; BIRDS; and FISHES. Erysipelothrix may appear gram-negative because they decolorize easily.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus HAEMOPHILUS found, in the normal upper respiratory tract of SWINE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in soil, fecal matter, and sewage. It is an opportunistic pathogen and causes cystitis and pyelonephritis.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PROTEUS.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A genus of spiral bacteria of the family Brachyspiraceae.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.

Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (1/7746)

The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar.  (+info)

Serotypes and virulence factors of Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats. (2/7746)

E. coli strains isolated from urine of dogs and cats with urinary tract infections (UTI) and from feces of healthy one's were serotyped, and the serotypes were correlated with uropathogenic virulence factors. The most prevalent O-serotypes, O4 and O6, were isolated from dogs and cats with UTI. In contrast, O11 and O102 strains were the most frequently found from feces of healthy dogs and cats. Most of type O4 and O6 strains possessed such virulence factors as pil, pap, sfa, hly, and cnf1, while most type O11 and O102 strains pil only or pil and aer. All strains of type O75 possessed afaI and aer. K1 antigen was negative in all strains obtained from UTI.  (+info)

Ribotypes of clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains in relation to O-serotypes. (3/7746)

The emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in 1992 and reports of an increasing number of other non-O1 serogroups being associated with diarrhoea, stimulated us to characterize V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains received at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan for serotyping. Ribotyping with the restriction enzyme BglI of 103 epidemiological unrelated mainly clinical strains representing 10 O-serotypes yielded 67 different typing patterns. Ribotype similarity within each serotype was compared by using the Dice coefficient (Sd) and different levels of homogeneity were observed (serotypes O5, O41 and O17, Sd between 82 and 90%: serotypes O13 and O141 Sd of 72; and O2, O6, O7, O11, O24 Sd of 62-66%). By cluster analysis, the strains were divided into several clusters of low similarity suggesting a high level of genetic diversity. A low degree of similarity between serotypes and ribotypes was found as strains within a specific serotypes often did not cluster but clustered with strains from other serotypes. However, epidemiological unrelated O5 strains showed identical or closely related ribotypes suggesting that these strains have undergone few genetic changes and may correspond to a clonal line. Surprisingly, 10 of 16 O141 strains studied contained a cholera toxin (CT) gene, including 7 strains recovered from stool and water samples in the United States. This is to our knowledge the first report of CT-positive clinical O141 strains. The closely related ribotypes shown by eight CT-positive strains is disturbing and suggest that these strains may be of a clonal origin and have the potential to cause cholera-like disease. Despite the low degree of correlation found between ribotypes and serotypes, both methods appears to be valuable techniques in studying the epidemiology of emerging serotypes of V. cholerae.  (+info)

Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel. (4/7746)

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

Risk factors for the occurrence of sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis infections in children in France: a national case-control study. (5/7746)

To determine risk factors associated with the occurrence of sporadic cases of Salmonella enteritidis infections among children in France, we conducted a matched case-control study. Cases were identified between 1 March and 30 September 1995. One hundred and five pairs of cases and controls matched for age and place of residence were interviewed. In the 1-5 years age group, illness was associated with the consumption of raw eggs or undercooked egg-containing foods (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). Storing eggs more than 2 weeks after purchase was associated with Salmonella enteritidis infection (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.4-10.2), particularly during the summer period (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.3-26.8). Cases were more likely to report a case of diarrhoea in the household 10-3 days before the onset of symptoms, particularly in the age group < or = 1 year (P = 0.01). This study confirms the link between eggs and the occurrence of sporadic cases of Salmonella enteritidis among children, highlights the potential role of prolonged egg storage and underlines the role of person-to-person transmission in infants.  (+info)

High turnover rate of Escherichia coli strains in the intestinal flora of infants in Pakistan. (6/7746)

The Escherichia coli flora of infants in developed countries is dominated by one or a few strains which persist for prolonged periods of time, but no longitudinal studies have been performed in developing countries. To this end, we studied the rectal enterobacterial flora in 22 home-delivered Pakistani infants during their first 6 months of life. Three colonies were isolated and species typed on each of 11 sampling occasions. E. coli isolates were strain typed using electromorphic typing of cytoplasmic enzymes, and their O serogroups were determined. There was a very rapid turnover of enterobacterial strains in the rectal flora of individual infants. On average, 8.5 different E. coli strains were found per infant, and several biotypes of other enterobacteria. Less than 50% of the infants were colonized with E. coli from their mothers, but strains of maternal origin were four times more likely to persists in the infants' flora than other E. coli strains. Enterobacteria other than E. coli were always of non-maternal origin, and Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae biotypes recovered from contaminated feeds were later identified in the infants' rectal flora. An early colonization with klebsiella or enterobacter was significantly associated with diarrhoea during the neonatal period, although these bacteria were not likely to be the cause of the disease. The results suggest that poor hygienic conditions result in an unstable and diverse enterobacterial flora, which may influence infant health.  (+info)

Infection rate of Leptospira interrogans in the field rodent, Apodemus agrarius, in Korea. (7/7746)

Leptospirosis has significantly decreased in Korea since 1988, following the leptospiral vaccination programme initiated in 1988. Whether this wholly explains the decreased incidence is uncertain. As an initial step to answer this question, infection rates of Leptospira interrogans in field rodents, Apodemis agrarius, were examined and compared with previous data. Two hundred and twenty-two A. agrarius were captured during October-December 1996. Spirochaetes were isolated from 22 (9.9%) and leptospiral DNA was detected in an additional 6 rodents (12.6%). Subsequent microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) classified all these isolates as L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar lai. The above data did not significantly differ from previous surveys in 1984-7. There was no significant change of L. interrogans infection in field rodents following the introduction of the vaccination programme in Korea. Further studies are needed to determine the role of human vaccination in reducing incidence.  (+info)

Biodiversity of Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from fish in Europe, Asia, and Australia. (8/7746)

Lactococcus garvieae (junior synonym, Enterococcus seriolicida) is a major pathogen of fish, producing fatal septicemia among fish species living in very diverse environments. The phenotypic traits of L. garvieae strains collected from three different continents (Asia, Europe, and Australia) indicated phenotypic heterogeneity. On the basis of the acidification of D-tagatose and sucrose, three biotypes were defined. DNA relatedness values and a specific PCR assay showed that all the biotypes belonged to the same genospecies, L. garvieae. All of the L. garvieae strains were serotyped as Lancefield group N. Ribotyping proved that one clone was found both in Japan, where it probably originated, and in Italy, where it was probably imported. PCR of environmental samples did not reveal the source of the contamination of the fish in Italy. Specific clones (ribotypes) were found in outbreaks in Spain and in Italy. The L. garvieae reference strain, isolated in the United Kingdom from a cow, belonged to a unique ribotype. L. garvieae is a rising zoonotic agent. The biotyping scheme, the ribotyping analysis, and the PCR assay described in this work allowed the proper identification of L. garvieae and the description of the origin and of the source of contamination of strains involved in outbreaks or in sporadic cases.  (+info)

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Agglutination tests are laboratory diagnostic procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, such as blood or serum. These tests work by observing the clumping (agglutination) of particles, like red blood cells or bacteriophages, coated with specific antigens or antibodies when mixed with a patient's sample.

In an agglutination test, the sample is typically combined with a reagent containing known antigens or antibodies on the surface of particles, such as latex beads, red blood cells, or bacteriophages. If the sample contains the corresponding antibodies or antigens, they will bind to the particles, forming visible clumps or agglutinates. The presence and strength of agglutination are then assessed visually or with automated equipment to determine the presence and quantity of the target antigen or antibody in the sample.

Agglutination tests are widely used in medical diagnostics for various applications, including:

1. Bacterial and viral infections: To identify specific bacterial or viral antigens in a patient's sample, such as group A Streptococcus, Legionella pneumophila, or HIV.
2. Blood typing: To determine the ABO blood group and Rh type of a donor or recipient before a blood transfusion or organ transplantation.
3. Autoimmune diseases: To detect autoantibodies in patients with suspected autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
4. Allergies: To identify specific IgE antibodies in a patient's sample to determine allergic reactions to various substances, such as pollen, food, or venom.
5. Drug monitoring: To detect and quantify the presence of drug-induced antibodies, such as those developed in response to penicillin or hydralazine therapy.

Agglutination tests are simple, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic tools that provide valuable information for clinical decision-making and patient management. However, they may have limitations, including potential cross-reactivity with other antigens, false-positive results due to rheumatoid factors or heterophile antibodies, and false-negative results due to the prozone effect or insufficient sensitivity. Therefore, it is essential to interpret agglutination test results in conjunction with clinical findings and other laboratory data.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

"O antigens" are a type of antigen found on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The "O" in O antigens stands for "outer" membrane. These antigens are composed of complex carbohydrates and can vary between different strains of the same species of bacteria, which is why they are also referred to as the bacterial "O" somatic antigens.

The O antigens play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, as they help the bacteria evade the host's immune system by changing the structure of the O antigen, making it difficult for the host to mount an effective immune response against the bacterial infection.

The identification and classification of O antigens are important in epidemiology, clinical microbiology, and vaccine development, as they can be used to differentiate between different strains of bacteria and to develop vaccines that provide protection against specific bacterial infections.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus, is a gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic bacterium frequently found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals. It is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and can also cause other infectious diseases such as otitis media (ear infection), sinusitis, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection). The bacteria are encapsulated, and there are over 90 serotypes based on variations in the capsular polysaccharide. Some serotypes are more virulent or invasive than others, and the polysaccharide composition is crucial for vaccine development. S. pneumoniae infection can be treated with antibiotics, but the emergence of drug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern.

'Campylobacter fetus' is a species of gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal infections in humans. It is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, particularly cattle, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The infection caused by 'Campylobacter fetus' is known as campylobacteriosis, which typically presents with symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection can also lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) and Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

It's important to note that while 'Campylobacter fetus' is a significant cause of foodborne illness, it can be prevented through proper food handling and preparation practices, such as cooking meats thoroughly and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Campylobacter infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium *Campylobacter jejuni* or other species of the genus *Campylobacter*. These bacteria are commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly birds, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food, water, or contact with infected animals.

The most common symptom of Campylobacter infection is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be bloody. Other symptoms may include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness usually lasts about a week, but in some cases, it can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Campylobacter infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but in mild cases, they may resolve on their own without treatment. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces that come into contact with raw meat, avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and untreated water, and handling pets, particularly birds and reptiles, with care.

Pneumococcal infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. This bacterium can infect different parts of the body, including the lungs (pneumonia), blood (bacteremia or sepsis), and the covering of the brain and spinal cord (meningitis). Pneumococcal infections can also cause ear infections and sinus infections. The bacteria spread through close contact with an infected person, who may spread the bacteria by coughing or sneezing. People with weakened immune systems, children under 2 years of age, adults over 65, and those with certain medical conditions are at increased risk for developing pneumococcal infections.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

'Campylobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including birds and mammals. These bacteria are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni being the most frequently identified species associated with human infection.

Campylobacter infection, also known as campylobacteriosis, typically causes symptoms such as diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The infection is usually acquired through the consumption of contaminated food or water, particularly undercooked poultry, raw milk, and contaminated produce. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces.

While most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting and resolve within a week without specific treatment, severe or prolonged infections may require antibiotic therapy. In rare cases, Campylobacter infection can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Preventive measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, thorough handwashing, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR) is a laboratory technique that allows the simultaneous amplification and detection of multiple specific DNA sequences in a single reaction. This method utilizes multiple sets of primers, each specifically designed to recognize and bind to a unique target sequence within the DNA sample.

