A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and consisting of 2 serotypes: Human enterovirus 68 and Human enterovirus 70.
A member of the S-100 protein family that is present at high levels in the blood and interstitial fluid in several infectious, inflammatory, and malignant disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cystic fibrosis. It is a complex of a light chain (CALGRANULIN A) and a heavy chain (CALGRANULIN B). L1 binds calcium through an EF-hand motif, and has been shown to possess antimicrobial activity.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.

Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (1/7746)

The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar.  (+info)

Serotypes and virulence factors of Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats. (2/7746)

E. coli strains isolated from urine of dogs and cats with urinary tract infections (UTI) and from feces of healthy one's were serotyped, and the serotypes were correlated with uropathogenic virulence factors. The most prevalent O-serotypes, O4 and O6, were isolated from dogs and cats with UTI. In contrast, O11 and O102 strains were the most frequently found from feces of healthy dogs and cats. Most of type O4 and O6 strains possessed such virulence factors as pil, pap, sfa, hly, and cnf1, while most type O11 and O102 strains pil only or pil and aer. All strains of type O75 possessed afaI and aer. K1 antigen was negative in all strains obtained from UTI.  (+info)

Ribotypes of clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains in relation to O-serotypes. (3/7746)

The emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in 1992 and reports of an increasing number of other non-O1 serogroups being associated with diarrhoea, stimulated us to characterize V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains received at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan for serotyping. Ribotyping with the restriction enzyme BglI of 103 epidemiological unrelated mainly clinical strains representing 10 O-serotypes yielded 67 different typing patterns. Ribotype similarity within each serotype was compared by using the Dice coefficient (Sd) and different levels of homogeneity were observed (serotypes O5, O41 and O17, Sd between 82 and 90%: serotypes O13 and O141 Sd of 72; and O2, O6, O7, O11, O24 Sd of 62-66%). By cluster analysis, the strains were divided into several clusters of low similarity suggesting a high level of genetic diversity. A low degree of similarity between serotypes and ribotypes was found as strains within a specific serotypes often did not cluster but clustered with strains from other serotypes. However, epidemiological unrelated O5 strains showed identical or closely related ribotypes suggesting that these strains have undergone few genetic changes and may correspond to a clonal line. Surprisingly, 10 of 16 O141 strains studied contained a cholera toxin (CT) gene, including 7 strains recovered from stool and water samples in the United States. This is to our knowledge the first report of CT-positive clinical O141 strains. The closely related ribotypes shown by eight CT-positive strains is disturbing and suggest that these strains may be of a clonal origin and have the potential to cause cholera-like disease. Despite the low degree of correlation found between ribotypes and serotypes, both methods appears to be valuable techniques in studying the epidemiology of emerging serotypes of V. cholerae.  (+info)

Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel. (4/7746)

The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline.  (+info)

Risk factors for the occurrence of sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis infections in children in France: a national case-control study. (5/7746)

To determine risk factors associated with the occurrence of sporadic cases of Salmonella enteritidis infections among children in France, we conducted a matched case-control study. Cases were identified between 1 March and 30 September 1995. One hundred and five pairs of cases and controls matched for age and place of residence were interviewed. In the 1-5 years age group, illness was associated with the consumption of raw eggs or undercooked egg-containing foods (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). Storing eggs more than 2 weeks after purchase was associated with Salmonella enteritidis infection (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.4-10.2), particularly during the summer period (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.3-26.8). Cases were more likely to report a case of diarrhoea in the household 10-3 days before the onset of symptoms, particularly in the age group < or = 1 year (P = 0.01). This study confirms the link between eggs and the occurrence of sporadic cases of Salmonella enteritidis among children, highlights the potential role of prolonged egg storage and underlines the role of person-to-person transmission in infants.  (+info)

High turnover rate of Escherichia coli strains in the intestinal flora of infants in Pakistan. (6/7746)

The Escherichia coli flora of infants in developed countries is dominated by one or a few strains which persist for prolonged periods of time, but no longitudinal studies have been performed in developing countries. To this end, we studied the rectal enterobacterial flora in 22 home-delivered Pakistani infants during their first 6 months of life. Three colonies were isolated and species typed on each of 11 sampling occasions. E. coli isolates were strain typed using electromorphic typing of cytoplasmic enzymes, and their O serogroups were determined. There was a very rapid turnover of enterobacterial strains in the rectal flora of individual infants. On average, 8.5 different E. coli strains were found per infant, and several biotypes of other enterobacteria. Less than 50% of the infants were colonized with E. coli from their mothers, but strains of maternal origin were four times more likely to persists in the infants' flora than other E. coli strains. Enterobacteria other than E. coli were always of non-maternal origin, and Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae biotypes recovered from contaminated feeds were later identified in the infants' rectal flora. An early colonization with klebsiella or enterobacter was significantly associated with diarrhoea during the neonatal period, although these bacteria were not likely to be the cause of the disease. The results suggest that poor hygienic conditions result in an unstable and diverse enterobacterial flora, which may influence infant health.  (+info)

Infection rate of Leptospira interrogans in the field rodent, Apodemus agrarius, in Korea. (7/7746)

Leptospirosis has significantly decreased in Korea since 1988, following the leptospiral vaccination programme initiated in 1988. Whether this wholly explains the decreased incidence is uncertain. As an initial step to answer this question, infection rates of Leptospira interrogans in field rodents, Apodemis agrarius, were examined and compared with previous data. Two hundred and twenty-two A. agrarius were captured during October-December 1996. Spirochaetes were isolated from 22 (9.9%) and leptospiral DNA was detected in an additional 6 rodents (12.6%). Subsequent microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) classified all these isolates as L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar lai. The above data did not significantly differ from previous surveys in 1984-7. There was no significant change of L. interrogans infection in field rodents following the introduction of the vaccination programme in Korea. Further studies are needed to determine the role of human vaccination in reducing incidence.  (+info)

Biodiversity of Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from fish in Europe, Asia, and Australia. (8/7746)

Lactococcus garvieae (junior synonym, Enterococcus seriolicida) is a major pathogen of fish, producing fatal septicemia among fish species living in very diverse environments. The phenotypic traits of L. garvieae strains collected from three different continents (Asia, Europe, and Australia) indicated phenotypic heterogeneity. On the basis of the acidification of D-tagatose and sucrose, three biotypes were defined. DNA relatedness values and a specific PCR assay showed that all the biotypes belonged to the same genospecies, L. garvieae. All of the L. garvieae strains were serotyped as Lancefield group N. Ribotyping proved that one clone was found both in Japan, where it probably originated, and in Italy, where it was probably imported. PCR of environmental samples did not reveal the source of the contamination of the fish in Italy. Specific clones (ribotypes) were found in outbreaks in Spain and in Italy. The L. garvieae reference strain, isolated in the United Kingdom from a cow, belonged to a unique ribotype. L. garvieae is a rising zoonotic agent. The biotyping scheme, the ribotyping analysis, and the PCR assay described in this work allowed the proper identification of L. garvieae and the description of the origin and of the source of contamination of strains involved in outbreaks or in sporadic cases.  (+info)