The process involves several steps:

1. Denaturation: The DNA sample is heated to separate the double-stranded DNA into single strands.
2. Annealing: Primers specific to the target sequences are added, and the mixture is cooled, allowing the primers to attach to their respective complementary sequences on the DNA strands.
3. Extension/Amplification: Polymerase enzymes extend the primers along the DNA template, synthesizing new strands of DNA that contain the target sequence. This step is repeated multiple times (usually 25-40 cycles) to exponentially amplify the targeted sequences.

In multiplex PCR, several primer sets are used in a single reaction, allowing for the simultaneous amplification of different target sequences. After amplification, various methods can be employed to distinguish and detect the specific products, such as gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, or microarray analysis.

Multiplex PCR is widely used in diagnostic tests, pathogen detection, genetic testing, and research applications where multiple DNA targets need to be analyzed simultaneously.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that is a common cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is often found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The bacteria are capable of causing an infection known as campylobacteriosis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause serious complications, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States, with an estimated 1.3 million cases occurring each year. It is often found in undercooked poultry and raw or unpasteurized milk products, as well as in contaminated water supplies. Proper cooking and pasteurization can help reduce the risk of infection, as can good hygiene practices such as washing hands thoroughly after handling raw meat and vegetables.

Bacterial capsules are slimy, gel-like layers that surround many types of bacteria. They are made up of polysaccharides, proteins, or lipopolysaccharides and are synthesized by the bacterial cell. These capsules play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria as they help the bacteria to evade the host's immune system and promote their survival and colonization within the host. The presence of a capsule can also contribute to the bacteria's resistance to desiccation, phagocytosis, and antibiotics.

The chemical composition and structure of bacterial capsules vary among different species of bacteria, which is one factor that contributes to their serological specificity and allows for their identification and classification using methods such as the Quellung reaction or immunofluorescence microscopy.

"Salmonella enterica" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a common cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide, often resulting in gastroenteritis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting.

"Salmonella enterica" is further divided into several serovars or subspecies, with some of the most common ones causing human illness being Typhimurium and Enteritidis. These bacteria are typically transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water sources, such as raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.

Once ingested, "Salmonella enterica" can colonize the gastrointestinal tract and release endotoxins that cause inflammation and damage to the intestinal lining. In some cases, the bacteria can spread to other parts of the body, leading to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Preventing "Salmonella enterica" infections involves proper food handling and preparation practices, such as washing hands and surfaces thoroughly, cooking meats and eggs to appropriate temperatures, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a type of bacteria that commonly colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of humans. It is Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, and forms chains when viewed under the microscope.

While S. agalactiae can be carried asymptomatically by many adults, it can cause serious infections in newborns, pregnant women, elderly individuals, and people with weakened immune systems. In newborns, GBS can lead to sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis, which can result in long-term health complications or even be fatal if left untreated.

Pregnant women are often screened for GBS colonization during the third trimester of pregnancy, and those who test positive may receive intrapartum antibiotics to reduce the risk of transmission to their newborns during delivery.

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) is a term used in molecular biology and genetics. It refers to the presence of variations in DNA sequences among individuals, which can be detected by restriction enzymes. These enzymes cut DNA at specific sites, creating fragments of different lengths.

In RFLP analysis, DNA is isolated from an individual and treated with a specific restriction enzyme that cuts the DNA at particular recognition sites. The resulting fragments are then separated by size using gel electrophoresis, creating a pattern unique to that individual's DNA. If there are variations in the DNA sequence between individuals, the restriction enzyme may cut the DNA at different sites, leading to differences in the length of the fragments and thus, a different pattern on the gel.

These variations can be used for various purposes, such as identifying individuals, diagnosing genetic diseases, or studying evolutionary relationships between species. However, RFLP analysis has largely been replaced by more modern techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and DNA sequencing, which offer higher resolution and throughput.

Molecular typing is a laboratory technique used to identify and characterize specific microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, at the molecular level. This method is used to differentiate between strains of the same species based on their genetic or molecular differences. Molecular typing techniques include methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and whole genome sequencing (WGS). These techniques allow for high-resolution discrimination between strains, enabling epidemiological investigations of outbreaks, tracking the transmission of pathogens, and studying the evolution and population biology of microorganisms.

Bacteriophage typing is a laboratory method used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains based on their susceptibility to specific bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. In this technique, a standard set of bacteriophages with known host ranges are allowed to infect and form plaques on a lawn of bacterial cells grown on a solid medium, such as agar. The pattern and number of plaques formed are then used to identify the specific bacteriophage types that are able to infect the bacterial strain, providing a unique "fingerprint" or profile that can be used for typing and differentiating different bacterial strains.

Bacteriophage typing is particularly useful in epidemiological studies, as it can help track the spread of specific bacterial clones within a population, monitor antibiotic resistance patterns, and provide insights into the evolution and ecology of bacterial pathogens. It has been widely used in the study of various bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, among others.

"Pasteurella multocida" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the respiratory tract of many animals, including birds, dogs, and cats. It can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bloodstream infections, particularly in individuals who have close contact with animals or animal bites or scratches. The bacterium is named after Louis Pasteur, who developed a vaccine against it in the late 19th century.

Streptococcal infections are a type of infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes). These bacteria can cause a variety of illnesses, ranging from mild skin infections to serious and potentially life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, pneumonia, and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease).

Some common types of streptococcal infections include:

* Streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat) - an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes.
* Impetigo - a highly contagious skin infection that causes sores or blisters on the skin.
* Cellulitis - a bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, pain, and warmth in the affected area.
* Scarlet fever - a streptococcal infection that causes a bright red rash on the body, high fever, and sore throat.
* Necrotizing fasciitis - a rare but serious bacterial infection that can cause tissue death and destruction of the muscles and fascia (the tissue that covers the muscles).

Treatment for streptococcal infections typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect a streptococcal infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are motile due to peritrichous flagella. They are non-spore forming and often have a single polar flagellum when grown in certain conditions. Salmonella species are important pathogens in humans and other animals, causing foodborne illnesses known as salmonellosis.

Salmonella can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. They can contaminate various foods, including meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fresh produce. The bacteria can survive and multiply in a wide range of temperatures and environments, making them challenging to control completely.

Salmonella infection typically leads to gastroenteritis, characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection may spread beyond the intestines, leading to more severe complications like bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or focal infections in various organs.

There are two main species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is further divided into six subspecies and numerous serovars, with over 2,500 distinct serotypes identified to date. Some well-known Salmonella serovars include S. Typhi (causes typhoid fever), S. Paratyphi A, B, and C (cause paratyphoid fever), and S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (common causes of foodborne salmonellosis).

'Campylobacter coli' is a species of bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is one of the several species within the genus Campylobacter, which are gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral or curved rods. 'Campylobacter coli' is commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly swine and cattle, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The most common symptom of infection with 'Campylobacter coli' is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness, known as campylobacteriosis, typically lasts for about a week and resolves on its own without specific treatment in most cases. However, in some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Prevention measures include cooking food thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces frequently, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods. 'Campylobacter coli' infections are also reportable to public health authorities in many jurisdictions, as they are considered a significant cause of foodborne illness worldwide.

Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, bean-shaped diplococcus bacterium. It is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis and sepsis (known as meningococcal disease) worldwide. The bacteria can be found in the back of the nose and throat of approximately 10-25% of the general population, particularly in children, teenagers, and young adults, without causing any symptoms or illness. However, when the bacterium invades the bloodstream and spreads to the brain or spinal cord, it can lead to life-threatening infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (blood poisoning).

Neisseria meningitidis is classified into 12 serogroups based on the chemical structure of their capsular polysaccharides. The six major serogroups that cause most meningococcal disease worldwide are A, B, C, W, X, and Y. Vaccines are available to protect against some or all of these serogroups.

Meningococcal disease can progress rapidly, leading to severe symptoms such as high fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, nausea, vomiting, and a rash consisting of purple or red spots. Immediate medical attention is required if someone experiences these symptoms, as meningococcal disease can cause permanent disabilities or death within hours if left untreated.

The nasopharynx is the uppermost part of the pharynx (throat), which is located behind the nose. It is a muscular cavity that serves as a passageway for air and food. The nasopharynx extends from the base of the skull to the lower border of the soft palate, where it continues as the oropharynx. Its primary function is to allow air to flow into the respiratory system through the nostrils while also facilitating the drainage of mucus from the nose into the throat. The nasopharynx contains several important structures, including the adenoids and the opening of the Eustachian tubes, which connect the middle ear to the back of the nasopharynx.

DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting, is a laboratory technique used to identify and compare the unique genetic makeup of individuals by analyzing specific regions of their DNA. This method is based on the variation in the length of repetitive sequences of DNA called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) or short tandem repeats (STRs), which are located at specific locations in the human genome and differ significantly among individuals, except in the case of identical twins.

The process of DNA fingerprinting involves extracting DNA from a sample, amplifying targeted regions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then separating and visualizing the resulting DNA fragments through electrophoresis. The fragment patterns are then compared to determine the likelihood of a match between two samples.

DNA fingerprinting has numerous applications in forensic science, paternity testing, identity verification, and genealogical research. It is considered an essential tool for providing strong evidence in criminal investigations and resolving disputes related to parentage and inheritance.

Agglutination is a medical term that refers to the clumping together of particles, such as cells, bacteria, or precipitates, in a liquid medium. It most commonly occurs due to the presence of antibodies in the fluid that bind to specific antigens on the surface of the particles, causing them to adhere to one another and form visible clumps.

In clinical laboratory testing, agglutination is often used as a diagnostic tool to identify the presence of certain antibodies or antigens in a patient's sample. For example, a common application of agglutination is in blood typing, where the presence of specific antigens on the surface of red blood cells causes them to clump together when mixed with corresponding antibodies.

Agglutination can also occur in response to certain infectious agents, such as bacteria or viruses, that display antigens on their surface. In these cases, the agglutination reaction can help diagnose an infection and guide appropriate treatment.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found as part of the normal microbiota of the human respiratory tract. However, some species can cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which was originally identified as a cause of influenza (hence the name), but it is now known that not all strains of H. influenzae cause this disease. In fact, the majority of H. influenzae infections are caused by strains that produce a polysaccharide capsule, which makes them more virulent and able to evade the host's immune system.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was once a major cause of serious bacterial infections in children, including meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. However, since the introduction of vaccines against Hib in the 1980s, the incidence of these infections has decreased dramatically.

Other Haemophilus species that can cause human infections include Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus ducreyi (which causes chancroid), and Haemophilus aphrophilus (which can cause endocarditis).

Pleuropneumonia is a medical condition characterized by inflammation that affects both the lung tissue (pneumonia) and the pleural space (pleurisy) surrounding the lungs. It is often caused by bacterial infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae, that spread from the lungs to the pleural space.

The inflammation can cause symptoms such as chest pain, cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, it may lead to complications such as pleural effusion (accumulation of fluid in the pleural space), lung abscesses, or empyema (pus in the pleural space).

Pleuropneumonia can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as blood cultures or analysis of sputum or pleural fluid. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection, along with supportive care such as pain management, hydration, and respiratory support if necessary.

Ureaplasma is a genus of bacteria that are commonly found in the lower reproductive tract of humans. They belong to the family Mycoplasmataceae and are characterized by their small size and lack of a cell wall. Ureaplasmas are unique because they have the ability to metabolize urea, which they use as a source of energy for growth.

There are several species of Ureaplasma that can infect humans, including Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. These bacteria can cause a variety of clinical syndromes, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying respiratory or genitourinary tract disorders.

Infections caused by Ureaplasma are often asymptomatic but can lead to complications such as urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and pneumonia. In newborns, Ureaplasma infections have been associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a chronic lung disorder that can lead to long-term respiratory problems.

Diagnosis of Ureaplasma infections typically involves the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics such as macrolides or fluoroquinolones, which are effective against these bacteria.

A carrier state is a condition in which a person carries and may be able to transmit a genetic disorder or infectious disease, but does not show any symptoms of the disease themselves. This occurs when an individual has a recessive allele for a genetic disorder or is infected with a pathogen, but does not have the necessary combination of genes or other factors required to develop the full-blown disease.

For example, in the case of cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, a person who carries one normal allele and one mutated allele for the disease is considered a carrier. They do not have symptoms of cystic fibrosis themselves, but they can pass the mutated allele on to their offspring, who may then develop the disease if they inherit the mutation from both parents.

Similarly, in the case of infectious diseases, a person who is infected with a pathogen but does not show any symptoms may still be able to transmit the infection to others. This is known as being an asymptomatic carrier or a healthy carrier. For example, some people who are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may not develop any symptoms of liver disease, but they can still transmit the virus to others through contact with their blood or other bodily fluids.

It's important to note that in some cases, carriers of certain genetic disorders or infectious diseases may have mild or atypical symptoms that do not meet the full criteria for a diagnosis of the disease. In these cases, they may be considered to have a "reduced penetrance" or "incomplete expression" of the disorder or infection.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Pasteurella infections are diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Pasteurella, with P. multocida being the most common species responsible for infections in humans. These bacteria are commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tracts of animals, particularly domestic pets such as cats and dogs.

Humans can acquire Pasteurella infections through animal bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated animal secretions like saliva. The infection can manifest in various forms, including:

1. Skin and soft tissue infections: These are the most common types of Pasteurella infections, often presenting as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections after an animal bite or scratch.
2. Respiratory tract infections: Pasteurella bacteria can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory tract infections, especially in individuals with underlying lung diseases or weakened immune systems.
3. Ocular infections: Pasteurella bacteria can infect the eye, causing conditions like conjunctivitis, keratitis, or endophthalmitis, particularly after an animal scratch to the eye or face.
4. Septicemia: In rare cases, Pasteurella bacteria can enter the bloodstream and cause septicemia, a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.
5. Other infections: Pasteurella bacteria have also been known to cause joint infections (septic arthritis), bone infections (osteomyelitis), and central nervous system infections (meningitis or brain abscesses) in some cases.

Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing Pasteurella infections, as they can progress rapidly and lead to severe complications, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Klebsiella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are commonly found in the normal microbiota of the mouth, skin, and intestines, but can also cause various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common species and can cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Other Klebsiella species, such as K. oxytoca, can also cause similar types of infections. These bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat and a significant public health concern.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology that uses laboratory techniques to identify and analyze the genetic material (DNA, RNA) of pathogens or host cells to understand their distribution, transmission, and disease associations in populations. It combines molecular biology methods with epidemiological approaches to investigate the role of genetic factors in disease occurrence and outcomes. This field has contributed significantly to the identification of infectious disease outbreaks, tracking the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, understanding the transmission dynamics of viruses, and identifying susceptible populations for targeted interventions.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

'Brachyspira hyodysenteriae' is a species of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is a primary cause of swine dysentery, a severe enteric disease in pigs. The bacteria colonize the large intestine and produce toxins that cause inflammation and diarrhea, often with mucus and blood in the feces. Infection can lead to weight loss, dehydration, and death in young pigs, resulting in significant economic losses for pig farmers.

The bacteria are difficult to control due to their ability to survive outside the host for extended periods and their resistance to many antibiotics. Good biosecurity practices, including strict sanitation measures and the use of vaccines, can help prevent the spread of swine dysentery in pig herds.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) is a standardized method used in microbiology to characterize and identify bacterial isolates at the subspecies level. It is based on the sequencing of several (usually 7-10) housekeeping genes, which are essential for the survival of the organism and have a low rate of mutation. The sequence type (ST) is determined by the specific alleles present at each locus, creating a unique profile that can be used to compare and cluster isolates into clonal complexes or sequence types. This method provides high-resolution discrimination between closely related strains and has been widely adopted for molecular epidemiology, infection control, and population genetics studies of bacterial pathogens.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Ribotyping is a molecular technique used in microbiology to identify and differentiate bacterial strains based on their specific PCR-amplified ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. This method involves the use of specific DNA probes or primers to target conserved regions of the rRNA operon, followed by hybridization or sequencing to analyze the resulting patterns. These patterns, known as "ribotypes," are unique to different bacterial species and strains, making ribotyping a valuable tool in epidemiological studies, outbreak investigations, and taxonomic classification of bacteria.

Salmonella infections, also known as salmonellosis, are a type of foodborne illness caused by the Salmonella bacterium. These bacteria can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, animals, and birds, especially poultry. People typically get salmonella infections from consuming contaminated foods or water, or through contact with infected animals or their feces. Common sources of Salmonella include raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and milk products; contaminated fruits and vegetables; and improperly prepared or stored food.

Symptoms of salmonella infections usually begin within 12 to 72 hours after exposure and can include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Most people recover from salmonella infections without treatment within four to seven days, although some cases may be severe or even life-threatening, especially in young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems. In rare cases, Salmonella can spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and cause serious complications such as meningitis, endocarditis, and arthritis.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices; washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom, changing diapers, or touching animals; avoiding cross-contamination of foods during preparation; and using pasteurized dairy products and eggs. If you suspect that you have a Salmonella infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent complications and reduce the risk of spreading the infection to others.

Ureaplasma urealyticum is a type of bacteria that belongs to the genus Ureaplasma and the family Mycoplasmataceae. It is a non-motile, non-spore forming, microaerophilic organism, which means it requires reduced oxygen levels for growth.

Ureaplasma urealyticum is unique because it can hydrolyze urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide, which helps create a more favorable environment for its growth. This bacterium is commonly found in the genitourinary tract of humans and other primates. It can be part of the normal flora but may also cause infections under certain circumstances.

Infections caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum are often associated with the respiratory and urogenital tracts, particularly in premature infants, immunocompromised individuals, or those with underlying medical conditions. The bacterium can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as pneumonia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, meningitis, and urethritis. However, it is important to note that asymptomatic carriage of Ureaplasma urealyticum is also common, making the interpretation of its clinical significance challenging at times.

Diagnosis typically involves nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, to detect the bacterium's genetic material in clinical samples. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics that target mycoplasmas, like macrolides or tetracyclines, but the choice and duration of therapy depend on the patient's age, immune status, and underlying medical conditions.

Latex fixation tests are diagnostic procedures used to detect the presence of certain antigens or antibodies in a patient's sample, such as blood or serum. These tests use latex particles that are coated with specific antigens or antibodies that can bind to complementary antigens or antibodies present in the sample. When the sample is added to the latex reagent, if the specific antigen or antibody is present, they will bind to the latex particles, forming an agglutination reaction that can be seen as a visible clumping or agglutination of the latex particles.

Latex fixation tests are commonly used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and genetic disorders. For example, a latex fixation test may be used to detect the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens in a patient's sputum sample or to identify the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) antibodies in a patient's blood sample. These tests are known for their simplicity, speed, and sensitivity, making them a valuable tool in clinical laboratories.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Hantavirus infections are a group of viral diseases caused by rodent-borne hantaviruses. These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans through the inhalation of aerosolized urine, droppings, or saliva from infected rodents, particularly the deer mouse, white-tailed mouse, and rice rat in North America.

There are several different types of hantavirus infections, including Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS). HPS is more common in the Americas, while HFRS is more prevalent in Europe and Asia.

Symptoms of hantavirus infections can vary depending on the specific type of infection but may include fever, muscle aches, headache, fatigue, and coughing. In severe cases, hantavirus infections can lead to respiratory failure, shock, and even death.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with rodents, sealing entry points to prevent their entry into homes or buildings, and using appropriate personal protective equipment when cleaning areas where rodents may have been present. Currently, there is no specific treatment for hantavirus infections, but early recognition and supportive care can improve outcomes.

Flagellin is a protein that makes up the structural filament of the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure found on many bacteria that enables them to move. It is also known as a potent stimulator of the innate immune response and can be recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the host's immune system, triggering an inflammatory response. Flagellin is highly conserved among different bacterial species, making it a potential target for broad-spectrum vaccines and immunotherapies against bacterial infections.

Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the Reoviridae family, which is a leading cause of severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in young children and infants worldwide. The virus infects and damages the cells lining the small intestine, resulting in symptoms such as vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Rotavirus is highly contagious and can be spread through contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces, food, or water. The virus is typically transmitted via the fecal-oral route, meaning that it enters the body through the mouth after coming into contact with contaminated hands, objects, or food.

Rotavirus infections are often self-limiting and resolve within a few days to a week, but severe cases can lead to dehydration, hospitalization, and even death, particularly in developing countries where access to medical care and rehydration therapy may be limited. Fortunately, there are effective vaccines available that can prevent rotavirus infection and reduce the severity of symptoms in those who do become infected.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a species of gram-negative, aerobic diplococcus that is the etiologic agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection. It is commonly found in the mucous membranes of the reproductive tract, including the cervix, urethra, and rectum, as well as the throat and eyes. The bacterium can cause a range of symptoms, including discharge, burning during urination, and, in women, abnormal menstrual bleeding. If left untreated, it can lead to more serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. It is important to note that N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to many antibiotics over time, making treatment more challenging. A culture or nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is used for the diagnosis of this infection.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Ureaplasma infections refer to conditions caused by the colonization or infection with the bacterial species Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum, which are commonly found in the genitourinary tract of humans. These bacteria are part of the normal flora but can cause infections under certain circumstances, such as in immunocompromised individuals or when they ascend to sterile sites like the upper respiratory tract or the amniotic fluid during pregnancy.

Ureaplasma infections can lead to a range of clinical manifestations, including urethritis, cystitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and respiratory tract infections in newborns. However, it is important to note that the causative role of Ureaplasma spp. in many of these conditions is still a subject of debate, as they can also be found in asymptomatic individuals.

Diagnosis of Ureaplasma infections typically involves nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture-based methods to detect the presence of the bacteria in clinical samples. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics that target the bacterial species, such as macrolides or fluoroquinolones, although the development of antimicrobial resistance is a growing concern.

Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) is a laboratory technique used in the field of immunology and serology for the identification and detection of antigens or antibodies in a sample. It is a type of electrophoretic technique that involves the migration of antigens and antibodies in an electric field towards each other, resulting in the formation of a precipitin line at the point where they meet and react.

In CIEP, the antigen is placed in the gel matrix in a trough or well, while the antibody is placed in a separate trough located perpendicularly to the antigen trough. An electric current is then applied, causing both the antigens and antibodies to migrate towards each other through the gel matrix. When they meet, they form a precipitin line, which can be visualized as a white band or line in the gel.