Background Pneumococcal serotype identification is essential to monitor pneumococcal vaccine effectiveness and serotype replacement. Sequetyping PCR failed in 7/40 (18%) Jaceosidin manufacture isolates. For the rest of the isolates, sequetyping designated the right serotype/-group to 29/33 (88%) control isolates. From the 132/135 (98%) nasopharyngeal pneumococcal isolates that may be typed, 69/132 (52%) and 112/132 (85%) had been assigned the right serotype/-group by rmPCR and sequetyping respectively. The serotypes of 63/132 (48%) isolates werent contained in the rmPCR -panel. All except three isolates (serotype 25A and 38) had been theoretically amplified and differentiated in to the right serotype/-group with some strains providing ambigous outcomes (serotype 13/20, 17F/33C, and 11A/D/1818F). From the pneumococcal serotypes recognized with this scholarly research, 69/91 (76%) werent contained Jaceosidin manufacture in the current PCV13. Probably the most determined serotypes had been 11A ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is both a commensal and a major pathogen that causes invasive disease in people of all ages. The introduction of serotype-specific pneumococcal vaccines has reduced the burden of disease but has also led to replacement with new strains; thus, serotyping remains important for vaccine-related disease surveillance. Conventional serotyping methods are laborious and expensive. We developed an easy-to-perform genotypic TaqMan array card (TAC) to identify S. pneumoniae strains, including lytA-based sequences, and 53 sequence-specific PCRs to identify 74 serotypes/serogroups covering all current vaccine types as well as prevalent nonvaccine types. The TAC method was evaluated on 146 clinical S. pneumoniae isolates and 13 nonpneumococcal species that naturally inhabit the upper respiratory tract and yielded 97% (142/146) sensitivity and 100% (13/13) specificity versus results of standard Quellung serotyping. The calculated limit of detection was 20 to 200 fg (∼8 to 84 genome
Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotyping remains critical in the epidemiological surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The Quellung reaction is the gold standard for serotyping pneumococci. In recent years, some alternative serotyping procedures that include PCR, real-time PCR, sequencing analysis of specific genes, and whole genome sequencing, have been developed.1 Some of these techniques are reduced to a limited number of detectable serotypes2 or require expensive equipment (sequencing analysis).1 Recently, a commercial assay S. PneumoStrip test (Operon S.A., Zaragoza, Spain) for pneumococcal serotyping in strains isolated in culture, based on PCR followed by reverse strip hybridisation, has been reported as easy, sensitive and specific procedure.3 The targets of the test are 76 serotypes (42 individually and 34 in pairs). The objective of this work was to assess the performance of the S. PneumoStrip test for the detection of S. pneumoniae serotypes directly in ...
The Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA) is a multiplex, nucleic acid-based assay for use in identifying the serotype of a Salmonella isolate.
The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and non-labour-intensive molecular method to identify the phase 1 H antigens of Salmonella. The variable region of the flagellin gene, fliC, from 96 Salmonella strains representing 51 different phase 1 H antigens was sequenced in one direction. Unique sequences were found for 45 of the 51 different antigens. We were not able to separate either H:z42 from H:d; H:g, q from H:g, m, q; H:l, w from H:Rl, z40 or H:l, (v),z13 from H:l,z,13. Several phase 2 H antigens were found to be encoded by fliC. Polymorphism, at the subspecies level, was observed in fliC of H:b, H:d, H:z10, H:z and especially H:k. By this method we were also able to confirm that one monophasic strain possesses a new antigen, H:z91. This study shows that sequence-based typing of the phase 1 H antigen of Salmonella is a good alternative to serotyping when strains are non-typable by serological methods ...
Video created by Technical University of Denmark (DTU) for the course Whole genome sequencing of bacterial genomes - tools and applications. Whole genome sequencing tools- demonstration of analysis tools for Serotyping of Salmonella and ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a bacterium commonly found in the throat of young children. Pneumococcal serotypes can cause a variety of invasive and non-invasive diseases such as meningitis and pneumonia. In 2000 a vaccine was introduced in the USA that not only prevents vaccine type disease but has also been shown to eliminate carriage of the vaccine serotypes. One key problem with the vaccine is that it has been observed that the same sequence types (genetic material found in the serotypes) are able to manifest in more than one serotype. This is a potential problem if sequence types associated with invasive disease may express themselves in multiple serotypes. We present a basic differential equation mathematical model for exploring the relationship between sequence types and serotypes where a sequence type is able to manifest itself in one vaccine serotype and one non-vaccine serotype. An expression for the effective reproduction number is found and an equilibrium and then a ...
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2017 The Authors. The competitive pressure from non-vaccine serotypes may have helped pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to limit vaccine-Type (VT) serotype prevalence. We aimed to investigate if, consequently, the indirect protection of vaccines targeting most pneumococcal serotypes could fall short of the profound effects of current formulations.We compared three previously described pneumococcal models harmonized to simulate 20 serotypes with a combined pre-vaccination prevalence in children younger than 5-years-old of 40%. We simulated vaccines of increasing valency by adding serotypes in order of their competitiveness and explored their ability to reduce VT carriage by 95% within 10 years after introduction. All models predicted that additional valency will reduce indirect vaccine effects and hence the overall vaccine impact on carriage both in children and adults. Consequently, the minimal effective coverage (efficacy against carriage vaccine coverage) needed to eliminate VT carriage ...
We present here a parsimonious mechanistic model, developed as a generalization of existing deterministic models of pneumococcal transmission, which is capable of reproducing many of the distinct features of S. pneumoniae. We show that the means of non-specific and specific immunity are capable of governing the patterns of between-host competition and coexistence, and that stochastic effects in low prevalent serotypes may result in apparent epidemics, if these serotypes also have a high propensity to cause invasive disease (as has been observed in several countries with serotype 1, for instance). We further show that high carriage prevalence observed in developing country settings [25] and in native populations [36] might arise from a less effective immune response (owing to malnutrition, genetic differences or other factors) rather than differences in the number of contacts alone. Moreover, we use the model to assess the impact of vaccination, and contrast a vaccine targeted at the most ...
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), caused by infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, has a substantial global burden. There are over 90 known serotypes of S. pneumoniae with a considerable body of evidence supporting serotype-specific mortality rates immediately following IPD. This is the first study to consider the association between serotype and longer-term mortality following IPD. Using enhanced surveillance data from the North East of England we assessed both the short-term (30-day) and longer-term (⩽7 years) independent adjusted associations between individual serotypes and mortality following IPD diagnosis using logistic regression and extended Cox proportional hazards models. Of the 1316 cases included in the analysis, 243 [18·5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16·4-20·7] died within 30 days of diagnosis. Four serotypes (3, 6A, 9N, 19 F) were significantly associated with overall increased 30-day mortality. Effects were observable only for older adults (⩾60 years). After ...
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors of various serotypes are considered to have high potential for gene therapy applications. Currently, manufacturing
Ready-to-use AAV available from Addgenes viral service. Control EGFP vectors in various serotypes for serotype testing: AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV8 and AAV9
Serotype distribution and PCV immunization coverage among the S. pneumoniae isolates. a. Serotypes and immunization coverage rates of PCVs among all age groups.
CDC DENV-1-4 : real-time RT-PCR assay for detection and serotype identification of dengue virus : instructions for use package insert [Spanish] : El ensayo de RT-PCR en tiempo real para DENV-1-4 de los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enf ...
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Veterinary Sciences, VETERINARY SCIENCES, HIGH-PATHOGENICITY ISLAND, IN-VIVO EXPRESSION, FIBRONECTIN-BINDING, SERUM RESISTANCE, P-FIMBRIAE, FAMILY ENTEROBACTERIACEAE, SALMONELLA-ENTERITIDIS, COMPLEMENT RESISTANCE, AGGREGATIVE FIMBRIAE, CURLI PRODUCTION ...
ViroTag® ADVX (for manual sampling) utilizes a fluorescently-labeled, high-affinity antibody which binds to a unique epitope specifically expressed on adenovirus. The product has been shown to quantify multiple serotypes (2-6) and is considered pan-reactive. With the Virus Counter 3100, use this rapid, no-wash labeling procedure and take adenovirus quantification to new levels of accuracy, speed and simplicity!. Product specifications: The ViroTag ADVX kit (catalog number 92097) contains all reagents and consumables necessary to analyze 200 samples using the Virus Counter 3100 instrument for manual sampling, including:. ...
abms RNAi Expression System is now available in Adeno-Associated Virus format, combining the efficient expression of any siRNA with the advantage of non-integrating AAV for a new, powerful gene knockdown tool for gene therapy. The system is based on a unique convergent promoter design for greater efficiency of target gene knockdown without the need for a hair-pin loop structure commonly utilized in single promoter vectors, and includes a GFP reporter for monitoring transduction. abm offers a comprehensive library of human, mouse, and rat siRNAs in vector or pre-packaged AAV formats, available in multiple serotypes for tissue-specific knockdown.
Hi, I am trying to locate a commercial source for rabbit polyclonal antibodies to HIV P24 and gp120. I hope to use these in Western blots of clinical iso- lates and would hope that they would have cross-reactivity with multiple serotypes. Thanks, --Tom ...
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Isolation, serotyping, antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentration and phatogeneticity determination of erysipelothrixrhusiopathiae from tonsils of apparently healthy slaughter pigs.
E. coli serotype K99 Pili Antibody (K9912-418.2), MA1-10797, from Invitrogen™. Species Reactivity: Bacteria; Applications: ELISA Shop E. coli serotype K99 Pili Mouse
Some of the worlds top scientists are gathering at Penn State next week for an invitation-only workshop to discuss how to reach a consensus on techniques to identify new serotypes of E. coli. Penn States 50-year-old E. coli Reference Center is hosting the international meeting. We hope the workshop here can lead to a consensus, said… Continue Reading. ...
Some of the worlds top scientists are gathering at Penn State next week for an invitation-only workshop to discuss how to reach a consensus on techniques to identify new serotypes of E. coli. Penn States 50-year-old E. coli Reference Center is hosting the international meeting. We hope the workshop here can lead to a consensus, said… Continue Reading. ...
AAV serotypes 1 and 6 share 99% homology in that only a 6 amino acid difference separates the two. Researchers were able to individually change these amino acids to represent the residue expressed by the other serotype and vice versa. The amino acids and their changes are listed below for this plasmid and include the parental residue, position of the residue, and residue changed to. XR1.3-E531K ...
AAV serotypes 1 and 6 share 99% homology in that only a 6 amino acid difference separates the two. Researchers were able to individually change these amino acids to represent the residue expressed by the other serotype and vice versa. The amino acids and their changes are listed below for this plasmid and include the parental residue, position of the residue, and residue changed to. XR1.1-L129F ...
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Definition of quellung reaction in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of quellung reaction. What does quellung reaction mean? Information and translations of quellung reaction in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent. Serotypes 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 14 and 1/2 are the most prevalent serotypes of this pathogen. However, almost all studies were carried out on serotype 2 strains. Therefore, characterization of genomic features of other serotypes will be required to better understand their virulence potential and phylogenetic relationships among different serotypes. Four Chinese S. suis strains belonging to serotypes 1, 7, 9 and 1/2 were sequenced using a rapid, high-throughput approach. Based on the 13 corresponding serotype strains, including 9 previously completed genomes of this bacterium, a full comparative genomic analysis was performed. The results provide evidence that (i) the pan-genome of this species is open and the size increases with addition of new sequenced genomes, (ii) strains of serotypes 1, 3, 7 and 9 are phylogenetically distinct from serotype 2 strains, but all serotype 2 strains, plus the serotype 1/2 and 14 strains, are
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent. Serotypes 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 14 and 1/2 are the most prevalent serotypes of this pathogen. However, almost all studies were carried out on serotype 2 strains. Therefore, characterization of genomic features of other serotypes will be required to better understand their virulence potential and phylogenetic relationships among different serotypes. Four Chinese S. suis strains belonging to serotypes 1, 7, 9 and 1/2 were sequenced using a rapid, high-throughput approach. Based on the 13 corresponding serotype strains, including 9 previously completed genomes of this bacterium, a full comparative genomic analysis was performed. The results provide evidence that (i) the pan-genome of this species is open and the size increases with addition of new sequenced genomes, (ii) strains of serotypes 1, 3, 7 and 9 are phylogenetically distinct from serotype 2 strains, but all serotype 2 strains, plus the serotype 1/2 and 14 strains, are
A number of investigators in a variety of countries have compared these two serotyping protocols in terms of the strengths and advantages of each and what they have achieved since their introduction; however, it is difficult to compare O antigen typing results to those of HL antigen typing given that each scheme is used to detect different antigens on the bacterium. In 1985, Patton et al. (21) performed a comparative study using the Penner and Lior methods for serotyping Campylobacter. Their findings indicated that 96.1% of isolates were typeable by the Penner method and that 92.1% were typeable by the Lior method. In 1993, a second study by the same group determined that, of a representative sample of 298 Campylobacter isolates from across the United States, a total of 24 O antisera were needed to serotype 84.6% of the strains by the HS scheme (20). Among the most common serotypes were O:1 (or O:1,8), O:13,16,43,50, O:8 (or O:8,17), O:4, O:5−,5+, O:2, O:3, O:6,7,25,29, O:19, and O:15,38. One ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diagnostic accuracy of a serotype-specific antigen test in community-acquired pneumonia. AU - Huijts, S.M.. AU - Pride, M.W.. AU - Vos, J.M.. AU - Jansen, K.U.. AU - Webber, C.. AU - Gruber, W.. AU - Boersma, W.G.. AU - Snijders, D.. AU - Kluijtmans, J.A.J.W.. AU - van der Lee, I.. AU - Kuipers, B.A.. AU - van den Ende, A.. AU - Bonten, M.J.M.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. U2 - 10.1183/09031936.00137412. DO - 10.1183/09031936.00137412. M3 - Article. C2 - 23397295. VL - 42. SP - 1283. EP - 1290. JO - European Respiratory Journal. JF - European Respiratory Journal. SN - 0903-1936. IS - 5. ER - ...
New serotypes of pneumococcus have begun to colonize the nasopharynx of children since the introduction of the PCV13 vaccine in 2010, according to recent research data.. Here we provided analysis of 9 years of results, 2006 to 2015, and showed the adaptability of the pneumococcus to respond to vaccine pressure, Ravinder Kaur, PhD, at the center for infectious diseases and immunology at Rochester General Hospital Research Institute, and colleagues wrote. PCVs effectively eliminate all or nearly all of the strains expressing capsules corresponding to the polysaccharide-protein antigens in the vaccines. However, new serotypes quickly emerge to take the place of the strains eliminated.. After the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in 2000 in the United States, the researchers wrote, there was a decrease in nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by vaccine serotypes. Within 2 years, however, there was an increase in NP colonization ...
From the CDCs Pink Book:. Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria are lancet-shaped, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic organisms. They are typically observed in pairs (diplococci) but may also occur singularly or in short chains. Some pneumococci are encapsulated, their surfaces composed of complex polysaccharides. Encapsulated organisms are pathogenic for humans and experimental animals, whereas organisms without capsular polysaccharides are not. Most S. pneumoniae serotypes have been shown to cause serious disease, but only a few serotypes produce the majority of pneumococcal infections. The 10 most common serotypes are estimated to account for about 62% of invasive disease worldwide. The ranking and serotype prevalence differ by patient age group and geographic area. In the United States, the seven most common serotypes isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children younger than 6 years of age account for 80% of infections. These seven serotypes account for only about 50% of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A mathematical model for the spread of Strepotococcus pneumoniae with transmission dependent on serotype. AU - Greenhalgh, David. AU - Lamb, Karen Elaine. AU - Robertson, Christopher. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - We examine a mathematical model for the transmission of Streptococcus Pneumoniae amongst young children when the carriage transmission coefficient depends on the serotype. Carriage means pneumococcal colonization. There are two sequence types (STs) spreading in a population each of which can be expressed as one of two serotypes. We derive the differential equation model for the carriage spread and perform an equilibrium and global stability analysis on it. A key parameter is the effective reproduction number R e. For R e ≤ 1, there is only the carriage-free equilibrium (CFE) and the carriage will die out whatever be the starting values. For R e , 1, unless the effective reproduction numbers of the two STs are equal, in addition to the CFE there are two carriage ...
Antisera against hexons of serotypes 2, 4, 5, and 6 (subgroup III), and 15 (subgroup II) were absorbed with purified hexons of various serotypes representing the different subgroups of human adenoviruses. Group, subgroup, and type specificities of hexons could be distinguished. The subgroup specificity of type 4 hexons resembled that of hexons of subgroup I members (types 3, 11, and 16). Antihexon sera gave a type-specific inhibition of virion-associated hemagglutinin. The inhibiting activity of different sera was found to be inversely related to the length of fibers of the serotype concerned. Virions of serotypes carrying fibers shorter than about 20 nm (types 3, 4, 9, 11, and 15) were readily inhibited, whereas those of serotypes with longer fibers (types 2 and 6) were inhibited only by relatively large amounts of antibody measured in terms of homotypic complement fixation activity. The reciprocal cross-neutralization between serotypes 4 and 16 was studied separately. Hexons of both serotypes ...
Recent nasopharyngeal colonization with a new serotype almost always precedes infection.4,5 Colonization rates are highest in infants and preschool children, where they may be as high as 35%.4 Children may carry different serotypes at different times but are almost always colonized by those limited serotypes responsible for infections in this age group.2 Carriage rates are lower in older children (40-50%) and in adults (5-30%).6,7 PCV7 includes the 7 most common serotypes causing colonization and infection in children (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F). These serotypes and the cross-reactive serotypes (6A, 9A, 9L, 18B, 18F) caused 86% of cases of bacteremia, 83% of cases of meningitis, and 65% of cases of acute otitis media in children younger than 6 years.3 These serotypes also accounted for more than 80% of penicillin-resistant colonizing serotypes.8 ...
Molecular approaches to the rapid analysis of the serotyping antigens of Neisseria meningitidis, the class 2 and 3 outer membrane proteins (OMPs), were developed, evaluated, and used to study 12 antigenic variants of these proteins. A primer set for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the genes encoding these antigens was devised. Low-stringency amplification of meningococcal chromosomal DNA with this primer set resulted in the amplification of two products from each strain, whereas at higher stringencies only one product was amplified in most strains. Southern hybridization techniques and restriction analyses were used to differentiate the PCR products amplified at high stringencies from strains expressing class 2 or class 3 OMPs; these PCR products were further characterized by the determination of their nucleotide sequences, confirming that they represented the amplified class 2 and class 3 OMP genes. Analyses of these and other nucleotide sequences enabled the construction of a
Looking for quellung? Find out information about quellung. Swelling of the capsule of a bacterial cell, caused by contact with serum containing antibodies capable of reacting with polysaccharide material in the... Explanation of quellung
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are a class of single stranded DNA viruses that are not able to replicate without a helper virus. This makes them a perfect tool for the iGEM community, as no special safety requirements have to be fulfilled to work with a non-replication virus, because it is non-pathogenic. Because of their wide range of tropism they are used for transgene delivery in a variety of gene therapeutic approaches. In the class of AAVs, there are several serotypes that have been isolated from humans or non-human primates, the first and most well-known of them being AAV2. AAV serotypes are defined as naturally evolved variants of AAV that do not react to the same antibodies. All serotypes show different tissue specificites when injected into mouse or humans, and this tissue tropism is thought to be mainly due to interactions between the virus capsid and receptors on the cell surface. Most AAVs exhibit a rather broad tropism, AAV2 and AAV9 for example have been shown to transduce liver, ...
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are a class of single stranded DNA viruses that are not able to replicate without a helper virus. This makes them a perfect tool for the iGEM community, as no special safety requirements have to be fulfilled to work with a non-replication virus, because it is non-pathogenic. Because of their wide range of tropism they are used for transgene delivery in a variety of gene therapeutic approaches. In the class of AAVs, there are several serotypes that have been isolated from humans or non-human primates, the first and most well-known of them being AAV2. AAV serotypes are defined as naturally evolved variants of AAV that do not react to the same antibodies. All serotypes show different tissue specificites when injected into mouse or humans, and this tissue tropism is thought to be mainly due to interactions between the virus capsid and receptors on the cell surface. Most AAVs exhibit a rather broad tropism, AAV2 and AAV9 for example have been shown to transduce liver, ...
Despite the fact that more than 180 serotypes were characterised in this laboratory, the majority of incidents were due to only a few serotypes: 13 serotypes were responsible for 67.7 % of the total incidents (Table 1). Serovar Typhimurium was by far the most common, being recorded in 917 incidents (representing 26.8 % of the total), the majority of which occurred in poultry (598 incidents) in which it accounted for 65 % of the incidents. It was also the most common serotype reported in cattle (187 incidents), pigs (90 incidents) and sheep (42 incidents). As expected, the host-adapted serotypes such as S. Dublin, S. Choleraesuis and S. Enteritidis were almost exclusively isolated from cattle, pigs and poultry respectively. The low numbers of S. Gallinarum isolated from chickens was unusual but not unexpected. Biotyping methods identified these bacteria as S. Gallinarum and not S. Pullorum. Serovar Gallinarum is a common cause of septicaemia in layers and is frequently isolated by laboratories ...
About half of all WAIHA cases will have an autoantibody that reacts with all cells tested, including donor cells. The presence of an IgG autoantibody can be confirmed by elution. Elution is the process by which RBC-bound antibody is removed from the red cells and recovered, being sure that antibody reactivity is maintained so that antibody specificity can be determined. The eluate is usually reactive with all cells tested. Most IgG autoantibodies have an Rh-like specificity, such as anti-e. In order to identify the specific antibody, the laboratory would need to have a supply of rare cells such as Rhnull and D-- cells. Other specificities include those to high incidence antigens or a null phenotype. Examples include autoanti-U, autoanti-Wrb, autoanti-Ena, autoanti-Kpb, and autoanti-Vel ...
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Two hundred and thirty-two strains of Escherichia coli belonging to infantile enteropathogenic serotypes isolated in the United Kingdom during 1980 and 1981 were tested for resistance to 10 antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to one or more drugs was found in 134 (57.8%) of the strains, with resistance to sulphonamides, streptomycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin occurring most commonly. Resistance was transferable in 65 out of 104 resistant strains. These findings are a cause for concern because they indicate that the choice of treatment for severe illness is limited and suggest that a large pool of drug-resistant organisms exists in the community. ...
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A biovar is a variant prokaryotic strain that differs physiologically or biochemically from other strains in a particular species.[1][2] Morphovars (or morphotypes) are those strains that differ morphologically. Serovars (or serotypes) are those strains that have antigenic properties that differ from other strains. ...