CIEP is a rapid and sensitive technique that can be used to detect and identify specific antigens or antibodies in a sample. It is often used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and other medical conditions where the presence of specific antigens or antibodies needs to be detected.

It's important to note that CIEP has been largely replaced by more modern techniques such as ELISA and Western blotting, which offer greater sensitivity and specificity. However, it is still used in some research and diagnostic settings due to its simplicity and cost-effectiveness.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique is a type of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based method used in molecular biology for DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity analysis. This technique utilizes random primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequences to amplify random segments of genomic DNA. The amplified products are then separated by electrophoresis, and the resulting banding patterns are analyzed.

In RAPD analysis, the randomly chosen primers bind to multiple sites in the genome, and the intervening regions between the primer binding sites are amplified. Since the primer binding sites can vary among individuals within a species or among different species, the resulting amplicons will also differ. These differences in amplicon size and pattern can be used to distinguish between individuals or populations at the DNA level.

RAPD is a relatively simple and cost-effective technique that does not require prior knowledge of the genome sequence. However, it has some limitations, such as low reproducibility and sensitivity to experimental conditions. Despite these limitations, RAPD remains a useful tool for genetic analysis in various fields, including forensics, plant breeding, and microbial identification.

Psittaciformes is not a medical term but a taxonomic order that includes parrots, cockatoos, and related species. However, in a medical context, "psittacosis" is a relevant term that can be discussed.

Psittacosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci, which can infect humans through contact with infected birds or their droppings. The disease is also known as parrot fever or ornithosis. Psittacosis can cause flu-like symptoms in humans, such as fever, headache, muscle aches, and cough. In severe cases, it can lead to pneumonia and other complications.

Therefore, while "Psittaciformes" is not a medical term itself, the order includes many bird species that can carry and transmit Chlamydia psittaci, leading to the disease known as psittacosis in humans.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Swine Erysipelas is a bacterial disease in pigs, caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. The disease is characterized by sudden onset, high fever, lethargy, skin lesions (typically raised, red, and firm), and lameness. It can also cause endocarditis, which can lead to heart failure. The bacteria can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or their meat, but human cases are rare and usually result in only mild symptoms. In pigs, the disease can be prevented through vaccination.

Enteritis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the small intestine. The small intestine is responsible for digesting and absorbing nutrients from food, so inflammation in this area can interfere with these processes and lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Enteritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, parasites, autoimmune disorders, medications, and exposure to toxins. In some cases, the cause of enteritis may be unknown. Treatment for enteritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, anti-inflammatory medications, or supportive care such as fluid replacement therapy.

Haemophilus infections are caused by bacteria named Haemophilus influenzae. Despite its name, this bacterium does not cause the flu, which is caused by a virus. There are several different strains of Haemophilus influenzae, and some are more likely to cause severe illness than others.

Haemophilus infections can affect people of any age, but they are most common in children under 5 years old. The bacteria can cause a range of infections, from mild ear infections to serious conditions such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and pneumonia (infection of the lungs).

The bacterium is spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices such as handwashing, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick. Vaccination is also available to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections, which are the most severe and common form of Haemophilus infection.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Pneumococcal vaccines are immunizing agents that protect against infections caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. These vaccines help to prevent several types of diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection).

There are two main types of pneumococcal vaccines available:

1. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV): This vaccine is recommended for children under 2 years old, adults aged 65 and older, and people with certain medical conditions that increase their risk of pneumococcal infections. PCV protects against 13 or 20 serotypes (strains) of Streptococcus pneumoniae, depending on the formulation (PCV13 or PCV20).
2. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine is recommended for adults aged 65 and older, children and adults with specific medical conditions, and smokers. PPSV protects against 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that recognize and fight off the bacteria if an individual comes into contact with it in the future. Both types of pneumococcal vaccines have been proven to be safe and effective in preventing severe pneumococcal diseases.

'Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that primarily affects the respiratory system of pigs, causing a disease known as porcine pleuropneumonia. This disease is associated with severe respiratory signs, including coughing, difficulty breathing, and high fever, and can lead to significant economic losses in the swine industry.

The bacterium is typically transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated fomites, and it can also be spread through aerosolized droplets. Once inside the host, 'Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae' produces a number of virulence factors that allow it to evade the immune system and cause tissue damage.

Effective control and prevention strategies for porcine pleuropneumonia include vaccination, biosecurity measures, and antibiotic treatment. However, antibiotic resistance is an emerging concern in the management of this disease, highlighting the need for continued research and development of new control strategies.

"Providencia" is a term that refers to a type of bacteria that can cause infections in humans. The scientific name for this bacterium is "Providencia stuartii." It is part of the Enterobacteriaceae family and is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals.

Providencia stuartii can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bloodstream infections. It is often resistant to many antibiotics, which can make it difficult to treat. People who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or use catheters are at increased risk for Providencia infections.

It's important to note that while "Providencia" refers to a specific type of bacteria, the term is not typically used in medical diagnoses or treatment. Instead, healthcare providers would specify the type of infection and the name of the bacterium causing it.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are primarily responsible for causing shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery. These pathogens are highly infectious and can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces.

There are four main species of Shigella: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. Each species has distinct serotypes that differ in their epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The severity of shigellosis can range from mild diarrhea to severe dysentery with abdominal cramps, fever, and tenesmus (the strong, frequent urge to defecate). In some cases, Shigella infections may lead to complications such as bacteremia, seizures, or hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Preventive measures include maintaining good personal hygiene, proper food handling and preparation, access to clean water, and adequate sanitation facilities. Antibiotic treatment is generally recommended for severe cases of shigellosis, but the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has become a growing concern in recent years.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Erysipelothrix is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil, water, and on the skin and mucous membranes of animals such as fish, birds, and swine. The bacteria are named after the disease they cause, erysipelas, which is a type of skin infection characterized by redness, swelling, pain, and fever.

Erysipelothrix species are small, non-sporeforming rods that can be difficult to visualize using standard Gram staining techniques. They are catalase-negative and oxidase-negative, and they can grow on a variety of media at temperatures ranging from 20°C to 45°C.

There are two species of Erysipelothrix that are clinically significant: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Erysipelothrix insidiosa. E. rhusiopathiae is the more common cause of human infections, which typically occur after exposure to contaminated animals or animal products. The bacteria can enter the body through cuts, abrasions, or other breaks in the skin, and can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including cellulitis, septicemia, endocarditis, and arthritis.

Erysipelothrix infections are treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin or erythromycin. Prevention measures include wearing protective clothing and gloves when handling animals or animal products, practicing good hygiene, and seeking prompt medical attention if a wound becomes infected.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium E. coli, which can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific strain and site of infection. The majority of E. coli strains are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. However, some strains, particularly those that produce Shiga toxins, can cause severe illness.

E. coli infections can occur through various routes, including contaminated food or water, person-to-person contact, or direct contact with animals or their environments. Common symptoms of E. coli infections include diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur, which may lead to kidney failure and other long-term health problems.

Preventing E. coli infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meats thoroughly, avoiding cross-contamination of food during preparation, washing fruits and vegetables before eating, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and juices. Prompt medical attention is necessary if symptoms of an E. coli infection are suspected to prevent potential complications.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Haemophilus parasuis is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly colonizes the upper respiratory tract of pigs. It is a member of the Pasteurellaceae family and can cause a variety of clinical diseases in swine, including Glässer's disease, which is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, arthritis, and meningitis. The bacterium requires factors V (properdin) and X (Stuart-Prower factor) for growth, which are known as X and V factors, respectively. These requirements make it fastidious and challenging to isolate and culture in the laboratory.

The pathogenicity of H. parasuis varies among strains, with some being more virulent than others. The bacterium can evade the host's immune system by changing its surface antigens, making vaccination difficult. In addition to Glässer's disease, H. parasuis can also cause pneumonia, otitis media, and septicemia in pigs. Control measures include biosecurity, vaccination, and antibiotic treatment of clinically affected animals.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Bacillary dysentery is a type of dysentery caused by the bacterium Shigella. It is characterized by the inflammation of the intestines, particularly the colon, resulting in diarrhea that may contain blood and mucus. The infection is typically spread through contaminated food or water, or close contact with an infected person. Symptoms usually appear within 1-4 days after exposure and can include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, and tenesmus (the strong, frequent urge to have a bowel movement). In severe cases, bacillary dysentery can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and other complications. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria, as well as fluid replacement to prevent dehydration.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

"Listeria monocytogenes" is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is a major cause of foodborne illness. It is widely distributed in the environment and can be found in water, soil, vegetation, and various animal species. This pathogen is particularly notable for its ability to grow at low temperatures, allowing it to survive and multiply in refrigerated foods.

In humans, Listeria monocytogenes can cause a serious infection known as listeriosis, which primarily affects pregnant women, newborns, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems. The bacterium can cross the intestinal barrier, enter the bloodstream, and spread to the central nervous system, causing meningitis or encephalitis. Pregnant women infected with Listeria monocytogenes may experience mild flu-like symptoms but are at risk of transmitting the infection to their unborn children, which can result in stillbirth, premature delivery, or severe illness in newborns.

Common sources of Listeria monocytogenes include raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood; unpasteurized dairy products; and ready-to-eat foods like deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses. Proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices can help prevent listeriosis.

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as "gono" bacteria. It can infect various parts of the body including the genitals, rectum, and throat. The bacteria are typically transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person.

Symptoms may vary but often include abnormal discharge from the genitals or rectum, painful or burning sensations during urination, and in women, vaginal bleeding between periods. However, many people with gonorrhea do not develop symptoms, making it essential to get tested regularly if you are sexually active with multiple partners or have unprotected sex.

If left untreated, gonorrhea can lead to severe complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men, which may result in infertility. In rare cases, it can spread to the bloodstream and cause life-threatening conditions like sepsis.

Gonorrhea is curable with appropriate antibiotic treatment; however, drug-resistant strains of the bacteria have emerged, making accurate diagnosis and effective treatment increasingly challenging. Prevention methods include using condoms during sexual activity and practicing safe sex habits.

Haemophilus influenzae is a gram-negative, coccobacillary bacterium that can cause a variety of infectious diseases in humans. It is part of the normal respiratory flora but can become pathogenic under certain circumstances. The bacteria are named after their initial discovery in 1892 by Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic, although they are not the causative agent of influenza.

There are six main serotypes (a-f) based on the polysaccharide capsule surrounding the bacterium, with type b (Hib) being the most virulent and invasive. Hib can cause severe invasive diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis, and sepsis, particularly in children under 5 years of age. The introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of these invasive diseases.

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strains lack a capsule and are responsible for non-invasive respiratory tract infections, such as otitis media, sinusitis, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). NTHi can also cause invasive diseases but at lower frequency compared to Hib.

Proper diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility testing are crucial for effective treatment, as Haemophilus influenzae strains may display resistance to certain antibiotics.

"Serratia marcescens" is a medically significant species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile bacillus bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is commonly found in soil, water, and in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. The bacteria are known for their ability to produce a red pigment called prodigiosin, which gives them a distinctive pink color on many types of laboratory media.

"Serratia marcescens" can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). It is also known to be an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it primarily causes infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with chronic illnesses or who are undergoing medical treatments that suppress the immune system.

In healthcare settings, "Serratia marcescens" can cause outbreaks of infection, particularly in patients who are hospitalized for extended periods of time. It is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, which makes it difficult to treat and control the spread of infections caused by this organism.