ONCOS-102 (previously known as CGTG-102) is a genetically modified replication competent oncolytic human adenovirus based on serotype 5. It is armed with GMCSF transgene and has a 24 bp deletion restraining the replication exclusively in tumors. The viral capsid has been modified for effective transduction of tumor cells. ...
Identification of the specific O serogroup(s) responsible for the positive STEC result and verifies that all targets relevant to the definition of a Top 6 STEC (eae, stx and O group) are present within a single ...
Serotyping[edit]. Further information: Serotype. In order to create a typing reagent, blood from animals or humans would be ... Serotyped DR1 has cellularly defined as either of Dw1 or of Dw20 and so on for other serotyped DRs. Table[21] shows associated ... A broad antigen serotype is a crude measure of identity of cells. For example, HLA A9 serotype recognizes cells of A23- and A24 ... Thus, serotyping became a way of crudely identifying HLA receptors and receptor isoforms. Over the years, serotyping antibodies ...
Serotyping can assist identify the source of contamination by matching serotypes in people with serotypes in the suspected ... Serotyping[edit]. Serotyping is done by mixing cells with antibodies for a particular antigen. It can give some idea about risk ... Serotypes are usually put into subspecies groups after the genus and species, with the serotypes/serovars capitalized, but not ... Salmonella serotypes can be divided into two main groups-typhoidal and nontyphoidal. Nontyphoidal serotypes are more common, ...
Serotype[edit]. Serotypes B51, B5, B52, and B53 recognition of some HLA B*51 allele-group gene products[3] B*51. B51 B5 B52 B53 ... HLA-B51 (B51) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*51 gene products.[1] ... By serotype[edit]. Bw51 was associated with Behçet's disease,[5] in endemic (versus epidemic) mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome ... B51 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B5, and is a sister serotype of B52.[2] There are a large number of alleles within ...
Serotype replacement[edit]. Serotype replacement, or serotype shifting, may occur if the prevalence of a specific serotype ... can also produce new serotypes.[30][34] When either of these occur, memory T cells no longer recognize the virus, so people are ... only to be entirely offset by increased carriage of non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs).[23][37][38] This did not result in a ... vaccines that can provide protection beyond a specific serotype are in development.[31][35][36] ...
Serotypes and genotypes[edit]. The virus is divided into four major serotypes (adr, adw, ayr, ayw) based on antigenic epitopes ...
Serotype-specific features[edit]. Although epidemiologic characteristics of the adenoviruses vary by type, all are transmitted ... Some adenoviruses (e.g., serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 6) have been shown to be endemic in parts of the world where they have been ... For some adenovirus serotypes, the clinical spectrum of disease associated with infection varies depending on the site of ... Adenovirus infections most commonly cause illness of the respiratory system; however, depending on the infecting serotype, they ...
This can be compensated for by examining DR serotypes as well as DQ serotypes. The name 'HLA DQ' originally describes a ... resulting in serotyping errors. Because of this mistyping serotyping is not as reliable as gene sequencing or SSP-PCR. While ... The currently used serotypes are HLA-DQ2, -DQ3, -DQ4, -DQ5, -DQ6, -DQ7, -DQ8, -DQ9. HLA-DQ1 is a weak reaction to the α-chain ... Serotyping. Antibodies raised against DQ tend to recognize these functional regions, in most cases the β-subunit. As a result, ...
... (DQ2) is a serotype group within HLA-DQ (DQ) serotyping system. The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition ... Direct involvement of DQ2 is certain in coeliac disease (also known as celiac disease). Serotyping efficiency. The serotyping ... Therefore, using either serotyping or genotyping, DQ2.5 can be distinguished from DQ2.2 or DQ2.3. The refined studies of risk ... Due to its link to coeliac disease, DQ2 has the highest association of any HLA serotype with autoimmune disease, close to 95% ...
Infection with one serotype of poliovirus does not provide immunity against the other serotypes, however second attacks within ... Origin and serotypes[edit]. Poliovirus is structurally similar to other human enteroviruses (coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and ... The three serotypes of poliovirus, PV1, PV2, and PV3, each have a slightly different capsid protein. Capsid proteins define ... In 2008, the Poliovirus species was eliminated and the three serotypes were assigned to the species Human enterovirus C (later ...
... but serotyping still survives. Serotyping had identified the most similar antigens that now form the HLA subgroups. Serotyping ... Serotypes like B*4401, B*4402, B*4403, each abundant within those with B44 serotypes could be determined with unambiguous ... At the time new serotypes were being determined, the problem with multiple alleles for each serotype was becoming apparent by ... Some serotyping antibodies proved to be poor, with broad specificities, and new serotypes were found that identified a smaller ...
... (A43) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A43 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A10. A43 is a sister serotype of A25, A26, A34, and A66. A43 is more ... A43 is believed to have been formed by a single gene conversion between another HLA-A and the A*2601 allele.. A43 serotyping is ...
... (A34) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A34 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A10. A34 is a sister serotype of A25, A26, A43, and A66. A34 is most ... similar to A66.. A34 serotyping is modest.. A*3401 when found outside of Africa is primarily found in the South Asia, ...
... (A66) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A66 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A10. A66 is a sister serotype of A25, A26, A34, and A43. A66 is more ... A66 serotyping is poor. A*6601 is also sometimes recognized by A25, and A*6602 is often recognized by A74. Arce-Gomez B, Jones ...
Serotyping of human lymphocyte antigens. Preliminary trials on long-term kidney homograft survivors. Nat Acad Sci Monograph ...
Brogden, KA; Packer, RA (1979). "Comparison of Pasteurella-Multocida Serotyping Systems". American Journal of Veterinary ...
... (A33) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A33 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A19. A33 is a sister serotype of A29, A30, A31, A32, and A74. A33 is more ... It's a good reason why serotyping alone should not be relied upon. The first haplotype is A33-Cw14-B44-DR13-DQ6.4 A*3303 : C* ... A33 has a poor serotyping rate. A33 shows two different distributions that can be discriminated by subtyping capability of SSP- ...
... (DQ9) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. DQ9 is a split antigen of the DQ3 ... The serotyping efficiency of DQ9 is poor. The recognition of DQB1*0303 by DQ9 and or DQ3 is poorest, DQ2 which recognizes a ... For this reason DQ9 serotyping is a poor method of typing for transplantation or disease association prediction or study. (DQ9 ...
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine uses serotype 26. Convidecia uses serotype 5. Zabdeno, the first dose of the Zabdeno/Mvabea Ebola ... Human adenovirus serotype 5 is often used because it can be easily produced in high titers. As of April 2021, four adenovirus ... uses the modified chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1 Sputnik V uses human adenovirus serotype 26 for the first shot and serotype 5 ... vaccine, is derived from human adenovirus serotype 26 expressing the glycoprotein of the Ebola virus Mayinga variant. Both ...
Efficacy varied by serotype. In both trials vaccine reduced by about 80% the number of severe dengue cases. An analysis of both ... Dengvaxia is not approved in the U.S. for use in individuals not previously infected by any dengue virus serotype or for whom ... Tradenamed Dengvaxia, it is approved for use for those aged nine and older and can prevent all four serotypes. TAK-003 or ... The data appear to show only moderate efficacy in other dengue serotypes than DENV2. In March 2021, the European Medicines ...
A broad antigen serotype is a crude measure of identity of cells. For example, HLA A9 serotype recognizes cells of A23- and A24 ... Serotyped DR1 has cellularly defined as either of Dw1 or of Dw20 and so on for other serotyped DRs. Table shows associated ... Thus, serotyping became a way of crudely identifying HLA receptors and receptor isoforms. Over the years, serotyping antibodies ... or DR serotyping. Current serotyping can resolve, in one step, DQ8. HLA typing in autoimmunity is being increasingly used as a ...
While each serotype can cause the full spectrum of disease, virus strain is a risk factor. Infection with one serotype is ... Some serotypes of the dengue virus appear to have mechanisms to slow down this process. Interferon also activates the adaptive ... There are five strains of the virus, called serotypes, of which the first four are referred to as DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and ... It is based on a weakened combination of the yellow fever virus and each of the four dengue serotypes. Studies of the vaccine ...
His research group were the first to describe the different serotypes of rotavirus. This work was important to the development ... Beards, GM; Pilfold, JN; Thouless, ME; Flewett, TH (1980). "Rotavirus serotypes by serum neutralisation". J Med Virol. 5 (3): ...
... H: serotype EV-H. Enterovirus I: serotype EV-I1 and EV-I2. Enterovirus J: serotypes: EV-J1, EV-J103, and EV-J108. ... Enterovirus K: serotype EV-K1 and EV-K2. Enterovirus L: serotype EV-L1. Rhinovirus Rhinovirus A: serotypes RV-A1, RV-A1B, RV-A2 ... Enterovirus E: serotypes EV-E1, EV-E2, EV-E3, EV-E4, and EV-E5. Enterovirus F: serotypes EV-F1, EV-F2, EV-F3, EV-F4, EV-F5, EV- ... Enterovirus B: serotypes CVB-1, CVB-2, CVB-3, CVB-4, CVB-5, CVB-6, and CVA-9. Enterovirus C: serotypes CVA-1, CVA-11, CVA-13, ...
... (A36) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A36 has a high false serotyping rate to A1. A36 is largely limited to Africa. Outside Africa, more than half of the populations ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae has at least 91 different capsular serotypes. These serotypes are the basis for the pneumococcal ... Watts SC, Holt KE (June 2019). "In Silico Serotyping of the Haemophilus influenzae Capsule Locus". Journal of Clinical ... accuracy of serotyping and prevalence of IS1016 among nontypeable isolates". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 45 (10): 3230-8 ... "Two variants among Haemophilus influenzae serotype b strains with distinct bcs4, hcsA and hcsB genes display differences in ...
... (A25) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A25 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A10. A25 is a sister serotype of A26, A34, A43, and A66. A25 is more ... A25 reasonably good serotyping with no overt false recognition.. A*2501 distribution is primarily located in Western Eurasia. ...
... (A*02) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the ... The serotyping for the most abundant A*02 alleles is good. For A*0203, A*0206, A*0207 serotyping is borderline useful. There is ... and a large majority have unknown serotypes, although it is highly probable that they will all return A2 serotypes. HLAs serve ... Serotyping can identify as far as HLA-A*02, which is typically enough to prevent transplant rejection (the original motivation ...
... (A26) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A26 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A10. A26 is a sister serotype of A25, A34, A43, and A66. A26 is more ... common in West Pacific Rim (Taiwan to Hokkaido). A26 reasonably good serotyping with no overt false recognition.. A26 Serotype ...
... (A32) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody ... A32 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A19. A32 is a sister serotype of A29, A30, A31, A33, and A74. A32 ... Serotyping efficiency for the predominant allele is good. There are 16 known alleles that result in 15 isoforms of HLA-A32. One ...
"Serotypes and the Importance of Serotyping Salmonella". CDC. Retrieved 16 October 2014. Danan C, Fremy S, Moury F, Bohnert ML, ... To date, more than 2600 different serotypes have been identified. A Salmonella serotype is determined by the unique combination ... A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different ... In humans, that serotype is largely determined by human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the human version of the major ...
... was serotype f by PCR (Table). Incorrect serotype identification by slide agglutination serotyping differed substantially among ... for which serotype information was known (1). This report describes inconsistencies in Hib serotyping between state health ... of slide agglutination serotyping results agreed with slide agglutination serotyping and PCR capsule typing results performed ... to CDC for slide agglutination serotyping and PCR capsule typing to confirm H. influenzae serotypes. Additional information is ...
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Of 118 serotyped patients, 106 (90%) were identified as Ad14. A total of 27 patients were hospitalized, one of whom, a nineteen ... Adenovirus serotype 14 (Ad14) is a serovar of adenovirus which, unlike other adenovirus serovars, is known to cause potentially ... "Acute Respiratory Disease Associated with Adenovirus Serotype 14 - Four States, 2006-2007". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly ...