In addition to its medical significance, "Serratia marcescens" has also been used as a model organism in various areas of microbiological research, including studies on bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance.

Environmental Microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic entities, that are found in various environments such as water, soil, air, and organic matter. This field focuses on understanding how these microbes interact with their surroundings, their role in various ecological systems, and their impact on human health and the environment. It also involves studying the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that allow microorganisms to survive and thrive in different environmental conditions, as well as the potential uses of microbes for bioremediation, bioenergy, and other industrial applications.

Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive, beta-hemolytic streptococcus bacterium that causes various suppurative (pus-forming) and nonsuppurative infections in humans. It is also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS) due to its ability to produce the M protein, which confers type-specific antigenicity and allows for serological classification into more than 200 distinct Lancefield groups.

S. pyogenes is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, erysipelas, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. In rare cases, it can lead to invasive diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS).

The bacterium is typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected skin lesions. Effective prevention strategies include good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding sharing personal items, as well as prompt recognition and treatment of infections to prevent spread.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Proteus vulgaris is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the human digestive tract. They are named after the Greek god Proteus, who could change his shape at will, as these bacteria are known for their ability to undergo various morphological changes.

Proteus vulgaris is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and can cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. They can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, wound infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections).

Proteus vulgaris is also known for its ability to produce urease, an enzyme that breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. This can lead to the formation of urinary stones and contribute to the development of chronic urinary tract infections. Additionally, Proteus vulgaris can form biofilms, which can make it difficult to eradicate the bacteria from infected sites.

In a medical context, identifying Proteus vulgaris is important for determining appropriate antibiotic therapy and managing infections caused by this organism.

An enterovirus is a type of virus that primarily infects the gastrointestinal tract. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, or by consuming food or water contaminated with the virus.

While many people infected with enteroviruses may not experience any symptoms, some may develop mild to severe illnesses such as hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in case of poliovirus). Infection can occur in people of all ages, but young children are more susceptible to infection and severe illness.

Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing food or drinks with someone who is ill. There are also vaccines available to prevent poliovirus infection.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

Listeriosis is an infection caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. It primarily affects older adults, individuals with weakened immune systems, pregnant women, and newborns. The bacteria can be found in contaminated food, water, or soil. Symptoms of listeriosis may include fever, muscle aches, headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance, and convulsions. In severe cases, it can lead to meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) or bacteremia (bacterial infection in the bloodstream). Pregnant women may experience only mild flu-like symptoms, but listeriosis can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery, or serious illness in newborns.

It's important to note that listeriosis is a foodborne illness, and proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices can help prevent infection. High-risk individuals should avoid consuming unpasteurized dairy products, raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood, as well as soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk.

Immunodiffusion is a laboratory technique used in immunology to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample. It is based on the principle of diffusion, where molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they reach equilibrium. In this technique, a sample containing an unknown quantity of antigen or antibody is placed in a gel or agar medium that contains a known quantity of antibody or antigen, respectively.

The two substances then diffuse towards each other and form a visible precipitate at the point where they meet and reach equivalence, which indicates the presence and quantity of the specific antigen or antibody in the sample. There are several types of immunodiffusion techniques, including radial immunodiffusion (RID) and double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique). These techniques are widely used in diagnostic laboratories to identify and measure various antigens and antibodies, such as those found in infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergic reactions.

Meningococcal infections are caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus. These infections can take several forms, but the most common are meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). Meningococcal infections are contagious and can spread through respiratory droplets or close contact with an infected person. They can be serious and potentially life-threatening, requiring prompt medical attention and treatment with antibiotics. Symptoms of meningococcal meningitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, and sensitivity to light, while symptoms of septicemia may include fever, chills, rash, and severe muscle pain. Vaccination is available to prevent certain strains of meningococcal disease.

Hantavirus is an etiologic agent for several clinical syndromes, including hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). It's a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthohantavirus.

These viruses are primarily transmitted to humans by inhalation of aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. The symptoms can range from flu-like illness to severe respiratory distress and renal failure, depending upon the specific hantavirus species. There are no known treatments for HFRS, but early recognition and supportive care can significantly improve outcomes. Ribavirin has been used in some cases of HPS with apparent benefit, although its general efficacy is not well-established

(References: CDC, NIH, WHO)

Biological preservation is the process of preventing decomposition or decay of biological materials, such as tissues, cells, organs, or organisms, in order to maintain their structural and functional integrity for further studies, research, education, or conservation purposes. This can be achieved through various methods, including fixation, freezing, drying, or the use of chemical preservatives. The goal is to maintain the samples in a stable state so that they can be examined, analyzed, or used in experiments at a later time.

Hantaan virus (HTNV) is a species of the genus Orthohantavirus, which causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. This enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus is primarily transmitted to humans through contact with infected rodents or their excreta, particularly the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Asia. The virus was initially isolated in 1976 from the Hantaan River area in Korea.

HTNV infection leads to a spectrum of clinical manifestations in HFRS, ranging from mild to severe forms. The symptoms often include fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and blurred vision. In severe cases, it can cause acute renal failure, hypotension, and hemorrhagic complications. The incubation period for HTNV infection typically ranges from 7 to 42 days.

Prevention strategies include avoiding contact with rodents, reducing rodent populations in living areas, using personal protective equipment when handling potentially infected materials, and ensuring proper food storage and waste disposal practices. No specific antiviral treatment is available for HFRS caused by HTNV; however, supportive care, such as fluid replacement and hemodialysis, can help manage severe symptoms and improve outcomes.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Proteus infections are caused by the bacterium Proteus mirabilis or other Proteus species. These bacteria are gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of infections, including urinary tract infections (UTIs), wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). Proteus infections are often associated with complicated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and healthcare-associated infections. They can be difficult to treat due to their ability to produce enzymes that inactivate certain antibiotics and form biofilms.

Proteus infections can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, fatigue, and discomfort in the affected area. In UTIs, patients may experience symptoms like burning during urination, frequent urges to urinate, and cloudy or foul-smelling urine. Wound infections caused by Proteus can lead to delayed healing, increased pain, and pus formation. Bacteremia can cause sepsis, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Treatment for Proteus infections typically involves antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or carbapenems. The choice of antibiotic depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status and any underlying medical conditions. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected devices like catheters.

'Proteus' doesn't have a specific medical definition itself, but it is related to a syndrome in medicine. Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overgrowth of various tissues and organs in the body. The name "Proteus" comes from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, reflecting the diverse and ever-changing nature of this condition's symptoms.

People with Proteus syndrome experience asymmetric overgrowth of bones, skin, and other tissues, leading to abnormalities in body shape and function. The disorder can also affect blood vessels, causing benign tumors called hamartomas to develop. Additionally, individuals with Proteus syndrome are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

The genetic mutation responsible for Proteus syndrome is found in the AKT1 gene, which plays a crucial role in cell growth and division. This disorder is typically not inherited but instead arises spontaneously as a new mutation in the affected individual. Early diagnosis and management of Proteus syndrome can help improve patients' quality of life and reduce complications associated with the condition.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

A Salmonella infection in animals refers to the presence and multiplication of Salmonella enterica bacteria in non-human animals, causing an infectious disease known as salmonellosis. Animals can become infected through direct contact with other infected animals or their feces, consuming contaminated food or water, or vertical transmission (from mother to offspring). Clinical signs vary among species but may include diarrhea, fever, vomiting, weight loss, and sepsis. In some cases, animals can be asymptomatic carriers, shedding the bacteria in their feces and acting as a source of infection for other animals and humans. Regular monitoring, biosecurity measures, and appropriate sanitation practices are crucial to prevent and control Salmonella infections in animals.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

"Pasteurella" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacilli that are part of the family Pasteurellaceae. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tracts of animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock. They can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as wound infections, pneumonia, and septicemia, often following animal bites or scratches. Two notable species are Pasteurella multocida and Pasteurella canis. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are essential for appropriate treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Tetrathionic Acid is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound with the formula S4O62-. It's an acidic oxyanion of sulfur with the sulfur in the +5 oxidation state. It is not related to human health or medicine directly. If you have any questions about a medical topic, I'd be happy to help with that instead!

Penicillin resistance is the ability of certain bacteria to withstand the antibacterial effects of penicillin, a type of antibiotic. This occurs when these bacteria have developed mechanisms that prevent penicillin from binding to and inhibiting the function of their cell wall biosynthesis proteins, particularly the enzyme transpeptidase.

One common mechanism of penicillin resistance is the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can hydrolyze and inactivate the beta-lactam ring structure present in penicillin and other related antibiotics. Another mechanism involves alterations in the bacterial cell wall that prevent penicillin from binding to its target proteins.

Penicillin resistance is a significant concern in clinical settings, as it can limit treatment options for bacterial infections and may necessitate the use of more potent or toxic antibiotics. It is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including those resistant to penicillin.

'Brachyspira' is a genus of bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including pigs, birds, and humans. These bacteria are gram-negative, anaerobic or microaerophilic, and spiral-shaped, which gives them their name ('brachys' meaning short and 'spira' meaning coil).

Some species of Brachyspira are known to cause intestinal diseases in animals, such as swine dysentery in pigs and hemorrhagic bowel disease in birds. In humans, Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira suanatina have been associated with cases of intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. However, the role of Brachyspira species in human health and disease is not well understood and requires further research.

It's worth noting that while Brachyspira bacteria can be pathogenic, they are also a normal part of the intestinal microbiota in many animals, and their presence alone does not necessarily indicate disease.

Actinobacillus infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Actinobacillus, which are gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, and non-motile rods. These bacteria can cause a variety of infections in humans and animals, including respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and septicemia.

The most common species that causes infection in humans is Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, which is associated with periodontal disease, endocarditis, and soft tissue infections. Other species such as A. suis, A. lignieresii, and A. equuli can cause infections in animals and occasionally in humans, particularly those who have close contact with animals.

Symptoms of Actinobacillus infections depend on the site of infection and may include fever, chills, swelling, redness, pain, and purulent discharge. Diagnosis is typically made through culture and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples such as blood, wound secretions, or respiratory specimens. Treatment usually involves antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria, such as aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or third-generation cephalosporins. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

'Chlamydophila psittaci' is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that causes psittacosis, also known as parrot fever. It is commonly found in birds, particularly parrots and psittacines, but can also infect other bird species, mammals, and humans. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fever, headache, cough, and pneumonia. Human-to-human transmission is rare, and the disease is typically acquired through inhalation of dried secretions or feces from infected birds.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Foodborne diseases, also known as foodborne illnesses or food poisoning, are defined as disorders caused by the consumption of contaminated foods or beverages, which contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins, or chemicals. These agents can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. The severity of the illness can vary from mild discomfort to severe life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of infectious agent and the individual's immune system and overall health status. Common examples of foodborne diseases include Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, and Norovirus infections. Proper food handling, preparation, storage, and cooking can help prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

Streptococcus suis is a Gram-positive, beta-hemolytic streptococcus that is a significant pathogen in pig populations worldwide. It can cause a variety of clinical manifestations in pigs, including meningitis, arthritis, endocarditis, and septicemia. Transmission to humans can occur through contact with infected pigs or contaminated pork products, resulting in diseases such as meningitis, sepsis, endocarditis, and arthritis. There are 35 serotypes of S. suis, but only a few (including serotypes 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 14, 16, 21, 24, and 31) are commonly associated with disease in pigs and humans.