... nucleic acid-based assay for use in identifying the serotype of a Salmonella isolate. ... The Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA) is a multiplex, ... Can serotype rough and problematic isolates. Cannot serotype ... The xMAP Salmonella Serotyping Assay was developed by the CDC3-4 for fast and comprehensive molecular Salmonella serotyping. ... B, C1, C2, D, E, G, and serotype Paratyphi A (ParaA). H-Group. a, b, c, d, j, (e,h), i, k, r, z10, z, z29, z6, y, L-complex, v ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology.. Isturiz R1, Sings HL1, Hilton B1, Arguedas A2, Reinert RR3, ... Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology. Expert review of vaccines 2017;16(10):1007-27. [Expert Rev ... This article reviews the impact of the latest generation PCVs (10-valent PCV, PCV10, and 13-valent PCV, PCV13) on serotype 19A ... Areas covered: This article covers immune responses elicited by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 against serotype 19A and their impact on ...
Sethi, S. K., Anand, S., Singh, Ajaib & Vadehra, D. V. (‎1976)‎. Resistance of Salmonella serotypes to chloramphenicol*. ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
... organisms in certain organs included in some ground beef led to the discovery of a new serotype. ... That serotype, Salmonella enterica Lubbock, was found in cattle peripheral lymph nodes, and it appears to be related to S ... New Salmonella serotype identified. ​Posted March 18, 2015. Research intended to find Salmonella organisms in certain organs ... The serotype is named after the city where it was found, the home of Texas Techs main campus. ...
Molecular serotyping of Salmonella: identification of the phase 1 H antigen based on partial sequencing of the fliC gene ... Molecular serotyping of Salmonella: Identification of the phase 1 H antigen based on partial sequencing of the fliC gene. APMIS ... This study shows that sequence-based typing of the phase 1 H antigen of Salmonella is a good alternative to serotyping when ...
Appearance of new serotypes could hinder development of vaccines and efficacy of diagnostic tests, according to a member of one ... New Zika serotypes may emerge, researcher warns The virus is mutating very fast in Brazilian patients. Appearance of new ... New Zika serotypes may emerge, researcher warns. Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo ... Zika virus is mutating so fast in Brazilian patients that different serotypes of the pathogen could appear in the near future, ...
However, non-PCV7 serotypes emerged to colonize and cause disease (serotype replacement).13-15 Serotype 19A was a major culprit ... Serotype 19A is the most common serotype causing invasive pneumococcal infections in children. Pediatrics. 2010;125(3):429-436 ... More serotypes in a multivalent PCV will not likely solve this problem because of limits on the number of new serotypes that ... Invasive serotype 35B pneumococci including an expanding serotype switch lineage, United States, 2015-2016. Emerg Infect Dis. ...
S. pneumoniae serotype 5 (ST-5) is the fifth most prevalent among more than 90 S. pneumoniae serotypes with different CPS, ... with the knowledge that the presence of additional serotypes can decrease the efficacy of individual serotypes in the vaccine ( ... S. pneumoniae serotype 5 (ST-5) is included in the vaccine; however, it suffers from production problems due to modifications ... A rabbit serum used to identify ST-5 strains in serotyping procedures showed strong reactivity to disaccharide 21 representing ...
Found: Antibody that zaps resilient dengue serotype. Duke-NUS Medical School. Journal. Science. Funder. Singapore Ministry of ... Lok has shown that the DENV-2 is more complex than the rest of the dengue serotypes as the mosquito-derived virus has a highly ... IMAGE: This is an artistic rendering of the antibody 2D22 neutralizing the dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). view more ... Dengue virus has four serotypes (DENV1-4) circulating in nature, which makes it difficult to treat. To have complete protection ...
... Zhanna Ktsoyan,1 Karine Ghazaryan,1 Gayane Manukyan,1 ... T. F. Jones, L. A. Ingram, P. R. Cieslak et al., "Salmonellosis outcomes differ substantially by serotype," Journal of ... "Inactivation of the flagellin gene of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis strongly reduces invasion into differentiated ...
Dominant S. flexneri serotypes were 2a, 1b, 2b, and Xv, different from those generally dominant in China. A hybrid serotype ... Dominant serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance profile of Shigella spp. in Xinjiang, China. *Liu H ... Liu, H., Zhu, B., Qiu, S., Xia, Y., Liang, B., Yang, C., … Song, H. (2018). Dominant serotype distribution and antimicrobial ... As is demonstrated in this study, dominant serotypes of Shigella were distributed in unique trend with dangerous drug ...
Shipping (test code: xtrnc) and handling (test code: xhand) fees are also applicable on each submission. External test price is subject to change. ...
... by the serotype of ,i,Salmonella,/i,, and the profile of certain cytokines and calprotectin remains abnormal for a number of ... this study was to investigate the profile of inflammatory response in patients with acute salmonellosis caused by two serotypes ... the serotype of Salmonella, and the specificity of the interaction of certain serotypes with the host, but not all details of ... β induction may be also realized by this serotype since the disruption of a gene that is specific for this serotype and encodes ...
Adenovirus serotype 14 (Ad14) is a rarely reported but emerging serotype of adenovirus that can cause severe and sometimes ... of the 268 were serotyped, and 106 (90%) of those serotyped were Ad14. Before this outbreak, the only identification of an Ad14 ... Fifty-one adenovirus serotypes have been identified (4). The cases described in this report are unusual because they suggest ... Vaccines against adenovirus serotypes four and seven (i.e., Ad4 and Ad7) were used among military recruits during 1971--1999, ...
A definition of the term "serotype" is presented. In microbiology the term refers to a microorganism decided by the kinds and ...
... serotype O1) and H89-1173 (serotype O2), by O serotyping, DNA fingerprinting, PCR amplification of apxICA, apxIICA and apxIIICA ... Gene context of Serotyping. *PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed class I (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) serotyping on patients ... Serotyping (RIBA serotyping strip immunoblot assay kit) of 23 dialysis patients showed that the genotype could be determined in ... Anatomical context of Serotyping. *Methods involved serotyping red cells for ABO, Rh, and MN antigens and typing leukocytes for ...
Semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine candidate against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5.. Lisboa MP1, Khan N1, Martin C1,2, ... Semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine candidate against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Oct ... Semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine candidate against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Oct ... Semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine candidate against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Oct ...
Because this vaccine targets only seven of the more than 92 pneumococcal serotypes, concerns have been raised that non-vacci … ... Serotype replacement in disease after pneumococcal vaccination Lancet. 2011 Dec 3;378(9807):1962-73. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10 ... including differences in invasiveness between vaccine serotypes. We contend that the magnitude of serotype replacement in ... Because this vaccine targets only seven of the more than 92 pneumococcal serotypes, concerns have been raised that non-vaccine ...
K stands for Klebsiella Pneumoniae Serotype. K is defined as Klebsiella Pneumoniae Serotype somewhat frequently. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Klebsiella-Pneumoniae-Serotype-(K).html ... www.acronymfinder.com/Klebsiella-Pneumoniae-Serotype-(K).html. ... S.v. "K." Retrieved May 18 2021 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Klebsiella-Pneumoniae-Serotype-(K).html ... a href=https://www.acronymfinder.com/Klebsiella-Pneumoniae-Serotype-(K).html,K,/a,. ...
We report a highly reproducible method to crystallize the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain of dengue virus serotype 3 ... We report a highly reproducible method to crystallize the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain of dengue virus serotype 3 ...
"Serotyping" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Serotyping".. *Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques ... Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Infection Using Peptide Membrane Arrays. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019; 9:408. ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Serotyping" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, ...
Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only ... To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic ... available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical ... Keywords: Botulinum toxin serotypes; neurotoxins subtypes; neuro-pharmacology toxins Botulinum toxin serotypes; neurotoxins ...
  • This study shows that sequence-based typing of the phase 1 H antigen of Salmonella is a good alternative to serotyping when strains are non-typable by serological methods. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • 16 , 17 In 2010, 13-valent PCV (PCV13) included the main post-PCV7 replacement serotypes and was successful in reducing IPD from the 6 added PCV13 serotypes, including 19A 18 - 20 and multidrug-resistant strains. (aappublications.org)
  • 22 Although Stockmann et al 23 identified an initial increase in diversity of IPD serotypes after PCV7 and PCV13, the diversity soon reversed, presumably because of selective competition and the emergence of new dominant strains. (aappublications.org)
  • 05 in Tennessee in 2004 and 2012214924 in Cali- Blast.cgi) and whole-genome shotgun database (Ap- fornia in 2012) had the closest matching PBP type pendix 2), we identified the likely cps3 donors (3/ to serotype-switch 3/ST271 isolates, sharing 2 of ST700 strains B20605 and 73D368810). (cdc.gov)
  • Identification of the strain serotype permits differentiation between important food-borne strains (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) and provides a "gold standard" for comparing isolates analyzed in different labs and with different techniques. (asm.org)
  • Three primer sets were used in conjunction with a previously described Division III primer set in order to classify 122 L. monocytogenes strains into five serotype groups [1/2a(3a), 1/2b, 1/2c(3c), 4b(d,e), and 4a/c]. (asm.org)
  • Results of the PCR method agreed with those of the conventional slide agglutination method for 97, 100, 94, and 91% of strains belonging to serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Molecular typing of salmonella strains isolated between 1997 and 1999 in southern Italy and carried out by the Southern Italy Centre for Enteric Pathogens, has shown a high frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Cerro. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Study of 22 additional strains of B. henselae isolated from French bacteremic cats demonstrated that they all belong to one or the other of the proposed serotype or genotype. (asm.org)
  • More importantly, our model can successfully detect those cross-reactions between inter-serotype strains, while current genetic clustering failed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some of the strains of Salmonella Lubbock fall into the category of serotype patterns that are more broadly resistant to many families of antibiotics, furthering the need for more research on the subject. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess serotype prevalence and biodiversity of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from diverse food products, i.e., minced pork, fruits, and vegetables. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The majority (17 of 22) of the contaminated minced pork samples contained strains identified as serotype 1/2a, either alone or in combination with strains belonging to serotypes 1/2b, 4a, 4c, or 4ab. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae strains were isolated from the affected lungs and serotyping by the rapid plate agglutination and agar gel diffusion tests showed that the serotypes were 1, 2, 3 and 5. (eurekamag.com)
  • H. influenzae strains include those that have on their surfaces polysaccharide capsules which divide the strains antigenically into six different capsular serotypes (a to f) and those without capsules (termed non-typeable). (canada.ca)
  • The WGS data of the same strains were also obtained from Illumina Hiseq (200 x depth of coverage per genome) as a benchmark of accurate serotype prediction. (nanoporetech.com)
  • Binary ethylenimine inactivated vaccines, prepared from 10 different foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype A strains, were used to vaccinate cattle (5 animals for each strain). (wur.nl)
  • strains of serotype O34 typically express smooth LPS on the surface. (asm.org)
  • Mesophilic Aeromonas strains from this serotype are the most frequently isolated in clinical sources ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Antisera prepared against the type 2 STA were bactericidal only for homologous serotype strains. (rupress.org)
  • We have isolated and partially characterised several serotype-converting phages from different S. flexneri serotype strains. (edu.au)
  • A third of the strains belonged to serotypes 3 or 6 and 42·3% to pyocine type 1. (bmj.com)
  • Good differentiation of strains belonging to the predominant serotypes was achieved by pyocine typing. (bmj.com)
  • Although routine use of both methods provides a more complete discrimination between strains, the simplicity of serotyping renders it more suitable for use in the smaller laboratory, where only one method may be feasible. (bmj.com)