Shigella boydii is a subgroup or species of the genus Shigella, which are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. The illness caused by S. boydii, as well as other Shigella species, is known as shigellosis or bacillary dysentery.

S. boydii is further divided into several subgroups or serotypes based on their surface antigens. This bacterium is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water, and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea (often with blood and mucus), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting.

Shigellosis caused by S. boydii tends to be less common compared to other Shigella species like S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, and S. sonnei. However, the severity of the illness can vary widely, with some individuals experiencing mild symptoms while others may develop severe, life-threatening complications, particularly in young children, the elderly, and those with weakened immune systems.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. It is responsible for around 215,000 deaths among children in this age group each year.

Rotavirus infection causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines, resulting in symptoms such as vomiting, watery diarrhea, and fever. The virus is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated hands, food, or water. It can also be spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Rotavirus infections are highly contagious and can spread rapidly in communities, particularly in settings where children are in close contact with each other, such as child care centers and schools. The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves within a few days, but severe cases can lead to dehydration and require hospitalization.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing with soap and water, safe disposal of feces, and rotavirus vaccination. The WHO recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs to reduce the burden of severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

"Serotypes and the Importance of Serotyping Salmonella". CDC. Retrieved 16 October 2014. Danan C, Fremy S, Moury F, Bohnert ML, ... To date, more than 2600 different serotypes have been identified. A Salmonella serotype is determined by the unique combination ... A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different ... In humans, that serotype is largely determined by human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the human version of the major ...
Of 118 serotyped patients, 106 (90%) were identified as Ad14. A total of 27 patients were hospitalized, one of whom, a nineteen ... Adenovirus serotype 14 (Ad14) is a serovar of adenovirus which, unlike other adenovirus serovars, is known to cause potentially ... "Acute Respiratory Disease Associated with Adenovirus Serotype 14 - Four States, 2006-2007". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly ...
Human adenovirus 36 (HAdV-36) or Ad-36 or Adv36 is one of 52 types of adenoviruses known to infect humans. AD-36, first isolated in 1978 from the feces of a girl suffering from diabetes and enteritis, has long been recognized as a cause of respiratory and eye infections in humans. It was first shown to be associated with obesity in chickens by Dr. Nikhil Dhurandhar. AD-36 infection can induce cellular differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and stem cells derived from human adipose tissue. There has been a positive correlation between body fat and the presence of AD-36 antibodies in the blood. Previous research showed that chickens or mice injected with similar types of viruses show a statistically significant weight gain. To date, AD-36 is the only human adenovirus that has been linked with human obesity, present in 30% of obese humans and 11% of nonobese humans. In addition, a study of obese Americans indicates that about 30% of the obese individuals and only 5% of non-obese individuals have ...
This can be compensated for by examining DR serotypes as well as DQ serotypes. The name 'HLA DQ' originally describes a ... resulting in serotyping errors. Because of this mistyping serotyping is not as reliable as gene sequencing or SSP-PCR. While ... The currently used serotypes are HLA-DQ2, -DQ3, -DQ4, -DQ5, -DQ6, -DQ7, -DQ8, -DQ9. HLA-DQ1 is a weak reaction to the α-chain ... Carriers of risk serotypes such as DQ8 have a higher proportion of circulating T-cell receptors that may bind insulin, the ...
... (DQ2) is a serotype group within HLA-DQ (DQ) serotyping system. The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition ... Direct involvement of DQ2 is certain in coeliac disease (also known as celiac disease). Serotyping efficiency. The serotyping ... Therefore, using either serotyping or genotyping, DQ2.5 can be distinguished from DQ2.2 or DQ2.3. The refined studies of risk ... Due to its link to coeliac disease, DQ2 has the highest association of any HLA serotype with autoimmune disease, close to 95% ...
... (A43) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A43 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A10. A43 is a sister serotype of A25, A26, A34, and A66. A43 is more ... A43 is believed to have been formed by a single gene conversion between another HLA-A and the A*2601 allele.. A43 serotyping is ...
... (A34) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A34 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A10. A34 is a sister serotype of A25, A26, A43, and A66. A34 is most ... similar to A66.. A34 serotyping is modest.. A*3401 when found outside of Africa is primarily found in the South Asia, ...
... (A66) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A66 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A10. A66 is a sister serotype of A25, A26, A34, and A43. A66 is more ... A66 serotyping is poor. A*6601 is also sometimes recognized by A25, and A*6602 is often recognized by A74. Arce-Gomez B, Jones ...
A broad antigen serotype is a crude measure of identity of cells. For example, HLA A9 serotype recognizes cells of A23- and A24 ... Serotyped DR1 has cellularly defined as either of Dw1 or of Dw20 and so on for other serotyped DRs. Table shows associated ... Thus, serotyping became a way of crudely identifying HLA receptors and receptor isoforms. Over the years, serotyping antibodies ... or DR serotyping. Current serotyping can resolve, in one step, DQ8. HLA typing in autoimmunity is being increasingly used as a ...
Serotyping of human lymphocyte antigens. Preliminary trials on long-term kidney homograft survivors. Nat Acad Sci Monograph ...
... (A33) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A33 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A19. A33 is a sister serotype of A29, A30, A31, A32, and A74. A33 is more ... It's a good reason why serotyping alone should not be relied upon. The first haplotype is A33-Cw14-B44-DR13-DQ6.4 A*3303 : C* ... A33 has a poor serotyping rate. A33 shows two different distributions that can be discriminated by subtyping capability of SSP- ...
... (A74) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A74 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A19. A74 is a sister serotype of A29, A30, A31, A32, and A33. A74 is more ... A74 has a poor serotyping rate. A significant association has been found between A74 and nasal polyposis. Madrigal JA, Belich ...
... (DQ9) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. DQ9 is a split antigen of the DQ3 ... The serotyping efficiency of DQ9 is poor. The recognition of DQB1*0303 by DQ9 and or DQ3 is poorest, DQ2 which recognizes a ... For this reason DQ9 serotyping is a poor method of typing for transplantation or disease association prediction or study. (DQ9 ...
... and serotype 5 for the second. The Janssen vaccine uses serotype 26. Convidecia uses serotype 5. Zabdeno, the first dose of the ... Human adenovirus serotype 5 is often used because it can be easily produced in high titers. As of April 2021, four adenovirus ... July 2011). "International seroepidemiology of adenovirus serotypes 5, 26, 35, and 48 in pediatric and adult populations". ... These studies include numerous strategies such as designing alternative Adenovirus serotypes, diversifying routes of ...
Efficacy varied by serotype. In both trials vaccine reduced by about 80% the number of severe dengue cases. An analysis of both ... The data appear to show only moderate efficacy in other dengue serotypes than DENV2. Qdenga received approval for use in the ... it is approved for use for those aged nine years of age and older and can prevent all four serotypes. TAK-003 or DENVax, sold ... but it is not approved in the US for use in individuals not previously infected by any dengue virus serotype or for whom this ...
... (B63) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies certain B*15 gene-allele protein products of HLA-B. B63 is one of ...
While each serotype can cause the full spectrum of disease, virus strain is a risk factor. Infection with one serotype is ... Some serotypes of the dengue virus appear to have mechanisms to slow down this process. Interferon also activates the adaptive ... There are five strains of the virus, called serotypes, of which the first four are referred to as DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and ... It is based on a weakened combination of the yellow fever virus and each of the four dengue serotypes. Studies of the vaccine ...
His research group were the first to describe the different serotypes of rotavirus. This work was important to the development ... Beards, GM; Pilfold, JN; Thouless, ME; Flewett, TH (1980). "Rotavirus serotypes by serum neutralisation". J Med Virol. 5 (3): ...
"Snapshots of Salmonella Serotypes" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC. Hendriksen RS, Vieira AR, Karlsmose ... Wolfgang R, Helene A, Robert K, Rita P, Helmut T, Garry A, Andreas B (May 2002). "Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium and ... A number of techniques are currently used to differentiate between serotypes. These include looking for the presence or absence ... There is an increasing number of Salmonella serotypes that are multidrug resistant (MDR), which was identified by the CDC's ...
... H: serotype EV-H. Enterovirus I: serotype EV-I1 and EV-I2. Enterovirus J: serotypes: EV-J1, EV-J103, and EV-J108. ... Enterovirus K: serotype EV-K1 and EV-K2. Enterovirus L: serotype EV-L1. Rhinovirus Rhinovirus A: serotypes RV-A1, RV-A1B, RV-A2 ... Enterovirus E: serotypes EV-E1, EV-E2, EV-E3, EV-E4, and EV-E5. Enterovirus F: serotypes EV-F1, EV-F2, EV-F3, EV-F4, EV-F5, EV- ... Enterovirus B: serotypes CVB-1, CVB-2, CVB-3, CVB-4, CVB-5, CVB-6, and CVA-9. Enterovirus C: serotypes CVA-1, CVA-11, CVA-13, ...
... (A36) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A36 has a high false serotyping rate to A1. A36 is largely limited to Africa. Outside Africa, more than half of the populations ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae has at least 91 different capsular serotypes. These serotypes are the basis for the pneumococcal ... Watts SC, Holt KE (June 2019). "In Silico Serotyping of the Haemophilus influenzae Capsule Locus". Journal of Clinical ... accuracy of serotyping and prevalence of IS1016 among nontypeable isolates". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 45 (10): 3230-8 ... "Two variants among Haemophilus influenzae serotype b strains with distinct bcs4, hcsA and hcsB genes display differences in ...
... (A25) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A25 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A10. A25 is a sister serotype of A26, A34, A43, and A66. A25 is more ... A25 reasonably good serotyping with no overt false recognition.. A*2501 distribution is primarily located in Western Eurasia. ...
... (A*02) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the ... The serotyping for the most abundant A*02 alleles is good. For A*02:03, A*02:06, A*02:07 serotyping is borderline useful. There ... and a large majority have unknown serotypes, although it is highly probable that they will all return A2 serotypes. HLAs serve ... Serotyping can identify as far as HLA-A*02, which is typically enough to prevent transplant rejection (the original motivation ...
... (A26) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A26 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A10. A26 is a sister serotype of A25, A34, A43, and A66. A26 is more ... common in West Pacific Rim (Taiwan to Hokkaido). A26 reasonably good serotyping with no overt false recognition.. A26 Serotype ...
... (A32) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A32 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A19. A32 is a sister serotype of A29, A30, A31, A33, and A74. A32 ... Serotyping efficiency for the predominant allele is good. There are 16 known alleles that result in 15 isoforms of HLA-A32. One ...
4 proteins DR51 Serotype: *0202, Serotype unknown: *0203 to *0205 DR51 serotype is positively associated with The following HLA ... DRB5*01 allele group 14 Alleles: 11 proteins, 2 Nulls DR51 Serotype: *0101, *0102 Serotype unknown: *0103 to *0107, *0109, * ... HLA-DR51 is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the antigens encoded by the minor DR locus HLA-DRB5. DRB3, DRB4, and DRB5 are ... Only 3 of these have been surveyed by serotyping. There are numerous null genes at this locus. ...
... (B54) is an HLA-B serotype. B54 is a split antigen from the B22 broad antigen, sister serotypes are B55 and B56. The ... HLA-serotype tutorial Hildebrand, W. H.; Madrigal, J. A.; Little, A. M.; Parham, P. (1992). "HLA-Bw22: a family of molecules ... serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*55 gene products. ...
15 serotypes) Serogroup B: S. flexneri (9 serotypes) Serogroup C: S. boydii (19 serotypes) Serogroup D: S. sonnei (one serotype ... Yang, Z; Hu, C; Chen, J; Chen, G; Liu, Z (1990). "A new serotype of Shigella boydii". Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao (in Chinese). 30 (4 ... Shigella species are classified by three serogroups and one serotype: Serogroup A: S. dysenteriae ( ... dysenteriae serotypes 14 and 15". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 33 (5): 1423-5. doi:10.1128/JCM.33.5.1423-1425.1995. PMC ...