  • During 1998--1999, in seven states (population: 26,437,876) of the eight in which surveillance was conducted, all available Hi isolates were sent to state health department laboratories, which performed serotyping by using standardized slide agglutination techniques ( 5 ) before forwarding the isolates to CDC for further analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • During 1998--1999, a total of 751 sterile-site Hi cases were identified in ABCs sites, and 487 isolates were serotyped at state health departments and sent to CDC, which repeated serotyping by using slide agglutination on a convenience sample of 59 isolates, focusing on isolates reported as being serotype b. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC and state laboratory serotyping results were discordant for 12 (20%) of these isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • To investigate potential reasons for these discrepancies and determine the true capsular type of the isolates, CDC performed capsule typing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a convenience sample of 141 of the 487 H. influenzae isolates serotyped initially by slide agglutination in state health department laboratories, including the 59 isolates tested at CDC by slide agglutination. (cdc.gov)
  • Slide agglutination serotyping performed at state health department laboratories agreed with PCR capsule typing results for 85 (60%) of 141 isolates analyzed. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the 56 (40%) remaining isolates, 54 were nontypeable by PCR but had been identified as typeable by slide agglutination serotyping at state health departments. (cdc.gov)
  • Of the 40 H. influenzae isolates reported to CDC as serotype b, 27 (68%) were nontypeable, and one was serotype f by PCR ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • Using PCR capsule typing as the reference standard demonstrates that nontypeable H. influenzae isolates were disproportionately misidentified by slide agglutination serotyping. (cdc.gov)
  • The Luminex xMAP® Salmonella Serotyping Assay (SSA) is a multiplex, nucleic acid-based assay for research or epidemiological use in identifying serotypes greater than 85% 2 of the most commonly encountered Salmonella isolates within hours compared with existing methods that can take up to six weeks for results. (luminexcorp.com)
  • We conducted comprehensive investigation of Shigella serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance pattern in Xinjiang, identifying 458 Shigella isolates between 2008 to 2014. (mendeley.com)
  • These 3 pneumo- sites within the serotype 3/sequence type 271 progeny coccal isolates represent a novel recombinant sero- revealeda55.9-kbdonatedfragmentthatencompassed type 3 variant of the globally distributed, antimicro- cps3, pbp1a, andadditionalvirulencefactors. (cdc.gov)
  • Two hundred and sixteen clinically significant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from 138 adult patients attending clinics in Nairobi, Kenya over a 2 year period were characterized by antibiotic sensitivity testing and serotyping. (nih.gov)
  • A total of 42 isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum from Mexico were serotyped by the Kume hemagglutinin scheme. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Serotyping of Haemophilus paragallinarum isolates from Mexico by the Kume hemagglutinin scheme. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • VL - 45 IS - 3 N2 - A total of 42 isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum from Mexico were serotyped by the Kume hemagglutinin scheme. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Two isolates of these genotypes have previously been related to two different serotypes, and lack of cross-protection of the two serotypes has been demonstrated in cats. (asm.org)
  • However, all L. monocytogenes isolates from fruits and vegetables belonged to serotype 4b. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The article reports on the spread of a Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky ST198 isolates with increased resistance to ciprofloxacin in France, England, Wales, Denmark and the U.S. between 2005 and 2008. (ebscohost.com)
  • Analyses of the genome RNA segments and viral induced polypeptides of U.S. prototype BTV-17 virus by comparison with the corresponding macromolecules of earlier isolates of BTV-11 serotype support the hypothesis that BTV-17 originated by genotypic and antigenic drift from a BTV-11 serotype virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Shigella isolated in this laboratory prior to 1949 (unpublished data) demonstrated that S. flexneri serotype II was the most common (approximately 40 per cent of those isolated) followed closely by S. sonnei (which comprised about 35 per cent of the isolates). (ajtmh.org)
  • Both SeqSero2 and SISTR accurately determined S. enterica serotypes, with full matches to laboratory results for 87.4 and 89.2% of isolates, respectively, and partial matches for the remaining isolates. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our objectives were to compare population structures of serotype A and D clinical isolates and to assess whether infections with AD hybrids differ from infections with the other serotypes. (asm.org)
  • Isolates were characterized in terms of ploidy, serotype, mating type, and genotype, utilizing flow cytometry, serotype- and mating type-specific PCR amplifications, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods. (asm.org)
  • The objectives of our study were to compare population structures of serotype A and serotype D and to assess whether infections with AD hybrids differ from infections with serotype A or D isolates in terms of clinical presentation and outcome. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest that, according to the serotype, isolates have different routes of multiplication and high genomic differences, confirming the possible speciation of serotypes A and D. Furthermore, we observed a better prognosis for infections caused by AD hybrid than those caused by serotype A or D, at least for those diagnosed in France. (asm.org)
  • The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and coagglutination tests with sera for serotyping showed that these isolates were Streptococcus suis serotype 33. (go.jp)
  • Furthermore, we analyzed the serotype, antibiotic susceptibility, and presence of antibiotic resistance genes and amino acid mutations in 219 Salmonella isolates, followed by subtyping of 115 representative isolates. (medworm.com)
  • Ten serotypes were identified from the 219 Salmonella isolates, with S. Thompson (37.9%) and S. Indiana (20.5%) being predominant. (medworm.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology. (nih.gov)
  • letter to the editor on Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology. (nih.gov)
  • Glycoconjugate vaccines based on isolated capsular polysaccharide (CPS) save millions of lives annually by preventing invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae Some components of the S. pneumoniae glycoconjugate vaccine Prevnar13 that contains CPS antigens from 13 serotypes undergo modifications or degradation during isolation and conjugation, resulting in production problems and lower efficacy. (nih.gov)
  • Genome characterization of an extensively drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11A strain. (harvard.edu)
  • The volatile molecular profiles of seven Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. (harvard.edu)
  • Lipoprotein signal peptidase of Streptococcus suis serotype 2. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the USA the most common pathogen in childhood empyema is Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 and in Sweden the emergence of a new clone of this serotype was associated with a quadruple increase in invasive pneumococcal disease. (bmj.com)
  • Vibrio cholerae, the species of bacteria that causes cholera, has over 200 serotypes, based on cell antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Salmonella serotype is determined by the unique combination of reactions of cell surface antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assay consists of three separate tests that detect O and H antigens simultaneously, including the ability to identify some serotype-specific markers in the Additional Targets or AT test. (luminexcorp.com)
  • Some components of the S. pneumoniae glycoconjugate vaccine Prevnar13 that contains CPS antigens from 13 serotypes undergo modifications or degradation during isolation and conjugation, resulting in production problems and lower efficacy. (pnas.org)
  • No significant differences in vaccine serotype (a strain of microorganisms having a set of antigens in common), nonvaccine serotype, and overall pneumococcal carriage were observed at 6 months in both vaccine groups compared with the control group. (medindia.net)
  • Each serotype has its own pattern of molecules, called antigens, and the collection of molecules provides a unique molecular appearance. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • These antigens interact with certain antibodies found in specifically prepared serum, thus providing the serotype. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • E. coli are distinguished immunologically by serotyping based on three types of antigen: the somatic or O antigen which corresponds to terminal sugars on the cell surface lipopolysaccharide, the capsular or K antigens and the flagellar or H antigens. (fishersci.com)
  • Meningococcal groups B and C have been subdivided into a series of serotypes based upon the antigenic specificity of protein serotype antigens (STA). (rupress.org)
  • In humans, that serotype is largely determined by human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the human version of the major histocompatibility complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The impact of human leukocyte antigen donor and recipient serotyping and matching on liver transplant graft failure in primary sclerosing cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and primary biliary cholangitis. (harvard.edu)
  • Methods Non-fimbriated A. actinomycetemcomitans strain ATCC29523 (serotype a) was used to construct a deletion mutant of serotype-a specific polysaccharide antigen (SPA-a) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (ovid.com)
  • We fully characterized chemically the O-antigen and the core LPS of A. hydrophila strain AH-3 (serotype O34) (Fig. 1 ) ( 24 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • A single mutation in a gene that codes for UDP N -acetylgalactosamine 4-epimerase ( gne ) renders a strain with the O − phenotype (LPS without O-antigen molecules) in serotype O34 ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • These data inform the clinical development of alternative serotype rAd vaccine vectors in the developing world. (iavi.org)
  • We identified four patients with a concurrent DENV infection with DENV-1 and DENV-2 serotypes and described their clinical and laboratory features. (who.int)
  • Yet, with the accumulation of clinical and epidemiological evidence, researchers noted that the traditional classification of DENV serotypes based on genotypes can no more explain the clinical observations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Presents a letter to the editor of the journal 'Clinical Infectious Diseases' about antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serotype typhi in Dakar, Senegal. (ebscohost.com)
  • Indeed, the serotype is increasingly being linked, not just with the immune response, but also with the clinical phenotype in individual patients. (ersjournals.com)
  • So why might the serotype be associated with the clinical phenotype? (ersjournals.com)
  • In addition, BoNT/A is the most common serotype used in clinical therapies. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Due to the differences in the cellular transduction pathway, these new serotypes have opened additional avenues for tailoring AAV gene therapy to specific clinical applications. (molvis.org)
  • Serotype replacement following pneumococcal vaccine implementation may influence the spectrum of clinical disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • The commonest cause of CAP, S. pneumoniae [ 7 , 8 ], may be divided into over 90 different serotypes [ 9 ], many of which show distinctly different clinical features in both adults and children. (ersjournals.com)
  • This is an artistic rendering of the antibody 2D22 neutralizing the dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). (eurekalert.org)
  • Associate Professor Shee-Mei Lok and Research Fellow Guntur Fibriansah, from the Duke-NUS Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) Programme, led research that showed how an antibody neutralises dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). (eurekalert.org)
  • In past research, Assoc. Prof. Lok has shown that the DENV-2 is more complex than the rest of the dengue serotypes as the mosquito-derived virus has a highly dynamic structure which changes its form, or morphology, as it infects humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • Her team is now working on identifying an antibody effective against DENV-4 to complete the full set of antibodies and to use it to make an effective cocktail against all serotypes. (eurekalert.org)
  • We report a highly reproducible method to crystallize the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain of dengue virus serotype 3 (DENV-3), allowing structure refinement to a 1.79-Å resolution and revealing amino acids not seen previously. (rcsb.org)
  • The four-dengue virus (DENV) serotypes infect several hundred million people annually. (nature.com)
  • For the greatest safety and efficacy, tetravalent DENV vaccines are designed to stimulate balanced protective immunity to all four serotypes. (nature.com)
  • Most subjects (76%) develop TS nAbs to 3 or 4 DENV serotypes, indicating immunity is induced by each vaccine component. (nature.com)
  • Our results indicate that nAbs to TS epitopes on each serotype may be a better correlate than total levels of nAbs currently used for guiding DENV vaccine development. (nature.com)
  • A primary infection with a DENV serotype results in long-term homotypic immunity (immunity against the serotype responsible for infection) and only transient cross protection against other serotypes 4 , 5 . (nature.com)
  • A person experiencing a second DENV infection with a different serotype faces a greater risk of developing severe dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. (nature.com)
  • Because of the possibility of a monovalent DENV vaccine increasing the risk of severe disease caused by heterologous DENV serotypes, all leading vaccines are based on tetravalent formulations designed to induce simultaneous and balanced protective immunity to all four serotypes. (nature.com)
  • Current DENV serotypes are defined based on genetic clustering, while discrepancies are frequently observed between the genetic clustering and the antigenicity experiments. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the DENV serotyping may be re-considered antigenetically rather than genetically. (frontiersin.org)
  • As such, DENV serotypes were simply defined based on genetic clusters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite above, it was frequently realized that antigenic variation does occur within same DENV serotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell lines were infected with DENV serotypes 1-4 and evaluated for susceptibility via focus-forming unit assays and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. (dovepress.com)
  • Cell line susceptibility to DENV infection was serotype specific, with DENV-1 and DENV-4 infecting more cell lines than either DENV-2 or DENV-3. (dovepress.com)
  • Of six fibroblast lines, 100% were susceptible to at least one DENV serotype whereas only 62% of 13 epithelial lines were susceptible to DENV serotypes 1-4. (dovepress.com)
  • The serotype-specific susceptibility for certain cell lines may provide a tool to help characterize specific DENV serotypes as well as an in vitro platform for the study of host-pathogen interactions and the co-circulation of DENV serotypes in a specific region or individual. (dovepress.com)
  • Several lines of evidence point toward secondary infection by a heterologous serotype as one of the critical risk factors for DHF (1), underscoring the need to monitor circulating DENV serotypes and genotypes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genotypes of serotype 6C pneumococci isolated from children in 2006-2007 (year 1) and 2007-2008 (year 2), United Kingdom. (cdc.gov)
  • Cryptococcosis includes a high proportion of proven or probable infections (21.5%) due to a mixture of genotypes, serotypes, and/or ploidies. (asm.org)
  • Because this vaccine targets only seven of the more than 92 pneumococcal serotypes, concerns have been raised that non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs) could increase in prevalence and reduce the benefits of vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • Listeria monocytogenes Serotype Prevalence and Biodiversity in Diverse Food Products. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Regional studies on GBS serotypes prevalence are essential to guide immunoprophylactic interventions (vaccines) and the implementation of adequate antibiotic prophylaxis or treatment. (scielo.br)
  • A study of children in the Netherlands who had not previously received a pneumococcal vaccine found low prevalence of this newly identified serotype before the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Prevnar/Prevenar (PCV7) (Wyeth, Taplow, UK) was introduced ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A recent study showed an increase in prevalence of serotype 6C pneumococci in children and a corresponding decrease in serotype 6A after introduction of PCV7 ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Dominant serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance profile of Shigella spp. (mendeley.com)
  • Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi in Dakar, Senegal. (ebscohost.com)
  • To evaluate the performance of existing bioinformatic tools for in silico prediction of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and serotypes of Salmonella enterica , WGS-based genotype predictions were compared with the results of traditional phenotyping assays. (frontiersin.org)
  • He said the discovery of S Lubbock is a testament to the brilliance of research assistant professor Marie Bugarel, PhD, who was a postdoctoral student when she noticed that the Salmonella strain recovered in the research did not match designated serotypes. (avma.org)
  • Discovering this strain really represents the intellectual detective work that Marie Bugarel did, in that she identified that something just didn't make sense and pursued it to the point that we have confirmation of a new serotype from the reference center at the Pasteur Institute in France," he said. (avma.org)
  • Dr. Bugarel said current work to characterize the Salmonella strain has shown that the serotype emerged recently, "confirming that Salmonella is a dynamic bacteria that is able to adapt to a host and to colonize and survive on it. (avma.org)
  • The long-held standard way of distinguishing one strain of salmonella from another is called serotyping and is based on the molecules on the surface of the bacterium. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The algorithm used in serotyping has some stopping points, but Bugarel discovered a need to go a step further to get the correct strain name. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The mesophilic Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3 (serotype O34) strain shows two different UDP-hexose epimerases in its genome: GalE (EC 3.1.5.2) and Gne (EC 3.1.5.7). (asm.org)
  • No changes were observed for the LPS core in a gne mutant from strain A. hydrophila AH-3 (serotype O34). (asm.org)
  • Epidemiologic and other studies indicate that risk factors for severe dengue include secondary infection with a heterologous serotype , the strain of infecting virus, and age and genetic background of the host. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The study revealed that the isolated strain is a highly virulent serotype 4 FAdV that can cause 100% mortality in day-old SPF chickens with a dose of 2.5 ×10(5) TCID50. (medworm.com)
  • Pathogenicity of Fowl Adenovirus (FAdV) Serotype 4 Strain SDJN in Taizhou Geese. (medworm.com)
  • Ad26.RSV.preF (JNJ-64400141) investigational vaccine is a replication-incompetent serotype 26 adenoviral vector (Ad26) containing a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) transgene that encodes for the F protein derived from the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A2 strain stabilized in the pre-fusion conformation (Ad26.RSV.preF). (centerwatch.com)
  • Chemical analyses, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy were applied to study the structure of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Aeromonas veronii strain Bs19, serotype O16. (mdpi.com)
  • Since the late 1990s there has been an emergence of Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) infections, especially in Indigenous communities in the northern regions of Canada and Alaska associated with significant morbidity and approximately a 10% mortality. (canada.ca)
  • This, so far, has been proven difficult, as vaccines provide differing levels of protection against the serotypes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now with the development of pneumococcal vaccines, and the importance of matching vaccines to causative serotypes, this subject is having a renaissance. (ersjournals.com)
  • The importance of the pneumococcal capsule as a target for immune defences and the association between a limited number of serotypes and invasive disease and death has facilitated the development of vaccines targeting a selected number of important serotypes, firstly with the polysaccharide and more recently the conjugate pneumococcal vaccines. (ersjournals.com)
  • Depending on the extent of cross-protection between vaccine-related serotypes, introduction of conjugate vaccines could induce clearance or emergence of vaccine-related serotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • Nevertheless, the increase in serotype 6C pneumococci in the United Kingdom, which is supported by a similar observation in the United States ( 3 ), highlights the potential for emergence of serotypes not included in the current study and newly developed pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Following the introduction of the conjugate vaccines to infant immunisation schedules a shift was observed in the serotypes seen in adult invasive pneumococcal disease towards nonvaccine-type serotypes [ 16 , 17 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Decreased Susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, United Kingdom. (ebscohost.com)
  • Reevaluating Fluoroquinolone Breakpoints for Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi and for Non-Typhi Salmonellae. (ebscohost.com)
  • Antimicrobial therapy may be lifesaving for patients with extraintestinal infections with S. enterica serotype Typhi or non-Typhi salmonellae. (ebscohost.com)
  • One concern is whether some replacement serotypes could have invasive disease potential. (aappublications.org)
  • Although serotype 3 is included in PCV13, PCV13 cines (PCV) targeting common invasive pneumococ- provides poor protection against serotype 3 because cal disease (IPD) serotypes ( 1 , 2 ) were introduced in of unique qualities of the serotype 3 capsule ( 6 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These serotypic patterns are phenotypically specific so, for example, carriage serotypes tend not to be invasive and invasive serotypes tend not to cause death. (ersjournals.com)
  • Analysis of a large, population-based cohort with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia was performed to examine host factors, serotype factors, and antibiotic selection as well as their relationship with the outcomes. (ovid.com)
  • OpenUrl Abstract / FREE Full Text ) has confirmed the importance of serotype 1. (bmj.com)
  • Introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into routine infant immunization programs worldwide resulted in serotype 19A becoming a leading cause of the remaining pneumococcal disease burden in vaccinated and nonvaccinated individuals. (nih.gov)
  • Areas covered: This article covers immune responses elicited by PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 against serotype 19A and their impact on nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and disease in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations using data from surveillance systems, randomized controlled trials, and observational studies. (nih.gov)
  • Expert commentary: As expected from a PCV containing serotype 19A, PCV13 elicits significantly higher functional immune responses against serotype 19A than PCV7 and PCV10. (nih.gov)
  • However, non-PCV7 serotypes emerged to colonize and cause disease (serotype replacement). (aappublications.org)
  • Lee et al's 1 data confirm that PCV7 and PCV13 caused a rapid but transient decrease in NP colonization, followed by increasing colonization due to newly emerged replacement serotypes. (aappublications.org)
  • Thus, post-PCV13 serotype 35B may become the equivalent of post-PCV7 serotype 19A. (aappublications.org)
  • Serotype 19A CC271, likely arising through (mosaic PBPs), dual mechanisms for macrolide resis- serotype switch with serotype 19F, emerged as the tance (ErmB rRNA methylase and MefA / MsrD mac- most common cause of IPD in the United States af- rolide effl ux system), clindamycin resistance (ErmB), ter introduction of PCV7 ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, PCV7 elicits no cross-protection against serotype 6C. (cdc.gov)
  • Our study showed a large increase in ST1692 in serotype 6C pneumococci during the implementation of PCV7 and an increase in serotype 6C. (cdc.gov)
  • To have complete protection against the dengue infection, a vaccine has to simultaneously stimulate an equally strong antibody response against all four serotypes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we report, our study to determine if TV003 stimulate balanced and serotype-specific (TS) neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses to each serotype. (nature.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: E. coli serotype O157 Monoclonal Antibody (D11J) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA5-18200, RRID AB_2539574. (thermofisher.com)
  • These results indicate that antibody response to T. hyodysenteriae infection in pigs is serotype-specific. (asm.org)
  • Inflammatory Responses to Salmonella Infections Are Serotype-Specific," International Journal of Bacteriology , vol. 2013, Article ID 168179, 7 pages, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Salmonella genus of bacteria, for example, has been determined to have over 2600 serotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marie Bugarel, a research assistant professor at Texas Tech University's Department of Animal and Food Sciences in the College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, has discovered a new serotype of the salmonella bacteria. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Outbreaks of Salmonella Serotype Enteritidis Infection Associated. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella serotype Enteritidis (SE) accounts for an increasing proportion of all Salmonella serotypes reported to CDC's National Salmonella Surveillance System. (cdc.gov)
  • Provides information on a study that monitored resistance to the drug quinolones in Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis from human infections. (ebscohost.com)