Eight serotypes of EHDV are proposed. Serotypes EHDV-1 (New Jersey strain) and EHDV-2 (Alberta strain) are the dominant forms ... Worldwide, eight serotypes of EHDV have been identified. Historically, only serotypes EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 have been found in ... Ibaraki virus, which is a strain of EHDV serotype 2, causes Ibaraki disease in cattle in Japan. Studies investigating the ... serotypes". The Journal of General Virology. 91 (2): 430-9. doi:10.1099/vir.0.015651-0. PMID 19828758. Reoviruses (incl. ...
Adenovirus serotype 14 (Ad14) is a rarely reported but emerging serotype of adenovirus that can cause severe and sometimes ... of the 268 were serotyped, and 106 (90%) of those serotyped were Ad14. Before this outbreak, the only identification of an Ad14 ... Fifty-one adenovirus serotypes have been identified (4). The cases described in this report are unusual because they suggest ... Vaccines against adenovirus serotypes four and seven (i.e., Ad4 and Ad7) were used among military recruits during 1971--1999, ...
"Serotypes and the Importance of Serotyping Salmonella". CDC. Retrieved 16 October 2014. Danan C, Fremy S, Moury F, Bohnert ML, ... To date, more than 2600 different serotypes have been identified. A Salmonella serotype is determined by the unique combination ... A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different ... In humans, that serotype is largely determined by human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the human version of the major ...
Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov ...
Outbreaks of Salmonella Serotype Enteritidis Infection Associated with Consumption of Raw Shell Eggs -- United States, 1994- ... Percentage of all Salmonella isolates that were serotype .... Figure 2. Rate of isolation of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, ... Rate of isolation of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, by region... Article. Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) accounts for ... Outbreaks of Salmonella Serotype Enteritidis Infection Associated with Consumption of Raw Shell Eggs -- United States, 1994- ...
Legionella feeleii serotype 2. Published on July 12, 2023. by Shopify API ...
Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Serotypes. The Pneumococcus Initiative, as part of the Pneumonia program strategy ... The START team collected serotype and metadata from 172,564 IPD isolates in 54 countries. The largest proportion of isolates ... cases by serotype, and whether the source reported on incidence or microbial resistance. These data were entered into a ... and provide sufficient detail on serotypes of isolates. ... on the distribution of invasive pneumococcal disease serotypes ...
High purity for each AAV serotype. In order to test the purity of the system, AAV viral particles of each serotype (AAV1, AAV2 ... The AAVpro Purification Kit Maxi (All Serotypes) is a four-prep kit that can be used for purifying AAV of any serotype without ... The AAVpro Purification Kit Midi (All Serotypes) is a four-prep kit that can be used for purifying AAV of any serotype without ... The AAVpro Purification Kit (All Serotypes) can be used reliably for any AAV serotype with high purity and recovery in just ...
AAV2/9-Cre-GFP AAV9-Cre-GFP Cre recombinase GFP AAV serotype 9 7020 ... AAV Serotype. AAV-DJ9. Promoter. CMV (ubiquitous). Reporter. eGFP. Storage Buffer. PBS/5% Glycerol. Volume. 20ul. Titer. 1x10^ ... This AAV serotype 9 virus (with Capsid from AAV9 and ITR from AAV2) expresses Cre Recombinase and eGFP marker. Each gene ... AAV-Cre-GFP (AAV serotype 9) AAV. Category: AAV > Over-Expression > Cre Recombinases ...
Read Scientists Respond to Global emergence of New Pathogenic Streptococcus Zooepidemicus Serotype in addition to hundreds of ... it had been considered a common part of their microbiomes however in 2019 a pathogenic serotype, sequence type-194, was ... says ST-194 has since been detected in every continent and now a second virulent serotype has been identified. ... we may be underestimating Strep zoo with this new serotype emerging and causing disease. ...
However, experimental serotyping needs great cost on manpower and resources. Recently, we found that the newly incorporated ... Here, we developed an R package CSESA to predict the serotype based on this finding. Considering its time saving and of high ... CSESA: CRISPR-Based Salmonella Enterica Serotype Analyzer. Salmonella enterica is a major cause of bacterial food-borne disease ... Serotype identification is the most commonly used typing method to characterize Salmonella isolates. ...
Routine surveillance of infection in England and Wales detected 394 cases of campylobacter bacteraemia in 11 years. This represented an average incidence of 1.5 per 1000 intestinal campylobacter infections, with a range of 0.3/1000 in children aged 1-4 years to 5.9/1000 in patients aged 65 years or …
Article on Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan by Tandin Dorji, In-Kyu Yoon, Edward C. Holmes, ... Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan. ... Diversity and Origin of Dengue Virus Serotypes 1, 2, and 3, Bhutan. ...
Universal Gene Correction Approaches for beta-hemoglobinopathies Using CRISPR-Cas9 and Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 6 Donor ... Universal Gene Correction Approaches for beta-hemoglobinopathies Using CRISPR-Cas9 and Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 6 Donor ...
Pneumococcal resistance and serotype 19a in Pittsburgh-area children with acute otitis media before and after introduction of 7 ... Pneumococcal resistance and serotype 19a in Pittsburgh-area children with acute otitis media before and after introduction of 7 ... Pneumococcal resistance and serotype 19a in Pittsburgh-area children with acute otitis media before and after introduction of 7 ... Pneumococcal resistance and serotype 19a in Pittsburgh-area children with acute otitis media before and after introduction of 7 ...
Two separate analyses were carried out to understand the epidemiology of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in 2007 in North ... N2 - Two separate analyses were carried out to understand the epidemiology of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in 2007 in ... AB - Two separate analyses were carried out to understand the epidemiology of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in 2007 in ... abstract = "Two separate analyses were carried out to understand the epidemiology of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in ...
Influence of serotype on the architecture and structural parameters of the biofilms formed by Salmonella enterica * Rosa ...
Unknown serotype. (Export Data). (PDF). Hansens disease. (Export Data). (PDF). Hantavirus infection, non-hantavirus pulmonary ...
All ages, all serotypes. Serotype b. Current. week. Previous 52. weeks Max †. Cum YTD. 2019 †. Cum YTD. 2018 †. Current. week. ... Haemophilus influenzae, invasive disease (all ages, all serotypes). Haemophilus influenzae, invasive disease (age ...
It has been described with N meningitidis serotypes C, B, W-135, and Y. [64] ... Patients with complement deficiencies have a higher proportion of meningococcal disease caused by serotypes Y and W-135. ... A case of primary meningococcal pericarditis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serotype Y with rapid evolution into cardiac ...
Suitable for use with various cell lines and multiple serotypes *Compatible with PEIpro® and other transfection reagents ...
Human adenovirus serotype 5, a replication-restricted vector system, particles containing the F gene from the NDV gamefowl/ ... All NDV isolates are classified into a single serotype; however, they are genetically and antigenically diverse. NDV strains ... we used human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) that has a deletion of the delta E1 and E2 genes, impeding their replication and ...
jejuni serotype O:2 (strain ATCC 700819 / NCTC 11168)). Explore Q9PIR7 Go to UniProtKB: Q9PIR7 ...
Engineered Serotypes. *Caltech Systemic. *Retrograde. *University of Florida Eye Panel. *View all AAV ...
Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Philippines, 2012-2018 Authors. * Sonia B ... This study is designed to fill that gap by describing the serotype distribution and AMR of S. pneumoniae in the Philippines ... Results: From a total of 307 isolates of S. pneumoniae, 32 serotypes were identified; the most frequently occurring were ... Serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Philippines, 2012-2018. Western Pac ...
Although the predominant Vibrio cholerae serotype in Pakistan is Ogawa and serotype Inaba is rare, there has been a significant ... Of these, 243 were serotype Inaba, outnumbering serotype Ogawa. This recent Inaba strain is 100% resistant to cotrimoxazole, 3 ... Increased isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba over serotype Ogawa in Pakistan ... Increased isolation of Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Inaba over serotype Ogawa in Pakistan ...
This paper examines such factors, giving particular attention to a newly recognized serotype of Vibrio cholerae, which has ... For cholera, V. cholerae serotype O1 is considered to be the most virulent and the epidemic serotype. All other serotypes, ... Serotype conversion of V. cholerae. Another important and well studied phenomenon is serotype or biotype conversion, which has ... assigned to serotype O139 [38]. This serotype is now considered to have been derived from the environment. For the first time, ...
Study: PCV13 Protects Against Pneumococcal Serotype Causing Invasive Pneumococcal Disease. April 15th 2024. Article ...
Alamiri, F., André, O., De, S., Nordenfelt, P., & Hakansson, A. P. (2023). Role of serotype and virulence determinants of ... Alamiri, F, André, O, De, S, Nordenfelt, P & Hakansson, AP 2023, Role of serotype and virulence determinants of Streptococcus ... Role of serotype and virulence determinants of Streptococcus pyogenes biofilm bacteria in internalization and persistence in ... Role of serotype and virulence determinants of Streptococcus pyogenes biofilm bacteria in internalization and persistence in ...
Incidents of Salmonella serotypes in turkeys in 2009. Further Reading. -. You can view the full chapter Reports of Salmonella ...
  • A scientist with the Western College of Veterinary Medicine suggests the global emergence of a new pathogenic Streptococcus zooepidemicus serotype will force diagnosticians to change the way they look at identifying the infection. (farms.com)
  • Data are scarce on the prevailing Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in the Philippines, including the relative antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of these bacteria. (who.int)
  • Role of serotype and virulence determinants of Streptococcus pyogenes biofilm bacteria in internalization and persistence in epithelial cells in vitro. (lu.se)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Role of serotype and virulence determinants of Streptococcus pyogenes biofilm bacteria in internalization and persistence in epithelial cells in vitro. (lu.se)
  • The Salmonella genus of bacteria, for example, has been determined to have over 2600 serotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Salmonella serotype is determined by the unique combination of reactions of cell surface antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreaks of Salmonella Serotype Enteritidis Infection Associated. (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations for Preventing Salmonella Serotype Enteriditis. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) accounts for an increasing proportion of all Salmonella serotypes reported to CDC's National Salmonella Surveillance System. (cdc.gov)
  • They also determined that clinically important resistance was linked to four specific Salmonella serotypes: Enteritidis, Newport, Typhimurium and Heidelberg. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • LEDS collects Salmonella surveillance data, including serotypes, from state and territorial public health labs. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The authors note that while Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport and Heidelberg account for only half of all culture-confirmed Salmonella infections, the four serotypes accounted for 73 percent of the Salmonella infections that involved clinically important resistance. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • It also suggests that strategies to reduce Salmonella infections caused by these four serotypes could have an impact on the incidence of resistant infections overall. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The report also notes that two of these serotypes - Typhimurium and Newport - have been associated with outbreaks of drug-resistant Salmonella infections linked to contaminated meat, which highlights the need for NARMS to continue monitoring emerging resistance patterns by serotype. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Serotype identification is the most commonly used typing method to characterize Salmonella isolates. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Considering it's time saving and of high accuracy, we recommend to predict the serotypes of unknown Salmonella isolates using 'CSESA' before doing the traditional serotyping. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Four primary serotypes - Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport and Heidelberg - accounted for 52 percent of all fully serotyped isolates. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • In this study, we have evaluated the influence of capsule polysaccharide in biofilm formation and immune evasion by using clinical isolates from different sources and isogenic strains with capsules from prevalent serotypes. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Since the introduction of PCV13 in Spain in the year 2010, isolates of serotypes 22F and 33F are rising among risk populations. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The use of clinical isolates of different origin, demonstrated that pediatric isolates of serotypes 22F and 33F formed better biofilms than adult isolates and this was statistically significant. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Inclusion criteria mandated that data must be from normally sterile sites (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.), samples drawn from January 1, 2010 onwards, and provide sufficient detail on serotypes of isolates. (uwstartcenter.org)