  • We then discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy between near-complete replacement in carriage and partial replacement for disease, including differences in invasiveness between vaccine serotypes. (nih.gov)
  • Studies in the pre-antibiotic era dealt in depth with serotype distributions, as at that time serotype specific serum was the only available therapy. (ersjournals.com)
  • Although an efficient enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serotyping protocol was described recently, identification of PCR serotyping primers would further increase the ease and accessibility of this classification system. (asm.org)
  • Emerging long-read sequencing platforms developed by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) provide an alternative WGS method to meet the needs of industry for rapid and accurate Salmonella confirmation and serotype classification. (nanoporetech.com)
  • This study also sets a start point for future validation of ONT WGS as a rapid Salmonella confirmation and serotype classification tool for the food industry. (nanoporetech.com)
  • We review the evidence for serotype replacement in carriage and disease, and address the surveillance biases that might affect these findings. (nih.gov)
  • We contend that the magnitude of serotype replacement in disease can be attributed, in part, to a combination of lower invasiveness of the replacing serotypes, biases in the pre-vaccine carriage data (unmasking), and biases in the disease surveillance systems that could underestimate the true amount of replacement. (nih.gov)
  • At 12 months, vaccine serotype carriage rates were significantly lower in both vaccine groups compared with the control group, with 25 percent in the 2-dose schedule group, 20 percent in the 2 + 1-dose schedule group, and 38 percent in the control group. (medindia.net)
  • A further decrease of vaccine serotype carriage was found at 18 months after 2 + 1-dose schedule and at 24 months after 2 primary doses compared with the control group. (medindia.net)
  • In analysis comparing the 2-dose and 2 + 1-dose schedules, the researchers observed a significant difference in vaccine serotype carriage at 18 months with 24 percent vaccine serotype carriage in the 2-dose schedule group compared with 16 percent in the 2 + 1-dose schedule group. (medindia.net)
  • At 24 months, the estimates for vaccine serotype carriage in both vaccine groups were at the same level with 15 percent in the 2-dose schedule group and 14 percent in the 2 + 1-dose schedule group, compared with 36 percent in the control group. (medindia.net)
  • In conclusion, both 2-dose and 2 + 1-dose schedules of PCV-7 significantly reduce vaccine serotype pneumococcal carriage in children. (medindia.net)
  • they differ by 6-29 available genome sequences revealed single contig single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and share ST271 genomes that shared highest relatedness with identical serotype 3 capsular polysaccharide biosyn- 3/ST271. (cdc.gov)
  • Serotyping PCR primers were designed from variable regions of the L. monocytogenes genome. (asm.org)
  • The use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) data generated by short-read sequencing technologies such as the Illumina sequencing platforms has been shown to provide reliable results for Salmonella serotype prediction. (nanoporetech.com)
  • In silico serotype prediction programs were carried out using both SeqSero2 (raw reads and genome assemblies) and SISTR (genome assemblies). (nanoporetech.com)
  • With furthermore epidemiologic studies on Salmonella serotyping and antibiotic resistance, using suitable drugs in treatment, we can restrict the spreading of resistant Salmonella (specially, species with animal source). (magiran.com)
  • Recommendations for Preventing Salmonella Serotype Enteriditis. (cdc.gov)
  • When the outbreak of bluetongue, serotype 8 (BT 8), started in the Netherlands in 2006, the Norwegian authorities and the Norwegian Veterinary Institute carefully followed the development of the disease. (vetinst.no)
  • Four serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV-10, 11, 13 and 17) have been identified in the United States. (ajtmh.org)
  • Scientists at the Institute for Animal Health's Pirbright Laboratory have shown that the bluetongue virus causing disease in the Netherlands is serotype 8. (stackyard.com)
  • After confirming that the disease in the Netherlands was bluetongue, the IAH Pirbright scientists worked day and night over the past week to identify the serotype of the virus. (stackyard.com)
  • An isogenic mutant of S. suis serotype 2 unable to produce Lsp was constructed and shown to process lipoproteins incorrectly, including an S. suis homologue of the pneumococcal PsaA lipoprotein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The present case was the first report of bovine endocarditis caused by S. suis serotype 33 in the world. (go.jp)
  • Shigella flexneri was identified as predominant species, and several S. flexneri serotypes were isolated, including atypical serotypes 1c, 2c, and 4s. (mendeley.com)
  • We are studying the effect that it and the serotype-converting phages have on the virulence characteristics of S. flexneri . (edu.au)
  • clarification needed] Serotyping often plays an essential role in determining species and subspecies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This species is divided into three serotypes: A, D, and the AD hybrid. (asm.org)
  • This species is divided into serotypes A and D and an AD hybrid, and these could be considered two different species and an interspecies hybrid. (asm.org)
  • The most prevalent species and serotype that causes bacillary dysentery or shigellosis in man. (kegg.jp)
  • Okun, M.S. Emerging Opportunities for Serotypes of Botulinum Neurotoxins. (mdpi.com)
  • Botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A) was chosen as the paradigm for the clostridial neurotoxins, since the dual host receptors for BoNT/A have been determined and the basis for recognizing cleavage of the SNARES substrate SNAP25 has been characterized. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Several studies have previously examined the use of botulinum toxin serotype A for myofascial pain of the neck and shoulders (cervicobrachial syndrome). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study attempts to define the characteristics of responders to botulinum serotype A for myofascial pain of the neck and shoulders (cervicobrachial syndrome). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At baseline, patients with a Numerical Pain Rating of 4 or greater will be injected with Botulinum Toxin Serotype A. At 14 weeks postinjection, those who at the 6 weeks post-injection visit had at least a 50% decrease in their pain outcome measures will be randomized into one of two treatment groups. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Global emergence and population dynamics of divergent serotype 3 CC180 pneumococci. (harvard.edu)
  • All pneumococci were characterized by serotype and genotype. (cdc.gov)
  • In the first year of this study, we identified 3 (3.1%) serotype 6C pneumococci belonging to 3 sequence types (STs): ST65, ST1714, and ST1692 ( Appendix Figure ). (cdc.gov)
  • In the second year, we identified 14 (13.6%) serotype 6C pneumococci belonging to 6 STs ( Appendix Figure ). (cdc.gov)
  • Penicillin-sensitive pneumococci of serotype 1 appear to be the cause in many cases. (bmj.com)
  • We illustrate how stable, synthetic oligosaccharide analogs of labile CPS induce a specific protective immune response against native CPS using S. pneumoniae serotype 5 (ST-5), a problematic CPS component of Prevnar13. (pnas.org)
  • Assoc. Prof. Lok's overall strategy is to develop a safe therapeutic by combining four antibodies that inhibit infection of each of the dengue virus serotypes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Infection Using Peptide Membrane Arrays. (harvard.edu)
  • Dengue fever among ill-returned travellers and concurrent infection by two dengue virus serotypes. (who.int)
  • As is demonstrated in this study, dominant serotypes of Shigella were distributed in unique trend with dangerous drug resistance patterns. (mendeley.com)
  • The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) based glycoconjugate vaccine Prevnar13 prevents serious illness caused by 13 serotypes. (pnas.org)
  • 90 distinct pneumococcal serotypes, each characterised by a slightly different structure in the pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide. (ersjournals.com)
  • From this we are starting to understand that there is more to the different serotypes than just a difference in polysaccharide structure. (ersjournals.com)
  • In the past, H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) was the most common cause of meningitis in children until a glycoconjugate vaccine based upon the Hib polysaccharide capsule became part of the routine infant immunization schedule in Canada and the United States (US) in the early 1990s Footnote 1 . (canada.ca)
  • The xMAP Salmonella Serotyping Assay was developed by the CDC 3-4 for fast and comprehensive molecular Salmonella serotyping. (luminexcorp.com)
  • Molecular serotyping of Salmonella: identification of the phase 1. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Serotyping was performed with multiplex PCR, and biodiversity was assessed with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR analysis using M13, UBC155, and HLWL85 as primers and with repetitive element palindromic (rep) PCR analysis using (GTG)5 as the primer. (biomedsearch.com)
  • b) The latex agglutination test only identified 44 positive samples, all of which were serotyped: 34 of these samples (77%) had serotypes matching those identified by multiplex PCR. (scielo.br)
  • Pneumococcal serotype was identified from urine samples using a multiplex immunoassay. (ersjournals.com)
  • If serotype-specific antiserum from pigs was added to the media and treponemes of that corresponding serotype were employed in the assay, the amount of attachment increased an average of 3.7 times that of the control without pig sera. (asm.org)
  • However, the amount of attachment was increased an average of only 1.5 times that of the control if organisms of any noncorresponding serotype of T. hyodysenteriae were used in the assay. (asm.org)
  • recognized, which suggests that severe structural constraints occur in the capsid that prevent the more extensive substitutions necessary for the emergence of a new serotype. (cdc.gov)
  • Since these residues are located quite near or even at the epitope regions, the need to maintain such rare codons might prevent the emergence of new serotypes ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In this context, it seems quite unlikely that a new serotype will emerge, although the emergence of new variants is not impossible if the virus population is forced through bottleneck conditions such as immune selective pressures. (cdc.gov)
  • The potential exists for the emergence of nonvaccine serotypes or novel clones. (cdc.gov)
  • Serotyping is a universally accepted subtyping method for Listeria monocytogenes . (asm.org)
  • Adenovirus serotype 5 hexon mediates liver gene transfer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Among the ORFs was discovered the gene encoding the fucosamine O -acetylase, which is in part responsible for the serotype conversion events. (asm.org)
  • Adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AAV-9) is a promising gene delivery vector. (molvis.org)
  • A hybrid serotype pattern was observed, which included the major Chinese serotypes (2a, Xv) and those predominant in Pakistan (1b, 2b). (mendeley.com)
  • The nucleic acid sequences of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 1 are provided, as are vectors and host cells containing these sequences and functional fragments thereof. (google.com)
  • Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vaccine vectors for HIV-1 and other pathogens have been shown to be limited by high titers of Ad5 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in the developing world. (iavi.org)
  • Alternative serotype rAd vectors have therefore been constructed. (iavi.org)
  • This report documents frequent discrepancies between the results of H. influenzae slide agglutination serotyping obtained by state health department laboratories participating in the ABCs system and results obtained by CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • This article reviews the impact of the latest generation PCVs (10-valent PCV, PCV10, and 13-valent PCV, PCV13) on serotype 19A. (nih.gov)
  • Temperate bacteriophage D3, a member of the virus family Siphoviridae , is responsible for serotype conversion in its host, Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (asm.org)
  • Serotypes 1, 3, 19A and 7F have been particularly associated with development of pneumococcal PPE and empyema in children [ 10 - 12 ], but no such association has been reported to date in adults. (ersjournals.com)
  • Making sense of differences in pneumococcal serotype replacement. (harvard.edu)
  • Clinicopathological characterization and genomic sequence differences observed in a highly virulent fowl aviadenovirus serotype 4. (medworm.com)
  • In cell culture, the adenovirus serotype 5 fiber protein engages the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) to bind cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Each BoNT serotype utilizes dual receptors for entry into neurons and each cleaves a specific SNARE protein or a unique site on a specific SNARE protein. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and reactogenicity of an intramuscular regimen of 3 doses of 2.5*10^10 viral particles (vp) of adenovirus serotype 26 based respiratory syncytial virus pre-fusion protein (Ad26.RSV.preF) vaccine in RSV-seronegative toddlers aged 12 to 24 months. (centerwatch.com)
  • These studies will enhance the understanding of the unique properties of each BoNT serotype and Tetanus toxin to extend their utility in human inflictions. (functionalglycomics.org)