  • The START team collected serotype and metadata from 172,564 IPD isolates in 54 countries. (uwstartcenter.org)
  • With the inclusion of PCV13 in the National Immunization Program, continued monitoring of the prevailing serotypes of S. pneumoniae isolates in the Philippines is needed to guide disease and AMR control measures. (who.int)
  • A total of 52 strains, consisting of 19 strains isolated in Japan, 19 strains isolated in Italy and 14 strains isolated in England, were characterised by conventional physiological and biochemical tests and then serotyped by the use of 8 monoclonal antibodies with different specificities. (karger.com)
  • In response to a severe outbreak of APP serotype 15 in finishing barns in Iowa in 2021, Iowa State University conducted a series of studies to compare different strains and define the risks posed by this emerging infection. (farmscape.ca)
  • This study examined the genome arrangement of A. actinomycetemcomitans using the genome sequences of serotypes a-c strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specific genome arrangements appear to be conserved among strains of the same serotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results suggest a significant evolutionary divergence between serotype a strains and serotypes b/c strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The distinct patterns of genome arrangement may suggest phenotypic differences between serotype a and serotypes b/c strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the difficulties in controlling FMD by vaccination arises due to the substantial diversity found among the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV) and the strains within these serotypes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Therefore, vaccination using a single vaccine strain may not fully cross-protect against all strains within that serotype, and therefore selection of appropriate vaccines requires serological comparison of the field virus and potential vaccine viruses using relationship coefficients ( r 1 values). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • the most common is H. influenzae , which has 6 distinct encapsulated serotypes (a through f) and numerous nonencapsulated, nontypeable strains. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Strains involved in invasive illness should be serotyped. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae, the species of bacteria that causes cholera, has over 200 serotypes, based on cell antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the predominant Vibrio cholerae serotype in Pakistan is Ogawa and serotype Inaba is rare, there has been a significant increase in the isolation of Inaba in our referral laboratory in Karachi. (bvsalud.org)
  • This paper examines such factors, giving particular attention to a newly recognized serotype of Vibrio cholerae, which has caused epidemics in India and Bangladesh. (who.int)
  • Le présent article examine ces facteurs, en s'attachant plus particulièrement au sérotype nouvellement identifié de Vibrio cholerae qui a provoqué des épidémies en Inde et au Bangladesh. (who.int)
  • Here, we used antigenic cartography to quantify and visualize the antigenic relationships among FMD serotype A viruses, aiming to improve the understanding of FMDV antigenic evolution and the scope and reliability of vaccine matching. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The first licensed vaccine (the 7-valent PCV [PCV7]) contained the 7 serotypes that most frequently caused invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in developed countries, and it did not include serotype 1. (bibf1120.com)
  • Interference among the three attenuated poliovirus serotypes was minimized with a 'balanced- formulation' vaccine, and serologic responses after IPV were optimized by adjusting the antigenic content of each inactivated poliovirus serotype. (who.int)
  • To inform efforts surrounding those goals, the BMGF commissioned the START Center to perform a global review on the distribution of invasive pneumococcal disease serotypes in persons of all ages. (uwstartcenter.org)
  • Furthermore, due to the unique features of pneumococcal meningitis in the meningitis belt, including the predominance of one pneumococcal serotype with a strong seasonal pattern Brivanib alaninate and a high incidence persisting throughout the whole adult life, it is not clear what impact infant immunization with serotype 1-containing conjugates will have on the overall incidence of pneumococcal meningitis in this region. (bibf1120.com)
  • In conclusion, at the maximum of the meningococcal meningitis epidemic, serum examples were from 622 healthful topics from various age group categories and had been subsequently assayed for a number of guidelines, including serotype-specific pneumococcal IgG. (bibf1120.com)
  • Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have proven to be highly effective gene delivery tools for therapeutic research thanks to a variety of features, including minimal pathogenicity, sustained viral persistence, and the ability to target specific cells and tissue types with a variety of recombinant AAV serotypes (Büning 2019). (takarabio.com)
  • AAV1, 2, 5, and 6 vectors carrying the ZsGreen1 gene were purified from producer cells cultured in five T225 flasks with the AAVpro Purification Kit Midi (All Serotypes) kit. (takarabio.com)
  • We investigated the global incidence of infant invasive GBS disease and the associated serotypes, updating previous estimates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Inactivated and trivalent oral poliovirus vaccines contain either formalin- inactivated or live, attenuated poliovirus, respectively, of the three serotypes. (who.int)
  • Strep zoo is known to cause strangles in horses but for pigs, it had been considered a common part of their microbiomes however in 2019 a pathogenic serotype, sequence type-194, was identified as causing severe disease in pigs in Canada resulting in high mortality. (farms.com)
  • In order to test the purity of the system, AAV viral particles of each serotype (AAV1, AAV2, AAV3, AAV5, and AAV6) carrying the fluorescent protein ZsGreen1 were purified from producer cells using the AAVpro Purification Maxi Kit (All Serotypes). (takarabio.com)
  • Viral particles from serotypes AAV1, AAV2, AAV3, AAV5, and AAV6, each carrying the fluorescent protein ZsGreen1, were purified from producer cells cultured in five T225 flasks according to the the kit's user manual. (takarabio.com)
  • This AAV serotype 9 virus (with Capsid from AAV9 and ITR from AAV2) expresses Cre Recombinase and eGFP marker. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • Molecular analysis of the serotyping antigens of Neisseria meningitidis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Molecular approaches to the rapid analysis of the serotyping antigens of Neisseria meningitidis, the class 2 and 3 outer membrane proteins (OMPs), were developed, evaluated, and used to study 12 antigenic variants of these proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Purified AAV particles carrying the fluorescent protein ZsGreen1 were used for infection of three different cell lines (CHO, RD, and HT1080) at 5,000 vector genomes per cell (serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 6) or 50,000 vector genomes per cell (serotype 5). (takarabio.com)
  • The 4 major serotypes that have been driving the incidence of resistant infections should continue to be high priorities in combating resistance," the authors write. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Data were abstracted from each source on country, age, year of data, year of publication, study/sampling design, study duration, cases by serotype, and whether the source reported on incidence or microbial resistance. (uwstartcenter.org)
  • Infant Group B Streptococcal Disease Incidence and Serotypes Worldwide: Systematic Review and Meta-analyses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We conducted random-effects meta-analyses of incidence, case fatality risk (CFR), and serotype prevalence. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RESULTS: We identified 135 studies with data on incidence (n = 90), CFR (n = 64), or serotype (n = 45). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Serotype III (61.5%) dominated, with 97% of cases caused by serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of infant GBS disease remains high in some regions, particularly Africa. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Clinical Relevance and Molecular Pathogenesis of the Emerging Serotypes 22F and 33F of in Spain. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Our AAVpro "All Serotypes" kits solve this issue through the use of a simple precipitation and filtration protocol (Figure 1) that can purify AAV particles with any capsid (i.e., from any serotype). (takarabio.com)
  • This was followed by SDS-PAGE for each sample, and all serotypes displayed the AAV capsid proteins (VP1, VP2, and VP3) as the major bands present, which confirmed the purity of the AAV particles. (takarabio.com)
  • The predominance of these four serotypes, they write, reflects their ability to persist in food animals, be transmitted through the food system, and cause illness. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) viruses are globally distributed, infect wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds, and sometimes lead to outbreaks of disease. (altmetric.com)
  • A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Serotypes were discovered by the American microbiologist Rebecca Lancefield in 1933. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotype replacement is a frequent phenomenon after the introduction of conjugated vaccines, with emerging serotypes 22F and 33F as frequent non-PCV13 serotypes in children and adults in North America and other countries. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The genome arrangement of the serotype a strain D7S-1 is markedly different from the serotype b strain HK1651 or the serotype c strain D11S-1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Characterization of mechanisms involved in evasion of the host immune response by these serotypes is of great importance in public health because they are included in the future conjugated vaccines PCV15 and PCV20. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Overall, the emergence of additional PCV15 serotypes, especially 22F, could be associated to an enhanced ability to divert the host immune response that markedly increased in a biofilm state. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The increased ability of serotype 22F to avoid the host immune response, might explain the emergence of this serotype in the last years. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • serotype 1 (Sp1) constitutes a significant cause of seasonal endemic meningitis in all age groups in the African meningitis belt. (bibf1120.com)
  • In 2009 2009, 10- and 13-valent conjugates were licensed, which included serotypes 1 and 5, both of which are important in developing countries, such as those in the African meningitis belt. (bibf1120.com)
  • Purity of viral particles collected using the AAVpro Purification Kit Maxi (All Serotypes). (takarabio.com)
  • Once again, viral particles carrying the fluorescent protein ZsGreen1 (serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 6) were purified from producer cells using the AAVpro Purification Kit Midi (All Serotypes), and titer of each purified vector was measured as described above. (takarabio.com)
  • Opsonophagocytosis assays showed that serotype 22F and 33F were recognized by the PSGL-1 receptor on leukocytes, although serotype 22F, was more resistant than serotype 33F to phagocytosis killing and more lethal in a mouse sepsis model. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • However, many currently available schemas for their generation are serotype dependent, requiring separate method development and optimization for each vector. (takarabio.com)
  • Adenovirus serotype 14 (Ad14) is a rarely reported but emerging serotype of adenovirus that can cause severe and sometimes fatal respiratory illness in patients of all ages, including healthy young adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Serotyping was done through slide agglutination following the Denka Seiken slide agglutination method. (who.int)
  • Dr. Costa suggests, now we need new tests that will detect any Strep zoo, not only ST-194.He says, by using a very specific test, we may be underestimating Strep zoo with this new serotype emerging and causing disease. (farms.com)
  • clarification needed] Serotyping often plays an essential role in determining species and subspecies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, that serotype is largely determined by human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the human version of the major histocompatibility complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional serotyping methods and alternative subtyping methodologies have been reviewed by Wattiau et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study is designed to fill that gap by describing the serotype distribution and AMR of S. pneumoniae in the Philippines from 2012 to 2018. (who.int)
  • The results indicated that all monoclonal antibodies are useful for identification of 8 serotypes of the mutans streptococci responsible for dental caries. (karger.com)
  • samples were assessed for IgG avidity and serotype-specific IgM concentrations. (bibf1120.com)
  • The immune system is capable of discerning a cell as being 'self' or 'non-self' according to that cell's serotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carolina Duarte participated in all the stages of the un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel en Colombia - 2016 study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Research funded by the Swine Health Information Center has shown Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 15 is capable of surviving colder temperatures than previously thought. (farmscape.ca)